1

REPORT ON FOUR WHEELER
INDUSTRY GLOBALLY








2

ONTENTS


S.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.
1 INTRODUCTION 3
2 GLOBAL AUOMOBILE
INDUSTRY
5
3 TOP TEN KEY
PLAYERS
7
4 GROWTH RATE 12
5 FUTURE ASPECTS 16
6 CONCLUSION 17


3

INTRODUCTION

In the year 1769, a French engineer by the name oI Nicolas J. Cugnot
invented the Iirst automobile to run on roads. This automobile, in Iact,
was a selI-powered, three-wheeled, military tractor that made the use oI
a steam engine. The range oI the automobile, however, was very brieI
and at the most, it could only run at a stretch Ior IiIteen minutes. In
addition, these automobiles were not Iit Ior the roads as the steam
engines made them very heavy and large, and required ample starting
time. Oliver Evans was the Iirst to design a steam engine driven
automobile in the U.S.
A Scotsman, Robert Anderson, was the Iirst to invent an electric carriage
between 1832 and 1839. However, Thomas Davenport oI the U.S.A. and
Scotsman Robert Davidson were amongst the Iirst to invent more
applicable automobiles, making use oI non-rechargeable electric
batteries in 1842. Development oI roads made travelling comIortable
and as a result, the short ranged, electric battery driven automobiles were
no more the best option Ior travelling over longer distances.
The Automobile Industry Iinally came oI age with Henry Ford in 1914
Ior the bulk production oI cars. This lead to the development oI the
industry and it Iirst begun in the assembly lines oI his car Iactory. The
several methods adopted by Ford, made the new invention (that is, the
car) popular amongst the rich as well as the masses.
According the History oI Automobile Industry US, dominated the
automobile markets around the globe with no notable competitors.
However, aIter the end oI the Second World War in 1945, the
Automobile Industry oI other technologically advanced nations such as
Japan and certain European nations gained momentum and within a very
short period, beginning in the early 1980s, the U.S Automobile Industry

4

was Ilooded with Ioreign automobile companies, especially those oI
Japan and Germany.
The Iirst practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl
Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent Ior his
automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the Iirst production oI
automobiles in 1888, aIter Bertha Benz, his wiIe, had proved with the
Iirst long-distance trip in August 1888 (Irom Mannheim to PIorzheim
and back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable Ior daily use.
Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.
Soon aIter, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889
designed a vehicle Irom scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-
drawn carriage Iitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as
inventors oI the Iirst motorcycle, the Daimler Reitwagen, in 1885, but
Italy's Enrico Bernardi, oI the University oI Padua, in 1882, patented a
0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor,
Iitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate Ior the Iirst
automobile, and Iirst motorcycle; Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892
to carry two adults.
Until 2005, the U.S.A. was leading the world in total automobile
production. In 1929 beIore the Great Depression, the world had
32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry
produced over 90° oI the automobiles in the world, ie 28,551,500. And
over one halI the cars in Ioreign lands were oI U.S. make. At that time
the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed
the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2008. In 2009, China took
the top spot with 13.78 million units produced. With 18.3 million units
produced 2010, China produced nearly twice the amount oI second place
Japan (9.6 million units), the U.S. trailed in place 3 with 7.8 million
units.

3

The Global Automobile Industry: hanging
with Times


From a humble origin as a horseless carriage` manuIacturing industry
dating back to the 1890s, the global automobile industry oI 2008 has
come a long way emerging as the market leader in the manuIacturing
activity, providing employment to one in seven people, either directly or
indirectly. Hailed as the industry oI industries` by the Management
Specialist, Peter Drucker, the automobile industry (US) set standards in
the manuIacturing activity by contributing mass production techniques
during the early 1910s. The Japanese soon Iollowed by oIIering lean
production techniques in the 1970s. Riding high on economical revival
in many developing countries in Asia and Europe, the industry`s global
output touched 64.6 million vehicles in 2005. But with a downward slide
in the market share, the Big Three was Iast losing their dominant
position to Toyota, Honda, and Nissan, thereby setting the ground Ior
the emergence oI the New Six. Meanwhile UK, served as the single
largest customer Ior European auto-makers. Japanese players were the
leaders in the light vehicle market and hybrid market. China and India
attracted the attention oI global auto-makers, vying Ior setting up a cost-
eIIective export base Ior meeting the demand Irom Asian markets.
Despite government controls, the Chinese market boasted oI sales oI
more than 2.7 million commercial vehicles in 2004. With industry
reports on the highest growth in mobility in the world at 3° per annum,
a Iurther surge in demand was anticipated Irom the Chinese market. A
booming economy and a low interest regime helped India to make its
mark in the automobile sector in 2004, with sales Iigures exceeding
more than 1 million in the passenger car segment Ior the Iirst time. The
sale oI commercial vehicles showed a record growth oI 29° over 2003.
Foreign auto-makers such as Mercedes Benz, Volkswagen Group,

6

General Motors, Honda, Toyota, Ford, Fiat and Mitsubishi were all
making a bee-line to set up their manuIacturing units in India to tap the
growing demand.
In the environment Iront, the Kyoto Protocol, which came into Iorce in
February 2005, led to the emergence oI a closed loop strategy
encompassing production, vehicle operation and recycling in the global
automobile sector. On analyzing the response oI auto-manuIacturers to
climate change, it is noticed that despite Iragmented views on the
ratiIication oI the Kyoto Protocol, automakers were in the IoreIront oI
popularizing environment-Iriendly initiatives. They were investing on
engine modiIications and related pollution-reducing technologies aimed
at producing more Iuel eIIicient vehicles. Hybrid vehicles and green
vehicles running on alternative Iuels are proving to be commercially
viable options with customers queuing up Ior these products, which
oIIered signiIicant savings on gasoline prices.
The industry report on 'Global Automobile Industry Changing with
Times,¨ traces the genesis, and market trends in the production and the
initiatives to spearhead less polluting technologies. The US automobile
industry and Ford Motor Company are taken as classic examples to
identiIy Porter`s Five Forces and to do SWOT analysis, respectively.
The results stand testimony Ior the Iact that the industry is becoming
highly competitive. In the Future Outlook, the growing signiIicance oI
made-to-order vehicles, and the competitiveness oI the emerging
markets is dealt with in detail.




7

TOP 10 KEY PLAYERS IN AUTOMOBILE
INDUSTRY

@@
Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation is the world`s largest car
manuIacturer. It has manuIactured 9,237,780 units in the year 2008. The
company was number one in global automobile sales Ior the Iirst quarter
oI 2008. The widest produced model is likely to be Corolla` which is
one oI the most popular and best selling cars in the world. The Japanese
giant has been severely aIIected by the 2007-2009 Iinancial crises with a
loss oI US$4.4 billion. The company was Iounded by Kiichiro Toyoda in
1937 as a spinoII Irom his Iather`s company Toyota Industries to create
automobiles. In 1934, it created its Iirst product, the Type A engine,
while still a department oI Toyota Industries. It manuIactured its Iirst
passenger car the Toyota AA in 1936. Toyota also owns and operates
Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in
Daihatsu and Hino Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy
Industries, Isuzu Motors, Yamaha Motors, and Mitsubishi AircraIt
Corporation.

GENRAL MOTORS
By sales, General Motors ranked as the largest U.S. automaker and the
world`s second largest Ior 2008. General Motors had the third highest
2008 global revenues among automakers on the Fortune Global 500.
Amongst GM`s more Iamous brands worldwide are Cadillac and
Chevrolet. General Motors was established in 1908 by William C.
Durant. GM was world`s number one car company Ior consecutive 77
years Irom 1931 to 2007. Because oI the economic conditions, the car

8

giant went bankrupt on June 1, 2009. On 10th July 2009, the company
emerged Irom 'Chapter 11 bankruptcy¨ reorganization. While no GM
shares are currently available to the public, the company plans an initial
public stock oIIering (IPO) in 2010.

'OLKSWAGEN
At third on the list is German business Volkswagen group with a total oI
6,517,288 cars rolling oII the production line in 2008. A large proportion
oI these cars are likely to be Irom the GolI` range. Volkswagen is
second-largest market is China, where its subsidiary, Volkswagen Group
China (VGC), is by Iar the largest joint venture automaker, selling more
than one million vehicles in 2008. The Volkswagen Group constitutes
the car brands like Audi AG, Automobili Lamborghini Holding S.p.A.,
Bentley Motors Ltd., SEAT, Skoda Auto and heavy goods vehicle
manuIacturer Scania AB. Recently, Porsche has united with the
Volkswagen Group. It also holds the proud oI parenting Bugatti
Automobiles SAS which produces one oI the world`s Iastest car Bugatti
Veyron. The German luxury car company was Iounded on May 28,
1937 under the leadership oI AdolI Hitler. AdolI Hitler wanted a
'people`s car¨. Volkswagen literally means people`s car` in German.



FORD
Ford Motor Company was Iounded by Henry Ford and incorporated on
June 16, 1903. Presently, it is world`s Iourth largest car maker with
2,145,000 units oI global sales. It should be noted however that Ford
does have a popular range oI vans and other non passenger vehicles. In

9

2007, Ford Iell Irom second to third-ranked car maker Ior the Iirst time
in 56 years, behind only General Motors and Toyota. As oI 2008, Ford
has become the second largest automaker in Europe (only behind
Volkswagen), with sales that occasionally exceed those in the United
States and large markets in Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom.
Ford is the seventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2008
Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2008 oI $146.3 billion

HONDA
The Honda Motor Company secures the IiIth place with total volume oI
3,912,700 units as per 2008. The Civic and the Accord were in the top
Iive list oI sales. Honda superseded Nissan in 2001 and became Japan`s
second largest car maker. Honda is also the world`s largest manuIacturer
oI motorcycles and the internal combustion engines. Honda produces
more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. The
company was Iounded by a selI-taught engineer Soichiro Honda on 24th
September 1948. The Iirst production car Irom Honda was the S500
sports car. Also, Honda was the Iirst Japanese automobile manuIacturer
to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura in 1986.

NISSAN

Nissan Motors stands sixth in the list oI top 10 motor vehicle
manuIacturers. It is among the top three Asian car companies. Nissan
Motors was Iounded in 1932. Nissan Iaced severe Iinancial diIIiculties
in 1999 and entered an alliance with Renault S.A. oI France. The Nissan
VQ engines, oI V6 conIiguration, have Ieatured among World`s 10 Best
Engines Ior 14 straight years.

10


PSA PEUGEOT ITROGEN
Peugeot Citroen, which oI course is the producer oI both Peugeot and
Citroen models, is the seventh largest automaker in the world and the
second largest in the Europe. The total volume manuIactured Ior the
year 2008 is 3,325,407 units. In December 1974 Peugeot S.A. acquired a
38.2° share oI Citroën. In May 1976 they increased their stake oI the
then bankrupt company to 89.95°, thus creating the PSA Group. PSA`s
old TU engine Iamily has been replaced by Prince engine(link here)
which was designed by the joint venture between PSA and BMW.

HYNDAI
At number 8 on the list oI top ten motor manuIacturers is South Korean
manuIacturer Hyundai-Kai who produced 2,777,137 cars during the year
2008. The Indian subsidiary oI Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, the
Hyundai Motors India, is the country`s second largest car manuIacturer.
The Hyundai Motor Company was Iounded in 1967. It became the
Hyundai Kia Automotive Group when Hyundai Motor Company
purchased 51° oI South Korea`s second-largest car company, Kia
Motors in 1998.
.
SUZUKI
Motor Corporation is the 9th largest automobile manuIacturer in the
world by production volume with almost 2.6 million units released
during the year 2008. Suzuki has 35 main production Iacilities in 23
countries and 133 distributors in 192 countries. Suzuki was Iounded in
1909 as Suzuki Loom Works by Michio Suzuki. The company`s Iirst 30

11

years were Iocused on the production and development oI the complex
weaving machines. Later he decided to diversiIy the products and based
on the consumer demand, decided to build compact cars. In 1953,
Suzuki scored the Iirst oI many racing victories when the tiny 60 cc
'Diamond Free¨ won its class in the Mount Fuji Hill Climb .By 1954,
Suzuki was producing 6,000 motorcycles per month and had oIIicially
changed its name to Suzuki Motor Co., Ltd.

FIAT
The 10th and Iinal manuIacturer on this list is Fiat S.p.A., an Italian
automobile manuIacturer, engine manuIacturer, Iinancial and industrial
group based in Turin in the Piedmont region. In 2008, 2,524,325 volume
oI units are manuIactured. Fiat was Iounded in 1899 by a group oI
investors including Giovanni Agnelli. Though Fiat is Italy`s largest
carmaker, Fiat-based cars are constructed all around the world, with the
largest number produced outside Italy being built in Brazil. The Fiat
group has received The European Car oI the Year award` Ior 12 twelve
times, more than any other manuIacturer. In 2008, Fiat 500 has won the
European Car oI the Year` award.






12

GROWTH RATE

Toyota said its quarterly proIit slid 18.5 percent to 80.4 billion yen ($1
billion) on plunging sales caused by parts shortages Irom the tsunami
disaster in northeastern Japan and warned it Iaces a new challenge Irom
Ilooding in Thailand.
Toyota Motor Corp. declined Tuesday to give a Iorecast Ior the Iull
Iinancial year ending March 2012, citing uncertainties stemming Irom
the Thai Iloods which have disrupted supplies oI parts and prompted it
to cut some car production.
Toyota, !apan's top automaker, said that vehicle sales plunged in the key
markets oI Japan and North America, but it was making up Ior some oI
the losses by strong sales in Asia, such as India and Indonesia.
Toyota`s quarterly sales Iell nearly 5 percent Irom a year earlier to 4.57
trillion yen ($58.7 billion).
All the Japanese automakers are suIIering aIter the March 11 earthquake
and tsunami in Japan damaged key parts suppliers. That meant they
made and sold Iewer cars than normal.
The Thai Iloods, which began in July and now threaten central Bangkok,
are compounding the production damage. The country is the Southeast
Asian base Ior several automakers. Toyota said production cuts in Japan,
which began last month, will continue through Nov. 18.
Ceneral MoLors CoŦ (n?SLť CM) Loday reporLed LoLal sales of 186ţ893
vehlcles ln CcLoberţ up 2 percenL compared wlLh CcLober 2010Ŧ 8eLall
dellverles were up 3 percenL compared wlLh Lhe same monLh a year

13

ago and accounLed for 77 percenL of CM salesŦ uellverles Lo fleeL
cusLomers were essenLlally flaLŦ
'Chevrolet led the way Ior GM in October driven by the continued
success oI the Cruze and Equinox,¨ said Don Johnson, vice president,
U.S. Sales Operations. 'Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac and GMC have all
perIormed well this year, which has set the stage Ior our transition to a
higher mix oI 2012 model-year vehicles. Combined with the launches
oI several new Iuel-eIIicient cars, including the Chevrolet Sonic and
Buick LaCrosse eAssist, we are very well positioned going Iorward.¨
In October, GM`s year-over-year passenger car sales increased 4
percent, crossover sales decreased 1 percent and sales oI trucks, which
include Iull-size pickups, vans and SUVs, increased 2 percent. For the
month, 2012 models accounted Ior 80 percent oI passenger car sales and
about halI oI truck and crossover sales.
Highlights Ior October include double-digit sales increases Ior the
Chevrolet Equinox, Camaro and Express, the Cadillac SRX, the Buick
Regal and the GMC Terrain, as well as the continued success oI the
Chevrolet Cruze.
In addition, Chevrolet dealers delivered more than 1,100 Volts Ior the
vehicle`s best month to date, and GM remains on track to expand Volt
availability to 2,600 dealers in all 50 states by the end oI the year. The
new 40-mpg Chevrolet Sonic also is building momentum, with sales oI
more than 3,800 units in its second month oI launch.

Volkswagen is pleased to report that it has established a new company
record Ior sales during the month oI July. This marks the tenth
consecutive month during which an all-time high has been reached. The
4,522 new vehicles sold exceed last year's total oI 3,881 by 17°.
Year-to-date sales oI 31,464 are 18° above the same period last year.

14

The all-new 2011 Jetta has established itselI as one oI the best selling
cars in Canada. Noticeably larger than its predecessor, the Jetta oIIers
more space, better Iuel economy and a Iresh, modern look despite a
signiIicantly lower starting price. During the month oI July, 2,323 were
sold, bringing its year-to-date total up to 16,364.
The GolI Iamily, including hatchback, wagon and sporty GTI,
contributed 1,292 to the overall sales Iigure, and continues to oIIer
outstanding versatility and value to the Canadian consumer.
Volkswagen presently oIIers a wide range oI vehicles. Each one delivers
outstanding Iuel economy and combines sportiness, saIety and value in a
Iun-to-drive package.
The range oI available engines includes the award-winning TDI Clean
Diesel, which can be Iound in the Jetta, GolI, GolI wagon and Touareg
sport utility, and will soon be oIIered in the upcoming all-new Passat.


Ford`s Iull-year sales totaled 1.935 million, up 19 percent versus a year
ago, marking the largest increase oI any Iull-line manuIacturer.
Ford`s December retail sales were the highest Ior any month since
August 2009, up 17 percent versus a year ago. Total sales (including
Ileet deliveries) were 190,976, up 7 percent versus a year ago. The total
sales result include a 40 percent reduction in deliveries to daily rental
customers.
Ford`s U.S. market share was higher Ior the second year in a row
marking the Iirst back-to-back increase in market share since 1993.
Ford`s U.S. market share in 2010 is estimated at 16.4 percent, up 1.1
points Irom 2009 and 2.2 points Irom 2008.

13

'With our balanced line oI high-quality, Iuel-eIIicient products, we have
a solid Ioundation to deliver more sales and improved results in 2011,¨
said Ken Czubay, Ford vice president, U.S. Marketing, Sales and
Service. 'Consideration Ior Ford is increasing beyond our traditional
areas oI strength signaling that the seeds oI growth already have taken
hold.¨









16

FUTURE ASPETS OF AUTOMOBILE
INDUSTRY

The soaring oil prices and the rising level oI awareness among the
masses regarding the rapidly deteriorating environmental conditions are
compelling many car makers to switch over the developing hybrid cars.
There are already more than one million hybrid vehicles running on
American roads (May, 2008). Big car companies like GM and Toyota
have already made big strides in this direction. In Iact GM is cutting
down on producing and marketing its behemoth gas-guzzling trucks and
Iocusing more on lighter, Iuel-eIIicient cars. The number one selling
hybrid car is Toyota`s Prius. Incidentally, Toyota is Iar ahead in the race
Ior producing hybrid cars.
The environmental concerns have even hit the stars oI Hollywood:
during the recent academy awards the gaudy limousines were not the
most prestigious way oI arriving and hitting the red carpet, it was
coming in a hybrid car.
A hybrid car has two engines working under the hood. The Iirst is an
electric motor and the second is the good old gasoline engine. When
your car is running at a constant speed or when it is standing but the
engine is running, the gasoline engine automatically shuts oII and the
electricity part takes on. This helps a lot when you are stuck in traIIic
jams and your engine is running lots oI pollution is caused during the
traIIic jams. When you need to accelerate, the gasoline engine pumps in
the requisite gas, and then again hands the control over to the electric
engine.
This way the consumption oI Iossil Iuel is cut down to almost halI and
so is the emission level. The noise pollution comes down too.

17

-D-

The automobile industry growing in all respects and Iields. New
innovations and new products launch Irequently which is a
major Iactor oI growth in this sector. There are also various
service station networks Ior the repair and maintenance oI your
vehicle. Automobile Industry, expected to witness a tremendous
growth in the global market.

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