Siva Kumar HVK

Oracle 10g Structured Query Language (SQL)

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Siva Kumar HVK

Table of Contents
Unit 1 Topic
Introduction to Oracle • What is Oracle • Oracle’s role in Client/Server Computing • What is Personal Oracle • Features of Oracle • Database Architecture • Overall System Architecture • Oracle Instance • SGA memory structure • Query process • Oracle versions • Oracle9i Features & Benefits • Oracle9i Products • What 9i supports • Data concurrency and consistency • Locking and Read Consistency • Environment • Summary Exercises OPERATORS AND QUERIES • Oracle Data types • Introduction to SQL • SQL in Application Programming • Writing simple queries • Expressions, conditions and Operators • Arithmetic Operators • Comparison Operators • Character Operators • Concatenation operator • Logical Operators • Miscellaneous Operators: IN, BETWEEN and DISTINCT • Distinct operator • Order by clause • Exercise FUNCTIONS • Predefined functions • Group functions • Aggregate functions • Single row functions • Arithmetic Functions • Character Functions • Conversion Functions • Date and Time Functions • Miscellaneous Functions • Exercise GROUP • • • • • • • AND HAVING CLAUSE GROUP BY CLAUSE ERROR with GROUP BY Clause Using Break CUBE and ROLLUP HAVING clause Points to remember Order of Execution Exercise

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SUB QUERIES Single row sub queries Multi row sub queries Multi column sub queries Correlated sub queries.

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DML statements in sub queries ANY and ALL operators EXISTS And NOT EXISTS Operators Points to remember • Exercise INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS • Integrity constraints • Table and Column level constraints • DDL statements • DML statements • COMMIT, ROLLBACK and SAVEPOINT • Implicit commit, Auto Rollback • Defining and Viewing constraints • Creating table from other tables • Referential Integrity constraints • Exercise JOINING TABLES • What is a Join • Perform an equi-join • Perform a non-equi-join • Perform an outer join • Join a table to itself • Left, right and full outer join • Natural and Inner joins • Cross join (cartesian product) Exercise OTHER OBJECTS • Sequence Object • Altering sequence • Views • Rules for deleting, updating and inserting rows • Index • Simple and Functional Index ADVANCED QUERIES • Top n analysis • Analitical queries • Rank, dense_rank, row_number • Case expressions • Nullif, nvl2, coalesec • Multiple insert and merge statements LOCKING MECHANISMS • What is Locking • DML and Dictionary locks • Explicit and Implicit Locking • Example SECURITY • What is Privilege • Object and system privileges • GRANT and REVOKE • Using Synonyms SQL*LOADER FLASHBACK QUERY ANNEXURE OCP QUESTIONS • • • •

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ORACLE
Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle SQL 1 1 3 Hrs

Topics Introduction to Oracle Oracle’s Role in Client / Server Computing Oracle Features Database Architecture Overall System Structure Oracle Instance Query Process Oracle versions, features and Benefits Oracle9i – ORDBMS Data Concurrency And Consistency Environment Summary Exercise

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Siva Kumar HVK

Presentation
Introduction
It is a DBMS, which manages a large amount of data in a multi user environment so that many users concurrently access the data. It also provides security and Recovery. It stores and manages data using relational model. Oracle is the name of database management system developed by Oracle Corporation. Oracle server manages data in the database. Users access Oracle server using SQL commands. So Oracle server receives SQL commands from users and executes them on the database.

SQL

ORACLE SERVER
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which may be of different types. For example. which is also stored on the server. runs on the server to manage database.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle’s Role in Client / Server Computing Client/Server computing is a method in which Database is stored on the server in the network A dedicated program. also called as front-end from clients. Novel Netware Unix What is Personal Oracle? Personal Oracle is one of the flavors of Oracle. Windows NT. and used to manage the data. 6 . Back-end takes care of total database management. It is possible to develop an application using Personal Oracle and deploy it in a Client / Server environment. Personal Oracle can support up to 15 database connections. User access the data in database by running application. that accesses back-end running on the server. Client application and back-end run on different machines. back-end may run on mainframe and front-end may be on a PC. The other name to database server is Back-End. Oracle is a database system that runs on the server. The following are some of the platforms on which Oracle runs. Oracle server runs on different platforms. Applications running on the clients interact with the user. called back-end. This is unlike other flavors where Oracle Server runs on Server and Front-end runs on Client. The latest version of the Oracle server is 9i. In this Oracle server and client both run on the same machine.

7 . These rules need not be included at the application level. network protocols etc. Support for Client / Server environment Oracle allows process to be split between client and server. This allows centralization of the code and reduces network traffic. which protects the investment of customer. Oracle server does all database management whereas Client does user interface. Application development in Oracle can be ported to any operating system with little or no modifications. potentially hundreds of pita bytes in size. Industry acceptance standards Oracle server is 100% compliant with Entry of the ANSI / ISO standards. It automatically locks and unlocks rows to maintain integrity of the data. It is easy to port Oracle applications. Oracle server allows code to be stored in the database in the form of procedures and functions. Oracle adheres to industry standards for data access language. Enforced Integrity Oracle allows users to define business rules and enforce them. This makes Oracle an ‘open’ system. Data Security Oracle provides security in different levels – system level and object level. It also allows efficient usage of space by providing full control on space management. Large Database Support Oracle supports largest database.Siva Kumar HVK Features of Oracle The following are some of the important features of Oracle Server. It also makes implementation of security easier through Roles. Data Concurrence Oracle supports concurrent access to database by multiple users. Portability Oracle software can be ported to different operating systems and it is the name on all systems.

All changes made to the database are written to redo log file. Path We can use this Oracle\oradata\orcl path in the server to see all the 3 types of files 8 . Data Files It contains the data of the database. Redo Log Files Every database has a set of two or more Redo Log files. The set of redo log files is known as databases redo log. It is physically a set of three operating system files. Every table that is stored in the database is a part of these files. we have to show only required information by hiding the unwanted information. Redo Log files are used in failure recovery.Siva Kumar HVK Database Architecture A database contains any length of information. including the names of the other files in the database (Extension of file is ctl) Database Name Names and locations of data files and redo log files. In any RDBMS we can use 3 levels of data abstractions. Data Files Redo log files Control files These files automatically create when database is created. Only Oracle Server can interpret these data files. This data hiding can be done using various data abstraction methods. (Filenames redo01. But for the end user.log) Control Files Contain information required to verify the integrity of the database. Physical level Logical Level View level Physical Level The Physical structure of the database is placed in Physical level.

For example we can use a table space called PAYROLL to store all the data related to payroll application. Segments Data into table spaces comes in the form of segments. By making a tablespace off-line. N Number of continuous db blocks makes up an Extent. It is possible to make tablespace temporarily unavailable by making it off-line and makes it available again by changing it to on-line. Each Tablespace contains 65536 data files N number of such Table spaces creates a database. Example Table is a segment An Oracle database requires up to 4 types of segments Data segments Index Segments Rollback segments Temporary segments It is used to store data of tables Used to store indexes Undo information is stored Oracle stores Temporary tables Extents The storage space is allocated to segments is in the form of Extents. Every database contains SYSTEM tablespace. Each Oracle database contains the following components. DBA can take the backup. This is automatically created when a database is created. Tablespaces Segments Extents Blocks Tablespace Each Database is a collection of tablespaces. SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary tables. An extent is made with in a data file.Siva Kumar HVK Logical Structure Logical Structure is independent of Physical structure. 9 .

Siva Kumar HVK ORACLE Architecture and Terminology This section will provide a basic understanding of ORACLE including the concepts and terminology of the ORACLE Server. For more information on these memory structures and processes. see page 115 of ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual. Figure 1 illustrates a typical variation of ORACLE's memory and process structures. It is important that you read through this section to familiarize yourself with the concepts and terminology to be used throughout this manual. some of the memory structures and processes in this diagram are discussed in the following section.'' 10 . Before you can begin to use ORACLE. Most of the information contained in this section is DIRECTLY extracted from ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual'' and all credit should be attributed to ORACLE. you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner.

ORACLE Architecture 11 .Siva Kumar HVK Figure 1.

Processes A process is a ``thread of control'' or a mechanism in an operating system that can execute a series of steps. Some operating systems use the terms job or task. System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region allocated by ORACLE that contains data and control information for one ORACLE instance. A user process is created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program (such as a PRO*C program) or an ORACLE tool (such as SQL*PLUS). All memory structures exist in the main memory of the computers that constitute the database system. memory is used to store program code being executed and data that is shared among users. The user process also manages the communication with the server processes. An ORACLE database system has two general types of processes: user processes and ORACLE processes. Several basic memory structures are associated with ORACLE: the system global area (which includes the database and redo log buffers. Each instance that is started has its own SGA. The information in a PGA depends on the configuration of ORACLE. The Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. An ORACLE instance contains the SGA and the background processes. Processes are jobs or tasks that work in the memory of these computers. Memory Structures ORACLE creates and uses memory structures to complete several jobs. For example. and the shared pool) and the program global area. The SGA is allocated when an instance starts and deallocated when the instance shuts down. User processes communicate with the server processes through the program interface.Siva Kumar HVK Memory Structures and Processes The mechanisms of ORACLE execute by using memory structures and processes. 12 . A PGA is created by ORACLE when a server process is started.

Operations Operations are clearly defined actions that allow users to manipulate the data and structures of a database.Siva Kumar HVK ORACLE processes are called by other processes to perform functions on behalf of the invoking process.. the database's schema objects (e.g. Database Structures The relational model has three major aspects: Structures Structures are well-defined objects that store the data of a database. By separating physical and logical database structure. Structures and the data contained within them can be manipulated by operations. Integrity Rule Integrity rules are the laws that govern which operations are allowed on the data and structures of a database. dictate how the physical space of a database is used. sequences. Integrity rules protect the data and the structures of a database. Logical Database Structure An ORACLE database's logical structure is determined by: • • one or more tablespaces. segments. The logical storage structures. An ORACLE database has both a physical and a logical structure. tables. views. 13 . The schema objects and the relationships among them form the relational design of a database. and extents. ORACLE creates a server process to handle requests from connected user processes. 1-19). stored procedures). clusters. including tablespaces. ORACLE also creates a set of background processes for each instance (see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual'' pages 1-18. the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting the access to logical storage structures. indexes. The operations on a database must adhere to a pre-defined set of integrity rules.

the simplest ORACLE database would have one tablespace. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship. each comprised of two data files (for a total of six data files). The space for this table's data segment is allocated in one or more of the data files that constitute the specified tablespace. For example. A tablespace's data files physically store the associated database data on disk. Although databases. tablespaces. For example. databases and data files A database's data is collectively stored in the data files that constitute each tablespace of the database. data files. its segment is created within a designated tablespace in the database. tablespaces and data files Each tablespace in an ORACLE database is comprised of one or more operating system files called data files. schema objects.Siva Kumar HVK Tablespaces and Data Files Tablespaces are the primary logical storage structures of any ORACLE database. The database's data is collectively stored in the database's tablespaces. with one data file. 14 . The usable data of an ORACLE database is logically stored in the tablespaces and physically stored in the data files associated with the corresponding tablespace. and tablespaces When a schema object such as a table or index is created. An object's segment allocates space in only one tablespace of a database. they have important differences: databases and tablespaces An ORACLE database is comprised of one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. and segments are closely related. suppose a table is created in a specific tablespace using the CREATE TABLE command with the TABLESPACE option. A more complicated database might have three tablespaces. segments.

Assign specific space quotas for database users. which is automatically created when the database is created. Data Files and Tablespaces A database is divided into one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. You can query these data dictionary tables to obtain pertinent information about the database. 15 . Perform partial database backup or recovery operations. Every ORACLE database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM. Control availability of data by taking individual tablespaces online or offline. A database administrator can use tablespaces to do the following: • • • • • Control disk space allocation for database data. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database. Allocate data storage across devices to improve performance. the names of the tables that are owned by you or ones to which you have access.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 2. for example.

extents. A data file can be associated with only one tablespace. and segments. rather. and so on) in a tablespace are physically stored in one or more of the data files that constitute the tablespace. Segments The level of logical database storage above an extent is called a segment. The extents of a single segment can be allocated in one or more data files of a tablespace (see Figure 3). A segment is a set of extents which have been allocated for a specific type of data structure. An extent cannot span files. An ORACLE database uses and allocates free database space in ORACLE data blocks. One or more datafiles form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace. and only one database. Therefore. a data file is a repository for the data of any object within a specific tablespace. however. when the existing extents of a segment are full. an object can ``span'' one or more data files. After a data file is initially created. ORACLE blocks. the allocated disk space does not contain any data. The units of logical database allocations are data blocks. The data in the segments of objects (data segments. while each index's data is stored in its own index segment. and Segments ORACLE allocates database space for all data in a database. Figure 3 illustrates the relationships between these data structures. As a segment (such as the data segment for a table) is created and grows in a tablespace. Data Blocks At the finest level of granularity. each table's data is stored in its own data segment. For example. though. ORACLE uses the free space in the associated data files to allocate extents for the segment. Note that a schema object does not correspond to a specific data file. Data Blocks. therefore.it cannot store any other program's data. an ORACLE database's data is stored in data blocks (also called logical blocks. Extents. An extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks that are allocated for storing a specific type of information. ORACLE allocates space for segments in extents. and may or may not span files. The database administrator and endusers cannot control which data file stores an object. the extents of a segment may or may not be contiguous on disk. rollback segments. ORACLE allocates another extent for that segment. Extents The next level of logical database space is called an extent. index segments. 16 . Because extents are allocated as needed. or pages).Siva Kumar HVK Data files associated with a tablespace store all the database data in that tablespace. and all are stored in the same tablespace. the space is reserved to hold only the data for future segments of the associated tablespace . Figure 4 illustrates a typical ORACLE data block.

The ORACLE block format is similar regardless of whether the data block contains table. index. Figure 4 shows the format of the block. A data block corresponds to a block of physical bytes on disk.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 3. This block size can differ from the standard I/O block size of the operating system that executes ORACLE. equal to the ORACLE data block size (specifically set when the database is created .2048). Extents and Data Blocks ORACLE manages the storage space in the data files of a database in units called data blocks. The Relationship Among Segments. 17 . A data block is the smallest unit of I/O used by a database. or clustered data.

Table Directory The table directory portion of the block contains information about the tables having rows in this block. this space is not reclaimed when the row is deleted. index. While some block overhead is fixed in size (about 107 bytes). or rollback. 18 . Row Directory This portion of the block contains row information about the actual rows in the block (including addresses for each row piece in the row data area). such as block address.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 4. the total block overhead size is variable. Once the space has been allocated in the row directory of a block's header. Rows can span blocks. Data Block Format Header (Common and Variable) The header contains general block information. such as data. Row Data This portion of the block contains table or index data. segment type.

Siva Kumar HVK Free Space Free space is used to insert new rows and for updates to rows that require additional space (e. No matter what type.g. Space Used for Transaction Entries Data blocks allocated for the data segment of a table. allow a developer to control the use of free space for inserts of and updates to the rows in data blocks. An incremental extent is a 19 . Whether issued insertions actually occur in a given data block is a function of the value for the space management parameter PCTFREE and the amount of current free space in that data block. Before this value is achieved. The PCTFREE parameter is used to set the percentage of a block to be reserved (kept free) for possible updates to rows that already are contained in that block. assume that you specify the following parameter within a CREATE TABLE statement: pctused 40 In this case. PCTFREE and PCTUSED. a data block used for this table's data segment is not considered for the insertion of any new rows until the amount of used space in the blocks falls to 39\% or less (assuming that the block's used space has previously reached PCTFREE).. For example. ORACLE automatically allocates an incremental extent for that segment. This extent is called the segment's initial extent. For example. as determined by PCTFREE. If the data blocks of a segment's initial extent become full and more space is required to hold new data. assume that you specify the following parameter within a CREATE TABLE statement: pctfree 20 This states that 20\% of each data block used for this table's data segment will be kept free and available for possible updates to the existing rows already within each block. cluster. the storage parameter PCTFREE can also be specified when creating or altering indicies (index segments). each segment in a database is created with at least one extent to hold its data. or the index segment of an index can also use free space for transaction entries. After a data block becomes full. In addition. the free space of the data block can only be used for updates to rows already contained in the data block. when a trailing null is updated to a non-null value). the block is not considered for the insertion of new rows until the percentage of the block being used falls below the parameter PCTUSED. Both of these parameters can only be specified when creating or altering tables and clusters (data segments). Two space management parameters.

For more information on Data Blocks. Each ORACLE database is comprised of these types of files: one or more data files. and one or more control files.'' Physical Database Structure An ORACLE database's physical structure is determined by the operating system files that constitute the database. Every non-clustered table in an ORACLE database has a single data segment to hold all of its data. two or more redo log files. The data segment for a table is indirectly created via the CREATE TABLE/SNAPSHOT command. For more information on these physical storage files. or cluster control the way that a data segment's extents are allocated. snapshot. see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual. Segments and Extents. see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual.Siva Kumar HVK subsequent extent of the same or incremented size of the previous extent in that segment.'' 20 . Storage parameters for a table. The files of a database provide the actual physical storage for database information. Setting these storage parameters directly via the CREATE TABLE/SNAPSHOT/CLUSTER or ALTER TABLE/SNAPSHOT/CLUSTER commands affects the efficiency of data retrieval and storage for that data segment.

Siva Kumar HVK Figure 5. Maintaining the Free Space of Data Blocks with PCTFREE and PCTUSED 21 .

Authorization and Integrity manager It tests for satisfaction of integrity constraints and checks the authority of users to access data. Buffer manager This is responsible for fetching data from disk storage into main memory. File manager It manages the allocation of space on disk and the data structures used to represent information. DDL Interpreter It interprets DDL statements and records them in a set of tables Query evaluation engine It executes lower level instructions generated by the DML compiler Storage manager component It is an Interface between the data stored in the database. Transaction Manager It ensures concurrent transaction executions processed without conflicting. application programs and queries submitted to the system. 22 . which handles different responsibilities of over all system. DML Compiler : It translates DML statements into a lower level instructions that the query evaluation engine understands Embedded DML precompiler It converts DML statements embedded in an application program into normal procedure calls in the host language. The functional components of a database system are Query processor Component Storage manager component Query Processor Component This component is a collection of the following processes.Siva Kumar HVK Overall System Structure A database system is partitioned into modules.

and written to. The database buffer cache is used to store the most recently used data. SGA consists of several memory structures: The shared pool is used to store the most recently executed SQL statements and the most recently used data from the data dictionary. Every time a database is started.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle Instance Every oracle database is associated with an Oracle Instance. These SQL statements may be submitted by a user process or. 23 . read from the data dictionary. the data files. The data is read from. in the case of stored procedures. a memory area called System Global Area (SGA) or Shared Global Area is allocated and one or more processes are started. The redo log buffer is used to track changes made to the database by the server and background processes. The combination of SGA and Oracle processes is called as Oracle Instance.

it automatically creates two different processes called as User process and Server Process. and a parsed representation of the SQL statement is loaded into a shared SQL area. There are three main stages in the processing of a query: Parse Execute Fetch Parsing During the parse stage. The server process executes the statements sent from the user process. the SQL statement is passed from the user process to the server process. During the parse. The user process is the application program that originates SQL statements. the server process performs the following functions: Searches for an existing copy of the SQL statement in the shared pool validates the SQL statement by checking its syntax Performs data dictionary lookups to validate table and column definitions 24 .Siva Kumar HVK Query process 1 Parse 2 Execute 3 Fetch 3 Server Process DB 1 User Process 2 Client When User connects to the database.

The processing of a DELETE or INSERT command uses similar steps. The before image for a DELETE contains the column values in the deleted row. With each fetch process. 25 . Because the changes made to the blocks are only recorded in memory structures and are not written immediately to disk. DML Processing Steps A data manipulation language (DML) statement requires only two phases of processing: Parse is the same as the parse phase used for processing a query Execute requires additional processing to make data changes DML Execute Phase The server process records the before image to the rollback block and updates the data block. a computer failure that causes the loss of the SGA can also lose these changes. buffers that are not the same as the corresponding blocks on the disk. Both of these changes are done in the database buffer cache. Any changed blocks in the buffer cache are marked as dirty buffers: that is. Fetch Fetch: Return rows to user process.Siva Kumar HVK Execute Execute: Identify rows selected The steps to be taken when executing the statement The optimizer is the function in the Oracle Server that determines the optimal execution plan. and the before image of an INSERT contains the row location information. it can fetch 20 records at a time.

JAVA and XML One Management interface for all applications 26 .0 8i 9i 10g 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 Object based ORDBMS Internet based Application Application server Features & Benefits Oracle Scalability One Management Interface 9i Reliability Internet Common Skill Sets Single Dev Model Features Oracle offers a comprehensive high performance infrastructure for ebusiness.3 8. It is called Oracle9i.1 7.2 7.It provides everything needed to develop.0 7. available and secure architecture One development model. deploy and manage Internet applications.0 7. Benefits Scalability from departments to enterprise e-business sites Reliable.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle Versions Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle 6. easy development options Common skill sets including SQL. PL/SQL.

Oracle 9i Application server runs Portals or web sites Java Transactional Applications Provides integration between users. applications and data 27 . Application Server 9i Application server runs all the applications and 9i database stores our data.Siva Kumar HVK 9i Products There are two products. They provide a complete and simple infrastructure for Internet applications.

Oracle provides a new engine that brings objectoriented programming. it is locked so that other users cannot modify it until X completes modification. So any changes made to database since query started will not be available. However. That means. Oracle 9i supports User-Defined data types and objects Fully compatible with relational database (It supports all the CODD rules) Support of multimedia and Large objects It also support client server and web based applications Oracle 9i can scale tens of thousands of concurrent users and support up to 512 peta bytes of data (One pita byte = 1000 tera bytes and One terabyte = 1000 GB). Read Consistency For a query.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle9i: ORDBMS Oracle is the first object-capable database developed by Oracle Corporation. and full compatibility with the relational world. Locking Oracle uses Locks to control data concurrency. Oracle returns a timepoint-based version of data. But the goal of the database system is to reduce wait time so that it is negligible to each user. That means users reading the data will not be interrupted by user modifying and vice-versa. the data retrieved is consistent with the time at which the query started. Data Concurrency And Consistency Data concurrency allows many users to access the same data at the same time. For instance. Locks are used to prevent destructive interference. 28 . It extends the data modeling capabilities of Oracle 8 to support a new object relational database model. One way of managing data concurrency is by making other users wait until their turn comes. when a user is accessing the data. Note: it is the responsibility of the application developer to unlock rows that are locked by committing or rolling back the transaction. when user X is modifying a row. At the same time data integrity should not be compromised. complex data types. complex business objects. Oracle uses locking mechanism and multiversioning to increase data concurrency while maintaining data integrity. it doesn’t stop users querying the row.

Rollback segment keeps a copy of unchanged data. in the query result. doesn’t have to be implemented on each machine 29 . Environment Oracle uses two types of Environments for executing our SQL statements. if they attempt to update identical rows at the same time. centrally loaded.Siva Kumar HVK Ready consistency is made possible In Oracle using Rollback segment. SQL*plus and iSQL*plus. This data is substituted for the data that has changed since query started. ISQL*plus is (Available only from Oracle 9i) An Environment Oracle proprietary Keywords can be abbreviated Runs on a browser Centrally loaded. does not have to be implemented on each machine Difference between SQL*Plus and ISQL*plus SQL*Plus is a CUI and iSQL*Plus runs on a browser SQL*plus should be loaded in each every client system. where as iSQL*plus. This ensures readers do not wait for writers and vice-versa and ensures that writers only wait for other writers.

It copies the data of a row. Oracle runs on the server as back-end to manage the data. An Oracle Instance is the combination of SGA and Oracle process.Siva Kumar HVK Summary Oracle is RDBMS. where each process does a specific job. before the row is changed. In a Client/Server environment. Oracle instance contains a collection of background processes. Oracle uses locking mechanism to manage data concurrency. The logical structure of the database is independent of physical structure of the database. User is concerned with only the logical structure of the database. to rollback segment to provide read consistency. 30 .

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) SGA stands for _______________________________ _____________ is the name of the tablespace that is automatically created when a database is created. In which segment the data of a table is stored? What is the difference between Personal Oracle and Client/Server Oracle Redo Log files are also called as ______________ File extension of control file is ___________ ________ Number of data files are there in each table space What is Oracle Instance? What is the maximum storage capacity of Oracle database What is Application server? 31 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 2 2 Hrs Topics Oracle data types Introduction to SQL An overview of SQL SQL in Application programming Structured Query Language SQL statements Simple Queries Operators. Expressions and Expressions 32 .

and a valid range of values. which is associated with a specific storage format. Padded on right with blanks to full length of size. constraints. 33 . CHAR datatype Fixed length character data of length size in bytes.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation Oracle Datatypes Each column value and constant in a SQL statement has a data type. Truncates leftover blank spaces. Oracle provides the following builtin data types. Truncates leftover blank spaces. with byte values corresponding to the character.( Default size is 1 and maximum size is 2000). When you create a table. NVARCHAR2(size) Variable length characters strings having a maximum size of 4000 bytes (Default size is 1) Or characters. you must specify a data type for each of its columns. depending on the choice of national character set. Character Data types CHAR Data type VARCHAR2 and VARCHAR Data types NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 Data types LONG Data type NUMBER Data type DATE Data type LOB Data types BLOB data type CLOB and NCLOB data types BFILE Data type RAW and LONG RAW Data types Character Datatypes The character data types store character (alphanumeric) data in strings. VARCHAR2 (size) Variable length characters strings having a maximum size of 4000 bytes (Default size is 1).

2) could nothing larger than 999. TIMESTAMP(precision) WITHLOCAL TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP. For example.99 without an error. Only one LONG column is allowed in a table. NUMBER (5. RAW(size) Raw binary date. CLOB Character Large object. (Default date format DD-MON-YY) TIMESTAMP(precision) Date plus time. where clause or indexes. with normalized to local time zone. LONG RAW Raw binary data.4712 BC to December 31.9999 AD. BLOB 34 . up to 4GB in length.d) For number column specified with d digits after the decimal point.Siva Kumar HVK NUMBER(size. These two data types allow storing pictures. functions. Long column cannot be used in sub queries. DATE Valid date ranges from January 1. otherwise the same as LONG. expressions. LONG Character data of variable size up to 2GB in length. TIMESTAMP(precision) WITH TIME ZONE Timestamp plus time zone displacement value. size bytes long. Maximum size is 2000 bytes. where precision is the number of digits in the fractional part of the seconds field (default is 6).

BFILE Pointer to a binary operating system file. 35 .Siva Kumar HVK Binary large object. up to 4GB in length.

SQL makes an RDBMS possible. California. and the language itself is often referred to as "sequel. The ANSI-92 standard is the standard for the SQL used throughout this book. or insert. this set-oriented database language is SQL. delete. The characteristic that differentiates a DBMS from an RDBMS is that the RDBMS provides a set-oriented database language. An Overview of SQL SQL is the standard language used to manipulate and retrieve data from these relational databases. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). The initials stand for Structured Query Language. SQL describes what data to retrieve.Siva Kumar HVK Introduction to SQL A Brief History of SQL The history of SQL begins in an IBM laboratory in San Jose. In fact. where SQL was developed in the late 1970s. For most RDBMS. Two standards organizations. Although these standard-making bodies prepare standards for database system designers to follow. Set oriented means that SQL processes sets of data in groups. in contrast to the procedural or third generation languages (3GLs) such as COBOL and C that had been created up to that time. or RDBMS. NOTE: Nonprocedural means what rather than how. In technology in a single-user business application positions the application for future growth. For example. SQL enables a programmer or database administrator to do the following: Modify a database's structure Change system security settings Add user permissions on databases or tables Query a database for information Update the contents of a database 36 . all database products differ from the ANSI standard to some degree. rather than how to perform the operation. SQL is a nonprocedural language. that can still be bought today for various platforms and environments)." It was originally developed for IBM's DB2 product (a relational database management system. currently promote SQL standards to industry.

retrieve. Using SQL. you can communicate with the Oracle server. and manipulate data in the tables. SQL has the following advantages • • • Efficient Easy to learn and use Functionally complete (With SQL. you can define.Siva Kumar HVK Structured Query Language Oracle server supports ANSI standard SQL and contains extensions.) SQL Statements SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE MERGE CREATE ALTER DROP RENAME TRUNCATE COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT GRANT REVOKE Data retrieval Data manipulation language(DML) Data definition language (DDL) Transaction control Data control language (DCL) 37 .

38 . Your First Query INPUT: SQL> select * from EMP.---------. because your query is typed in an edit box and executed when you push a button.---------. Oracle's SQL*PLUS won't execute the query until it finds a semicolon (or a slash). The asterisk (*) in select * tells the database to return all the columns associated with the given table described in the FROM clause. This format follows the alignment convention in which numeric data types are right justified and character data types are left justified. some implementations of SQL do not use the semicolon as a terminator. the semicolon at the end of the statement tells the interpreter that you are finished writing the query.--------.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT AND FROM It is a building block for data retrieval in SQL. On the other hand.---------.---------7369 SMITH CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 7566 JONES MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 7782 CLARK MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7566 09-DEC-82 3000 20 7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 7876 ADAMS CLERK 7788 12-JAN-83 1100 20 7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 7902 FORD ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 7934 MILLER CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 ANALYSIS: Notice that columns 6 and 8 in the output statement are right justified and that columns 2 and 3 are left justified. For example. Syntax : SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE>. Microsoft Query and Borland's ISQL don't require a terminator.---------. OUTPUT: EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO -----. The database determines the order in which to return the columns.--------. For example. f ll bl i d h h i h l Terminating an SQL Statement In some implementations of SQL.

SAL FROM EMP. DESIGNATION.---------. and Operators Expressions The definition of an expression is simple: An expression returns a value. and Boolean.---------SMITH 800 CLERK ALLEN 1600 SALESMAN 300 WARD 1250 SALESMAN 500 JONES 2975 MANAGER MARTIN 1250 SALESMAN 1400 BLAKE 2850 MANAGER CLARK 2450 MANAGER SCOTT 3000 ANALYST KING 5000 PRESIDENT TURNER 1500 SALESMAN 0 ADAMS 1100 CLERK JAMES 950 CLERK FORD 3000 ANALYST MILLER 1300 CLERK 14 rows selected. In the following example amount is an expression that returns the value contained in the amount column. covering different data types such as String. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL JOB COMM ---------. Expression types are very broad. comm from EMP. Now. which is an example of a Boolean expression. Numeric. job. 39 . ENAME = 'KING'. sal.--------.Siva Kumar HVK Changing the Order of the Columns We can change the order of selection of columns INPUT: SQL> SELECT empno. examine the following expression: WHERE ENAME = 'KING' It contains a condition. ENAME = 'KING' will be either TRUE or FALSE. for example) is an expression. ename. DESIGNATION. pretty much anything following a clause (SELECT or FROM. Conditions. depending on the condition =. SELECT sal FROM EMP. In fact. Expressions. SAL are expressions: SELECT ENAME. In the following statement NAME.

a constant.---------. and the comparison operator is =. SELECT. you need one or more conditions. and the comparison operator is >. In the second example the variable is SAL.---------. conditions comprise a variable. and WHERE are the three most frequently used clauses in SQL.---------. Conditions are contained in the WHERE clause.---------. If you wanted a particular EMPLOYEE. the most useful thing you could do with a query is display all records in the selected table(s). In the preceding example. the condition is ENAME = 'KING' To find everyone in your organization who worked more than 100 hours last month. your condition would be SAL > 2000 Conditions enable you to make selective queries. the constant is 100. In the first example the variable is ENAME.-------------------------------7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 ANALYSIS: This simple example shows how you can place a condition on the data that you want to retrieve.--------. Which would yield only one record: EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO -----. the constant is 'KING'. WHERE simply causes your queries to be more selective. You need to know about two more elements before you can write conditional queries: the WHERE clause and operators. and a comparison operator. you could type 40 . If you wanted a particular EMPLOYEE. FROM.Siva Kumar HVK Conditions If you ever want to find a particular item or group of items in your database. In there most common form. Without the WHERE clause.--------. you could type INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME = 'KING'. The WHERE Clause The syntax of the WHERE clause is SYNTAX: SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE> WHERE <SEARCH CONDITION>.

logical. set. divide (/). Operators fall into six groups: arithmetic.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM BIKES WHERE ENAME != 'KING'. OUTPUT EMPNO ENAME JOB 7369 SMITH CLERK 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7566 JONES MANAGER 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7782 CLARK MANAGER 7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7876 ADAMS CLERK 7900 JAMES CLERK 7902 FORD ANALYST 7934 MILLER CLERK MGR HIREDATE 7902 17-DEC-80 7698 20-FEB-81 7698 22-FEB-81 7839 02-APR-81 7698 28-SEP-81 7839 01-MAY-81 7839 09-JUN-81 7566 09-DEC-82 7698 08-SEP-81 7788 12-JAN-83 7698 03-DEC-81 7566 03-DEC-81 7782 23-JAN-82 SAL 800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 COMM 300 500 1400 DEPTNO 20 30 30 20 30 30 10 20 30 20 30 20 10 0 ANALYSIS: Displays all the employees other than KING. OR SQL> SELECT * FROM BIKES WHERE ENAME <> 'KING'. Operators Operators are the elements you use inside an expression to articulate how you want specified conditions to retrieve data. multiply (*). Modulo returns the integer remainder of a division. The first four are self-explanatory. character. Arithmetic Operators The arithmetic operators are plus (+). 41 . and miscellaneous. comparison. minus (-).

comparison operators compare expressions and return one of three values: TRUE. 42 .Siva Kumar HVK Comparison Operators True to their name. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM IS NOT NULL. the comparison will come back Unknown. to test for a NULL condition. If you make a comparison like Field = 9 and the only value for Field is NULL. It does not mean a column has a zero or a blank in it. To understand how you could get an Unknown. Because Unknown is an uncomfortable condition. most flavors of SQL change Unknown to FALSE and provide a special operator. NULL means nothing is in that field. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. In database terms NULL is the absence of data in a field. you need to know a little about the concept of NULL. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 3000 AND SAL <= 4000. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM IS NULL. FALSE. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 2000. IS NULL. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL NOT BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. or Unknown. A zero or a blank is a value.

LIKE operator What if you wanted to select parts of a database that fit a pattern but weren't quite exact matches? You could use the equal sign and run through all the possible cases. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names not beginning with letter A 43 . which conveys the concept of character concatenation.Siva Kumar HVK Character Operators You can use character operators to manipulate the way character strings are represented. Consider the following: INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘A%’. but that process would be time-consuming. both in the output of data and in the process of placing conditions on data to be retrieved. you could use LIKE. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names begins with letter A INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME NOT LIKE ‘A%’. This section describes two character operators: the LIKE operator and the || operator. Instead.

INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL LIKE ‘4%’. (Implicit data conversion takes place). ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names contains letter A (Any number of A’s) INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%A%’. INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE LIKE ‘%81’. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the month of December. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose salary begins with number 4. 44 . ANALYSIS Displays all the names whose name contains letter A more than one time INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE LIKE ‘%DEC%’.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%’. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the year 81.

Siva Kumar HVK Underscore (_) The underscore is the single-character wildcard. INPUT: SQL> SELECT EMPNO. ‘\’ Escape character Underscore is used to identify a position in the string.ENAME FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘_A%’. 45 . OUTPUT: EMPNO ---------7521 7654 7900 ENAME ---------WARD MARTIN JAMES ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose second letter is A INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘__A%’. To treat _ as a character we have to use Escape (\) character. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------BLAKE CLARK ADAMS ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose third letter is A (Two underscores followed by A) INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘A%\_%’ ESCAPE ‘\’. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------AVINASH_K ANAND_VARDAN ADAMS_P ANALYSIS Displays all the employees with underscore (_).

CLERK JAMES . OUTPUT ENAME||'. SALESMAN BLAKE . 46 . MANAGER SCOTT . ANALYST MILLER . ANALYST KING . OUTPUT ENAME||JOB ------------------SMITHCLERK ALLENSALESMAN WARDSALESMAN JONESMANAGER MARTINSALESMAN BLAKEMANAGER CLARKMANAGER SCOTTANALYST KINGPRESIDENT TURNERSALESMAN ADAMSCLERK JAMESCLERK FORDANALYST MILLERCLERK ANALYSIS Combines both name and designation as a single string.'||JOB ---------------------SMITH . CLERK FORD . MANAGER CLARK . ‘ || JOB FROM EMP. SALESMAN ADAMS . SALESMAN WARD . MANAGER MARTIN . CLERK ANALYSIS Combines both name and designation as a single string separated by. CLERK ALLEN . SALESMAN JONES . PRESIDENT TURNER .Siva Kumar HVK Concatenation ( ||) operator Used to combine two given strings INPUT SELECT ENAME || JOB FROM EMP. INPUT SQL>SELECT ENAME || ‘ .

Siva Kumar HVK Logical Operators INPUT: SELECT ENAME FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%’ and ENAME NOT LIKE ‘%A%A%’ OUTPUT ENAME ---------ALLEN WARD MARTIN BLAKE CLARK JAMES ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names contains letter A exactly one time. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. 47 . SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 3000 AND SAL <= 4000. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL NOT BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000.

'SALESMAN'. JOB FROM EMP WHERE JOB= 'CLERK' OR JOB =‘MANAGER’ OR JOB = 'SALESMAN'.Siva Kumar HVK Miscellaneous Operators: IN. clerk. The above statement takes more time to parse it. and salesman. BETWEEN and DISTINCT The two operators IN and BETWEEN provide shorthand for functions you already know how to do. and salesman. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK TURNER ADAMS JAMES MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYSIS Display employees with designations manager.'MANAGER'). clerk. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK TURNER ADAMS JAMES MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYSIS Display employees with designations manager. which reduces the efficiency. INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE JOB IN('CLERK'. You could type the following: INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. 48 .

OUTPUT: ENAME ---------BLAKE SCOTT HIREDATE --------01-MAY-81 09-DEC-82 ANALYSIS Note : Efficiency is more when we write the query using IN operator rather than OR operator.'MANAGER').’09-DEC-1982’). 49 .Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. and salesman INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME.HIREDATE FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE IN (’01-MAY-1981’.JOB FROM EMP WHERE JOB NOT IN('CLERK'. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SCOTT KING FORD JOB --------ANALYST PRESIDENT ANALYST ANALYSIS Display designations other than manager.'SALESMAN'. clerk.

50 . Distinct operator by default displays the information in ascending order. OUTPUT: JOB --------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN ANALYSIS Distinct operator displays unique designations.Siva Kumar HVK DISTINCT OPERATOR INPUT: SQL> SELECT DISTINCT JOB FROM EMP.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 3 2 Hrs Topics Order BY clause Exercise Functions Group functions 51 .

52 . INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME. OUTPUT ENAME ---------ADAMS ALLEN BLAKE CLARK FORD JAMES JONES KING MARTIN MILLER SCOTT SMITH TURNER WARD ANALYSIS Display employees in ascending order of names.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation ORDER BY CLAUSE Display the information in a particular order (Ascending or descending order) Syntax SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE> WHERE <CONDITION> ORDER BY <COLUMN(S)>.

SAL FROM EMP ORDER BY JOB. OUTPUT: Display employees in ascending order by jobs. With each job it places the information in descending order of names. INPUT SQL> SELECT * 53 FROM EMP where JOB != ‘CLERK’ ORDER BY JOB. . name desc. OUTPUT: Display employees in descending order by jobs.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB. With each job it places the information in ascending order of names. With each job it places the information in descending order of names. ename desc. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY job desc.---------FORD 3000 SCOTT 3000 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 MILLER 1300 SMITH 800 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 JONES 2975 KING 5000 ALLEN 1600 MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 WARD 1250 Display employees in ascending order of jobs.ENAME. OUTPUT JOB --------ANALYST ANALYST CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN ANALYSIS ENAME SAL ---------. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY job.ENAME.

Siva Kumar HVK We can also use order by clause as INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY 3. 54 . ANALYSIS It places the information in the order of third column in the table.

salary*12 Annual SalaryFROM employees. 2. 5 and 1. (2) SELECT ename. (2) NUMBER. Examine the trace instance chart for employee table. Which SQL statement will you use? (1) SELECT hiredate FROM emp. Assume that value place in both columns is RAVI.4. How many LONG columns can a table contain?_______ 6. SQL commands are to be terminated with ______________ 7. _________is used to compare one value with a set of values.Which SQL statement generates the alias Annual Salary for the calculated column SALARY*12? (1) SELECT ename. Assume there is a table student(sname char(6). s) (4) None 11. (3) SELECT ename. 10. salary*12 AS INITCAP(ANNUAL SALARY)FROM employees 55 . salary*12 Annual SalaryFROM employees.23? (1) LONG. Which data type should you use for interest rates with varying and unpredictable decimal places such as 1. _________ is the operator used to compare a column with null value. salary*12 AS Annual SalaryFROM employees. What is the size of sname and sname1 5. sname1 varchar2(6)). (4) SELECT ename. Display employees in ascending order of 5th column in the table 9. (2) SELECT hiredate FROM emp ORDER BY hiredate.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1. The maximum number of character that can be stored in CHAR type is 4. (4) SELECT hiredate FROM emp ORDER BY hiredate DESC.234. 3. 3. Display list of employees that start with letter C 8. (3) NUMBER(p. You want to display each employee hiredate from earliest to latest. (3) SELECT emp FROM emp ORDER by hiredate.

(2) Change the column in the where condition.Siva Kumar HVK 1. (3) You cannot specify a column alias in an ORDER BY clause. first_name FROM employee WHERE dept_id is NULL which change should you make to achieve the desired result? (1) Create an outer join. 2. (4) You cannot sort query results by a column that is not included in the SELECT list. \ 56 . (3) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE (SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE)/365 > 5.2)HIRE_DATE DATE. Which SQL statement displays the required results? (1) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE > 5. Which statement about SQL is true? (1) Null values are displayed last in the ascending sequences.LAST_NAME VARCHAR2 (25). (2) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE HIRE_DATE-SYSDATE > 5. (4) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE (SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE)* 365 > 5. The employee table contains these columns. FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) DEPT_ID NUMBER(9) You need to display the names of the employees that are not assigned to the department. The EMP table has these columns: ENAME VARCHAR2(35). (2) Data values are displayed in descending order by default. SELECT last_name. Evaluate this SQL statement. Management wants a list of names of employees who have been with the company for more than five years. SALARY NUMBER(8. (3) Query executes successfully (4) Add a second condition to the where condition 3.

OUTPUT: COUNT(*) -------14 ANALYSIS It counts if row presents in the table 57 . They return a value based on the values in a column.Siva Kumar HVK FUNCTIONS A function is a sub program. COUNT The function COUNT returns the number of rows that satisfy the condition in the WHERE clause. INPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP. Say you wanted to know how many employees are there. which executes whenever we call it and returns a value to the calling place. These functions are classified into two types Predefined functions User defined functions Predefined functions These functions are again classified into two types Group or Aggregate Functions Single row Functions Aggregate Functions These functions are also referred to as group functions.

try an alias: INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) NUM_OF_EMP FROM EMP. COUNT(*) -------4 ANALYSIS It counts only those when there is a value in comm.Siva Kumar HVK To make the code more readable. NUM_OF_EMP ------------------14 INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(COMM) FROM EMP. COUNT(*) ------4 ANALYSIS It counts only managers 58 . Column Note: Count (comm) faster than count(*) Count(*) count the row when a row present in the table where as Count(comm) counts the row only when there is a value in the column. INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE JOB = ‘MANAGER’.

TOTAL_SALARY TOTAL_COMM ------------. SUM(COMM) TOTAL_COMM. FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT count (distinct job) FROM EMP. COUNT (*) ------4 ANALYSIS It counts only distinct jobs SUM SUM does just that.---------5600 2200 59 . INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY OUTPUT: TOTAL_SALARY ------------29025 ANALYSIS FROM EMP. TOTAL_SALARY TOTAL_COMM ------------.---------29025 2200 INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY. Find the total salary drawn by all the employees INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY. SUM(COMM) TOTAL_COMM FROM EMP WHERE JOB = ‘SALESMAN’. It returns the sum of all values in a column.

21429 ANALYSIS Find the average salary of all the employees INPUT: SQL> SELECT AVG(COMM) average_comm FROM EMP. OUTPUT: AVERAGE_SALARY --------------2073. INPUT: SQL> SELECT AVG(sal) average_salary 2 FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK AVG The AVG function computes the average of a column. OUTPUT: AVERAGE_COMM ------------ 550 ANALYSIS Functions ignores null rows 60 .

Siva Kumar HVK MAX INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: MAX(ENAME) -------- WARD ANALYSIS Max of name is identified based on ASCII value INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX (hiredate) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: MAX(HIREDATE) ------------- 12-JAN-83 61 . OUTPUT: MAX(SAL) -------- 5000 ANALYSIS Takes the value from one different rows from one particular column INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX(ENAME) FROM EMP.

------------29025 2073.-------------.21429 800 5000 14 ANALYSIS All the aggregate functions can be used together in a single SQL statement 62 .-------------.--------------. OUTPUT: MIN (ENAME) -------- ADAMS INPUT SELECT SUM(SAL). OUTPUT SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) COUNT(*) -------------. OUTPUT: MIN(SAL) -------- 800 INPUT: SQL> SELECT MIN(ENAME) FROM EMP.AVG(SAL).COUNT(*) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK MIN INPUT: SQL> SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP.MIN(SAL).MAX(SAL).

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 4 2 Hrs Revision / Practicals 63 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 1&2 5 Hrs Topics Single Row Functions Exercise 64 .

ABS The ABS function returns the absolute value of the number you point to. 65 . For example: INPUT: SQL> SELECT ABS(-10) ABSOLUTE_VALUE FROM dual. These functions are classified into different types Arithmetic Functions Character Functions Date functions Miscellaneous Functions Arithmetic Functions Many of the uses you have for the data you retrieve involve mathematics.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS These functions work on each and every row and return a value to the calling places. system date and username etc) or we can make our own calculations. Most Implementations of SQL provide arithmetic functions similar to that of operators covered here.e. Dual is a system table or dummy table from where we can display system information (i. OUTPUT ABSOLUTE_VALUE ---------------------------10 ANALYSIS ABS changes all the negative numbers to positive and leaves positive numbers alone.

OUTPUT: CEIL(12.000) FROM DUAL.678) FLOOR DUAL.000) FROM DUAL. FLOOR does just the reverse. to get the next higher integer number INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT FLOOR(12. OUTPUT: CEIL(12.145) ----------------13 INPUT: SQL> SELECT CEIL(12. OUTPUT: FLOOR(12.Siva Kumar HVK CEIL and FLOOR CEIL returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to its argument.000) ----------------12 66 . returning the largest integer equal to or less than its argument. INPUT: SQL> SELECT CEIL(12.000) ----------------12 ANALYSIS Minimum we require one decimal place . OUTPUT: FLOOR(12.145) FROM DUAL.678) ----------------12 INPUT: SQL> SELECT FLOOR(12.

2) FROM DUAL. 67 .2) --------------1 INPUT SQL> SELECT MOD(2. OUTPUT: MOD(5. it returns numerator value as remainder.5) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK MOD It returns remainder when we divide one value with another value INPUT SQL> SELECT MOD(5. OUTPUT: MOD(2.5) --------------2 ANALYSIS When numerator value less than denominator.

and 1 if its argument is greater than 0 INPUT: SQL> SELECT SIGN(-10). SIGN(10).3) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK POWER To raise one number to the power of another. INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT SQRT(4) FROM DUAL.SIGN(0) FROM DUAL. 0 if its argument is equal to 0. In this function the first argument is raised to the power of the second: INPUT: SQL> SELECT POWER(5. Because the square root of a negative number is undefined. 2 68 .---------. use POWER. OUTPUT: 125 SIGN SIGN returns -1 if its argument is less than 0. OUTPUT: SIGN(-10) SIGN(10) SIGN(0) ---------.----------1 1 0 SQRT The function SQRT returns the square root of an argument. you cannot use SQRT on negative numbers.

OUTPUT KRISHNA KANTH 69 . For this example the database is set to ASCII.Siva Kumar HVK Character Functions Many implementations of SQL provide functions to manipulate characters and strings of characters. The character it returns depends on the character set of the database. CHR CHR returns the character equivalent of the number it uses as an argument. INPUT: SQL> SELECT CHR(65) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: A CONCAT It is similar to that of concatenate operator ( | | ) INPUT: SQL> SELECT CONCAT(‘KRISHNA’. ‘ KANTH’) FROM DUAL.

OUTPUT: BEFORE ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD AFTER ---------Smith Allen Ward Jones Martin Blake Clark Scott King Turner Adams James Ford LOWER and UPPER As you might expect. LOWER changes all the characters to lowercase. SQL>SELECT ENAME.INITCAP(ENAME) “AFTER”FROM EMP.UPPER(ENAME) UPPER_CASE.Siva Kumar HVK INITCAP INITCAP capitalizes the first letter of a word and makes all other characters lowercase.LOWER(ENAME) LOWER_CASE FROM EMP. INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME “BEFORE”. UPPER does just the changes all the characters to uppercase. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER UPPER_CASE ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER LOWER_CASE ---------smith allen ward jones martin blake clark scott king turner adams james ford miller 70 .

or it can be a single character or a character string. name is occupying some space and in the remaining space to the left side of the name pads with *. The first argument is the character string to be operated on.' --------------**********SMITH **********ALLEN ***********WARD **********JONES *********MARTIN **********BLAKE **********CLARK **********SCOTT ***********KING *********TURNER **********ADAMS **********JAMES ***********FORD *********MILLER ANALYSIS: 15 locations allocated to display ename. The following statement adds five pad characters. and the optional third argument is the character to pad it with.10. OUTPUT: LPAD(ENAME.15.’*’) FROM EMP. out of that.Siva Kumar HVK LPAD and RPAD LPAD and RPAD take a minimum of two and a maximum of three arguments. INPUT SQL> SELECT RPAD(5000.15. The third argument defaults to a blank.’*’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: 5000****** 71 . assuming that the field LASTNAME is defined as a 15-character field: INPUT: SQL> SELECT LPAD(ENAME. The second is the number of characters to pad it with.

The first argument. these trim functions will trim that character the same way they trim the blanks in the following examples. The optional second element is either a character or character string or defaults to a blank. like LPAD and RPAD.’R’) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK LTRIM and RTRIM LTRIM and RTRIM take at least one and at most two arguments. INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. If you use a second argument that is not a blank. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER RTRIM(ENAM ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNE ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLE ANALYSIS Removes the rightmost character 72 . RTRIM(ENAME. is a character string.

Of its three arguments.REPLACE_STRING) INPUT: SQL> SELECT REPLACE (‘RAMANA’. If the third argument is left out or NULL. search string removed from the given string INPUT SQL> SELECT REPLACE (‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT RAVINA INPUT SQL> SELECT REPLACE(‘RAMANA’. The last is the optional replacement string. the first is the string to be searched. NULL) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK REPLACE REPLACE does just that. OUTPUT RANA 73 . SYNTAX : REPLACE(STRING.’MA’.’MA’. each occurrence of the search key on the string to be searched is removed and is not replaced with anything.SEARCH_STRING. VI’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT RANA ANALYSIS When the replace string is missing.’MA’) FROM DUAL. The second is the search key.

OUTPUT: RDCDND ANALYSIS Notice that the function is case sensitive. it replaces with corresponding replace string and if any one character is matching in the search string . SYNTAX SUBSTR(STRING. When search string matches.3) FROM DUAL. Elements of the target string that occur in the FROM string are translated to the corresponding element in the TO string. INPUT: SQL> SELECT TRANSLATE(‘RAMANA’.Siva Kumar HVK TRANSLATE The function TRANSLATE takes three arguments: the target string.’MA’. The second argument is the position of the first character to be output. it replaces with corresponding replace character. The third argument is the number of characters to show. SUBSTR This three-argument function enables you to take a piece out of a target string. and the TO string.1.’CD’) FROM DUAL. the FROM string. The first argument is the target string.STARTING_POSITION[. OUTPUT: RAM ANALYSIS It takes first 3 characters from first character 74 .NO_OF_CHARACTERS]) INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.

Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.2) FROM DUAL.3.2) || SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT: NA ANALYSIS You use a negative number as the second argument.3) FROM DUAL. it takes all the character from starting position 75 . OUTPUT: MAN ANALYSIS It takes 3 characters from third position INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.2) FROM DUAL.3) FROM DUAL.-2. the starting point is determined by counting backwards from the end. OUTPUT: RANA ANALYSIS First two characters and last two characters are combined together as a single string INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.-2. OUTPUT: MANA ANALYSIS When third argument is missing.1.

’A’) FROM DUAL. use INSTR. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the current month SYSDATE is a single row function.4.4. The third and forth are numbers representing where to start looking and which match to report.3) = SUBSTR(SYSDATE.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SUBSTR(HIREDATE.3). Its first argument is the target string. INSTR To find out where in a string a particular pattern occurs. which gives the current date. This example returns a number representing occurrence of O starting with the second the first INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT 2 ANALYSIS Find the position of the first occurrence of letter A 76 . The second argument is the pattern to match.

INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’. it returns 0 (zero) when the given character is not found.’a’) FROM DUAL. Fourth argument represents. • Third argument represents from which position.2) FROM DUAL.’A’. which occurrence. OUTPUT 6 ANALYSIS Find the position of the second occurrence of letter A from 3rd position of the string 77 . OUTPUT 0 ANALYSIS Function is case sensitive. OUTPUT 4 ANALYSIS • Find the position of the second occurrence of letter A from the beginning of the string.’A’.1.2) FROM DUAL. SQL> SELECT INSTR (‘RAMANA’.3.

So we can say that it is a string. OUTPUT: SAL ---------800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 5000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 TO_CHAR(SAL) ---------------------------------------800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 5000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 ANALYSIS After conversion. TO_CHAR The primary use of TO_CHAR is to convert a number into a character. like Date. TO_CHAR(SAL) FROM EMP. 78 . into a character. Converted information is left aligned. The following example illustrates the primary use of TO_CHAR: INPUT: SQL> SELECT SAL.Siva Kumar HVK Conversion Functions These functions provide a handy way of converting one type of data to another. They are mainly useful for changing date formats and number formats. Different Implementations may also use it to convert other data types. or to include different formatting arguments.

Siva Kumar HVK The main usage of this function is. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DD/MM/YYYY’) FROM DUAL.'DD-MON-YY') -----------------------------24-MAR-07 79 . OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. to change the date formats and number formats INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.'DD/MM/YYYY') -----------------------------24/03/2007 ANALYSIS Convert the default date format to DD/MM/YYYY format INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.’DD-MON-YY’) FROM DUAL.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.

’DY-MON-YY’) FROM DUAL.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DAY MONTH YEAR’) FROM DUAL.'DAYMONTHYEAR') -----------------------------SATURDAY MARCH TWO THOUSAND SEVEN ANALYSIS: DAY gives the total day name MONTH gives the total month name YEAR writes the year number in words 80 .'DY-MON-YY') -----------------------------SAT-MAR-07 DY displays the first 3 letters from the day name INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.Siva Kumar HVK Date Formats INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.

------------------------------------------------------------------17-DEC-80 SEVENTEENTH DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY 20-FEB-81 TWENTIETH FEBRUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 22-FEB-81 TWENTY-SECOND FEBRUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 02-APR-81 SECOND APRIL NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 28-SEP-81 TWENTY-EIGHTH SEPTEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 01-MAY-81 FIRST MAY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 09-JUN-81 NINTH JUNE NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 09-DEC-82 NINTH DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-TWO 17-NOV-81 SEVENTEENTH NOVEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 08-SEP-81 EIGHTH SEPTEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 12-JAN-83 TWELFTH JANUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-THREE 03-DEC-81 THIRD DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 03-DEC-81 THIRD DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 23-JAN-82 TWENTY-THIRD JANUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-TWO ANALYSIS: Converts all hire dates in EMP table into Words 81 .'DDSPTHMONTHYEAR') --------.TO_CHAR(HIREDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.------------------------------------------------------------------24-MAR-07 TWENTY-FOURTH MARCH TWO THOUSAND SEVEN ANALYSIS: DD gives the day number DDSP Writes day number in words TH is the format.'DDSPTHMONTHYEAR') --------.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. Depends upon the number it gives either ST / RD/ST/ND format INPUT: SQL> SELECT HIREDATE.’DDSPTH MONTH YEAR’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: HIREDATE TO_CHAR(HIREDATE.’DDSPTH MONTH YEAR’) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: SYSDATE TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. which converts given string into date type INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.’Q’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: Gives in the quarter the given date falls TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(TO_DATE('10-SEP-2005').’W’) -----------------------------4 82 .Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.'Q') ---------------------------------------3 ANALYSIS: To_date is data conversion function.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’Q’) FROM DUAL.’W’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: Gives the week number in the current month ( In which week given date falls in the current month) TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’Q’) -----------------------------1 INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(’10-SEP-2005’).

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR( -------20:43:12 ANALYSIS: HH24 returns Hours in 24 hour format MI returns Minutes SS returns Seconds } } Returns time from current date } 83 . INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’HH:MI:SS AM’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: SYSDATE TO_CHAR(SYSDATE) -----------------------------------24-MAR-07 12 ANALYSIS: Returns no.’WW’) FROM DUAL. of weeks worked during the year.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.’HH24:MI:SS’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(SYS ----------08:40:17 PM ANALYSIS: HH returns Hours MI returns Minutes SS returns Seconds } } Returns time from current date } INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.

567. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(12567.’L99. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(12567.’99.999.'L99.99') ----------------------------$12.'99.999.99’) FROM DUAL.99') ----------------------------12.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(12567.999.999.567.99’) FROM DUAL.00 ANALYSIS: Converts the given number into comma format with two decimal places INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(12567.00 ANALYSIS: Display the local currency symbol 84 .

567. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(-12567.999.99PR') ----------------------------------<$12.00> ANALYSIS: PR Parenthesis negative number 85 .99PR’) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(-12567.’L99.999.'L99.

----------------------800 800 1600 1600 1250 1250 2975 2975 1250 1250 2850 2850 2450 2450 3000 3000 5000 5000 1500 1500 1100 1100 950 950 3000 3000 1300 1300 ANALYSIS After conversion. TO_NUMBER((TO_CHAR(SAL)) FROM EMP. For example: INPUT: SQL> SELECT SAL. and most major implementations of SQL have functions to cope with these concepts. Converted information is right aligned. Date and Time Functions We live in a civilization governed by times and dates. It demonstrates the time and date functions. it converts a string into a number. So we can say that it is a number. and of course.Siva Kumar HVK TO_NUMBER TO_NUMBER is the companion function to TO_CHAR. 86 . OUTPUT: SAL TO_NUMBER(TO_CHAR(SAL)) ---------.

33 years of service from date of join is retirement date LAST_DAY 87 . OUTPUT: MATURITY_DATE -------------------24-SEP-07 ANALYSIS It adds 6 months to the system date INPUT: SQL> SELECT HIREDATE. ADD_MONTHS(HIREDATE. say a customer deposited some amount on a particular date for a period of 6 months. OUTPUT: HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 09-DEC-82 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 12-JAN-83 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 RETIRE_DATE --------------17-DEC-13 20-FEB-14 22-FEB-14 02-APR-14 28-SEP-14 01-MAY-14 09-JUN-14 09-DEC-15 17-NOV-14 08-SEP-14 12-JAN-16 03-DEC-14 03-DEC-14 23-JAN-15 ANALYSIS Find the retirement date of an employee Assume.33*12) RETIRE_DATE FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK ADD_MONTHS This function adds a number of months to a specified date. To find the maturity date of the deposit INPUT: SQL> SELECT ADD_MONTHS (SYSDATE. 6) MATURITY_DATE FROM DUAL. For example.

OUTPUT: LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) ------------------------31-MAR-07 ANALYSIS Find the last date of the month MONTHS_BETWEEN Used to find the number of months between two given months INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME.171887 ANALYSIS Finds number of months between sysdate and hiredate . OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER EXPERIENCE ---------26.2928548 25.2014569 25.2713494 26.3089838 25. For example. Result is divided with 12 to get the experience 88 .3546827 25.0912419 25.9783387 25. you need to know what the last day of the month INPUT: SQL> SELECT LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) FROM DUAL.0966182 26.Siva Kumar HVK LAST_DAY returns the last day of a specified month.4917795 25.8976935 25.MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.7928548 24.3089838 25.HIREDATE)/12 EXPERIENCE FROM EMP.545543 24.

'DD/MM/Y YYY HH : MI :SS PM') from DUAL. Here are the time zones you can use with this function: Abbreviation Time Zone AST or ADT Atlantic standard or daylight time BST or BDT Bering standard or daylight time CST or CDT Central standard or daylight time EST or EDT Eastern standard or daylight time GMT Greenwich mean time HST or HDT Alaska-Hawaii standard or daylight time MST or MDT Mountain standard or daylight time NST Newfoundland standard time PST or PDT Pacific standard or daylight time YST or YDT Yukon standard or daylight time You can adjust your time like this: INPUT SQL> select TO_CHAR(new_time(LOCALTIMESTAMP.'PDT').Siva Kumar HVK LOCALTIMESTAMP Returns Local timestamp in the active time zone. with no time zone information shown INPUT SQL> SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. OUTPUT TO_CHAR(NEW_TIME(LOCALTIM ------------------------25/03/2007 04 : 32 :55 PM 89 . OUTPUT LOCALTIMESTAMP -----------------------------------25-MAR-07 06.02.312000 PM NEW_TIME This function is used to adjust the time according to the time zone you are in.21.'EsT'.

'EsT'.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> select hiredate. OUTPUT: HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 09-DEC-82 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 12-JAN-83 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 NEW_TIME( --------16-DEC-80 19-FEB-81 21-FEB-81 01-APR-81 27-SEP-81 30-APR-81 08-JUN-81 08-DEC-82 16-NOV-81 07-SEP-81 11-JAN-83 02-DEC-81 02-DEC-81 22-JAN-82 ANALYSIS Like magic. new_time(hiredate. all the times are in the new time zone and the dates are adjusted. 90 .'PDT') from emp.

Siva Kumar HVK NEXT_DAY NEXT_DAY finds the name of the first day of the week that is equal to or later than another specified date. March 24.’MONDAY’) FROM DUAL. EXTRACT We can use Extract function in the place of to_char function from Oracle 9i. OUTPUT: NEXT_DAY( --------26-MAR-07 ANALYSIS If the sysdate is Saturday. It display the date of the next coming Monday. SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL. INPUT: SQL> SELECT NEXT_DAY(SYSDATE. SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL 91 . 2007.

No of years and months between both the dates. Example select (sysdate . Both were introduced in Oracle9i Database. and both conform to the ISO SQL standard. Example Select (sysdate . minutes and seconds (including fractional seconds). hours. INTERVAL YEAR to MONTH Allows you to define and interval of time in terms of years and months INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND Allows you to define an interval of time in terms of days.to_date('10-NOV-2007')) day to second from dual OUTPUT +000000009 11:04:07 Analysis Find the difference with days and time.Siva Kumar HVK Interval Data types (Only from 9i) Oracle supports two interval datatypes. For sysdate it takes 0.00 hrs as starting time 92 .to_date('10-jan-2004')) year to month from dual OUTPUT +000000003-10 Analysis Returns the difference.

e. If you enter a date in the latter half of the century (i. If the Current year is in the first half of the century ( years 0 through 49). SQL> SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL: Interpreting Two-digit Years Oracle provides the RR format element to interpret two-digit years. from 50 through 99). RR returns the previous century.-------------------19/11/2050 2088 2118 93 .'yyyy') "year 18" from dual OUTPUT current date Year 88 year 18 ------------------------.e. then: • • If you enter a date in the first half of the century (i.-------------------19/11/2007 1988 2018 When we reach the year 2050.-------------------.Siva Kumar HVK Note :.'dd-mon-rr'). from 0 through 49). to_char(to_date('14-oct-18'. to_char(to_date('14-oct-88'.We can also change the default format for a given session using the ALTER SESSION command SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = ‘DD/MM/YYYY’.'dd/mm/yyyy') "current date". For example select to_char(sysdate.-------------------.'yyyy') "Year 88".'dd-mon-rr'). RR will interpret the same dates differently current date Year 88 year ------------------------. RR returns the current century.

'year') from dual.5.’DAY’) FROM DUAL. • SELECT NUMTOYMINTERVAL(10.3.'YEAR') ----------------------------------------------------------------------+000000010-03 Try the following formats SELECT NUMTOYMINTERVAL(10.999.'year') from dual.999999999 94 . NUMTOYMINTERVAL (10.999 hours ranging from 0 through 23 minutes ranging from 0 through 59 • Some number of seconds ranging from 0 through 59.'YEAR') ----------------------------------------------------------------------+000000010-06 SQL> select numtoyminterval (10.’MONTH’) FROM DUAL.5.5.Siva Kumar HVK Going from Numbers to Intervals The NUMTOYMINTERVAL and NUMTODSINTERVAL functions allow you to convert a single numeric value to one of the interval data types. NUMTOYMINTERVAL (10.999.5.999 Some number Some number Some number Some number of of of of months ranging from 0 through 11 days ranging from 0 through 999. SQL> select numtoyminterval (10. Name Description Some number of years ranging from 1 through YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR MINUTE SECOND 999. The function NUMTOYMINTERVAL (pronounced “ num to Y M interval”) converts a numeric value an interval of type INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH.3.

’minute’) from dual. OUTPUT +01 00:00. 95 .00. Example SQL> select NUMTODSINTERVAL(1440.000000 ANALYSIS Oracle automatically taken care of normalizing the input value of 1440 minutes to an interval value of 1 day.Siva Kumar HVK NUMTODSINTERVAL This function allows converting a single numeric value to one of the interval data types. This function (pronounced “num to D S interval”) likewise converts a numeric value to an interval of type INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND.

2. OUTPUT: GREATEST --------83 ANALYSIS Displays the greatest of the given set of values Difference between GREATEST AND MAX IS 1) GREATEST IS SINGLE ROW FUNCTION. Assume there is a student table ROLLNO 1 2 3 4 NAME RAVI KRIS BABU ANU STUDENT SUB1 SUB2 55 22 78 55 55 22 44 55 SUB3 86 65 44 66 SUB4 45 12 77 88 96 .67) FROM DUAL.83.Siva Kumar HVK Miscellaneous Functions Here are three miscellaneous functions you may find useful.1. GREATEST and LEAST INPUT: SQL> SELECT GREATEST(10.9. WHERE AS MAX TAKES VALUES FROM DIFFERENT ROWS FROM A COLUMN. MAX IS A GROUP FUNCTION 2) GREATEST TAKES VALUES FROM DIFFERENT COLUMNS FROM EACH ROW.

LEAST(SUB1.SUB3.SUB3.Siva Kumar HVK To find the greatest and Least Marks INPUT: SQL> SELECT NAME. SUB1 SUB2 55 78 55 44 22 55 22 55 SUB3 SUB4 86 65 44 66 45 12 77 88 RAVI KRIS BABU ANU GREATEST MARK 86 78 77 88 LEAST MARK 22 12 22 44 INPUT: SQL> SELECT USER FROM DUAL.SUB2.SUB4) LEAST_MARK FROM STUDENT OUTPUT: RNO NAME 1 2 3 4 USER USER returns the character name of the current user of the database. SUB4. GREATEST(SUB1.SUB4) GREATEST_MARK. OUTPUT: USER -------SCOTT ANALYSIS Displays the current sessions user name We can also display username using environment command SQL> SHOW USER 97 .SUB1.SUB2.SUB2.SUB3.

THEN statement in a procedural programming language. then display output3 instead of the column's current value. The standard language of SQL lacks procedural functions that are contained in languages such as COBOL and C.. If column1 has a value of value1. If column1 has a value of value2. The DECODE statement is similar to an IF. output2. SYNTAX: DECODE (column1. output3) The syntax example performs the DECODE function on column1. then display output1 instead of the column's current value. 98 . output1. If column1 has a value of anything other than value1 or value2. DECODE is often able to fill the gap between SQL and the functions of a procedural language.. then display output2 instead of the column's current value. value1. value2. Where flexibility is required for complex reporting needs.Siva Kumar HVK The DECODE Function The DECODE function is one of the most powerful commands in SQL*Plus--and perhaps the most powerful.

OFFICER VP S.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. JOB.OFFICER EXEC EXEC PM EXEC ANALYSIS When JOB has a value CLERK . ‘S.OFFICER S.OFFICER instead of SALESMAN When JOB has a value ANALYST . then display VP instead of MANAGER OTHERWISE DISPLAY SAME JOB 99 .’VP’. then display PM instead of ANALYST When JOB has a value MANAGER .’CLERK’.OFFICER VP VP PM PRESIDENT S.JOB) PROMOTION FROM EMP.’SALESMAN’. then display S. then display EXEC instead of CLERK When JOB has a value SALESMAN .’ANALYST’.’MANAGER’.’PM’. OUTPUT ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK PROMOTION --------EXEC S.OFFICER’.’EXEC’. DECODE(JOB.

’SALESMAN’.’MR. DECODE(SEX.SAL.ename.’ before the name based on their Gender 100 .DECODE(JOB. SAL*1. ANALYSIS Adding Mr.’MALE’.3. SEX. then giving 20% increment When JOB has a value ANALYST .’CLERK’.---------. then giving 10% increment When JOB has a value SALESMAN .SAL*1.’||ENAME) FROM EMP. then giving 30% increment OTHERWISE no increment Assume there is a table with empno.JOB.5 SALESMAN 1250 1500 MANAGER 2850 3705 MANAGER 2450 3185 ANALYST 3000 3750 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1500 1800 CLERK 1100 1210 CLERK 950 1045 ANALYST 3000 3750 CLERK 1300 1430 ANALYSIS When JOB has a value CLERK .2. then giving 25% increment When JOB has a value MANAGER .25.---------CLERK 800 880 SALESMAN 1600 1920 SALESMAN 1250 1500 MANAGER 2975 3867.’||ENAME. ‘MS.’MANAGER’.sex INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.1.’ or ‘Ms.SAL*1.SAL) NEW_SAL FROM EMP. OUTPUT ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB SAL NEW_SAL --------.’ANALYST’.SAL*1.Siva Kumar HVK To give increments designations to the employees based on their INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.

you can use the CASE function in place of DECODE. which may make the resulting code easier to follow than an equivalent DECODE. else.OFFICER S. and end to indicate the logic path followed. CASE JOB WHEN 'MANAGER' then 'VP' WHEN 'CLERK' THEN 'EXEC' WHEN 'SALESMAN' THEN 'S. Example SQL> SELECT JOB.OFFICER' ELSE JOB END FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK CASE As of Oracle 9i.OFFICER EXEC EXEC ANALYST EXEC ANALYSIS Works similar to that of DECODE 101 . The CASE function uses the keywords when.OFFICER VP VP ANALYST PRESIDENT S. JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK CASEJOBWH --------EXEC S. then.OFFICER VP S.

---------7369 800 7499 1600 300 1900 7521 1250 500 1750 7566 2975 7654 1250 1400 2650 7698 2850 7782 2450 7788 3000 7839 5000 7844 1500 0 1500 7876 1100 7900 950 7902 3000 7934 1300 ANALYSIS Arithmetic operation is possible only when value is there in both columns 102 . it can be used with CHAR.---------. Substitute can be a literal number. DATE. NVL is not restricted to numbers. substitute) INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. and other data types. this function is equal to substitute.Siva Kumar HVK NVL If the value is NULL. SYNTAX NVL(value. OUTPUT EMPNO SAL COMM TOTAL ---------.COMM. If the value is not NULL. SAL + COMM TOTAL FROM EMP. this function is equal to value. or a computation.---------. another column. VARCHAR2.SAL. but the value and substitute must be the same data type.

Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.------------------------------10 8750 .301464255 20 10875 . we are substituting 0 if COMM is NULL. INPUT SQL>SELECT DEPTNO. 103 .---------.323858742 ANALYSIS RATIO_TO_REPORT FUNCTION FINDS THE SALARY RATIO OF THAT DEPARTMENT OVER THE TOTAL SALARY OF ALL THE EMPLOYEES.COMM.---------7369 800 800 7499 1600 300 1900 7521 1250 500 1750 7566 2975 2975 7654 1250 1400 2650 7698 2850 2850 7782 2450 2450 7788 3000 3000 7839 5000 5000 7844 1500 0 1500 7876 1100 1100 7900 950 950 7902 3000 3000 7934 1300 1300 ANALYSIS Using NVL. OUTPUT DEPTNO SUM(SAL) RATIO_TO_REPORT(SUM(SAL))OVER() ---------. OUTPUT EMPNO SAL COMM TOTAL ---------.---------.RATIO_TO_REPORT(SUM(SAL)) OVER() FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO.SUM(SAL).374677003 30 9400 .---------.SAL. SAL + NVL(COMM.0) TOTAL FROM EMP.

ASCII Finds the ASCII value of the given character SQL> SELECT ASCII(‘A’) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK LENGTH Finds the length of the given information SQL> SELECT ENAME.LENGTH(ENAME) FROM EMP. 104 . CAST Converts one type of information into another type SQL> SELECT 50 numb. SQL> SELECT SAL.LENGTH(SAL) FROM EMP. cast(50 as varchar2(2) value from dual. SQL> SELECT LENGTH(SYSDATE) FROM EMP.

If the commission is NULL. print as NO COMM Add number of days to the given date Display the first and last two characters from a given name and combine them as a single string (Use only functions) Find the difference between two given dates Display all the names which contain underscore subtract number of months from given date 105 .Siva Kumar HVK Exercise _____________ function performs one to one character substitution. comm. Print *’s as number of thousands are there in the number Display the ename. ___________ symbol is used to combine tow given strings What happens if “replace string” is not given for REPLACE function Can a number be converted to DATE? Convert the value of name in the EMP table to lower case letters Display the names of the employees who have more than 4 characters in the name. _____________ format option is used to get complete year spelled out in TO_CHAR function.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 3 3 Hrs Exercise Annexure Query .I 106 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 4 3 Hrs

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Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 1 3 Hrs

Topics Group by clause CUBE and ROLLUP functions Having clause Exercise

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Siva Kumar HVK GROUP BY CLAUSE
Group by statement groups all the rows with the same column value. Use to generate summary output from the available data. Whenever we use a group function in the SQL statement, we have to use a group by clause.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, COUNT (*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------ANALYST 2 CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 PRESIDENT 1 SALESMAN 4

ANALYSIS
Counts number of employees under each and every job. When we are grouping on job, initially jobs are placed in ascending order in a temporary segment. On the temporary segment, group by clause is applied, so that on each similar job count function applied.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, SUM (SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 4150 MANAGER 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 SALESMAN 5600

ANALYSIS With each job, it finds the total salary

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Siva Kumar HVK ERROR with GROUP BY Clause
Note : Only grouped columns allowed in the group by clause When ever we are using a group function in the SQL statement, we have to use group by clause.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP; OUTPUT SELECT JOB, COUNT (*) FROM EMP * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00937: not a single-group group function ANALYSIS This result occurs because the group functions, such as SUM and COUNT, are designated to tell you something about a group or rows, not the individual rows of the table. This error is avoided by using JOB in the group by clause, which forces the COUNT to count all the rows grouped within each job.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,ENAME,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT SELECT JOB,ENAME,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression ANALYSIS In the above query, JOB is only the grouped column where as ENAME column is not a grouped column. What ever the columns we are grouping, the same column is allowed to display.

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INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, MIN(SAL),MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) --------- ---------- ---------ANALYST 3000 3000 CLERK 800 1300 MANAGER 2450 2975 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1250 1600

ANALYSIS

For displaying Total summary information from the table.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, SUM(SAL),AVG(SAL),MIN(SAL),MAX(SAL) ,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) COUNT(*) --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------ANALYST 6000 3000 3000 3000 2 CLERK 4150 1037.5 800 1300 4 MANAGER 8275 2758.33333 2450 2975 3 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 SALESMAN 5600 1400 1250 1600 4

ANALYSIS With each job, finds the total summary information.

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it passes corresponding salary as an argument to SUM() . SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO. Department wise total salaries With a matrix style report.20.JOB.---------.---------.COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO.SAL)) DEPT30.JOB. SUM(SAL) TOTAL FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB.10. SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.30.Siva Kumar HVK To display the output Designation wise.---------ANALYST 6000 6000 CLERK 1300 1900 950 4150 MANAGER 2450 2975 2850 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 5600 5600 ANALYSIS When we apply group by. INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB. If DEPTNO=10.SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.SAL)) DEPT10. Then group by clause groups similar designations.---------. initially all the designations are placed in ascending order of designations. then DECODE function (Single row function) applies on each and every row of that group and checks the DEPTNO.---------CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 CLERK 2 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 1 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 SALESMAN 4 113 . OUTPUT JOB DEPT10 DEPT20 DEPT30 TOTAL --------. INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO.SAL)) DEPT20. OUTPUT DEPTNO ---------10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 ANALYSIS JOB COUNT(*) --------.

Siva Kumar HVK To display the DEPTNO only one time INPUT SQL> BREAK ON DEPTNO SKIP 1 SQL> SELECT DEPTNO. 114 . we have to use an Environment command SQL> CLEAR BREAK.JOB. SKIP 1 used with BREAK to leave one blank line after completion of each Deptno. OUTPUT DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------. which breaks the information on repetitive column and displays them only once.JOB.---------10 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 20 CLERK ANALYST MANAGER 30 CLERK MANAGER SALESMAN ANALYSIS Break is Environment command .--------.COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO. 2 2 1 1 1 4 To remove the given break .

.Siva Kumar HVK Group by with ROLLUP and CUBE Operators ●Use Rollup or CUBE with Group by to produce super aggregate rows by cross-referencing columns. ●CUBE grouping produces a result set containing the rows from ROLLUP and cross-tabulation rows The ROLLUP and CUBE operators are available only in Oracle8i and later releases. 115 . ●ROLLUP grouping produces a result set containing the regular grouped rows and the subtotal values.] group_function(column).. FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY [CUBE] group_by_expression] [HAVING having_expression] [ORDER BY column]. Syntax SELECT [column.

Siva Kumar HVK CUBE function
We can use CUBE function to generate subtotals for all combinations of the values in the group by clause.( CUBE and ROLLUP are available only from 9i)

INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO,JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY CUBE(DEPTNO,JOB); OUTPUT
DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------- --------- ---------14 CLERK 4 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 3 SALESMAN 4 PRESIDENT 1 10 3 10 CLERK 1 10 MANAGER 1 10 PRESIDENT 1 20 5 20 CLERK 2 20 ANALYST 2 20 MANAGER 1 30 6 30 CLERK 1 30 MANAGER 1 DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------- --------- ---------30 SALESMAN 4 ANALYSIS

Cube displays the out with all the permutation and combination of all the columns given a CUBE function.

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Siva Kumar HVK ROLLUP FUNCTION
It is similar to that of CUBE function

INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO,JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY ROLLUP(DEPTNO,JOB) OUTPUT
DEPTNO ---------10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 3 CLERK 2 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 1 5 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 SALESMAN 4 6 14

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Siva Kumar HVK HAVING CLAUSE
Whenever we are using a group function in the condition, we have to use having clause. Having clause is used along with group by clause. For example, to display Designation wise total salaries

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 4150 MANAGER 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 SALESMAN 5600

To Display only those designations, whose total salary is more than 5000

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SUM(SAL) > 5000 GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SUM(SAL) > 5000 GROUP BY JOB * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here

ANALYSIS
Where clause doesn’t allow using group function in the condition. When we are using group function in the condition, we have to use having clause.

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Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING SUM(SAL) > 5000; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 MANAGER 8275 SALESMAN 5600

ANALYSIS
Displays all the designations whose total salary is more than 5000.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING COUNT(*) BETWEEN 3 AND 5; OUTPUT
JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 SALESMAN 4

ANALYSIS
Displays all the designations whose number where employees between 3 and 5

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Siva Kumar HVK INPUT
SQL> SELECT SAL FROM EMP GROUP BY SAL HAVING COUNT(SAL) > 1;

OUTPUT
SAL ---------1250 3000

ANALYSIS
Displays all the salaries, which are appearing more than one time in the table.

POINTS TO REMEMBER • WHERE clause can be used to check for conditions based on values of columns and expressions but not the result of GROUP functions. HAVING clause is specially designed to evaluate the conditions that are based on group functions such as SUM , COUNT etc. HAVING clause can be used only when GROUP BY clause is used.

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121 .SUM (SAL) FROM EMP WHERE JOB != ‘CLERK’ GROUP BY JOB HAVING SUM(SAL) > 5000 ORDER BY JOB DESC.Siva Kumar HVK ORDER OF EXECUTION Here are the rules ORCALE uses to execute different clauses given in SELECT command Selects rows based on Where clause Groups rows based on GROUP BY clause Calculates results for each group Eliminate groups based on HAVING clause Then ORDER BY is used to order the results Example INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB.

Siva Kumar HVK EXERCISE ANNEXURE – A QUERY 2 122 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 2 2 Hrs Topics Nested Sub Queries Single row Sub queries Multi Row Sub query Multi column Sub query Co-related Sub query Scalar Sub Queries ANY ALL and EXISTS Exercise 123 .

124 . then we have to write different queries one included in another.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation Nested Sub queries Nesting is the act of embedding a sub query within another sub query. We can write different types sub queries Single row sub queries Multi row sub queries Multi column sub queries Correlated sub queries. Whenever particular information is not accessible through a single query. Sub queries can be nested as deeply as your implementation of SQL allows. SYNTAX Select * FROM SOMETHING WHERE (SUBQUERY (SUBQUERY (SUBQUERY))).

OUTPUT ENAME HIREDATE ---------. OUTPUT ENAME -----------KING SAL ---------5000 ANALYSIS Right side query is called as child query and left side query is called parent query. For example.Siva Kumar HVK Single row sub query A Sub query which returns only one value. who is drawing maximum salary? INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.--------ADAMS 12-JAN-83 ANALYSIS Display the least experienced employee 125 . To get the employee.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL = ( SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP). child query executes first before executing parent query. HIREDATE FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE = ( SELECT MAX(HIREDATE) FROM EMP). In nested queries.

SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL < (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP). Query To display all the employees whose salary lines between minimum and maximum salaries INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN (SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP) AND (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP). 126 . OUTPUT ENAME SAL ---------.---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Display all the employees whose salary is less than the maximum salary of all the employees.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.

SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL IN(SELECT SAL FROM EMP GROUP BY SAL HAVING COUNT(*)> 1). OUTPUT ENAME ---------. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. Multi row Sub queries A sub query.WARD MARTIN SCOTT FORD SAL --------1250 1250 3000 3000 ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who are drawing similar salaries When child query returns more than one value.ENAME. INPUT SQL>SELECT ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK Display all the employees who are getting maximum commission in the organization SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM = (SELECT MAX(COMM) FROM EMP). Query Display all the employees from department 30 whose salary is less than maximum salary of department 20. which returns more than one value.SAL FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO=30 AND SAL < (SELECT MAX (SAL) FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = 20). we have to use IN operator for comparison. 127 .

ANALYSIS Identify the employee who is drawing minimum salary and update with the maximum salary of all the employees.ENAME. 128 . SQL> SELECT EMPNO.SAL)IN (SELECT DEPTNO.---------KING 10 5000 SCOTT 20 3000 FORD 20 3000 BLAKE 30 2850 ANALYSIS Display all the employees who are drawing maximum salaries in each department DML STATEMENTS IN SUB QUERIES To modify the salary of an employee who is drawing minimum salary with the salary of the employee who is drawing maximum salary INPUT SQL> UPDATE EMP SET SAL = (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP) WHERE EMPNO = (SELECT EMPNO FROM EMP WHERE SAL = (SELECT MIN (SAL) FROM EMP)).---------.Siva Kumar HVK Multi Column Sub Queries When sub queries returns values from different columns.SAL FROM EMP WHERE (DEPTNO.MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO).DEPTNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7839 7788 7902 7698 ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------.

ANALYSIS EMP1 is an existing table. Inserts all the selected rows into EMP1 table.Siva Kumar HVK To insert selected rows from emp table to emp1 table INPUT SQL> INSERT INTO EMP1 SELECT * FROM EMP . 129 .

This continues until all rows of main query are retrieved 130 .SAL FROM EMP X WHERE SAL < (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = X.---------.ENAME.DEPTNO. depending upon the value passed by sub query.---------SMITH 20 800 ALLEN 30 1600 WARD 30 1250 JONES 20 2975 MARTIN 30 1250 CLARK 10 2450 TURNER 30 1500 ADAMS 20 1100 JAMES 30 950 MILLER 10 1300 ANALYSIS Find department wise maximum salaries and display the employees whose salary is less than that value for each department Execution Sequence of steps in Correlated sub queries A row from main query is retrieved Executes sub query with the value retrieved from main query Sub query returns a value to main query Main query’s current row is either selected or not.Siva Kumar HVK CORRELATED SUB QUERIES A correlated sub query is a sub query that receives a value from the main query and then sends a value back to main query. For example Display all the employees whose salary is less than maximum salary of each department SQL> SELECT EMPNO. EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7782 7844 7876 7900 7934 ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------.DEPTNO).

sal.SAL).sal from emp e 131 . e.ENAME.sal from emp e where &n >= (select count(*) from emp where deptno = e.deptno). ename.deptno. deptno from emp e where exists (select 1 from emp where mgr = e. A Few More Examples on Correlated Subqueries: 1.Siva Kumar HVK To display the nth highest paid employee INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. select deptno.empno).sal). select ename. 6. 5. select e.deptno). dname from dept d where not exists (select 1 from emp where deptno = d.empno.ename.ename. 3. 2. select ename. Display the employees who are earning more than the avg salary in thier respective depts? A. job. Find the deptnos which doesnt have any emps in it? A.empno). Display the details of employee who is drawing nth max sal from emp table? A. deptno from emp e where exists (select 1 from emp where mgr = e.sal<(select max(sal) from emp where deptno = e. select empno.---------SCOTT 3000 FORD 3000 ANALYSIS It selects each row from emp table from parent query and finds the distinct count for each salary whose salary >= the salary returned by main query. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7788 7902 ENAME SAL ---------. 7. Display the employees who have atleast one person reportig to them? A. OR select deptno. deptno from emp e where sal > (select avg(sal) from emp where deptno = e. sal. select empno.deptno). e.deptno). 4.sal from emp e where e. Display the employees who have no one reporting to? A. select distinct deptno. Display the employees who are not getting max sal in each dept? A. ename. Display all the employee details under the deptnos which have less than N number of employees in it? A. deptno from emp e where &n = (select count(*) from emp where sal > x.empno. job.SAL FROM EMP X WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SAL >=X.

Most Efficient (110 Mill Sec) SQL>SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. 132 .deptno group by deptno having count(1)<= &n) order by deptno.EMPNO) and SAL >=5000 AND JOB = 'MANAGER' SQL> SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. SQL>SELECT * FROM EMP E WHERE SAL >=5000 AND JOB = 'MANAGER' AND 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. And the conditions which filter out the maximum records should be placed at the end after the joins as the parsing is done from BOTTOM to TOP.EMPNO) . SQL> SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK where exists (select 1 from emp where deptno=e. Table joins should be written first before any condition of WHERE clause. SQL>SELECT * FROM EMP E WHERE 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E.ename / Least Efficient ( 156 Mill Sec) SQL>SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL.

133 . !=) and list is a series of values. <.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK ANY And ALL Operators Both are used for comparing one value against a set of values. <= .SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL > ANY(SELECT SAL FROM EMP). SYNTAX Operator ANY list Operator ALL list INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL ---------. >=. The operator can be any one of the standard relational operators ( =.---------ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS >ANY displays greater than any values in the list. >.

SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL >ALL(SELECT SAL FROM EMP).SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL < ANY (SELECT SAL FROM EMP).Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Less than ANY of the list of values INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL ---------. OUTPUT no rows selected ANALYSIS Greater than Maximum of list 134 .ENAME.ENAME.

ENAME.2000.4000).---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Less than minimum of List 135 .4000).SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL <ALL(3000.---------7839 KING 5000 ANALYSIS Greater than maximum of List INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7654 7844 7876 7900 7934 ENAME SAL ---------.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL >ALL(3000.2000.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ENAME SAL ---------.---------.

MGR = EMPNO). EXISTS is different from other operators like IN .Siva Kumar HVK EXISTS And NOT EXISTS Operators These two operators are exclusively used in correlated sub query. INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. and NOT EXISTS does the opposite. ANY etc.SAL. It checks any row is retrieved from sub query or not.MGR FROM EMP X WHERE EXISTS(SELECT MGR FROM EMP WHERE X. EXISTS checks whether any row is existing in the sub query. Remember The following important points to be remembered while dealing with sub queries Sub query can not use ORDER BY clause. because it doesn’t compare values of columns.ENAME. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL MGR ---------. Because ORDER BY clause must be the last clause of SELECT BETWEEN … AND operator can not be used with Sub queries 136 .---------. If any row is retrieved from sub query the EXISTS returns true otherwise it returns False. instead.---------SMITH 800 7902 ALLEN 1600 7698 WARD 1250 7698 JONES 2975 7839 MARTIN 1250 7698 BLAKE 2850 7839 CLARK 2450 7839 SCOTT 3000 7566 TURNER 1500 7698 ADAMS 1100 7788 JAMES 950 7698 FORD 3000 7566 MILLER 1300 7782 Note :Use EXISTS in place of IN for Base Tables to improve the performance.

Display the employees from other departments whose designation is matching with the designation of the above employee. Display the details of subjects that have been taken by more than two students 137 . Display all the employees whose salary is within ±1000 from the average salary of all the employees.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise In department 20. one employee is drawing minimum salary and is having some designation. Display the details of students who have paid the highest amount so far in their course. Display the employees who reported to KING Display all the employees whose salary is less than the minimum salary of MANAGERS.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 3 2 Hrs Exercise Annexure Query III 138 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 4 1 Hrs Revision / Doubts 139 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 1&2 5 Hrs Topics Integrity Constraints DDL and DML commands Transactional Control statements Referential Integrity constraints Exercise 140 .

View a constraint in the Data dictionary . or . If constraint is not satisfied the operation will fail. 141 . But it is also possible to define constraints after the table is created. Define a constraint at the column or table level. deleted or updated. Oracle server makes sure that the constraints are not violated whenever a row is inserted.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS Constraints are used to implement standard rules such as uniqueness in the key filed and business rule such as AGE column should contain a value between 15 and 60 etc.At the same time as the table is created. Constraints are normally defined at the time of creating table.After the table has been created. Constraint Guidelines Name a constraint or the Oracle server generates a name by using the SYS_Cn format Create a constraint either: .

It may consist of more than one column. UNIQUE + NOT NULL = PRIMARY KEY • Automatically creates unique index to enforce uniqueness. i.Siva Kumar HVK TYPES OF CONSTRAINTS Constraints are classified into two types Table Constraints Column Constraints Table Constraint A constraint given at the table level is called as Table Constraint. it is called as composite primary key. It defines a rule for a single column. if so. 142 . Column Constraint A constraint given at the column level is called as Column constraint. Various types of Integrity constraints PRIMARY KEY UNIQUE NOT NULL CHECK PRIMARY KEY It is used to uniquely identify rows in a table. It cannot refer to column other than the column. A typical example is PRIMARY KEY constraint when a single column is the primary key of the table. ( It maintains uniqueness in the data and null values are not acceptable). at which it is defined. There can be only one primary key in a table.e. A typical example is PRIMARY KEY constraint that is used to define composite primary key. It may refer to more than one column of the table.

USER functions . CHECK Defines the condition that should be satisfied before insertion and updating is done. For example.Calls to SYSDATE. the group of columns is called a composite unique key. NOT NULL Uniqueness not maintained and null values are not acceptable.UID. you cannot insert into. If the UNIQUE constraint comprises more than one column. Note: The NOT NULL constraint can be specified only at the column level. However.Siva Kumar HVK UNIQUE acceptable. Defines a condition that each row must satisfy The following expressions are not allowed . Maintains unique and NULL values are Example : EmailID A UNIQUE key integrity constraint requires that every value in a column or set of columns (key) be unique.Pseudocolumns are not actual columns in a table but they behave like columns.References to CURRVAL. • Oracle automatically creates a unique index for the column. or delete from a pseudocolumn.that is. update. no two rows of table can have duplicate values in a specified column or set of columns. The column (or set of columns) included in the definition of the UNIQUE key constraint is called the unique key. NEXTVAL and ROWNUM pseudocolumns .Queries that refer to other values in other rows Note: . not at the table level. 143 . you can select clause from pseudo columns.

Drop DDL STATEMENTS COMMITS AUTOMATICALLY. EMAIL_ID VARCHAR2 (30) UNIQUE. SALARY NUMBER (7.Siva Kumar HVK DDL (Data Definition language) Create. Create Table CREATE TABLE <TABLE-NAME> (COLUMN DEFINITION1. There is no need to save explicitly.’F’)). Syntax :Column Def : <Name> Data type [Default Value] [constraint <name> constraint type] Note: = Min. Alter. Column in a table = 1 Max. ENAME VARCHAR2 (10) NOT NULL. COLUMN DEFINITION2). 144 . DESIGNATION VARCHAR2 (15).# are used mainly for system tables.e. A table or a column name must never start a number but they can contain numbers in them 2. “-“ i.2) CHECK (SALARY BETWEEN 10000 AND 70000)). “#”. $. They can’t consist of any special characters other than “$”. Example : SQL>CREATE TABLE EMPL47473 (EMPNO NUMBER(3)CONSTRAINT PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO PRIMARY KEY. Columns in a table = 1000 Rules: 1. GENDER CHAR(1) CONSTRAINT CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER CHECK(UPPER (GENDER) IN (‘M’.

------------------------------------------------------SYS_C003018 C "ENAME" IS NOT NULL CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER SYS_C003020 PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO ANALYSIS C C P UPPER (GENDER) IN ('M'. CONSTRAINT_TYPE.Siva Kumar HVK Note : Constraint name is useful for manipulating the given constraint When the constraint name is not given at the time of defining constraints. system creates a constraint with the name SYS_Cn. Constraints defined on a particular table are store in a data dictionary table USER_CONSTRAINTS. SEARCH_CONDITION FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'EMPL47473'. Select statement is used to view the constraints defined on the table 145 .'F') SALARY BETWEEN 10000 AND 70000 SYS_C003022 Describe displays structure of the data dictionary table. Tables defined by a user are stored in a data dictionary table USER_TABLES SQL> DESCRIBE USER_CONSTRAINTS SQL> SELECT CONSTRAINT_NAME. USER_CONS_COLUMNS. OUTPUT CONSTRAINT_NAME CONSTRAINTTYPE SEARCH_CONDITION ---------------------------.

Siva Kumar HVK SQL> DESCRIBE USER_CONS_COLUMNS SQL> SELECT CONSTRAINT_NAME.---------------------------GENDER EMPNO ENAME SALARY EMAIL_ID ANALYSIS Describe displays structure of the data dictionary table. Select statement is used to view the constraints defined on the column 146 . OUTPUT CONSTRAINT_NAME --------------------------------CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO SYS_C003018 SYS_C003020 SYS_C003022 COLUMN_NAME .COLUMN_NAME FROM USER_CONS_COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'EMPL47473'.

ADD MODIFY DROP RENAME . 147 . ANALYSIS To add primary key in the table without constraint name.Siva Kumar HVK ALTER TABLE Used to modify the structure of a table SYNTAX ALTER TABLE <TABLENAME> [ ADD | MODIFY | DROP | RENAME] ( COLUMN(S)). SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 MODIFY (ENAME CHAR (15). SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP COLUMN PINCODE.for removing a column in the table ( 8i) .for modifying the structure of columns . SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 RENAME COLUMN ENAME TO EMPNAME Note: This command is also useful for manipulating constraints INPUT SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP PRIMARY KEY. DOJ DATE. SALARY NUMBER (8.PINCODE VARCHAR2(7)).for adding new columns into the table .ADDRESS).2)). Other constraints are removed only by referring constraint name. SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP (DESIGNATION. It creates constraint name with SYS_Cn.for renaming the column name ( Only from 9i) SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD (ADDRESS VARCHAR2 (30). INPUT SQL>ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD PRIMARY KEY(EMPNO). ANALYSIS To remove the primary key from table.

’&GENDER’.&SALARY). TO INSERT SPECIFIED COLUMNS IN THE TABLE SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473(EMPNO.’&EMAIL_ID’. ’&EMPNAME’.&SALARY.’RAVI’.’RAVI’.COLUMNNAME. OR SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(&EMPNO . ‘RAMESH_B@YAHOO.5000. OR SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473(EMPNO. ANALYSIS To add primary key in the table with constraint name DATA MANIPULATION INSERTING ROWS SYNTAX INSERT INTO TABLENAME [ COLUMNNAME. ANALYSIS We can’t skip primary key and NOT NULL columns 148 .COM’.’M’.’10-JAN-2001’).….’7EMPNAME’.SALARY) VALUES(101.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL>ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD CONSTRAINT PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO PRIMARY KEY(EMPNO).] VALUES(VALUE1 VALUE2 VALUE3 ) SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(101.’&DOJ’).EMPNAME.SALARY) VALUES(&EMPNO.EMPNAME. 5000).

5000. SQL>ROLLBACK.SAVEPOINT ( Called as Transactional processing statements) SQL>COMMIT.’LATHA’. ‘KIRAN_B@YAHOO. ANALYSIS Information from shadow page flushed back to the table and shadow page gets destroyed automatically.Siva Kumar HVK Note :.’F’. SQL> SAVEPOINT A SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(106.’15-JAN-2002’).’KIRAN’.Changes made on the database are recorded only in the shadow page.COM’.5000. SQL> SAVEPOINT B 149 . ANALYSIS Shadow page destroys automatically without transferring the information back to the table. SAVEPOINT We can use save points to roll back portions of your current set of transactions For example SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(105.COM’. ‘LATHA_D@YAHOO. For saving the information we have to use a command COMMIT.’10-JAN-2001’). ROLLBACK.’M’.

If the machine or database goes down.15000.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(107. but not yet explicitly or implicitly committed them. Now roll back just the last insert: SQL> ROLLBACK TO B. updates or deletes. it does this as cleanup work the next time the database is brought back up. ‘RADHA_V@GMAIL. EMPNO ------105 106 107 EMPNAME ---------KIRAN LATHA RADHA G M F F EMAIL_ID SALARY DOJ -----------------. exit (the equivalent to exit).’15-JAN-2002’). automatically commits.COM 5000 10-JAN-01 LATHA_D@YAHOO. or quit. AUTO ROLLBACK If you’ve completed a series of inserts. such as a computer failure.COM’.--------KIRAN_B@YAHOO. even without your instructing it to. and you experience serious difficulties. IMPLICIT COMMIT The actions that will force a commit to occur. When we SELECT data from the table SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPL47473.COM 15000 15-JAN-02 The output shows the three new records we’ve added .’F’. 150 .COM 5000 15-JAN-02 RADHA_V@GMAIL. Note : Rollback works only on uncommitted data A DDL transaction after a DML transaction.’RADHA’.---------. Oracle automatically roll back any uncommitted work. We can use an Environment command SET VERIFY OFF to remove the old and new messages while inserting data. any DDL command forces a commit.

Siva Kumar HVK ISSUE Frequent commit statements Whenever possible. the performance of the program is enhanced & its resource requirements are minimized as COMMIT frees up the following resources: Information held in the rollback segments to undo the transaction if necessary. 151 . issue frequent COMMIT statements in all your programs. By issuing frequent COMMIT statements. All locks acquired during statement processing Space in the redo log buffer cache Overhead associated with any internal Oracle mechanisms to manage the resources in the previous three items.

SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. ANALYSIS To give uniform increments to all the employees SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SAL = DECODE (JOB.SAL. To add a new column in the table SQL> ALTER TABLE EMP47473 ADD(SEX CHAR(1)).SAL*1.SAL*1. column2 = expression WHERE <condition>.’CLERK’.15). 152 . SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473. UPDATING ROWS This command is used to change the data of the table SYNTAX UPDATE <TABLENAME> SET column1 = expression. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.JOB FROM EMP. Example SQL> CREATE TABLE EMP47473 AS SELECT EMPNO. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SAL = SAL*1.1.1.2. ‘SALESMAN’.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK CREATING A TABLE FROM ANOTHER TABLE SYNTAX CREATE TABLE <TABLENAME> AS SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <EXISTING TABLE> [WHERE <CONDITION>].SAL*1.

’BLAKE’).’Ms.’||ENAME).’M’. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET ENAME = DECODE(SEX. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.’||ENAME. Before the existing name as per the SEX value 153 .’MILLER’. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.’Mr. or Ms. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SEX = ‘F’ WHERE SEX IS NULL.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SEX = ‘M’ WHERE ENAME IN (‘KING’. ANALYSIS ADD Mr. SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473. SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473 .

Once the table is truncated. It is a DDL statement Droping a table SYNTAX DROP TABLE <TABLENAME> Note : Table is dropped permanently.Siva Kumar HVK DELETING ROWS - SYNTAX DELETE FROM <TABLENAME> WHERE <CONDITION>. SQL> COMMIT | ROLLBACK. It is a DDL statement. TRUNCATING A TABLE SYNTAX TRUNCATE TABLE <TABLENAME> Note : Removes all the rows from table. It removes the data along with table definitions and the table. SQL> DELETE FROM EMP47473 WHERE SEX = ‘M’. 154 . Deleting specified rows is Not possible. it automatically commits.

view by using the COMMENT statement.column IS ‘text’ . table. The comment is stored in the data dictionary and can be viewed in one of the following data dictionary views in the COMMENTS column: ALL_COL_COMMENTS USER_COL_COMMENTS ALL_TAB_COMMENTS USER_TAB_COMMENTS Syntax COMMENT ON TABLE table | COLUMN table.Siva Kumar HVK Adding comments to a table You can add comments up to 2000 bytes about a column. 155 .

Example Department47473 (Deptno .Siva Kumar HVK REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS This constraint is useful for maintaining relation with other table. Various referential integrity constraints we can use in Oracle are Foreign Key References On delete cascade On Delete Set NULL Foreign Key: Defines the column in the child table at the table constraint level References table Identifies the table and column in the parent Reference key accepts NULL and duplicate values. On Delete Set NULL Converts dependent foreign key values to null. ename. dno) Deptno of Department47473 is a primary key Empno of Employee47473 is a primary key Dno of Employee47473 is a reference key 156 . salary. On delete cascade Deletes the dependent rows in the child table when a row in the parent table is deleted. dname) Employee47473 (Empno.

primary key (trnno. dname varchar2(20) Not null).Siva Kumar HVK Solution SQL>Create table department47473 (deptno number(3) primary key. trndate date. quantity number (3) check (quantity > 0). trntype char (1) check (upper (trntype) in (‘R’. ename varchar2(10) Not null. SQL>Create table itemmaster (itemno number (3) primary key. Assume the case where supermarket selling various items and customers order the items. itemno)). Itemno Trnno Itemmaster itemname stock Itemtran itemno trndate trntype quantity Assume the case where with each transaction customer orders more than one item. stock number (3) check (stock > 0)). salary number(7. 157 .2) check(salary > 0). itemno number (3) references itemmaster (itemno). dno number(3) references department47473(deptno) on delete cascade). itemname varchar2 (10). SQL>Create table employee47473(empno number(3) primary key. SQL>Create table itemtran (trnno number (3).’I’)).

Siva Kumar HVK DROP TABLE <TABLENAME> CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ANALYSIS Dropping the table along with constraints ALTER TABLE <tablename> DROP PRIMARY KEY CASCADE. Note : It is not possible to enable using cascade 158 . ANALYSIS Removing the primary key along with Reference key ALTER TABLE <TABLENAME> DISABLE PRIMARY KEY ALTER TABLE <tablename> DISABLE PRIMARY KEY CASCADE.

assume the case where same student can join in more than one course) The students may pay the fee in installments • Identify the tables. into which the students are joining for various courses ( Also. attributes and define them with relations 159 .Siva Kumar HVK Exercise • Consider a training institute conducting different courses.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 3 2 Hrs Topics Joins 160 .

Siva Kumar HVK
Presentation

JOINS Objectives
Join will enable you to gather and manipulate data across several tables. By One of the most powerful features of SQL is its capability to gather and manipulate data from across several tables. Without this feature you would have to store all the data elements necessary for each application in one table. Without common tables you would need to store the same data in several tables.

Objectives After completing this lesion, you should be able to do the following. ■ Write SELECT statements to access data from more than one table using equality and nonequality join. ■ View Data that generally does not meet condition by using outer joins ■ Join a table itself by using self join a join

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Siva Kumar HVK TYPES OF JOINS Oracle Proprietary Joins(8i and prior) ●EquiJoin ●Non-equi join ●Outer join ●SelfJoin SQL:1999 Compliant Joins: ● Cross Joins ● Natural Joins ● Using caluse ● Full or two sided outer join ● Arbitrary join conditions For Outer joins

Types of Joins
The Oracle 9i database offers join syntax that is SQL: 1999 compliant. Prior to 9i release, the join syntax was different from the ANSI standards. The new SQL: 1999 compliant join syntax does not offer any performance benefits over the Oracle proprietary join syntax that existed in prior releases.

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Siva Kumar HVK

Joining tables using Oracle Syntax
Use a join to query data from more than one table SELECT Table1.column1, table2.column2

FROM table1,table2 WHERE table1.column1 = table2.column2;
• Write the join condition in the WHERE clause. Prefix the column name with table name when the same column name appears in more than one table.

Guidelines • When writing a SELECT statement that joins tables, precede the common column name with the table name for clarify and to enhance database access. If the same column name appears in more than one table, the column name must be prefixed with the table name. To join n tables together, you need a minimum of n-1 join conditions. This rule many not apply if your table has a concatenated primary key, in which case more than one column is required to uniquely identify each row.

• •

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What is An Equi Join?

Departments

Employees

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Siva Kumar HVK Equi join
Extracting the information from more than one table by comparing ( = ) the common information. Note : Equi Joins are also called as simple joins or Inner Joins

To display common column information

SQL> SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,DNAME FROM EMP,DEPT WHERE EMP.DEPTNO = DEPT.DEPTNO;
OUTPUT
EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD JOB SAL DNAME --------- ---------- ---------MANAGER 2450 ACCOUNTING PRESIDENT 5000 ACCOUNTING CLERK 1300 ACCOUNTING CLERK 800 RESEARCH CLERK 1100 RESEARCH ANALYST 3000 RESEARCH ANALYST 3000 RESEARCH MANAGER 2975 RESEARCH SALESMAN 1600 SALES MANAGER 2850 SALES SALESMAN 1250 SALES CLERK 950 SALES SALESMAN 1500 SALES SALESMAN 1250 SALES

ANALYSIS Efficiency is more when we compare the information from lower data table(master table) to Higher data table( child table). When Oracle processes multiple tables, it uses an internal sort/merge procedure to join those tables. First, it scans & sorts the first table (the one specified last in FROM clause). Next, it scans the second table (the one prior to the last in the FROM clause) and merges all of the retrieved from the second table with those retrieved from the first table. It takes around 0.96 seconds

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DNAME FROM DEPT.09 seconds So.losal.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT DEPTNO DNAME LOC ---------.-------------------------40 OPERATIONS BOSTON ANALYSIS Displays the details of the department where there are no employees 166 .losal and g. ANALYSIS Here driving table is EMP. Efficiency is less.SAL. It takes around 26. INPUT SQL> select empno.hisal / ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose salary lies between any pair of low and high salary ranges.DEPTNO.sal between g.ename.grade.emp e where e.sal. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM DEPT WHERE DEPTNO NOT IN (SELECT DISTINCT DEPTNO FROM EMP).EMP WHERE EMP.DEPTNO = DEPT.ENAME.JOB.hisal from salgrade g. Non-Equi joins Getting the information from more than one table without using comparison (=) operator.

167 . SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT UNION SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP. SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT MINUS SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP. SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT UNION ALL SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK We can also get above output using relational algebra operators.

--------.SAL.------------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD MANAGER PRESIDENT CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYST ANALYST MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN 2450 5000 1300 800 1100 3000 3000 2975 1600 2850 1250 950 1500 1250 ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES OPERATIONS 168 .DEPTNO(+).DNAME FROM DEPT.Siva Kumar HVK OUTER JOIN It is a join.---------. which forcibly joins multiple tables even without having the common information. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME JOB SAL DNAME ---------. It is represented by +.DEPTNO = EMP.JOB.EMP WHERE DEPT.ENAME. SQL> SELECT EMPNO.

169 . you can tell Oracle to perform a LEFT. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK LEFT.--------. and forcibly joins from left side table to right side table.DEPTNO.-----------MILLER KING CLARK FORD ADAMS SCOTT JONES SMITH JAMES TURNER BLAKE MARTIN WARD ALLEN CLERK PRESIDENT MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST MANAGER CLERK CLERK SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES ANALYSIS Gets the common information. DEPT. you can use the ANSI SQL standard syntax for outer joins. RIGHT or FULL OUTER join.DEPTNO = EMP. DNAME FROM EMP LEFT OUTER JOIN DEPT ON DEPT. In the FROM clause.---------.DEPTNO. RIGHT AND FULL OUTER JOIN As of Oracle 9i. JOB. EMPNO ----------7934 7839 7782 7902 7876 7788 7566 7369 7900 7844 7698 7654 7521 7499 ENAME JOB DEPTNO DNAME ---------.

DEPTNO. DEPT. then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table.---------. ENAME.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables. 170 . JOB.DEPTNO.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING 40 OPERATIONS ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables.DEPTNO = EMP. DEPT. and then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table.DEPTNO = EMP. JOB. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------. ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO. DNAME FROM DEPT RIGHT OUTER JOIN EMP ON DEPT. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------. DNAME FROM DEPT LEFT OUTER JOIN EMP ON DEPT.---------.DEPTNO.DEPTNO.

171 . And the conditions which filter out the maximum records should be placed at the end after the joins as the parsing is done from BOTTOM to TOP For ex. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------. Least Efficient (Total CPU = 153.MGR FROM EMP E WHERE SAL > 50000 AND JOB = ‘MANAGER’ AND 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table.EMPNO) AND SAL > 5000 AND JOB = ‘MANAGER’.DEPTNO = EMP.DEPTNO.DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.6 sec) SELECT ENAME. JOB. ENAME. DNAME FROM EMP RIGHT OUTER JOIN DEPT ON DEPT.JOB.6 Sec) SELECT ENAME.MGR FROM EMP E WHERE 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. DEPT. Position of Joins in where clause Table joins should be written first before any condition of WHERE clause. Most Efficient (Total CPU time = 10.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING 40 OPERATIONS ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables.JOB.---------.EMPNO).

MGR = MANAGER.ENAME || ' IS WORKING UNDER ' || MANAGER.Siva Kumar HVK SELF JOIN Joining the table from itself is called as self join. SQL> SELECT WORKER. EMP MANAGER WHERE WORKER. MGR number appearing against employee is the employee number of manager 172 .EMPNO.ENAME||'ISWORKINGUNDER'||MANAGE -------------------------------------SCOTT IS WORKING UNDER JONES FORD IS WORKING UNDER JONES ALLEN IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE WARD IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE JAMES IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE TURNER IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE MARTIN IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE MILLER IS WORKING UNDER CLARK ADAMS IS WORKING UNDER SCOTT JONES IS WORKING UNDER KING CLARK IS WORKING UNDER KING BLAKE IS WORKING UNDER KING SMITH IS WORKING UNDER FORD ANALYSIS It displays who is working under whom.ENAME FROM EMP WORKER. OUTPUT WORKER.

-------------MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES 173 . For example.Siva Kumar HVK NATURAL AND INNER JOINS (Introduced in 9i) We can use natural keyword to indicate that a join should be performed based on all columns that have the same name in the two tables being joined.DEPTNO.DNAME FROM DEPT 2 NATURAL JOIN EMP. Creating Natural Joins • The Natural join clause is based on all columns in the two tables that have the same name.JOB.ENAME.---------. • It selects rows from the two tables that have equal values in all matched columns. To get the common information from two tables. • If the columns having the same names have different data types. an error is returned. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------. INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.

Siva Kumar HVK Creating Joins with Using Caluse ■ If several columns have the same names but the data types do not match. ■use the USING clause to match only one column when more than one column matches. 174 . ■Do not use a table name or alias in the referenced columns ■The NATURAL JOIN and USING clauses are mutually exclusive. the NATURAL JOIN clause can be modified with USING clause to specify the columns that should be used for an equijoin.

Siva Kumar HVK INNER JOIN Support for INNER join syntax was introduced in Oracle9i. inner joins are the default – they return the rows the two tables have in common. 14 rows (emp table) X 4 rows(dept table) = 56 rows. ENAME. 175 . OR SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP CROSS JOIN DEPT. CROSS JOIN (CARTESIAN PRODUCT) Joining tables without giving proper join condition.EMP. and are the alternative to outer joins.DEPTNO = DEPT.e. JOB. so that you can specify join criteria. Note that they support ON clause. DNAME FROM EMP INNER JOIN DEPT ON EMP. DEPT.DEPTNO. SQL>SELECT EMPNO. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM DEPT. ANALYSIS It multiplies the rows from both tables and displays the output i.DEPTNO.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 4 1 Hrs EXERCISE ANNEXURE QUERY III 176 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 1 3 Hrs Topics Other Objects Sequence Object Views Indexes Synonyms 177 .

SYNTAX CREATE SEQUENCE sequence [INCREMENT BY n] [START WITH n] [{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] [{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] [{CYCLE | NOCYCLE}] [{CACHE n | NOCACHE}].) MAXVALUE n specifies the maximum value the sequence can generate NOMAXVALUE specifies a maximum value of 10^27 for an ascending sequence and –1 for a descending sequence (This is the default option.) CACHE n | NOCACHE specifies how many values the Oracle server preallocates and keep in memory (By default. the sequence starts with 1.) START WITH n specifies the first sequence number to be generated (If this clause is omitted.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation OTHER OBJECTS SEQUENCE OBJECT Used to generate sequence (Unique) Integers for use of primary keys.) MINVALUE n specifies the minimum sequence value NOMINVALUE specifies a minimum value of 1 for an ascending sequence and – (10^26) for a descending sequence (This is the default option. the sequence increments by 1. Sequence is the name of the sequence generator INCREMENT BY n specifies the interval between sequence numbers where n is an integer (If this clause is omitted.) CYCLE | NOCYCLE specifies whether the sequence continues to generate values after reaching its maximum or minimum value (NOCYCLE is the default Option. the Oracle server caches 20 values.) The value set must be less than MAXVALUE minus 178 .

This sequence object provides two public member functions NEXTVAL and CURRVAL NEXTVAL is a function which generate next value from sequence object CURRVAL is a function.These sequences are stored in a data dictionary table USER_SEQUENCES. Note: . which gives the current value of the sequence object Assume there is a table 179 . CREATE SEQUENCE SQNO47473 START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAVALUE 10 CACHE 3 CYCLE.Siva Kumar HVK Example CREATE SEQUENCE SQNO47473 START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAXVALUE 10.

&SAL). Note : We can’t change starting value To remove the sequence object SQL> DROP SEQUENCE <SEQUENCE_NAME>.NEXTVAL. TO MODIFY THE SEQUNECE OBJECT SQL> ALTER SEQUENCE SQNO47473 INCREMENT BY 2 MAXVALUE 40.Siva Kumar HVK EMPNO SAMPLE47473 ENAME SAL To insert the values into the table SQL> INSERT INTO SAMPLE47473 VALUES(SQNO47473. ‘&ENAME’. VIEWS 180 .

COMPLEX view is a view. SYNTAX CREATE OR REPLACE [FORCE] VIEW <VIEWNAME> AS SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE > [ WITH READ ONLY]. Changing Base Table through view 181 . It is used to reduce the complexity of the query In Oracle Oracle we can create different types of views SIMPLE COMPLEX INLINE SIMPLE view is a view. which is created using only one base table. The table on which a view is based is called as base table FORCE option allows view to be created even if the base table doesn’t exist. which is created using sub query (it is not a schema object. the base table should exist before the view is used. • It is a named sub query in the FROM clause of the main query. which is a logical representation of a table A view contains no data on its own It is derived from tables Changes made in tables are automatically reflected in views As a view does not store any data the redundancy problem does not arise.Siva Kumar HVK A view is an object. However. Generally used in TOP N Analysis. which is created using more than one table or using group functions INLINE view is a view.+Critical data in the base table is safeguarded as access to such data can be controlled.

More than one table GROUP BY clause GROUP Function DISTINCT clause Pseudo column ROWNUM Rules for updating rows The following are the rules that are to be satisfied to update base table through view.Siva Kumar HVK A view can also be used to change the data of base table A view can be used to delete. However for each operation certain conditions are to be satisfied. insert and update rows in the base table. All the rules of Delete are applicable The column being updated should not be derived from an expression.ENAME. Example SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW TESTVIEW47473 AS SELECT EMPNO. Note: .SAL FROM EMP47473. Rules for insertion of rows All the rules of UPDATE Al NOT NULL columns should be included in the view. Rules for deleting row The following should NOT be used in the query.These views are stored in a data dictionary table USER_VIEWS 182 .

Insertion and updation is not allowed into base table through view. It doesn’t allow you to update the condition column as well as it doesn’t allow you to insert the details of employees with DEPTNO other than 20. SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW SIMPLEVIEW47473 AS SELECT SUBSTR(HIREDATE. COUNT(*) NUMB FROM EMP47473 GROUP BY JOB.-2) YEAR. They are by default read only. ANALYSIS View becomes a read only view WITH CHECK OPTION This option is used to prevent any changes to base table through view. INDEX 183 . Such views are called as INLINE views.SAL FROM EMP47473 WITH READ ONLY. ENAME. We can also create a view using group functions. To remove a view SQL> DROP VIEW <VIEWNAME>. SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW CHKVIEW AS SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = 20 WITH CHECK OPTION.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW TESTVIEW47473 AS SELECT EMPNO.

an index in Oracle is a list of values of a column in the ascending order. SYNTAX CREATE [UNIQUE] INDEX index_name ON table(column1.A UNIQUE index is automatically created when you use PRIMARY KEY and UNIQUE constraints An index can have up to 32 columns.column2. Page number in book index is similar to ROWID if Oracle index. Just like how book index is sorted in the ascending order of topics. but WHERE clause doesn’t refer to indexed column. When Oracle Does Not Use Index Oracle index is completely automatic. An oracle index is a database object. I. Why to Use An INDEX INDEXES in ORACLE are used for two purposes To speed up data retrieval and thereby improving performance of query To enforce uniqueness Note :.Indexes are stored in the data dictionary table USER_INDEXES. The following are the cases in which Oracle does NOT use index. It contains the values of the indexed column(s) in the ascending order along with address of each row. you never have to open or close an index. Oracle server decides whether to use an index or not. The address of rows are obtained using ROWID pseudo column. 184 . Note :.…).e.. SELECT doesn’t contain WHERE clause When the data size is less SELECT contains WHERE clause.Siva Kumar HVK The concept indexing in Oracle is same as a book index.

because applications are not directly dependent on index. But at the same time it may also degrade performance. information is placed in different ranges of indexes. FUNCTIONAL INDEX As of Oracle8i. A new row’s insertion will effect index and Oracle server implicitly updates index. SQL> CREATE INDEX IDX_NAME ON EMP(UPPER(ENAME)). if not designed carefully. before creating index. 185 . we can convert them in to single case. Removing an index doesn’t invalidate existing applications. So this will put more burden on the machine if more number of indexes are created on a table. So. we can create functional-based indexes. When we create index on such columns. When we are storing alpha-numeric information. Negative Side of an Index INDEX plays an important role in improving performance.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT contains WHERE clause and WHERE clause uses indexed columns but indexed column is modified in the WHERE clause. but at the same time not having an index may effects performance. we may store the information in any case. Having many indexes may have negative impact on the performance because whenever there is a change in the table. Dropping an Index SYNTAX DROP INDEX <INDEXNAME>. immediately index is to reflect that change.

When you create a materialized view. a fast refresh takes less time than a complete refresh.Siva Kumar HVK PSEUDO COLUMN A pseudo-column is a column that yields a value when selected but which is not an actual column of the table. A materialized view log is located in the master database in the same schema as the master table. ENAME. This process is called incremental or fast refresh. Oracle Database creates one internal table and at least one index. Oracle Database must re-execute the materialized view query to refresh the materialized view. a materialized view contains the rows resulting from a query against one or more base tables or views. SELECT ROWNUM. Materialized Views: Materialized views are schema objects that can be used to summarize. and may create one view. Usually. EMPNO. Unlike an ordinary view. which does not take up any storage space or contain any data. Oracle Database stores rows describing those changes in the materialized view log and then uses the materialized view log to refresh materialized views based on the master table. Materialized View Log: When DML changes are made to master table data. You must have the privileges necessary to create these objects.ENAME. Without a materialized view log.SAL FROM EMP ORDER BY SAL DESC) WHERE ROWNUM <= 3. A master table can have only one materialized view log defined on 186 . TO DISPLAY 3 HIGHEST PAID EMPLOYEES SQL> SELECT ROWNUM. This process is called a complete refresh. and distribute data.SAL FROM (SELECT EMPNO.EMPNO. Example ROWID ROWNUM SYADATE NEXTVAL CURRVAL NULL LEVEL Are called as Pseudo-columns. ENAME FROM EMP. replicate. all in the schema of the materialized view. A materialized view provides access to table data by storing the results of a query in a separate schema object. compute. Oracle Database uses these objects to maintain the materialized view data.

Specify IMMEDIATE to indicate that the materialized view is to be populated immediately. You should create a materialized view log for the master tables if you specify the REFRESH FAST clause. CACHE specifies that the blocks retrieved for this table are placed at the most recently used end of the least recently used (LRU) list in the buffer cache when a full table scan is performed. Force Clause When you specify a FORCE clause. USING INDEX If USING INDEX is not specified. CACHE: For data that will be accessed frequently. Oracle performs a complete refresh even if a fast refresh is possible. you must create a materialized view log for each of the tables referenced by the materialized view. To fast refresh a materialized join view. The default index is used to speed up incremental (FAST) refresh of the materialized view. then default tablespace values are used. Oracle Database can use this materialized view log to perform fast refreshes for all fast-refreshable materialized views based on the master table. Syntax: <USING INDEX | USING NO INDEX> Follow the Steps: 187 . otherwise complete refresh. If you do not specify a refresh method (FAST.]name> [LOGGING] [CACHE] [TABLESPACE <tablespace_name>] BUILD IMMEDIATE [REFRESH <FAST | FORCE | COMPLETE>] [ON <COMMIT | DEMAND>] [<USING INDEX | USING NO INDEX>] [START WITH <date> NEXT <date_calculation>] [FOR UPDATE] [STORAGE CLAUSE] AS (<SQL statement>). or FORCE). Complete Clause The complete refresh re-creates the entire materialized view. NOCACHE specifies that the blocks are placed at the least recently used end of the LRU list. COMPLETE. FORCE is the default. Oracle performs a fast refresh if possible. If you request a complete refresh.Siva Kumar HVK it. BUILD: Specifies when to populate the materialized view. This attribute is useful for small lookup tables. Syntax: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW <[schema. Syntax: <CACHE | NOCACHE> REFRESH MODES FAST Clause The FAST refreshes use the materialized view logs (as seen above) to send the rows that have changed from master tables to the materialized view.

Now repeat the 2nd step. now create a log on the table. update emp_2 set mgr = 3456 where empno = 2345. create materialized view log on emp_2 with primary key. Desc user_snapshots. query from user_snapshots where regexp_like(name. Create a normal view on emp_2. Create a force materialized view as follows: create materialized view emp_2mv build immediate refresh force on demand with primary key as select * from emp_2. Select * from emp_2mv. it didn’t get updated the changes till the commit statement. drop all the materialized view logs and views on the table emp_2. '[eE][mM][pP][_]'). 188 . Try to create a materialized view as follows on the same table(cannot create a refresh FAST materialized view without creating log on the table). Without commit statement first check the normal view. Now. Create materialized view log afresh with primary key. 3. issue the select statement on materialized view too. CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW emp_2mv BUILD IMMEDIATE REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT AS SELECT * FROM emp_2. Observe the change. 7. 8. select name. So. Update the view as follows update emp_2 set mgr = 7788 where empno = 2345. create materialized view log on emp_2 with primary key. 4. Inference: As the materialized view definition is ON COMMIT. Find the difference that materialized view doesn’t updates the changes. 2. issue the COMMIT statement and check the emp_2mv. Update any row and check for changes. Select * from emp_2v. rowid. 6. Now. Now.Siva Kumar HVK 1. 9. Check the definition of materialized views in USER_SNAPSHOTS data dictionary table. create or replace view emp_2v as select * from emp_2. 5.

There would not be any changes. execute dbms_mview. Now. Use DBMS_MVIEW.refresh(‘emp_2mv’).Siva Kumar HVK select * from emp_2mv. Below is the example which refreshes the materialized view data every day at night 12. create materialized view emp_2mv refresh complete start with sysdate next sysdate+1/24*60*30 as select * from emp_2. observe the changes in materialized view.REFRESH built-in package to refresh the materialized view.01. 189 . We can automate the process of refreshing materialized view at some time in a day or weekly.02am.

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1) Display the string SATYAM in the format S A T Y A M 2) Display only even rows from the table 3) Display one year calendar 4) Display how many a’s are there in the given string 5) Remove duplicate rows from the given table Empno ename 1 x 2 y 3 z 1 x 3 z 6) Find out how many columns are there in a given table(Use the data dictionary table USER_TAB_COLUMNS) Course : Oracle 190 .

Siva Kumar HVK Day Session Duration : : : 5 2 2 Hrs Topics Advanced Queries Analytical Queries Presentation 191 .

6 11 66870. DEFAULT_RANK SAL -----------.77 12 10000 13 6810. Oracle has embedded analytical functions in SQL statement to cater to most of the requirements of data mining.6 1 855945.91 ANALYSIS When different employees salary is same.24 7 153802. see the ranks between 1 and 4.6 1 855945.68 7 153802. For example. they get the same rank.6 4 641959.32 6 184563. These functions are listed below Ranking For calculating ranks.Siva Kumar HVK ANALYTICAL QUERIES Analytical functions are used mainly for the analysis of data as required by decision-making managers. In the example. SAL FROM EMP.2 5 196867. There is a gap between ranks. and n-tiles of the values in a result set.---------1 855945.68 9 129461. percentiles. to find out top three salaried employees SQL> SELECT RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL DESC) DEFAULT_RANK.88 10 111807. DENSE_RANK 192 .

6 1 855945.6 8 66870.68 5 153802.32 4 184563.6 2 641959.2 3 196867. SAL FROM EMP.68 6 129461.---------1 855945.91 ROW_NUMBER 193 .88 7 111807. DEFAULT_RANK SAL -----------.77 9 10000 10 6810. SQL> SELECT DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL DESC) DEFAULT_RANK.6 1 855945.Siva Kumar HVK The main difference between RANK () and DENSE_RANK () is that in the DENSE_RANK () there is no gap between ranks.24 5 153802.

Siva Kumar HVK The function row number assigns unique rank to each row even if they are having the same value of order by expression. INPUT SQL> SELECT RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) DEFAULT_RANK.6 194 .32 10 10 641959. ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) RW_NUM.SAL FROM EMP OUTPUT DEFAULT_RANK RW_NUM SAL -----------.91 2 2 10000 3 3 66870.6 11 13 855945.24 9 9 196867.---------. The rows will get the same rank if their order by expression has the same value.88 6 6 153802.2 11 11 855945.68 6 7 153802.6 5 5 129461.---------1 1 6810.77 4 4 111807.6 11 12 855945.68 8 8 184563.

if its is NULL.Siva Kumar HVK NULLIF FUNCTION This function produces NULL value if the expression has a specified value. This is like a complement of the NVL function. NVL() substitute value.5 SALESMAN SALESMAN 1244. OUTPUT ENAME --------------ss ss allen WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD phani JOB COMM NULLIF(JO --------.---------.65 SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST ANALYST SALESMAN 0 SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYST ANALYST se 20000 se ANALYSIS It is just opposite to NVL().--------CLERK 1234 CLERK SALESMAN 746.JOB.COMM.NULLIF(JOB. if value matches. NVL2 Function 195 . It produces NULL value if the expression has a specified value.'MANAGER') FROM EMP. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.16 SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN 3483. Where as NULLIF produces NULL.

Syntax NVL2(expr1.expr2.0) ---------. NVL2 returns expr3. which is having the first NOT NULL value.----------------0 300 300 500 500 0 1400 1400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coalesce Function This function takes n arguments and produces first argument. The expr1 can have any data type.NVL2(COMM.0) FROM EMP. If expr1 is not NULL.expr3) In NVL2.COMM. expr1 can never be returned. If expr1 is NULL . either expr2 or expr3 will be returned. INPUT SQL> SELECT COMM. 196 . The arguments expr2 and expr3 can have any datatype except LONG.Siva Kumar HVK It is an extended form of NVL. OUTPUT COMM NVL2(COMM.COMM. NVL2 returns expr2.

91 20 7902 1234 196867. MGR) COAL FROM EMP. DEPTNO. Multiple insert statement There are four types of multiple inert statements Unconditional insert statement Pivoting insert statement Conditional insert statement Insert first statement Unconditional Insert Statement 197 .77 20 7566 66870.68 30 7698 3483.2 20 7566 641959.6 MARTIN 3483. ENAME COMM --------------ss ss 1234 allen 746.16 JONES 855945.6 10 7839 855945.68 30 7698 1244.2 184563. MGR.6 30 7698 111807. SAL.5 WARD 1244.16 20 7839 855945.---------.24 30 7698 0 129461. COALESCE (COMM.5 153802.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT ENAME. DEPTNO.32 30 7698 746. COMM.---------6810.6 855945.6 153802.6 641959. Using this facility you Load data in multiple tables in single insert statement Load multiple rows in the same table in single insert statement Load data conditionally in the table.65 855945.---------. SAL.6 66870.6 30 7839 855945.77 10000 90 9822 20000 Multiple Insert and Merge statements Oracle 9i provides enhanced facility of loading data in the table using select statement.88 20 7788 129461.65 BLAKE CLARK SCOTT TURNER 0 ADAMS JAMES FORD phani 20000 SAL DEPTNO MGR COAL ---------.88 111807.

sal.job.title. When deptno = 20 then Insert into table2 values(empno.salary) Into example2 values(pname.deptno).ename.sal.table2.ename.course.Siva Kumar HVK This statement enables to you insert data in multiple tables using a single insert statement.deptno).job.pname.pname and s.cost. Assume there are three tables with structure (table1. Conditional Insert statement It inserts the data into the table only when condition is satisfied.job.sal.deptno).title.ename.ename. studies st Where p.table3) Empno.salary) Example2(pname. Select empno.deptno We can load the data conditionally into three tables by using following statement SQL> insert all When deptno = 10 then Insert into table1 values(empno.pname = st.course. To understand this query consider the three tables from Annexure To insert the data into two tables Example1(pname.sal.sal.job. When deptno = 30 then Insert into table3 values(empno.cost) Select p.pname.course.software s.title.salary from programmer p.deptno from emp 198 .cost) Insert all Into example1 values(pname.pname = s.ename.

sal.sal.sal.job.ename.ename. 199 . Select empno. table1 table2 table3 The difference between Insert First and Insert All is that in the formar at the most one row is inserted into the table while latter rows may be inserted into multiple tables.sal.deptno from emp.job. When deptno = 30 then Insert into values(empno.Siva Kumar HVK Insert First statement Insert first When deptno = 10 then Insert into values(empno.deptno).deptno).ename.ename.deptno).job. When deptno = 20 then Insert into values(empno.

200 . Implicit locks are undertaken by Oracle.Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 3 2 Hrs Topics Locking Mechanisms Object Privileges Security Synonyms Exercise Presentation LOCKING MECHANISMS To ensure data integrity oracle uses locks. Locks are used to prevent destructive interaction between processes accessing the same resource. Oracle will lock any resource when it detects a valid attempt to update the resource. Can be either table or row level. Dictionary locks are always implicit. A process or user instigates explicit locks. Oracle uses two locking types DML locks .used to protect data. DML locks may be implicit or explicit. Dictionary locks – used to protect the database structure Locks may be explicit or implicit.

Scott has given some privileges on EMP table to X user. Locking using SELECT for UPDATE SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE EMPNO = 7521 FOR UPDATE OF SAL NOWAIT. With this SELECT we lock all the rows in the result set for later update. Assume that there are two users SCOTT AND X In the Scott user there is one table with the name EMP.EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT. Updates. If X wants to lock the EMP table. The OF keyword prefixes the column identification area which specifies which columns are going to be updated by us at a later date. Same as row share but no share mode locking. Locks are held until either a transaction is committed / rolled back. Now from SCOTT user . then he has to issue a command LOCK TABLE SCOTT. The FOR UPDATE tells Oracle to lock each row as it processes it.Siva Kumar HVK There are five locking modes. The NOWAIT keyword specifies that we don’t want the statement to wait until. and current locks on the table are removed. Deletes and inserts use this lock mode. which is already locked by X LOCK TABLE EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE. Resource may not be locked exclusively. if he tries to the lock the table. It results an error LOCK TABLE EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified 201 . They are EXCLUSIVE(X) SHARE(S) ROW SHARE(RS) ROW EXCLUSIVE (RX) LOCK ALLOWS QUERIES BUT NOTHING ELSE Lock allows queries but not updates Lock allows concurrent process access to table.

Unless otherwise specified. only the owner and DBA can access the object.INSERT. VIEW.INDEX. if user wants to share his object with other users. For example. such as TABLE. function or package. The following are the list of object privileges available in Oracle ALTER.Siva Kumar HVK SECURITY What is a privilege A privilege is a right to access an object such as a table.SELECT. or to execute a particular type of SQL command such as CREATE TABLE. PROCEDURE.. procedure. EXECUTE. view etc. view. SEQUENCE. But. PACKAGE AND OBJECT TYPE 202 . sequence.UPDATE DELETE These privileges are given on various objects. Object Privileges User owns the object that he/she creates.FUNCTION. An object is a table. the privilege to create a table is a system privilege. Privileges are classified into two categories depending upon what type of right they give to the user. Object Privileges System privileges Object privilege An object privilege is a right to perform a particular operation on an object. System privilege A system privilege is a right to perform certain operation in the system. he has to grant privileges on the object to other users.

Siva Kumar HVK SYNTAX GRANT <PRIVILEGES> | ALL [(COLUMN1. SET SAL = 11000 WHERE Restricting privilege to certain columns GRANT UPDATE(SAL) ON EMP TO X.UPDATE ON EMP TO X. Note :. 203 . So.EMP EMPNO = 7521.to grant all privileges -.X is a user Now from X user.COLUMN2)] ON <OBJECT> Privileges ALL PUBLIC system. he can select as well as update the information in EMP table. UPDATE SCOTT. -.to grant privilege to all the users of the Example GRANT SELECT. REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES To remove the given privileges. X user can modify only sal value in the EMP table. SELECT * FROM SCOTT.EMP.any object privileges -. we can use REVOKE command REVOKE <PRIVILEGES> ON <OBJECT> FROM <USER>.

A synonym is another name(alias) to a table or view. Public Synonym Public synonym is available for all the users. SQL>CREATE SCOTT. Now we can access EMP table which is there in SCOTT user using synonym EMPL as SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPL. CREATE SYNONYM EMPL FOR SCOTT. We can create two types of synonyms Private Synonyms Public Synonyms Any user can create private synonym. where as public synonym is created by only DBA using a keyword called public. Creating private synonym. PUBLIC SYNONYM EMPL FOR 204 .Siva Kumar HVK Using Synonyms To simplify accessing tables owned by other users.EMP.EMP. create a SYNONYM. By creating a synonym you can avoid giving the owner name while accessing table of other users.

At the end of this document. You’ve got 50 rows of data – each containing the State Abbreviation. This document is just about running it from a Windows PC. Most often. The data file contains data. SQL*Loader is fully described in the Oracle Server Utilities User’s Guide. an [optional] unofficial State Slogan. for example. what to do if something goes wrong. and the control file contains information about the data -. it may be worthwhile to use SQL*Loader. State Name. there is a brief comparison of FTP versus SQL*Loader. This document is just about getting started. an Example Say. etc. Getting Started. it may be preferable to use SQL*Loader rather than something like FTP.Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 4 1 Hrs Topic SQL*Loader Presentation What is SQL*Loader? SQL*Loader is Oracle’s utility program for loading data into an Oracle table. that you’ve got an Excel spreadsheet with State data already in it. Why Use SQL*Loader From Your PC? If you need to transfer quite a lot of data from your machine to an Oracle database table. and the number of State Residents Who Drink Bottled Water. If you need to transfer local data to a remote database on some recurring basis. and PC’s. mainframes. you might want to use SQL*Loader. SQL*Loader runs on Unix. SQL*Loader has lots and lots of options which can be used to handle various types of data and levels of complexity.where to load it. If you already have the data in some other format. 205 . SQL*Loader takes two input files – a control file and a data file – and loads the data into a single Oracle table.

California.csv that contains data like this: AR.csv input file. after your Save AS command. State_Name. the Save AS *. In addition. State_Slogan.ctl) containing these lines: LOADDATA INFILE 'C:\EMPLOYEE. but let’s say you’ve thought it over and you DO want to SQL*load your data into a 4-column Oracle table at UW-Stevens Point. The remote table is called sp. So. The INTEGER EXTERNAL describes the datatype in the C:\mystates. State_Abbrev. lots of available options described in the Utilities User’s Guide. "remove any existing rows before starting the load. Oxygen?". C:\mystates. you might have a file named C:\MyStates. if any of the data elements already contain a comma.Siva Kumar HVK (Is 50 rows of data really sufficient to justify this exercise? That’s debatable." There's also an INSERT [into empty table] and APPEND [to existing rows] option.Rose Bowl CA."Dude? You want. The fourth column is numeric data – it totals the number of state residents who drink bottled water. There are.mystates table.90203049 proud of Bill. and Nbr_Residents_WDBW are the actual column names defined in the sp.csv step will optionally and automatically enclose that data in double quotes.3000 WI. it tells SQL*Loader to load any missing data as NULL values.Arkansas. create a file (say.csv) file. Using any text editor.Wisconsin. Because the first three items are of character datatype.csv' REPLACE INTO TABLE EMPL FIELDS TERMINATED BY '. ENAME INTEGER EXTERNAL) The REPLACE keyword says.5 hit of Champions like. This will automatically put commas between each of the four data elements. as we said earlier.. another 2) Create your control file.mystates. Save your Excel spreadsheet data AS a Comma-Separated-Variable (*.' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' TRAILING NULLCOLS (EMPNO. The TRAILING NULLCOLS statement handles the missing data.We are sure CO. This is easy.Colorado has no state slogan. 206 .) Here’s what you do: 1) Create your data file.Colorado.0 Again!. it was not necessary to further describe them – character is the default. Notice there is some missing data in the data file -.

exe or sqlldr80.ctl When the load completes. something like sqlldr73. You can look for it in your ORAWIN95 or ORANT \BIN directory. • • At an MS-DOS prompt (or the Start. Or maybe it will be just sqlldr.were NOT loaded. This log file will contain information about how many rows were loaded. 207 . it’s called ‘ELTP’) configured as SQL*Net service in your local tnsnames. look in the file C:\mystates.mystates table (INSERT. The SQL*Loader program may have a version number included as part of its name.if any -. If it's not installed. execute SQL*Loader as follows: sqlldr scott/tiger@ELTP control=C:\mystates.ora file. You must have the target database (say. and other information that may be useful to reassure or debug. In the example below we assume that user SCOTT with password TIGER has appropriate authorization. You must have authorization to modify the sp. it’s probably already there. Run menu) .log.exe. how many rows -.exe.Siva Kumar HVK 3) Create a table with the name referred in ctl file with required columns 4)Run Prerequisites: • SQL*Loader You must have SQL*Loader and SQL*Net installed on your machine. you can get the Oracle Client Software installation CD and install "UTILITIES". or DELETE and INSERT if you're using the REPLACE option in the control file. This is pretty standard stuff.

208 . click Close. • To save all sheets. Click OK when you receive the following message: The selected file type does not support workbooks that contain multiple sheets.Siva Kumar HVK How to convert Excel Sheet into CSV(Comma separated variable) file This article describes how to convert a single column of addresses in a Microsoft Excel worksheet into a comma-separated value (CSV) file that you can import into another program (for example.csv may contain features that are incompatible with CSV (comma delimited). click the Microsoft Office Button. Note For the address example in this article. repeat steps c and d. and then click Save. On the File menu. 2. click OK. Note In Word 2007. Click Yes when you receive the following message: Address. Note In Word 2007. Address. On the File menu. 2.csv). When you are prompted. and then exit Microsoft Excel. click Close. which leaves out any incompatible features. • To see what might be lost.*). On the File menu. • To save only the active sheet. click the Microsoft Office Button. In the Files of type box. click All Files (*. Note In Excel 2007. skip this step. Then save a copy in the latest Excel format. In the File name box. Note In Excel 2007. 3. On the Tools menu. 4. In the Save As dialog box: a. and then click Save As. 3. Start Microsoft Word. type a name for your CSV file (for example. Edit the CSV File in Microsoft Word 1. d. click CSV (Comma delimited) (*. click Yes. c. click Help. or select a file type that supports multiple sheets. the Excel worksheet contains the following address information: A B 1 2 3 ravi kris babu 1. Click the CSV file that you saved in step 4 of the "Edit the Excel Worksheet" section. save them individually using a different file name for each. click Open. b. you can click Yes. click No. and then click Open. Note You may be prompted to save the file again. Do you want to keep the workbook in this format? • To keep this format. click Options. • To preserve the features. click Save As. click the Microsoft Office Button.csv). Microsoft Word). 5. and then exit Excel. In the Save as type box. and then click Open. and then click Exit Excel.

and then click OK. Click the Microsoft Office Button. click to select the All check box. follow these steps: a. b. 209 .Siva Kumar HVK On the View tab. Click Display. and then click Word Options. Note In Word 2007. c. Click Paragraph marks under the Always show these formatting marks on the screen.

Flashback query works in tandem with another new feature of Oracle 9i.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM 210 . automatic undo management (AUM). Requirements To be able to use flashback query.--------------. either by SCN (System Change Number) or by timestamp. table_name. Flashback query enables us to query the undo segments directly. Oracle will create as many or as few as are required to satisfy our transaction workloads. SQL> SELECT * FROM t. tablespace_name 4 FROM all_tables 5 WHERE ROWNUM <= 5. of course. undo_retention=n (set in pfile/spfile. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. it enables us to query our data as it existed in a previous state. From 9i. these being the size of the undo tablespace and a new parameter named undo_retention. we know these segments as "undo segments" and under automatic management.Siva Kumar HVK Flashback Query Flashback query in oracle 9i Release 1 Flashback query is a new feature of Oracle 9i. and EXECUTE privilege on DBMS_FLASHBACK. undo_tablespace=[undo tablespace name] (set in pfile/spfile). we require the following system elements: • • • • undo_management=auto (set in pfile/spfile). This parameter specifies the number of seconds that Oracle should retain undo data for us. we can query our data from a point in time before we or any other users made permanent changes to it. FLASHBACK or FLASHBACK ANY system privilege. This is. SQL> CREATE TABLE temp 2 AS 3 SELECT owner. Sample data For our sample data we will create a test table and copy a few rows and columns of ALL_TABLES as follows. In other words. Table created. within system limits. where n is a positive number of seconds). whereby Oracle manages our rollback segments for us.

DBMS_FLASHBACK can be used within logon triggers to enable Flashback without changing the application code. If you need to perform a Flashback over a 24-hour period. SYSDATE will not be affected. You may want to use DBMS_FLASHBACK for the following reasons: • • • Self-service repair. You can use Flashback to restore deleted e-mail by re-inserting the deleted message into the current message box. This way. the database chooses an SCN that was generated within five minutes of the time specified. DML and DDL operations and distributed operations are not allowed while a session is running in Flashback mode. Decision support system (DSS) and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications. Different concurrent sessions (connections) in the database can perform Flashback to different wall-clock times or SCNs. You can use PL/SQL cursors opened before disabling Flashback to perform DML. the system retains enough undo information to regenerate the older versions of the data. it will continue to provide the current time. 211 . SCN (System Change Number) is an oracle internal numbering scheme that identifies changes to the database. you can recover the deleted rows. you can use retention control to control how far back in time to go for the version of the database you need. In a Flashback-enabled session. You can perform data analysis or data modeling to track seasonal demand. The flashback is session based and can restore to an SCN that is passed as an argument. Packaged applications such as e-mail and voicemail. Under Automatic Undo Management (AUM) mode. you can enable an SCN. SCNs allow recovery to a specific change. An SCN identifies the exact version of the database. the DBA should set the undo retention parameter to 24 hours. For finer grain control of Flashback. This is different from two phase commit(2PC) and the ability to rollback a change. as each SCN is unique and acts as an identifier for point-in-time recovery PL/SQL cursors opened in Flashback mode return rows as of the flashback time or SCN. If you accidentally delete rows from a table.Siva Kumar HVK SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. DBMS_FLASHBACK Package The DBMS_FLASHBACK package provides the ability to restore specific data according to an SCN(System Change Number) captured by a snapshot. When enabling Flashback using a wall-clock time. since flashback can happen even if a commit has been done.

SQL> COMMIT. To leave "flashback query mode". using the earlier SCN). Now we can enable flashback query to the point in time before we changed our data (i. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. before we changed the TABLESPACE_NAME to lower-case).-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected.e.--------------. we must disable it using DBMS_FLASHBACK as follows. SQL>exec DBMS_FLASHBACK. any queries we run will return data consistent with the SCN we enabled. 212 .e. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. We can now see the data in its current. We can see this below. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. We can now see our data in its original state (i. SCN ---------592967 1 row selected.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT DBMS_FLASHBACK. SQL> UPDATE temp SET tablespace_name = LOWER(tablespace_name).--------------.ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER(5929 67). SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. Commit complete. post-update form.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. 5 rows updated.GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER AS scn 2 FROM dual. Once in "flashback query mode".

this is restricted to the period specified by undo_retention (with some variance depending on transaction loads).--------------.DISABLE. There are a number of uses for this feature. it is very useful. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. Flashback Query in 9i release 2: AS OF [scn|timestamp] Oracle 9i Release 2 makes flashback query significantly easier by building the capability into the SQL FROM clause itself. We might view this as a somewhat ambitious claim for the technology. adhoc change-tracking or point-in-time queries. In 9. we can query our data AS OF TIMESTAMP or AS OF SCN directly. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Furthermore using the Flashback Query. we'll use a timestamp (another new feature of Oracle 9i) instead of an SCN. SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT = 'DD-MONYYYY HH24:MI:SS. such as data recovery. SQL> SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP 2 FROM dual.FF3'.750 1 row selected. In fact. Oracle suggests that it is feasible to build flashback query capabilities into our applications. Flashback query does not need to be explicitly enabled and disabled via package calls. but of course.2.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> exec DBMS_FLASHBACK. Session altered. SQL> UPDATE temp SET table_name = LOWER(table_name). LOCALTIMESTAMP -----------------------22-NOV-2002 21:31:01. but as a short-term recovery mechanism. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. it is invoked directly by this syntax. Note: ALTER SESSION is simply a convenience to enable a consistent timestamp format mask without having to supply it explicitly. 213 .

we can be more precise with our flashback query. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. however.750'). This is much easier! The extended FROM clause is simple and intuitive to use and is more likely to encourage developers to use flashback query.--------------. Our flashback query correctly returns the original upper-case TABLE_NAME data but it also returns the original upper-case TABLESPACE_NAME data also. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. SQL> COMMIT. It is also a good short-term recovery tool for rectifying minor mistakes.Siva Kumar HVK 5 rows updated.-------------------SYS seg$ system SYS clu$ system SYS obj$ system SYS file$ system SYS col$ system 5 rows selected. We can see the effect of this in our 9. This makes flashback queries with timestamps subject to precision errors. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. This tells us that the SCN that Oracle mapped to our timestamp is from a time before we ran the 9. We will take a guess that the SCN after our 9. A particularly good use for this is for resetting test data during development and unit-testing.--------------.0 example. but only once every five minutes. Using an SCN.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected.2 flashback query results above. SQL> SELECT * 2 FROM temp AS OF TIMESTAMP TO_TIMESTAMP('22-NOV-2002 21:31:01. Now we can invoke flashback query as of the timestamp prior to our update.0 example update will be a few greater than before we began (there is no other activity on 214 . flashback query timestamps are mapped to SCNs. A note on flashback precision As noted earlier. Commit complete.

We can now see the data as it existed after the first update (9. SQL> COMMIT. Using the SCN enabled us to be far more precise with our flashback query. SQL> INSERT INTO temp 2 SELECT * FROM temp AS OF SCN 592969. Commit complete. In the example below.2 flashback query AS OF SCN.0 example) but before the second update (9. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. 215 . we'll remove the current data and replace it with the data as it existed after our 9. Using this. 5 rows deleted.0 examples (i.--------------. we will try a 9. we can either update the table from the flashback query source or we can delete the current data and insert the flashback data in much easier way.Siva Kumar HVK this test system). Recovering data Using the AS OF syntax. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.2). SQL> SELECT * FROM t.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. lower-case TABLESPACE_NAME).e.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. 5 rows created.--------------. SQL> SELECT * FROM t AS OF SCN 592969. SQL> DELETE FROM temp.

If we need to search for changes to specific columns. 8180 8181 DBMS_FLASHBACK Example The following example illustrates how Flashback can be used when the deletion of a senior employee triggers the deletion of all the personnel reporting to him. SYS cannot enable Flashback mode. 1. 1000000. 250000. this would only be possible in PL/SQL. employee_name varchar2(20). In the 9i Release 1 variant of flashback query. 216 . DBMS_FLASHBACK Error Messages Error 8182 8184 8183 8185 Description In Flashback mode. Invalid system change number specified. /* Populate the company with employees */ insert into employee values (1. Time specified is too old. null. user cannot perform DML or DDL operations. salary number. '12-aug84'). this simplicity of flashback query in 9i Release 2 makes this complex variant largely redundant. we can join the current and flashback datasets together (we can also use the 9i FULL OUTER JOIN for this purpose). */ create table keep_scn (scn number). employee_mgr number(5)constraint mgr_fkey references employee on delete cascade. insert into employee values (10. Using the Flashback feature.Siva Kumar HVK Data changes between current and flashback data can be identified quite simply by set queries using MINUS/UNION. /* keep_scn is a temporary table to store scns that we are interested in. set echo on create table employee (employee_no number(5) primary key. hiredate date). User cannot enable Flashback within another Flashback session. 'John Doe'. User cannot begin read only or serializable transactions in Flashback mode. 500000.disable. User cannot enable Flashback within an uncommitted transaction. execute dbms_flashback. 10. 'Susie Tiger'. '13-dec90'). 'Joe Johnson'. '5-jul-81'). The sequence would be: enable flashback -> open flashback cursor -> disable flashback -> open current cursor -> fetch and compare data. insert into employee values (20. As stated throughout this article. you can recover and re-insert the missing employees.

'3-may95'). 200000.enable_at_system_change_number (restore_scn). begin I := dbms_flashback. insert into keep_scn values (I). 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr 217 . 20. insert into employee values (310. 100000. 75000. 210.get_system_change_number. 150000. end. /* Store this snapshot for later access through Flashback */ declare I number. '3-feb-86'). 100. commit. execute dbms_flashback. dbms_flashback. 210. 'Bob Smith'.disable. insert into employee values (210. '22mar-88'). '4-nov96'). 65000. 100000. /* Scott decides to retire but the transaction is done incorrectly */ delete from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'. /* Put back scott's organization */ declare restore_scn date. 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = 1 order by level. /* notice that all of scott's employees are gone */ select lpad(' '.Siva Kumar HVK insert into employee values (100. 'Scott Tiger'. 'Gary Smith'. 'Jane Johnson'. insert into employee values (300. begin select scn into restore_scn from keep_scn. /* Show the entire org */ select lpad(' '. 100. commit. insert into employee values (220. insert into employee values (200. commit. '11apr-87'). / /* Show Scott's org */ select lpad(' '. 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = 1 order by level. 100. '18-sep93'). 'Nancy Doe'. 'Charles Smith'.

employee_name. */ fetch c1 into c1_rec. for c1_rec in c1 loop if (c1_rec. */ dbms_flashback. c1_rec. declare scotts_emp number. scotts_mgr from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'. 218 .Siva Kumar HVK start with employee_no = (select employee_no from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger') order by level. employee_mgr. salary. /* Disable Flashback.employee_mgr = scotts_emp) then insert into employee values (c1_rec. employee_mgr into scotts_emp.disable. loop /* Note that all the DML operations inside the loop are performed with Flashback disabled. cursor c1 is select employee_no. /* Open c1 with Flashback enabled. */ open c1. hiredate from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = (select employee_no from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger').employee_no. c1_rec is c1 % ROWTYPE. employee_name. begin select employee_no. scotts_mgr number. exit when c1%NOTFOUND.

disable.hiredate). end loop. c1_rec.employee_name. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. 219 . else if (c1_rec.employee_no != scotts_emp) then insert into employee values (c1_rec. c1_rec.employee_no.ENABLE_AT_TIME ( query_time IN TIMESTAMP). end if.salary. c1_rec. c1_rec.hiredate). DBMS_FLASHBACK Subprograms ENABLE_AT_TIME Procedure This procedure enables Flashback for the entire session.employee_mgr.salary. / execute dbms_flashback. c1_rec. The snapshot time is set to the SCN that most closely matches the time specified in query_time. end if.Siva Kumar HVK scotts_mgr. c1_rec. end.

12:00 A. If the time is omitted from query time. all queries return data consistent as of the specified wall-clock time or SCN. ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER Procedure This procedure takes an SCN as an input parameter and sets the session snapshot to the specified number. 2001. Use the NLS format and supply a string. 2:35 PM. 220 . that is. In the Flashback mode. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. This example shows the TO_TIMESTAMP function for February 12.enable_at_time(TIMESTAMP '2001-01-09 12:31:00'). a version number for the database that is incremented on every transaction commit. Note that if the query time contains a time zone.enable_at_time(TO_TIMESTAMP('12-02-2001 14:35:00'.Siva Kumar HVK Parameters Parameter Description query_time This is an input parameter of type TIMESTAMP. You provide the format you want to use. the time zone information is truncated. 'DDMM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')).ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE ( query_scn IN NUMBER). A time stamp can be specified in the following ways: Using the TIMESTAMP constructor: Example: execute dbms_flashback. Using the TO_TIMESTAMP function: Example: execute dbms_flashback. The format depends on the NLS settings.M. it defaults to the beginning of the day. Parameters Parameter query_scn Description The system change number (SCN).

Example The following example queries the salary of an employee. on August 30. This helps you store specific snapshots.enable_at_time('30-AUG-2000').DISABLE.Siva Kumar HVK GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER Function This function returns the current SCN as an Oracle number datatype. DISABLE Procedure This procedure disables the Flashback mode for the entire session. You can obtain the current change number and stash it away for later use. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. 2000: EXECUTE dbms_flashback.GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER ( RETURN NUMBER). 221 . Joe. SELECT salary from emp where name = 'Joe' EXECUTE dbms_flashback.disable. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK.

Siva Kumar HVK ANNEXURE Table : Studies NAME (PNAME) SPLACE COURSE NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL TYPE VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) NAME STUDIED PLACE COURSE STUDIED TABLE : SOFTWARE NAME (PNAME) TITLE DEV_IN SCOST DCOST SOLD NULL ? NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL TYPE VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(7.2) NUMBER(7.2) NUMBER(4) NAME DEVELOPED PROJECT NAME LANGUAGE DEVELOPED SOFTWARE COST DEVELOPMENT COST NO OF SOFTWARE SOLD Data in Table : STUDIES PNAME ANAND ALTAF JULIANA KAMALA MARY NELSON PATRICK QADIR RAMESH REBECCA REMITHA REVATHI VIJAYA SPLACE SABHARI COIT BITS PRAGATHI SABHARI PRAGATHI SABHARI APPLE SABHARI BPILLANI BDPS SABHARI BDPS COURSE PGDCA DCA MCA DCP PGDCA DAP DCA HDCP PGDCA DCA DCS DAP DCA COST 45000 7200 22000 5000 4600 6200 5200 14000 4500 11000 6000 5000 48000 222 .

S/W CODE GENERATION READ ME BOMBS AWAY VACCINES HOTEL MANAGEMENT DEAD LEE PC UTILITIES TSR HELP PACKAGE HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT QUIZ MASTER ISR EDITION DEV_IN BASIC PASCAL COBOL DBASE ORACLE COBOL C++ ASSEMBLY C DBASE PASCAL C ASSEMBLY PASCAL BASIC C SCOST DCOST SOLD 399 7500 3000 9000 18000 4500 300 750 1900 12000 599 725 2500 1100 3200 900 6000 16000 3500 20000 85000 20000 1200 5000 3400 3500 4500 5000 6000 75000 2100 700 43 9 0 7 4 23 84 11 21 4 73 51 6 2 15 6 Data in Table : PROGRAMMER PNAME DOB DOJ S E X M M F F F M M M M F F F F PROF1 PROF2 SALARY ANAND ALTAF JULIANA KAMALA MARY NELSON PATRICK QADIR RAMESH REBECCA REMITHA REVATHI VIJAYA 21-APR-66 02-JUL-64 31-JAN-68 30-OCT-68 24-JUN-70 11-SEP-85 10-NOV-65 31-AUG-65 03-MAY-67 01-JAN-67 19-APR-70 02-DEC-69 14-DEC-65 21-APR-92 13-NOV-90 21-APR-90 02-JAN-92 01-FEB-91 11-OCT-89 21-APR-90 21-APR-91 28-FEB-91 01-DEC-90 20-APR-93 02-JAN-92 02-MAY-92 PASCAL CLIPPER COBOL C C++ COBOL PASCAL ASSEMBLY PASCAL BASIC C PASCAL FOXPRO BASIC COBOL DBASE DBASE ORACLE DBASE CLIPPER C DBASE COBOL ASSEMBLY BASIC C 3200 2800 3000 2900 4500 2500 2800 3000 3200 2500 3600 3700 3500 223 .Siva Kumar HVK TABLE : SOFTWARE PNAME ANAND ANAND JULIANA KAMALA MARY PATRICK QADIR QADIR QADIR RAMESH RAMESH REMITHA REMITHA REVATHI REVATHI VIJAYA TITLE PARACHUTES VIDEO TITLING PACK INVENTORY CONTROL PAYROLL PACKAGE FINANCIAL ACC.

COBOL or Pascal Display the details of those who will be completing 2 years of services this year? Calculate the amount to be recovered for those packages whose development cost has not yet been recovered? List the packages. Display the names and ages of all the programmers Display the names of those who have done the DAP course What is the highest number of copies sold by a package Display the names and date of birth of all programmers born in January Display the lowest course fee How many programmers have done the PGDCA course How much revenue has been earned through sale of packages developed in C Display the software’s developed by Ramesh How many programmers studied at Sabhari? Display the details of the packages whose sales crossed 2000 mark. Find out the number of copies which should be sold in order to recover the development cost of each package. What is the price of the costliest software developed in BASIC How many packages were developed in DBASE? How many programmers studied at Pragathi? How many programmers paid 5000 to 10000 for their course? What is the average course fee? Display the details of programmers knowing C How many programmers know either COBOL or PASCAL? How many programmers don’t know PASCAL and C? How old is the oldest male programmer? What is the average age of female programmers? Calculate the experience in years for each programmer and display along with the names. Who are the programmers who celebrate their birthday’s during the current month? How many female programmers are there? What are the languages known by the male programmers What is the average salary How many people draw 2000 to 4000? Display the details of those who don’t know Clipper.Siva Kumar HVK QUERY – I Find out the selling cost average for packages developed in pascal. which have not been sold so far? Find out the cost of the software developed by Mary? Display the institute names from the studies table without the duplicates How many different courses are mentioned in the studies table? Display the names of the programmers whose names contain 2 occurrences of the letter ‘A’ 224 . Display the details of packages for which development cost have been recovered. in descending order.

average selling cost and average price per copy Display each programmer’s name. lowest and average salaries for those earning more than 2000 225 . dob.Siva Kumar HVK Display the names of the programmers whose names contains 5 characters How many female programmers knowing COBOL have more than 2 yrs experience What is the length of the shortest name in the programmer table What is the average development cost of a package developed in COBOL Display the name.sex. dcost and difference between scost and dcost in descending order of difference Display the names of the packages whose names contain more than 1 word Display the name. average cost per course Display each Institute name with number of students Display the names of male and female programmers Display the programmer’s name and their packages Display the number of packages in each language except C and C++ Display the number of packages in each language for which development cost is less than 1000 Display the average difference between SCOST and DCOST for each language Display the total SCOST. dob(dd/mm/yy format) . Display each institute name with number of courses . doj of those month of birth and month of joining are same QUERY – II Display the cost of the package developed by each programmer Display the sales values of the packages developed by the each programmer Display the number of packages sold by each programmer Display the sales cost of the packages developed by each programmer Display each language name with average development cost. DOJ(dd/mm/yy format) for all the programmers What is the amount paid in salaries of the male programmers who don’t know COBOL Display the title . scost. DCOST and amount to be recovered for each programmer for those whose dcost has not yet been recovered Display the highest. costliest package and cheapest packages developed by him / her.

000 How many packages were developed by the person who developed the cheapest package .C++. ORACLE OR DBASE Which programmer has developed highest no of packages Who are the male programmers earning below the average salary of female programmers Display the details of those who are drawing salary Display the details of the software developed by the male programmers earning more than 3000 Display the details of the software developed in C by female programmers of Pragathi How many months it will take for each programmer to recover their cost of study Display the details of the software developed in the language which is not the programmers first proficiency Display the details of the software developed in the language which is neither the first nor second proficiency of the programmer Who are the programmers who joined in the same day Display the programmers who are drawing same salary Which is the costliest package developed by a person with under 3 years experience What is the average salary for those whose software sales value is more than 50. Where did he / she study.( + or .Siva Kumar HVK QUERY – III Who is the most experienced programmer knowing pascal? Which course has been done by the most of the students? Which course has the lowest selling cost? Display the courses whose fees are within 1000/.does not know C.) of the average fee Who developed the package that has sold the least number of copies Which language was used to develop most number of packages Display the names of the packages which have been sold less than the average number of copies Who is the youngest male programmer born in 1965 In which year most number of programmers born Which female programmer earning more than 3000/. How many packages developed by female programmers earning more than the highest paid male programmer How many packages were developed by the most experienced programmer from BDPS 226 .

and salary of any employee whose salary and commission match the salary and commission of any employee located in location ID 1700. Sort the results on salary from highest to lowest. Create a query to display the last name. department number. Create a query to display the employees who earn a salary that is higher than the salary of all of the sales managers (JOB_ID = 'SA_MAN'). Include the location of the department in the output. and department name for all employees Create a unique listing of all jobs that are in department 80.IV Write a query to display the last name. department number. and salary for all employees who have the same salary and commission as Kochhar. and department name for all employees who work in Toronto. location ID. or why not? Write a query to display the last names of the employees who earn less than the average salary in their departments. Display the employee last name and department name for all employees who have an a (lowercase) in their last names Write a query to display the last name. Find all employees who are not supervisors.Siva Kumar HVK QUERY . Write a query to display the last names of the employees who have one or more coworkers in their departments with later hire dates but higher salaries. Note: Do not display Kochhar in the result set. and salary of any employee whose department number and salary both match the department number and salary of any employee who earns a commission. Write a query to display the employee last name. 227 . job. a. department name. and city of all employees who earn a commission. hire date. Can this be done by using the NOT IN operator? How. department number. department name. Display the last name. First do this using the NOT EXISTS operator b. Write a query to display the department names of those departments whose total salary cost is above one eighth (1/8) of the total salary cost of the whole company Write a query to display the last name.

Create a query that displays the name. and grade for all employees. and all the employees who work in the same department as a given employee. Order the results by the employee number. salary. department numbers. Create a query to display the name and hire date of any employee hired after employee Davies. Create a query that displays employee last names. department name. job. who has no manager. Show the structure of the JOB_GRADES table.Siva Kumar HVK display all employees including King. Give each column an appropriate label. Write a query to display the following for those employees whose manager ID is less than 120: • Manager ID • Job ID and total salary for every job ID for employees who report to the same manager • Total salary of those managers • Total salary of those managers. irrespective of the job IDs 228 .

4. projection. SELECT id. 2. 2. Question: 3 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT e. 3. name. 2. manager FROM employee. 5.LAST_NAME. 3. DEPARTMENT d WHERE e. manager DISTINCT FROM employee. In the statement. SELECT name.. DISTINCT manager FROM employee.e.Siva Kumar HVK OCA SAMPLE QUESTIONS Question: 1 Which SELECT statement should you use if you want to display unique combinations of the POSITION and MANAGER values from the EMPLOYEE table? 1.e. The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: CUST_ID CUST_NAME CUST_ADDRESS CUST_PHONE NUMBER(4) NOT NULL VARCHAR2(100) VARCHAR2(150) VARCHAR2(20) Which SELECT statement accomplishes this task? 1. join Selection. join Difference. position. which capabilities of a SELECT statement are performed? 1.DEPARTMENT_ID. projection. Selection. 4. The mailing label must have only the customer name and address. join Difference. SELECT cust_id. FROM EMP e. Question: 2 You need to produce a report for mailing labels for all customers.DEPARTMENT_ID = d. SELECT* FROM customers. SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT DISTINCT position. cust_address. SELECT cust_name. cust_address FROM customers. position. phone FROM customers. address. cust_phone FROM customers.DEPARTMENT_ID. projection. intersection.EMPLOYEE_ID. manager FROM employee. address FROM customers. product 229 . projection. 5. d. join Intersection. cust_name.DEPARTMENT_NAME. 3. position. 4.

2. m. city FROM manufacturer AND manufacturer_id = 'NF10032' ORDER BY city. 230 . ORDER BY clause must precede the WHERE clause. and join when executed? 1. id_number. Question: 5 From SQL*Plus. SELECT p. 5. Deleting 4. 4. manufacturer_id FROM product WHERE manufacturer_id = 'NF10032'. 3.manufacturer_id AND m. 6.id_number. Updating 2. Viewing 3. m. manufacturer m WHERE p. manufacturer_id FROM product ORDER BY manufacturer_id.city FROM product p. 1. SELECT id_number. The The The The The The sort is in ascending by order by default. Truncating Question: 6 Which SQL SELECT statement performs a projection. ORDER BY clause is executed first in the query execution. SELECT id_number.manufacturer_id = 'NF10032'. sort is in descending order by default. 2. ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement. You use this statement to retrieve data from a data table for __________. SELECT manufacturer_id. ORDER BY clause is executed on the client side. Inserting 5.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 4 Which two statements are true regarding the ORDER BY clause? 1. 4.manufacturer_id. a selection. you issue this SELECT statement: SELECT * From orders.manufacturer_id = m. 3.

customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code = '________'. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code = NULL. SELECT customer_id. SELECT customer_id. 231 . 5. SELECT last_name. hire_date FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY 2 DESC. What is true about them? 1.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 7 The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_NAME VARCHAR2(100) NOT NULL STREET_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(150) CITY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) STATE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) PROVINCE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) COUNTRY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) POSTAL_CODE VARCHAR2(12) CUSTOMER_PHONE VARCHAR2(20) Which statement finds the rows in the CUSTOMERS table that do not have a postal code? 1. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code IS NULL. 2. SELECT customer_id. SELECT customer_id. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal code IS NVL. Question: 8 Evaluate these two SQL statements: SELECT last_name. SELECT customer_id. hire_date FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY salary DESC. salary. 4. salary . 3. The two statements produce identical results. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code CONTAINS NULL.

The two statements can be made to produce identical results by adding a column alias for the salary column in the second SQL statement.employee_id "Mgr_id". 4. The second statement returns a syntax error. The ROLLBACK statement frees the storage space occupies by the DEPT table.emp_name "Manager" 232 . dname VARCNAR2(14). MGR_ID is the ID of managers and refers to the EMPLOYEE_ID) EMPLOYEE_ID EMP_NAME 101 Smith 102 Martin 103 Chris 104 John 105 Diana 106 Bryan 108 Jennifer 110 Bob 120 Ravi DEPT_ID 20 10 20 30 30 40 30 40 20 MGR_ID 120 105 120 108 108 110 110 110 JOB_ID SA_REP CLERK IT_ADMIN HR_CLERK HR_MGR AD_ASST HR_DIR EX_DIR SA_DIR SALARY 4000 2500 4200 2500 5000 3000 6500 8000 6500 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT e. 4. e. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement displays the structure of the DEPT table only if the COMMIT statement introduced before the ROLLBACK statement. m. DESCRIBE DEPT What is true about the set? 1. 3. Question: 9 Evaluate the set of SQL statements: CREATE TABLE dept (deptno NUMBER(2).employee_id "Emp_id". loc VARCNAR2(13)).salary. m. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement returns an error ORA-04043: object DEPT does not exist. ROLLBACK. EMPLOYEES (EMPLOYEE_ID is the primary key. Question: 10 Examine the data of the EMPLOYEES table. 3. 2. There is no need to specify DESC because the results are sorted in descending order by default.emp_name "Employee". e.Siva Kumar HVK 2.. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement displays the structure of the DEPT table.

--------.------------.employee_id AND e. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------. employees m WHERE e.mgr_id = m.------------. Manager Manager 233 .salary > 4000.-------------110 Bob 8000 Bob 120 Ravi 6500 110 Ravi 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Jennifer 103 Chris 4200 120 Chris 105 Diana 5000 108 Diana Manager 2.------------. What is its output? 1.--------.-------------120 Ravi 6500 110 Bob 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Bob 103 Chris 4200 120 Ravi 105 Diana 500 108 Jennifer Manager 3.Siva Kumar HVK FROM employees e.---------.---------.---------.--------. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.------------. The SQL statement produces an error.--------.-------------110 Bob 800 120 Ravi 6500 110 Bob 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Bob 103 Chris 4200 120 Ravi 105 Diana 5000 108 Jennifer D EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.-------------110 Bob 8000 110 Bob 120 Ravi 6500 120 Ravi 108 Jennifer 6500 108 Jennifer 103 Chris 4200 103 Chris 105 Diana 5000 105 Dina 5.---------.

Enables you to specify alternate output for non-NULL column values. 234 . 2. Replacement variables 3. Prompt variables 4. 2. Substitution variables 2. The The The The SQL*Plus Keyword. Place the alias after each column separated by a comma to describe the column. Which of the following choices does not indicate a component you must specify when logging into the oracle? 1. 4. Nullifies the value of the column out put. Assists in the distribution of output across multiple columns. 3. 3. Question: 12 You are formulating queries in a SQL*Plus. username password. 4. Instead-of variables 5.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 11 Which /SQL*Plus feature can be used to replace values in the WHERE clause? 1. database name. Which of the following statement correctly describes how to specify a column alias? 1. Question: 14 You want to use SQL*Plus to connect to the oracle database. Question: 13 You want to use a function in you column clause of a SQL statement. 3. Place the alias at the end of the statement to describe the table. Place the alias after each column separated by a space to describe the column. Enables you to specify alternated out for NULL column values. 2. This feature cannot be implemented through /SQL*Plus. Place the alias at the beginning of the statement to describe the table. 4. The NVL function accomplishes which of the following tasks? 1.

SELECT employee_id||' . SELECT employee_id||' . SELECT employee_id||' .'||last_name "Former Employee". You need to create a report to display all former employees that were hired on or after January 1. 5.'||last_name AS Former Employee. SELECT employee_id||' . hire_date||' / '||depart_date "Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date <> NULL. 235 .2) HIRE_DATE DATE DEPART_DATE DATE The EMPLOYEE_HISTORY table contains only former employees. 2. hire_date||' / '||depart_date AS Term of Employment FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95'.'||last_name "Former Employee".Siva Kumar HVK Question: 15 The EMPLOYEE_HISTORY table contains these columns: EMPLOYEE_ID NUMBER LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) DEPARTMENT_ID NUMBER POSITION VARCHAR2(30) SALARY NUMBER(6.SMITH 10-MAY-92 / 01-JUN-01 Which SELECT statement could you use? 1.'||last_name "AS Former Employee". The data should display in this format: Former Employee Term of Employment ---------------------------. hire_date||' / '||depart_date "AS Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95'. 1996. 3.'||last_name 'Former Employee'.---------------------------------14837 . 4. hire_date||' / '||depart_date 'Term of Employment' FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date > NULL. SELECT employee_id||' . hire_date||' / '||depart_date "Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date IS NOT NULL.

m.salary.'||Job "Employee Information" FROM employee. e.employee_id AND e. 2.emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e. name. employees m WHERE e. and the ID and name of the employee's manager. employees m WHERE e. 236 .employee_id "Emp_id". employee_id "Mgr_id". m. How many columns are presented after executing this query: SELECT Empno||'.salary > 4000.salary.emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e.emp_name "Employee". emp_name "Employee". EMPLOYEES (EMPLOYEE_ID is the primary key.'||Ename||'. emp_name "Manager" FROM employees WHERE salary > 4000. 3. m.emp_name "Employee". SELECT e. salary.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 16 The EMPloyee table contains these columns: Empno Number(4) Ename Varchar2(10) job Varchar2(10) sal Varchar2(10) You need to display the employees information by using this query. SELECT e.salary > 4000.employee_id "Mgr_id". A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 0 E) 4 Question: 17 Examine the data of the EMPLOYEES table. e.mgr_id = m. m.employee_id "Mgr_id".mgr_id AND e. e. e. for all the employees who have a manager and earn more than 4000? 1.employee_id "Emp_id". and salary of the employee.mgr_id = m. MGR_ID is the ID of managers and refers to the EMPLOYEE_ID) EMPLOYEE_ID 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 110 120 EMP_NAME Smith Martin Chris John Diana Bryan Jennifer Bob Ravi DEPT_ID 20 10 20 30 30 40 30 40 20 MGR_ID 120 105 120 108 108 110 110 110 JOB_ID SA_REP CLERK IT_ADMIN HR_CLERK HR_MGR AD_ASST HR_DIR EX_DIR SA_DIR SALARY 4000 2500 4200 2500 5000 3000 6500 8000 6500 Which statement lists the ID. SELECT employee_id "Emp_id".

5. 4. m.product_id = p. e.salary > 4000.mgr_id = m. You want to find the manager supervising the largest number of employees.customer_id. 3. Use the table name in the ORDER BY clause. Remove the table aliases from the WHERE clause. o.mgr_id "Mgr_id". employees m WHERE e. 4.emp_name "Employee". SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last_name LIKE ‘_A%’.order_date. product p WHERE customer. You want to identify the most senior employee in the company.mgr_id "Mgr_id". 3. SELECT e. SELECT e.salary.Siva Kumar HVK 4. Include the ORDER_AMOUNT column in the SELECT list. p.employee_id "Emp_id". 2. 237 . You want to rank the top three sales representatives who have sold the maximum number of products. Question: 18 You need to display the last names of those employees who have the letter “A” as the second character in their names. o. e.order_id. employees m WHERE e. 2.emp_name "Employee". This statement fails when executed. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name =’*A%’ 3. Use the table aliases instead of the table names in the WHERE clause. 4.customer_id AND o. e. Question: 20 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT c..emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e.customer_id = curr_order. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name =’_A%’.employee_id "Emp_id". Remove the table alias from the ORDER BY clause and use only the column name. m. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name LIKE ‘*A%’ Question: 19 In which scenario would TOP N analysis be the best solution? 1.salary.employee_id AND e. e.employee_id = m. Which change will correct the problem? 1.emp_name "manager" FROM employees e.order_amount. You want to identify the person who makes the highest salary for all employees.product_name FROM customer c. 5.product_id ORDER BY o. curr_order o. m. Which SQL statement displays the required results? 1.salary > 4000. 2. m.employee_id AND e.

4. Price is less then $500 or greater than $900 You want to sort the results by their data of purchase.3) The registrar has requested a report listing the students' grade point averages (GPA). 3. to restrict the rows returned by a GROUP BY clause Question: 23 The STUDENT_GRADES table has these columns: STUDENT_ID NUMBER(12) SEMESTER_END DATE GPA NUMBER(4. starting with the most recently bought book. semester_end. Question: 22 For which task would you use the WHERE clause in a SELECT statement? 1.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 21 You want to display the titles of books that meet these criteria: 1.900) AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date ASC. SELECT student_id. Which statement should you use? 1. starting from the earliest date. 2001 2. 2. Which statement accomplishes this? 1. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price < 500 or > 900 AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date DESC. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE (price < 500 OR price > 900) AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date DESC. Purchased before January 21. sorted from highest grade point average to lowest within each semester. to compare PRODUCT_ID values to 7382 3. to designate the ORDER table location 2. gpa 238 . SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price IN (500. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price between 500 and 900 AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase_date. to display only unique PRODUCT_ID values 4.

order_id. semester_end. semester_end. 3. Question: 24 The ORDERS table has these columns: ORDER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(12) NOT NULL ORDER_TOTAL NUMBER(10. PRODUCT Table PRODUCT _ID NUMBER Primary Key PRODUCT_NAME VARCHAR2(25) 239 . SELECT student_id. the order total. SELECT customer_id.00 and 2000. SELECT customer_id. semester_end. order_id. 2. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total >= 100 and order_total <= 2000.00 dollars? 1. order_total FROM orders RANGE ON order_total (100 AND 2000) INCLUSIVE. gpa ASC. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total BETWEEN 100 and 2000. semester_end. order_total FROM orders HAVING order_total BETWEEN 100 and 2000. 5. semester_end DESC..2) The ORDERS table tracks the Order nnmher. Which two statements retrieve orders with an inclusive total that ranges between 100. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY gpa DESC.Siva Kumar HVK FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end DESC. order_id. SELECT student_id. 4. 2. and the customer to whom the Order belongs. 4. gpa DESC. Question: 25 Examine the structure of the PRODUCT table. semester_end ASC. SELECT customer_id. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end ASC. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY gpa DESC. SELECT customer_id. order_id. gpa DESC. 3. SELECT customer_id. SELECT student_id. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total >= 100 and <= 2000. 5. order_id. SELECT student_id. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end.

SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 ORDER BY supplier_id. 4. product_id. product_id. Question: 26 Examine the data in TEACHER table.2) COST NUMBER (5.------------------Jones. Mary Elizabeth HST_RELIG 240 . You want the product numbers displayed alphabetically by supplier. product_id. Which statement should you use to achieve the required results? 1. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 SORT BY supplier_id.2) You want to display all product identification numbers of products for which there are 500 or more available for immediate sale. 2.Siva Kumar HVK SUPPLIER_ID CATERORY_ID QTY_PER_UNIT NUMBER references SUPPLIER(SUPPLIER_ID) NUMBER NUMBER LIST_RRICE NUMBER (5. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit > 500 SORT BY supplier_id. 3. then by product number from lowest to highest. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 ORDER BY supplier_id. Karen HST_REVOL Hopewell. ID LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME SUBJECT_ID 88 Tsu Ming HST_AMER 70 Smith Ellen HST_INDIA 56 Jones Karen HST_REVOL 58 Hann Jeff HST_CURR 63 Hopewell Mary Elizabetn HST_RELIG Which query should you use to return the following values from the TEACHER table? Name Subject ------------------------------------. product_id DESC.

Which SQL statement accomplishes this task? 1. '||first_name "Name". 600) AND bonus BETWEEN 250 AND 500). subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE 'HST_%'. SELECT last_name||'. '||first_name "Name". subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id = 'HST\_R%'. '||first_name "Name". 3. SELECT student_ id. SELECT last_name||'. 3. SELECT last_name||'. Question: 27 You query the database with this SQL statement: SELECT bonus FROM salary WHERE bonus BETWEEN 1 AND 250 OR (bonus IN(190. 4. marks. 2. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE '%HST\_R%' ESC '\ '. SELECT last_name||'. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE 'HST\_%' ESCAPE '\'. '||first_name "Name". Which value could the statement return? 1. 100 260 400 600 Question: 28 Examine the structure of the STUDENTS table: STUDENT_ID NUMBER Primary Key STUDENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30) COURSE_ID VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL MARKS NUMBER START_DATE DATE FINISH_DATE DATE You need to create a report of the 10 students who achieved the highest ranking in the course INT SQL and who completed the course in the year 1999. 2. 241 . 4. 500.Siva Kumar HVK 1. ROWNUM "Rank" FROM students WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks DESC.

and quantity of each item where the quantity ranges from 10 through 100. 242 . product identification number. SELECT student_id. product_id. LINE_ITEM_ID NUMBER(9). 4. QUANTITY NUMBER(9).Siva Kumar HVK 2. The results must be sorted by order number from lowest to highest and then further sorted by quantity from highest to lowest. ROWID "Rank" FROM students WHERE ROWID <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks. marks. marks. Question: 29 Examine the structure of the LINE_ITEM table. Which statement should you use to display the desired result? 1. ORDER_ID). line item number. ORDER_ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL. marks FROM students WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks DESC). quantity FROM line_item WHERE quantity BETWEEN 9 AND 101 AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id DESC. You must display the order number. PRODUCT_ID NUMBER(9) NOT_NULL. Constraint primary key (LINE_ITEM_ID. SELECT student_id. quantity DESC. marks. ROWNUM "Rank" FROM (SELECT student_id. line_item_id. 3. SELECT student_id. Constraint foreign key ORDER_ID REFERENCES CURR_ORDER(ORDER_ID). marks FROM students ORDER BY marks DESC) WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL'. The order numbers must be in the range of 1500 through 1575. SELECT order_id. Constraint foreign key PRODUCT_ID REFERENCES PRODUCT(PRODUCT_ID)). ROWNUM "Rank” FROM (SELECT student_id.

product_id.retail . 2.cost * .cost) . (retail .cost) .25) "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. Question: 30 The ITEM table contains these columns: ITEM_ID NUMBER(9) COST NUMBER(7. SELECT cost.2) RETAIL NUMBER(7.cost . product_id. SELECT cost. the retail price.cost) * .2) You need to create a report that displays the cost. product_id.((retail . SELECT order_id. quantity FROM line_item WHERE quantity BETWEEN 10 AND 100 AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id. 4. retail. SELECT cost. To calculate the profit.25 "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920.retail . retail. (retail .cost) * .25 "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920.cost . 243 . SELECT cost. Which SELECT statement produces the desired results? 1. SELECT order_id. SELECT order_id. line_item_id. quantity DESC. (retail .retail . quantity FROM line_item WHERE (quantity > 10 AND quantity < 100) AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id ASC. quantity. and then deduct an administrative fee of 25 percent of this derived value. line_item_id. 3. retail.25) "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. and the profit for item number 783920.(cost * . quantity FROM line_item WHERE (quantity > 9 OR quantity < 101) AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id. retail. subtract the cost of the item from its retail price. line_item_id. quantity.Siva Kumar HVK 2. 4. 3. retail .

3. 244 .(cost * 1. SELECT item_id. The column in the WHERE clause should be changed to display the desired results. 4. (retail * 1. SALARY.00 . One of the statements will NOT execute.25 + 5.2) RETAIL NUMBER(7. retail * 1.10 .25) + 5. 3. The operator in the WHERE clause should be changed to display the desired results.00 .Siva Kumar HVK Question: 31 The ITEM table contains these columns: ITEM_ID NUMBER(9) COST NUMBER(7.10) AS Calculated Profit FROM item.(cost * . Statement 1 will display the 'Calculated Profit' column heading. Statement 1 will return a higher value than statement 2.10 "Calculated Profit" FROM item. The WHERE clause should be changed to use an outer join to display the desired results. You write the SELECT statement: SELECT LAST_NAME. DEPARTMENT_ID FROM EMP WHERE DEPARTMENT_ID = NULL. 4. The SQL statement displays the desired results. What is true about this SQL statement? 1. What will be the result? 1.cost * .2) The RETAIL and COST columns contain values greater than zero. 2. 2.10) .2) DEPARTMENT_ID NUMBER(6) You need to display the employees who have not been assigned to any department. Evaluate these two SQL statements: 1. SELECT item_id. 2. Question: 32 The EMP table contains these columns: LAST NAME VARCHAR2(25) SALARY NUMBER(6.cost * 1. Statement 1 and statement 2 will return the same value.

0) * 1. Adding the previous balance value. A HAVING clause can be used to restrict both rows and groups. 3. At the beginning of the list. finance charge. In the middle of the list. A WHERE clause can be used to restrict rows only.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 33 Which two statements are true about WHERE and HAVING clauses? 1. 3. The finance charge is . and then subtracting the payments value yields the current balance value.payments > credit_limit AND account_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 2000. At the same location they are listed in the unordered table. The statement returns only accounts that have NO previous balance. Which statement about this SELECT statement is true? 1. 6.2) NEW_PURCHASES NUMBER(7. The statement calculates the current balance incorrectly. new purchases value. 5.2) PAYMENTS NUMBER(7.009) of the previous balance. 245 . A WHERE clause can be used to restrict both rows and groups. The statement calculates the finance charge incorrectly. 3.009) NVL(payments. 2. Question: 34 You are sorting data in a table in you SELECT statement in descending order. At the end of the list. A HAVING clause can be used to restrict groups only. NVL(new_purchases. 0) + (NVL(previous_balance. 0) current balance FROM account WHERE (new_purchases + (previous_balance * 1.2) CREDIT_LIMIT NUMBER(7) You need to display the account number. 2. 4. Evaluate this statement: SELECT account_id. NVL(previous_balance. The column you are sorting on contains NULL records. Question: 35 The ACCOUNT table contains these columns: ACCOUNT_ID NUMBER(12) PREVIOUS_BALANCE NUMBER(7. 4. 0) * .009)) . where will the NULL record appears? 1. and finance charge value.009 finance_charge. 2.9 percent (. and current balance for accounts 1500 through 2000 with a current balance greater than the account's credit limit. A HAVING clause CANNOT be used in subqueries. A WHERE clause CANNOT be used in a query of the query uses a HAVING clause.

Question: 37 Management has asked you to calculate the value 12*salary* comossion_pct for all the employees in the EMP table. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE salary > MAX(salary). job_cat. 2. SELECT dept_id. and payments values. job_cat. 12*salary* (commission_pct.2) Which statement ensures that a value is displayed in the calculated columns for all employees? 1. SELECT dept_id. 5. 3.0) FROM emp. job_cat. job_cat. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. previous balance. 12*salary*(decode(commission_pct.0)) FROM emp.2) Which statement shows the maximum salary paid in each job category of each department? 1. SELECT last_name. Question: 36 Examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table: EMP_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) DEPT_ID NUMBER(2) JOB_CAT VARCHARD2(30) SALARY NUMBER(8. 4. The statement returns only accounts that have new purchases. SELECT last_name. 4. SELECT dept_id. job_cat. 3. The EMP table contains these columns: LAST NAME VARCNAR2(35) NOT NULL SALARY NUMBER(9. 12*salary*commison_pct FROM emp.0)) FROM emp. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id.Siva Kumar HVK 4.2) NOT NULL COMMISION_PCT NUMBER(4. 246 . MAX(salary) FROM employees. job_cat. SELECT last_name. 2. SELECT dept_id. SELECT dept_id. salary. job_cat. 12*salary*(nvl(commission_pct. SELECT last_name. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id.

0) FROM (salary * 12) * NVL2(commission_pct. (salary * 12) * commission_pct FROM EMPLOYEES. 'FMDay. YYYY') FROM dual. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. DDD Month. YYYY') FROM dual. EMPLOYEES. 3. (salary * 12) * IFNULL(commission_pct. 'FMDY. SELECT last_name. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. 4.2) COMMISSION_PCT NUMBER(5. 2. 'FMDY. DDD Month. MAXIMUM(start_date) Question: 39 The EMPLOYEE tables has these columns: LAST_NAME VARCNAR2(35) SALARY NUMBER(8. Question: 41 Evaluate the SQL statement: 247 . TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. DD Month. DD Month. a zero must be displayed against the calculated column. SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT TO_DATE(SYSDATE. SUM(start_date) 2. 0) FROM (salary * 12) * NVL(commission_pct. 3. EMPLOYEES. Which SELECT statement should you use? 1. EMPLOYEES. 'FMDAY. 5. SELECT last_name. 4. COUNT(start_date) 4.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 38 Examine the description of the STUDENTS table: STD_ID NUMBER(4) COURSE_ID VARCHARD2(10) START_DATE DATE END_DATE DATE. For records that have a NULL commission_pct. DY Month. AVG(start_date. 2. AVG(start_date) 3. 2001". YYYY') TO_DATE(SYSDATE. 'YYY') FROM dual. Which SQL statement displays the desired results? 1. end_date) 5. SELECT last_name. 01 June. Which two aggregate functions are valid on the START_DATE column? 1.2) You want to display the name and annual salary multiplied by the commission_pct for all employees. 'FMDD. YYYY') FROM dual. SELECT last_name. MIN(start_date) 6. 0) FROM Question: 40 You would like to display the system date in the format "Monday.

Siva Kumar HVK SELECT ROUND(TRUNC(MOD(1600. What will be displayed? 1.999.000. 4.10).-1).###.NNN. 2. 0 2. 2. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. ‘$2.00 4. ‘$9. ‘$0. The statement returns an error at the WHERE clause.##’) FROM dual. ‘$N.999.99’) FROM dual. An error statement Question: 42 Examine the description of the MARKS table: STD_ID NUMBER(4) STUDENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30) SUBJ1 NUMBER(3) SUBJ2 NUMBER(3) SUBJ1 and SUBJ2 indicate the marks obtained by a student in two subjects. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.NN ’) FROM dual. Examine this SELECT statement based on the MARKS table: SELECT subj1+subj2 total_marks. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.000.00’) FROM dual. The statement returns an error at the SELECT clause. 3. 5.00’) FROM dual. 3. 0. 248 . 4. 1 3. What is the result of the SELECT statement? 1. ‘$#.00’) FROM dual.2) FROM dual. Question: 43 Which three SELECT statements displays 2000 in the format “$2. 6.00”? 1. std_id FROM marks WHERE subj1 > AVG(subj1) AND subj2 > AVG(subj2) ORDER BY total marks. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. ‘$9. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. The statement returns an error at the ORDER BY clause. The statement executes successfully and returns the student ID and sum of all marks for each student who obtained more than the average mark in each subject.000.

MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. 5. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. only of the minimum salary is less then 5000 and the maximum salary is more than 15000? 1. SELECT dept_id. 3. MIN(salary). MIN(salary). SELECT dept_id. MAX(salary) FROM employees HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. MIN(salary).2) Which statement shows the department ID. SELECT dept_id. SELECT dept_id. DEPT_ID NUMBER(2) JOB_CAT VARCHAR2(30) SALARY NUMBER(8.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 44 Examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table: EMP_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(30). SELECT dept_id. MIN(salary). MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. 2. MIN(salary(. 4. minimum salary. salary HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. and maximum salary paid in that department. 249 . MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000 GROUP BY dept_id.

TRIM trims the heading of trailing characters (or both) from a character string. You can use aggregate functions on a table. 7. or value to n decimal places. You can use aggregate functions only in the column list of the SELECT clause and in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. 5. or the first expression of they are not equal.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 45 Which two are true about aggregate functions? 1. You can mix single row columns with aggregate functions in the column list of a SELECT statement by grouping on the single row columns. 3. You cannot group the rows of a table by more than one column while using aggregate functions. NVL compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal. 5. NVL2 returns the first non-null expression in the expression list. 6. expressions. 2. 4. INSTR returns the numeric position of a named character. 6. DECODE translates an expression after comparing it to each search value. TRUNCATE rounds the column. only by grouping the whole table as one single group. You can use aggregate functions in any clause of a SELECT statement. You can pass column names. 2. 4. 3. Question: 46 Which four statements correctly describe functions that are available in SQL? 1. constants. NULLIF compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal. expression. or the first expression if they are not equal. 250 . or functions as parameters to an aggregate function.

Siva Kumar HVK Question: 47 Examine the structures of the PATIENT.patient_id FROM admission a. SELECT p. Primary Key.patient_id FROM patient p WHERE p. References PHYSICIAN_ID column of the PHYSICIA table ADMIT_DATE DATE DISCHG_DATE DATE ROOM_ID NUMBER Foreign key to ROOM_ID of the ROOM table Which SQL statement will produce a list of all patients who have more than one physician? 1. SELECT patient_id FROM admission WHERE COUNT(physician_id) > 1. SELECT DISTINCT a. References PATIENT_ID column of the PATIENT table PHYSICIAN_ID NUMBER NOT NULL. 3. 2. admission a2 WHERE a.patient_id AND a. Primary Key.physician_id. SELECT patient_id FROM patient FULL OUTER JOIN physician. PATIENT Table PATIENT_ID NUMBER Primary Key LAST_NAME VARCHAR2 (30) FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2 (25) DOB DATE INS_CODE NUMBER PHYSICIAN Table PHYSICIAN _ID LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME LICENSE_NO HIRE_DTAE NUMBER Primary Key VARCHAR2 (30) NOT NULL VARCHAR2 (25) NOT NULL NUMBER (7) NOT NULL DATE ADMISSION Table PATIENT_ID NUMBER NOT NULL.physician_id <> a2. PHYSICIAN.patient_id IN (SELECT patient_id FROM admission GROUP BY patient_id HAVING COUNT(*) > 1).patient_id = a2. 4. and ADMISSION tables. 251 .

CASE 252 . HAVING 3. MOD 6. ORDER BY Question: 49 In a SELECT statement that includes a WHERE clause. TRIM 2.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 48 Which clause should you use to exclude group results? 1. TO_DATE 5. REPLACE 3. WHERE 2. GROUP BY 5. where is the GROUP BY clause placed in the SELECT statement? 1. Before the FROM clause 4. TRUNC 4. Before the WHERE clause 3. Immediately after the SELECT clause 2. RESTRICT 4. After the ORDER BY clause 5. After the WHERE clause Question: 50 Which two are character manipulation functions? 1.