Siva Kumar HVK

Oracle 10g Structured Query Language (SQL)

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Siva Kumar HVK

Table of Contents
Unit 1 Topic
Introduction to Oracle • What is Oracle • Oracle’s role in Client/Server Computing • What is Personal Oracle • Features of Oracle • Database Architecture • Overall System Architecture • Oracle Instance • SGA memory structure • Query process • Oracle versions • Oracle9i Features & Benefits • Oracle9i Products • What 9i supports • Data concurrency and consistency • Locking and Read Consistency • Environment • Summary Exercises OPERATORS AND QUERIES • Oracle Data types • Introduction to SQL • SQL in Application Programming • Writing simple queries • Expressions, conditions and Operators • Arithmetic Operators • Comparison Operators • Character Operators • Concatenation operator • Logical Operators • Miscellaneous Operators: IN, BETWEEN and DISTINCT • Distinct operator • Order by clause • Exercise FUNCTIONS • Predefined functions • Group functions • Aggregate functions • Single row functions • Arithmetic Functions • Character Functions • Conversion Functions • Date and Time Functions • Miscellaneous Functions • Exercise GROUP • • • • • • • AND HAVING CLAUSE GROUP BY CLAUSE ERROR with GROUP BY Clause Using Break CUBE and ROLLUP HAVING clause Points to remember Order of Execution Exercise

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SUB QUERIES Single row sub queries Multi row sub queries Multi column sub queries Correlated sub queries.

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DML statements in sub queries ANY and ALL operators EXISTS And NOT EXISTS Operators Points to remember • Exercise INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS • Integrity constraints • Table and Column level constraints • DDL statements • DML statements • COMMIT, ROLLBACK and SAVEPOINT • Implicit commit, Auto Rollback • Defining and Viewing constraints • Creating table from other tables • Referential Integrity constraints • Exercise JOINING TABLES • What is a Join • Perform an equi-join • Perform a non-equi-join • Perform an outer join • Join a table to itself • Left, right and full outer join • Natural and Inner joins • Cross join (cartesian product) Exercise OTHER OBJECTS • Sequence Object • Altering sequence • Views • Rules for deleting, updating and inserting rows • Index • Simple and Functional Index ADVANCED QUERIES • Top n analysis • Analitical queries • Rank, dense_rank, row_number • Case expressions • Nullif, nvl2, coalesec • Multiple insert and merge statements LOCKING MECHANISMS • What is Locking • DML and Dictionary locks • Explicit and Implicit Locking • Example SECURITY • What is Privilege • Object and system privileges • GRANT and REVOKE • Using Synonyms SQL*LOADER FLASHBACK QUERY ANNEXURE OCP QUESTIONS • • • •

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ORACLE
Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle SQL 1 1 3 Hrs

Topics Introduction to Oracle Oracle’s Role in Client / Server Computing Oracle Features Database Architecture Overall System Structure Oracle Instance Query Process Oracle versions, features and Benefits Oracle9i – ORDBMS Data Concurrency And Consistency Environment Summary Exercise

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Siva Kumar HVK

Presentation
Introduction
It is a DBMS, which manages a large amount of data in a multi user environment so that many users concurrently access the data. It also provides security and Recovery. It stores and manages data using relational model. Oracle is the name of database management system developed by Oracle Corporation. Oracle server manages data in the database. Users access Oracle server using SQL commands. So Oracle server receives SQL commands from users and executes them on the database.

SQL

ORACLE SERVER
CLIENT

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Novel Netware Unix What is Personal Oracle? Personal Oracle is one of the flavors of Oracle. also called as front-end from clients. 6 . Client application and back-end run on different machines. back-end may run on mainframe and front-end may be on a PC. which may be of different types. For example. It is possible to develop an application using Personal Oracle and deploy it in a Client / Server environment. This is unlike other flavors where Oracle Server runs on Server and Front-end runs on Client. Oracle server runs on different platforms. that accesses back-end running on the server. The latest version of the Oracle server is 9i. which is also stored on the server. Applications running on the clients interact with the user. Back-end takes care of total database management. Personal Oracle can support up to 15 database connections. and used to manage the data. Windows NT. runs on the server to manage database. User access the data in database by running application. In this Oracle server and client both run on the same machine. Oracle is a database system that runs on the server. The other name to database server is Back-End. The following are some of the platforms on which Oracle runs.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle’s Role in Client / Server Computing Client/Server computing is a method in which Database is stored on the server in the network A dedicated program. called back-end.

These rules need not be included at the application level. It automatically locks and unlocks rows to maintain integrity of the data. Large Database Support Oracle supports largest database. Industry acceptance standards Oracle server is 100% compliant with Entry of the ANSI / ISO standards. It also allows efficient usage of space by providing full control on space management. Data Security Oracle provides security in different levels – system level and object level. Portability Oracle software can be ported to different operating systems and it is the name on all systems. Oracle adheres to industry standards for data access language. This allows centralization of the code and reduces network traffic. network protocols etc. potentially hundreds of pita bytes in size. Data Concurrence Oracle supports concurrent access to database by multiple users. Oracle server does all database management whereas Client does user interface. Oracle server allows code to be stored in the database in the form of procedures and functions.Siva Kumar HVK Features of Oracle The following are some of the important features of Oracle Server. It also makes implementation of security easier through Roles. which protects the investment of customer. This makes Oracle an ‘open’ system. 7 . It is easy to port Oracle applications. Application development in Oracle can be ported to any operating system with little or no modifications. Support for Client / Server environment Oracle allows process to be split between client and server. Enforced Integrity Oracle allows users to define business rules and enforce them.

The set of redo log files is known as databases redo log. including the names of the other files in the database (Extension of file is ctl) Database Name Names and locations of data files and redo log files. Path We can use this Oracle\oradata\orcl path in the server to see all the 3 types of files 8 . (Filenames redo01. Redo Log files are used in failure recovery. Data Files It contains the data of the database. Every table that is stored in the database is a part of these files. This data hiding can be done using various data abstraction methods. But for the end user. Only Oracle Server can interpret these data files.Siva Kumar HVK Database Architecture A database contains any length of information. Data Files Redo log files Control files These files automatically create when database is created. we have to show only required information by hiding the unwanted information. It is physically a set of three operating system files. In any RDBMS we can use 3 levels of data abstractions. Physical level Logical Level View level Physical Level The Physical structure of the database is placed in Physical level.log) Control Files Contain information required to verify the integrity of the database. Redo Log Files Every database has a set of two or more Redo Log files. All changes made to the database are written to redo log file.

By making a tablespace off-line.Siva Kumar HVK Logical Structure Logical Structure is independent of Physical structure. Each Tablespace contains 65536 data files N number of such Table spaces creates a database. For example we can use a table space called PAYROLL to store all the data related to payroll application. Segments Data into table spaces comes in the form of segments. Each Oracle database contains the following components. Example Table is a segment An Oracle database requires up to 4 types of segments Data segments Index Segments Rollback segments Temporary segments It is used to store data of tables Used to store indexes Undo information is stored Oracle stores Temporary tables Extents The storage space is allocated to segments is in the form of Extents. This is automatically created when a database is created. N Number of continuous db blocks makes up an Extent. Tablespaces Segments Extents Blocks Tablespace Each Database is a collection of tablespaces. DBA can take the backup. An extent is made with in a data file. It is possible to make tablespace temporarily unavailable by making it off-line and makes it available again by changing it to on-line. 9 . SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary tables. Every database contains SYSTEM tablespace.

you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner. Before you can begin to use ORACLE. It is important that you read through this section to familiarize yourself with the concepts and terminology to be used throughout this manual. Figure 1 illustrates a typical variation of ORACLE's memory and process structures.'' 10 . For more information on these memory structures and processes. some of the memory structures and processes in this diagram are discussed in the following section. Most of the information contained in this section is DIRECTLY extracted from ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual'' and all credit should be attributed to ORACLE. see page 115 of ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual.Siva Kumar HVK ORACLE Architecture and Terminology This section will provide a basic understanding of ORACLE including the concepts and terminology of the ORACLE Server.

Siva Kumar HVK Figure 1. ORACLE Architecture 11 .

The user process also manages the communication with the server processes. A user process is created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program (such as a PRO*C program) or an ORACLE tool (such as SQL*PLUS). Each instance that is started has its own SGA. 12 . For example. Memory Structures ORACLE creates and uses memory structures to complete several jobs.Siva Kumar HVK Memory Structures and Processes The mechanisms of ORACLE execute by using memory structures and processes. System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region allocated by ORACLE that contains data and control information for one ORACLE instance. User processes communicate with the server processes through the program interface. Several basic memory structures are associated with ORACLE: the system global area (which includes the database and redo log buffers. An ORACLE instance contains the SGA and the background processes. and the shared pool) and the program global area. The Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. The information in a PGA depends on the configuration of ORACLE. All memory structures exist in the main memory of the computers that constitute the database system. Processes are jobs or tasks that work in the memory of these computers. Some operating systems use the terms job or task. memory is used to store program code being executed and data that is shared among users. A PGA is created by ORACLE when a server process is started. An ORACLE database system has two general types of processes: user processes and ORACLE processes. The SGA is allocated when an instance starts and deallocated when the instance shuts down. Processes A process is a ``thread of control'' or a mechanism in an operating system that can execute a series of steps.

. Database Structures The relational model has three major aspects: Structures Structures are well-defined objects that store the data of a database. dictate how the physical space of a database is used. clusters. The schema objects and the relationships among them form the relational design of a database. tables. views.g. indexes. Integrity rules protect the data and the structures of a database.Siva Kumar HVK ORACLE processes are called by other processes to perform functions on behalf of the invoking process. 13 . stored procedures). The operations on a database must adhere to a pre-defined set of integrity rules. ORACLE creates a server process to handle requests from connected user processes. and extents. An ORACLE database has both a physical and a logical structure. Logical Database Structure An ORACLE database's logical structure is determined by: • • one or more tablespaces. sequences. the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting the access to logical storage structures. Structures and the data contained within them can be manipulated by operations. ORACLE also creates a set of background processes for each instance (see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual'' pages 1-18. By separating physical and logical database structure. the database's schema objects (e. segments. Operations Operations are clearly defined actions that allow users to manipulate the data and structures of a database. The logical storage structures. Integrity Rule Integrity rules are the laws that govern which operations are allowed on the data and structures of a database. including tablespaces. 1-19).

The database's data is collectively stored in the database's tablespaces. A more complicated database might have three tablespaces. and tablespaces When a schema object such as a table or index is created. databases and data files A database's data is collectively stored in the data files that constitute each tablespace of the database. they have important differences: databases and tablespaces An ORACLE database is comprised of one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. tablespaces and data files Each tablespace in an ORACLE database is comprised of one or more operating system files called data files. For example. data files. and segments are closely related. the simplest ORACLE database would have one tablespace. each comprised of two data files (for a total of six data files). with one data file. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship. schema objects. its segment is created within a designated tablespace in the database. Although databases. suppose a table is created in a specific tablespace using the CREATE TABLE command with the TABLESPACE option. For example. 14 .Siva Kumar HVK Tablespaces and Data Files Tablespaces are the primary logical storage structures of any ORACLE database. segments. The space for this table's data segment is allocated in one or more of the data files that constitute the specified tablespace. A tablespace's data files physically store the associated database data on disk. An object's segment allocates space in only one tablespace of a database. The usable data of an ORACLE database is logically stored in the tablespaces and physically stored in the data files associated with the corresponding tablespace. tablespaces.

You can query these data dictionary tables to obtain pertinent information about the database.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 2. for example. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database. Control availability of data by taking individual tablespaces online or offline. Data Files and Tablespaces A database is divided into one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. A database administrator can use tablespaces to do the following: • • • • • Control disk space allocation for database data. Allocate data storage across devices to improve performance. Assign specific space quotas for database users. which is automatically created when the database is created. Perform partial database backup or recovery operations. 15 . Every ORACLE database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM. the names of the tables that are owned by you or ones to which you have access.

Data Blocks. After a data file is initially created. Extents. an ORACLE database's data is stored in data blocks (also called logical blocks. therefore. when the existing extents of a segment are full. and Segments ORACLE allocates database space for all data in a database. 16 . ORACLE allocates space for segments in extents. rather. The database administrator and endusers cannot control which data file stores an object. ORACLE uses the free space in the associated data files to allocate extents for the segment. The extents of a single segment can be allocated in one or more data files of a tablespace (see Figure 3). Therefore. and so on) in a tablespace are physically stored in one or more of the data files that constitute the tablespace. Because extents are allocated as needed. Extents The next level of logical database space is called an extent. Figure 4 illustrates a typical ORACLE data block. An ORACLE database uses and allocates free database space in ORACLE data blocks. while each index's data is stored in its own index segment. though. A segment is a set of extents which have been allocated for a specific type of data structure. or pages). and only one database. Data Blocks At the finest level of granularity. the extents of a segment may or may not be contiguous on disk. extents. For example. and may or may not span files. The units of logical database allocations are data blocks. ORACLE allocates another extent for that segment. An extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks that are allocated for storing a specific type of information. rollback segments. the allocated disk space does not contain any data. The data in the segments of objects (data segments. As a segment (such as the data segment for a table) is created and grows in a tablespace. a data file is a repository for the data of any object within a specific tablespace. Figure 3 illustrates the relationships between these data structures. ORACLE blocks. and all are stored in the same tablespace. A data file can be associated with only one tablespace.it cannot store any other program's data. An extent cannot span files. Note that a schema object does not correspond to a specific data file. and segments. index segments. however.Siva Kumar HVK Data files associated with a tablespace store all the database data in that tablespace. an object can ``span'' one or more data files. Segments The level of logical database storage above an extent is called a segment. each table's data is stored in its own data segment. One or more datafiles form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace. the space is reserved to hold only the data for future segments of the associated tablespace .

2048). The ORACLE block format is similar regardless of whether the data block contains table.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 3. A data block is the smallest unit of I/O used by a database. 17 . The Relationship Among Segments. index. Figure 4 shows the format of the block. A data block corresponds to a block of physical bytes on disk. This block size can differ from the standard I/O block size of the operating system that executes ORACLE. or clustered data. Extents and Data Blocks ORACLE manages the storage space in the data files of a database in units called data blocks. equal to the ORACLE data block size (specifically set when the database is created .

Table Directory The table directory portion of the block contains information about the tables having rows in this block. Rows can span blocks. such as block address. or rollback. Row Data This portion of the block contains table or index data. such as data. Data Block Format Header (Common and Variable) The header contains general block information. Row Directory This portion of the block contains row information about the actual rows in the block (including addresses for each row piece in the row data area). the total block overhead size is variable. index. this space is not reclaimed when the row is deleted. segment type.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 4. While some block overhead is fixed in size (about 107 bytes). Once the space has been allocated in the row directory of a block's header. 18 .

assume that you specify the following parameter within a CREATE TABLE statement: pctused 40 In this case. or the index segment of an index can also use free space for transaction entries. cluster. assume that you specify the following parameter within a CREATE TABLE statement: pctfree 20 This states that 20\% of each data block used for this table's data segment will be kept free and available for possible updates to the existing rows already within each block. The PCTFREE parameter is used to set the percentage of a block to be reserved (kept free) for possible updates to rows that already are contained in that block. as determined by PCTFREE. ORACLE automatically allocates an incremental extent for that segment. Both of these parameters can only be specified when creating or altering tables and clusters (data segments). allow a developer to control the use of free space for inserts of and updates to the rows in data blocks.g. Space Used for Transaction Entries Data blocks allocated for the data segment of a table. If the data blocks of a segment's initial extent become full and more space is required to hold new data. Before this value is achieved. This extent is called the segment's initial extent. the free space of the data block can only be used for updates to rows already contained in the data block. After a data block becomes full. each segment in a database is created with at least one extent to hold its data. In addition. a data block used for this table's data segment is not considered for the insertion of any new rows until the amount of used space in the blocks falls to 39\% or less (assuming that the block's used space has previously reached PCTFREE). PCTFREE and PCTUSED.Siva Kumar HVK Free Space Free space is used to insert new rows and for updates to rows that require additional space (e. No matter what type. the block is not considered for the insertion of new rows until the percentage of the block being used falls below the parameter PCTUSED.. An incremental extent is a 19 . For example. when a trailing null is updated to a non-null value). Two space management parameters. Whether issued insertions actually occur in a given data block is a function of the value for the space management parameter PCTFREE and the amount of current free space in that data block. the storage parameter PCTFREE can also be specified when creating or altering indicies (index segments). For example.

see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual.'' Physical Database Structure An ORACLE database's physical structure is determined by the operating system files that constitute the database. For more information on these physical storage files.Siva Kumar HVK subsequent extent of the same or incremented size of the previous extent in that segment. Every non-clustered table in an ORACLE database has a single data segment to hold all of its data. For more information on Data Blocks. Each ORACLE database is comprised of these types of files: one or more data files. two or more redo log files. Setting these storage parameters directly via the CREATE TABLE/SNAPSHOT/CLUSTER or ALTER TABLE/SNAPSHOT/CLUSTER commands affects the efficiency of data retrieval and storage for that data segment. see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual. or cluster control the way that a data segment's extents are allocated. snapshot.'' 20 . and one or more control files. The files of a database provide the actual physical storage for database information. Segments and Extents. The data segment for a table is indirectly created via the CREATE TABLE/SNAPSHOT command. Storage parameters for a table.

Siva Kumar HVK Figure 5. Maintaining the Free Space of Data Blocks with PCTFREE and PCTUSED 21 .

Authorization and Integrity manager It tests for satisfaction of integrity constraints and checks the authority of users to access data. The functional components of a database system are Query processor Component Storage manager component Query Processor Component This component is a collection of the following processes. Buffer manager This is responsible for fetching data from disk storage into main memory. File manager It manages the allocation of space on disk and the data structures used to represent information. Transaction Manager It ensures concurrent transaction executions processed without conflicting. which handles different responsibilities of over all system. application programs and queries submitted to the system.Siva Kumar HVK Overall System Structure A database system is partitioned into modules. DDL Interpreter It interprets DDL statements and records them in a set of tables Query evaluation engine It executes lower level instructions generated by the DML compiler Storage manager component It is an Interface between the data stored in the database. 22 . DML Compiler : It translates DML statements into a lower level instructions that the query evaluation engine understands Embedded DML precompiler It converts DML statements embedded in an application program into normal procedure calls in the host language.

SGA consists of several memory structures: The shared pool is used to store the most recently executed SQL statements and the most recently used data from the data dictionary. and written to. 23 . read from the data dictionary. in the case of stored procedures. The combination of SGA and Oracle processes is called as Oracle Instance. The data is read from. a memory area called System Global Area (SGA) or Shared Global Area is allocated and one or more processes are started. The redo log buffer is used to track changes made to the database by the server and background processes. the data files. Every time a database is started.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle Instance Every oracle database is associated with an Oracle Instance. These SQL statements may be submitted by a user process or. The database buffer cache is used to store the most recently used data.

the SQL statement is passed from the user process to the server process. and a parsed representation of the SQL statement is loaded into a shared SQL area. The server process executes the statements sent from the user process.Siva Kumar HVK Query process 1 Parse 2 Execute 3 Fetch 3 Server Process DB 1 User Process 2 Client When User connects to the database. The user process is the application program that originates SQL statements. During the parse. it automatically creates two different processes called as User process and Server Process. There are three main stages in the processing of a query: Parse Execute Fetch Parsing During the parse stage. the server process performs the following functions: Searches for an existing copy of the SQL statement in the shared pool validates the SQL statement by checking its syntax Performs data dictionary lookups to validate table and column definitions 24 .

With each fetch process.Siva Kumar HVK Execute Execute: Identify rows selected The steps to be taken when executing the statement The optimizer is the function in the Oracle Server that determines the optimal execution plan. buffers that are not the same as the corresponding blocks on the disk. Any changed blocks in the buffer cache are marked as dirty buffers: that is. Both of these changes are done in the database buffer cache. 25 . and the before image of an INSERT contains the row location information. a computer failure that causes the loss of the SGA can also lose these changes. The processing of a DELETE or INSERT command uses similar steps. Fetch Fetch: Return rows to user process. DML Processing Steps A data manipulation language (DML) statement requires only two phases of processing: Parse is the same as the parse phase used for processing a query Execute requires additional processing to make data changes DML Execute Phase The server process records the before image to the rollback block and updates the data block. The before image for a DELETE contains the column values in the deleted row. Because the changes made to the blocks are only recorded in memory structures and are not written immediately to disk. it can fetch 20 records at a time.

3 8.It provides everything needed to develop. easy development options Common skill sets including SQL.0 7.0 7.1 7.0 8i 9i 10g 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 Object based ORDBMS Internet based Application Application server Features & Benefits Oracle Scalability One Management Interface 9i Reliability Internet Common Skill Sets Single Dev Model Features Oracle offers a comprehensive high performance infrastructure for ebusiness.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle Versions Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle 6. PL/SQL. available and secure architecture One development model. It is called Oracle9i.2 7.JAVA and XML One Management interface for all applications 26 . Benefits Scalability from departments to enterprise e-business sites Reliable. deploy and manage Internet applications.

Application Server 9i Application server runs all the applications and 9i database stores our data.Siva Kumar HVK 9i Products There are two products. Oracle 9i Application server runs Portals or web sites Java Transactional Applications Provides integration between users. They provide a complete and simple infrastructure for Internet applications. applications and data 27 .

the data retrieved is consistent with the time at which the query started. It extends the data modeling capabilities of Oracle 8 to support a new object relational database model. Oracle uses locking mechanism and multiversioning to increase data concurrency while maintaining data integrity. One way of managing data concurrency is by making other users wait until their turn comes. That means users reading the data will not be interrupted by user modifying and vice-versa. Data Concurrency And Consistency Data concurrency allows many users to access the same data at the same time. That means. Read Consistency For a query. complex data types. when a user is accessing the data. Locking Oracle uses Locks to control data concurrency. it is locked so that other users cannot modify it until X completes modification. Oracle returns a timepoint-based version of data. But the goal of the database system is to reduce wait time so that it is negligible to each user. Oracle 9i supports User-Defined data types and objects Fully compatible with relational database (It supports all the CODD rules) Support of multimedia and Large objects It also support client server and web based applications Oracle 9i can scale tens of thousands of concurrent users and support up to 512 peta bytes of data (One pita byte = 1000 tera bytes and One terabyte = 1000 GB). Locks are used to prevent destructive interference. Oracle provides a new engine that brings objectoriented programming. Note: it is the responsibility of the application developer to unlock rows that are locked by committing or rolling back the transaction. complex business objects. For instance. and full compatibility with the relational world. At the same time data integrity should not be compromised. when user X is modifying a row.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle9i: ORDBMS Oracle is the first object-capable database developed by Oracle Corporation. However. So any changes made to database since query started will not be available. 28 . it doesn’t stop users querying the row.

ISQL*plus is (Available only from Oracle 9i) An Environment Oracle proprietary Keywords can be abbreviated Runs on a browser Centrally loaded.Siva Kumar HVK Ready consistency is made possible In Oracle using Rollback segment. Rollback segment keeps a copy of unchanged data. where as iSQL*plus. if they attempt to update identical rows at the same time. in the query result. centrally loaded. Environment Oracle uses two types of Environments for executing our SQL statements. This ensures readers do not wait for writers and vice-versa and ensures that writers only wait for other writers. does not have to be implemented on each machine Difference between SQL*Plus and ISQL*plus SQL*Plus is a CUI and iSQL*Plus runs on a browser SQL*plus should be loaded in each every client system. SQL*plus and iSQL*plus. doesn’t have to be implemented on each machine 29 . This data is substituted for the data that has changed since query started.

In a Client/Server environment. It copies the data of a row. where each process does a specific job. User is concerned with only the logical structure of the database.Siva Kumar HVK Summary Oracle is RDBMS. Oracle runs on the server as back-end to manage the data. Oracle uses locking mechanism to manage data concurrency. An Oracle Instance is the combination of SGA and Oracle process. to rollback segment to provide read consistency. 30 . The logical structure of the database is independent of physical structure of the database. before the row is changed. Oracle instance contains a collection of background processes.

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) SGA stands for _______________________________ _____________ is the name of the tablespace that is automatically created when a database is created. In which segment the data of a table is stored? What is the difference between Personal Oracle and Client/Server Oracle Redo Log files are also called as ______________ File extension of control file is ___________ ________ Number of data files are there in each table space What is Oracle Instance? What is the maximum storage capacity of Oracle database What is Application server? 31 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 2 2 Hrs Topics Oracle data types Introduction to SQL An overview of SQL SQL in Application programming Structured Query Language SQL statements Simple Queries Operators. Expressions and Expressions 32 .

Truncates leftover blank spaces. CHAR datatype Fixed length character data of length size in bytes. 33 .( Default size is 1 and maximum size is 2000). Oracle provides the following builtin data types. Character Data types CHAR Data type VARCHAR2 and VARCHAR Data types NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 Data types LONG Data type NUMBER Data type DATE Data type LOB Data types BLOB data type CLOB and NCLOB data types BFILE Data type RAW and LONG RAW Data types Character Datatypes The character data types store character (alphanumeric) data in strings. NVARCHAR2(size) Variable length characters strings having a maximum size of 4000 bytes (Default size is 1) Or characters. Padded on right with blanks to full length of size. constraints. and a valid range of values. with byte values corresponding to the character. When you create a table. you must specify a data type for each of its columns. VARCHAR2 (size) Variable length characters strings having a maximum size of 4000 bytes (Default size is 1). which is associated with a specific storage format. Truncates leftover blank spaces.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation Oracle Datatypes Each column value and constant in a SQL statement has a data type. depending on the choice of national character set.

d) For number column specified with d digits after the decimal point. with normalized to local time zone.99 without an error.2) could nothing larger than 999. Only one LONG column is allowed in a table. where clause or indexes. LONG RAW Raw binary data. These two data types allow storing pictures. TIMESTAMP(precision) WITH TIME ZONE Timestamp plus time zone displacement value. LONG Character data of variable size up to 2GB in length.4712 BC to December 31. functions. RAW(size) Raw binary date. size bytes long. where precision is the number of digits in the fractional part of the seconds field (default is 6). NUMBER (5. Maximum size is 2000 bytes. CLOB Character Large object. DATE Valid date ranges from January 1. expressions. TIMESTAMP(precision) WITHLOCAL TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP.9999 AD. BLOB 34 . otherwise the same as LONG. Long column cannot be used in sub queries. (Default date format DD-MON-YY) TIMESTAMP(precision) Date plus time. For example. up to 4GB in length.Siva Kumar HVK NUMBER(size.

BFILE Pointer to a binary operating system file. up to 4GB in length.Siva Kumar HVK Binary large object. 35 .

that can still be bought today for various platforms and environments)." It was originally developed for IBM's DB2 product (a relational database management system. rather than how to perform the operation. The ANSI-92 standard is the standard for the SQL used throughout this book. For example. Two standards organizations. SQL describes what data to retrieve. all database products differ from the ANSI standard to some degree. NOTE: Nonprocedural means what rather than how. and the language itself is often referred to as "sequel. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). For most RDBMS. delete. SQL is a nonprocedural language. An Overview of SQL SQL is the standard language used to manipulate and retrieve data from these relational databases. in contrast to the procedural or third generation languages (3GLs) such as COBOL and C that had been created up to that time. The initials stand for Structured Query Language. The characteristic that differentiates a DBMS from an RDBMS is that the RDBMS provides a set-oriented database language. Set oriented means that SQL processes sets of data in groups. or RDBMS. SQL enables a programmer or database administrator to do the following: Modify a database's structure Change system security settings Add user permissions on databases or tables Query a database for information Update the contents of a database 36 . In technology in a single-user business application positions the application for future growth. Although these standard-making bodies prepare standards for database system designers to follow. California. SQL makes an RDBMS possible. or insert. where SQL was developed in the late 1970s.Siva Kumar HVK Introduction to SQL A Brief History of SQL The history of SQL begins in an IBM laboratory in San Jose. In fact. currently promote SQL standards to industry. this set-oriented database language is SQL.

you can communicate with the Oracle server. and manipulate data in the tables. retrieve. SQL has the following advantages • • • Efficient Easy to learn and use Functionally complete (With SQL. you can define.Siva Kumar HVK Structured Query Language Oracle server supports ANSI standard SQL and contains extensions. Using SQL.) SQL Statements SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE MERGE CREATE ALTER DROP RENAME TRUNCATE COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT GRANT REVOKE Data retrieval Data manipulation language(DML) Data definition language (DDL) Transaction control Data control language (DCL) 37 .

Syntax : SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE>. The asterisk (*) in select * tells the database to return all the columns associated with the given table described in the FROM clause. some implementations of SQL do not use the semicolon as a terminator. Your First Query INPUT: SQL> select * from EMP. This format follows the alignment convention in which numeric data types are right justified and character data types are left justified. f ll bl i d h h i h l Terminating an SQL Statement In some implementations of SQL. The database determines the order in which to return the columns.---------. Oracle's SQL*PLUS won't execute the query until it finds a semicolon (or a slash).---------. because your query is typed in an edit box and executed when you push a button. OUTPUT: EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO -----. For example.---------7369 SMITH CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 7566 JONES MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 7782 CLARK MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7566 09-DEC-82 3000 20 7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 7876 ADAMS CLERK 7788 12-JAN-83 1100 20 7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 7902 FORD ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 7934 MILLER CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 ANALYSIS: Notice that columns 6 and 8 in the output statement are right justified and that columns 2 and 3 are left justified.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT AND FROM It is a building block for data retrieval in SQL. For example. 38 .---------.---------.--------. the semicolon at the end of the statement tells the interpreter that you are finished writing the query. Microsoft Query and Borland's ISQL don't require a terminator. On the other hand.--------.

---------SMITH 800 CLERK ALLEN 1600 SALESMAN 300 WARD 1250 SALESMAN 500 JONES 2975 MANAGER MARTIN 1250 SALESMAN 1400 BLAKE 2850 MANAGER CLARK 2450 MANAGER SCOTT 3000 ANALYST KING 5000 PRESIDENT TURNER 1500 SALESMAN 0 ADAMS 1100 CLERK JAMES 950 CLERK FORD 3000 ANALYST MILLER 1300 CLERK 14 rows selected. Conditions. ENAME = 'KING'. examine the following expression: WHERE ENAME = 'KING' It contains a condition. In the following example amount is an expression that returns the value contained in the amount column. Expressions. DESIGNATION. which is an example of a Boolean expression.Siva Kumar HVK Changing the Order of the Columns We can change the order of selection of columns INPUT: SQL> SELECT empno. In the following statement NAME. covering different data types such as String. depending on the condition =. SAL FROM EMP. sal. job. ENAME = 'KING' will be either TRUE or FALSE.---------. pretty much anything following a clause (SELECT or FROM. and Operators Expressions The definition of an expression is simple: An expression returns a value. for example) is an expression. 39 . ename. Numeric. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL JOB COMM ---------. In fact. SAL are expressions: SELECT ENAME. Now. SELECT sal FROM EMP. comm from EMP. and Boolean.--------. DESIGNATION. Expression types are very broad.

the most useful thing you could do with a query is display all records in the selected table(s). SELECT. In the second example the variable is SAL. you need one or more conditions. you could type 40 . and the comparison operator is =. the condition is ENAME = 'KING' To find everyone in your organization who worked more than 100 hours last month.--------. your condition would be SAL > 2000 Conditions enable you to make selective queries.---------.-------------------------------7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 ANALYSIS: This simple example shows how you can place a condition on the data that you want to retrieve. In there most common form. a constant. conditions comprise a variable. You need to know about two more elements before you can write conditional queries: the WHERE clause and operators. In the preceding example.---------. WHERE simply causes your queries to be more selective. Conditions are contained in the WHERE clause.Siva Kumar HVK Conditions If you ever want to find a particular item or group of items in your database. and a comparison operator. FROM. and WHERE are the three most frequently used clauses in SQL. you could type INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME = 'KING'.---------.--------. In the first example the variable is ENAME. the constant is 'KING'.---------. Which would yield only one record: EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO -----. If you wanted a particular EMPLOYEE. If you wanted a particular EMPLOYEE. and the comparison operator is >. Without the WHERE clause. The WHERE Clause The syntax of the WHERE clause is SYNTAX: SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE> WHERE <SEARCH CONDITION>. the constant is 100.

41 . set. Modulo returns the integer remainder of a division. The first four are self-explanatory. minus (-). and miscellaneous. logical. OUTPUT EMPNO ENAME JOB 7369 SMITH CLERK 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7566 JONES MANAGER 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7782 CLARK MANAGER 7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7876 ADAMS CLERK 7900 JAMES CLERK 7902 FORD ANALYST 7934 MILLER CLERK MGR HIREDATE 7902 17-DEC-80 7698 20-FEB-81 7698 22-FEB-81 7839 02-APR-81 7698 28-SEP-81 7839 01-MAY-81 7839 09-JUN-81 7566 09-DEC-82 7698 08-SEP-81 7788 12-JAN-83 7698 03-DEC-81 7566 03-DEC-81 7782 23-JAN-82 SAL 800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 COMM 300 500 1400 DEPTNO 20 30 30 20 30 30 10 20 30 20 30 20 10 0 ANALYSIS: Displays all the employees other than KING. comparison. Arithmetic Operators The arithmetic operators are plus (+). multiply (*). Operators fall into six groups: arithmetic. character. Operators Operators are the elements you use inside an expression to articulate how you want specified conditions to retrieve data.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM BIKES WHERE ENAME != 'KING'. OR SQL> SELECT * FROM BIKES WHERE ENAME <> 'KING'. divide (/).

SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM IS NOT NULL. 42 . SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 2000. you need to know a little about the concept of NULL. In database terms NULL is the absence of data in a field. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM IS NULL. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL NOT BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. the comparison will come back Unknown. FALSE. to test for a NULL condition. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 3000 AND SAL <= 4000.Siva Kumar HVK Comparison Operators True to their name. To understand how you could get an Unknown. most flavors of SQL change Unknown to FALSE and provide a special operator. or Unknown. A zero or a blank is a value. NULL means nothing is in that field. It does not mean a column has a zero or a blank in it. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. Because Unknown is an uncomfortable condition. If you make a comparison like Field = 9 and the only value for Field is NULL. IS NULL. comparison operators compare expressions and return one of three values: TRUE.

Siva Kumar HVK Character Operators You can use character operators to manipulate the way character strings are represented. LIKE operator What if you wanted to select parts of a database that fit a pattern but weren't quite exact matches? You could use the equal sign and run through all the possible cases. Consider the following: INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘A%’. but that process would be time-consuming. which conveys the concept of character concatenation. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names not beginning with letter A 43 . This section describes two character operators: the LIKE operator and the || operator. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names begins with letter A INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME NOT LIKE ‘A%’. you could use LIKE. Instead. both in the output of data and in the process of placing conditions on data to be retrieved.

ANALYSIS Displays all the names whose name contains letter A more than one time INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE LIKE ‘%DEC%’. (Implicit data conversion takes place). ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose salary begins with number 4. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the year 81. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names contains letter A (Any number of A’s) INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%A%’. INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE LIKE ‘%81’. 44 .Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%’. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the month of December. INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL LIKE ‘4%’.

OUTPUT: ENAME ---------BLAKE CLARK ADAMS ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose third letter is A (Two underscores followed by A) INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘A%\_%’ ESCAPE ‘\’. OUTPUT: EMPNO ---------7521 7654 7900 ENAME ---------WARD MARTIN JAMES ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose second letter is A INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘__A%’. INPUT: SQL> SELECT EMPNO. 45 . OUTPUT: ENAME ---------AVINASH_K ANAND_VARDAN ADAMS_P ANALYSIS Displays all the employees with underscore (_).Siva Kumar HVK Underscore (_) The underscore is the single-character wildcard.ENAME FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘_A%’. To treat _ as a character we have to use Escape (\) character. ‘\’ Escape character Underscore is used to identify a position in the string.

PRESIDENT TURNER . CLERK FORD . OUTPUT ENAME||'. MANAGER CLARK . MANAGER SCOTT . ANALYST KING . 46 . INPUT SQL>SELECT ENAME || ‘ .'||JOB ---------------------SMITH . ANALYST MILLER . SALESMAN WARD . CLERK JAMES . MANAGER MARTIN .Siva Kumar HVK Concatenation ( ||) operator Used to combine two given strings INPUT SELECT ENAME || JOB FROM EMP. ‘ || JOB FROM EMP. CLERK ANALYSIS Combines both name and designation as a single string separated by. OUTPUT ENAME||JOB ------------------SMITHCLERK ALLENSALESMAN WARDSALESMAN JONESMANAGER MARTINSALESMAN BLAKEMANAGER CLARKMANAGER SCOTTANALYST KINGPRESIDENT TURNERSALESMAN ADAMSCLERK JAMESCLERK FORDANALYST MILLERCLERK ANALYSIS Combines both name and designation as a single string. SALESMAN BLAKE . SALESMAN ADAMS . SALESMAN JONES . CLERK ALLEN .

SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL NOT BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. 47 . SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 3000 AND SAL <= 4000.Siva Kumar HVK Logical Operators INPUT: SELECT ENAME FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%’ and ENAME NOT LIKE ‘%A%A%’ OUTPUT ENAME ---------ALLEN WARD MARTIN BLAKE CLARK JAMES ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names contains letter A exactly one time. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000.

which reduces the efficiency. You could type the following: INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK Miscellaneous Operators: IN. and salesman.'MANAGER'). JOB FROM EMP WHERE JOB= 'CLERK' OR JOB =‘MANAGER’ OR JOB = 'SALESMAN'.'SALESMAN'. The above statement takes more time to parse it. 48 . INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE JOB IN('CLERK'. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK TURNER ADAMS JAMES MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYSIS Display employees with designations manager. clerk. BETWEEN and DISTINCT The two operators IN and BETWEEN provide shorthand for functions you already know how to do. and salesman. clerk. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK TURNER ADAMS JAMES MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYSIS Display employees with designations manager.

OUTPUT: ENAME ---------BLAKE SCOTT HIREDATE --------01-MAY-81 09-DEC-82 ANALYSIS Note : Efficiency is more when we write the query using IN operator rather than OR operator. clerk.'MANAGER').JOB FROM EMP WHERE JOB NOT IN('CLERK'. 49 .'SALESMAN'.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. and salesman INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME.’09-DEC-1982’).HIREDATE FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE IN (’01-MAY-1981’. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SCOTT KING FORD JOB --------ANALYST PRESIDENT ANALYST ANALYSIS Display designations other than manager.

OUTPUT: JOB --------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN ANALYSIS Distinct operator displays unique designations. Distinct operator by default displays the information in ascending order. 50 .Siva Kumar HVK DISTINCT OPERATOR INPUT: SQL> SELECT DISTINCT JOB FROM EMP.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 3 2 Hrs Topics Order BY clause Exercise Functions Group functions 51 .

INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME. OUTPUT ENAME ---------ADAMS ALLEN BLAKE CLARK FORD JAMES JONES KING MARTIN MILLER SCOTT SMITH TURNER WARD ANALYSIS Display employees in ascending order of names.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation ORDER BY CLAUSE Display the information in a particular order (Ascending or descending order) Syntax SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE> WHERE <CONDITION> ORDER BY <COLUMN(S)>. 52 .

With each job it places the information in descending order of names. name desc.SAL FROM EMP ORDER BY JOB. With each job it places the information in descending order of names.---------FORD 3000 SCOTT 3000 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 MILLER 1300 SMITH 800 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 JONES 2975 KING 5000 ALLEN 1600 MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 WARD 1250 Display employees in ascending order of jobs. OUTPUT: Display employees in ascending order by jobs. With each job it places the information in ascending order of names.ENAME. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY job. ename desc. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY job desc. OUTPUT JOB --------ANALYST ANALYST CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN ANALYSIS ENAME SAL ---------.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB. OUTPUT: Display employees in descending order by jobs. . INPUT SQL> SELECT * 53 FROM EMP where JOB != ‘CLERK’ ORDER BY JOB.

54 .Siva Kumar HVK We can also use order by clause as INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY 3. ANALYSIS It places the information in the order of third column in the table.

_________ is the operator used to compare a column with null value. (4) SELECT ename. Which data type should you use for interest rates with varying and unpredictable decimal places such as 1. Display list of employees that start with letter C 8. You want to display each employee hiredate from earliest to latest.234. How many LONG columns can a table contain?_______ 6. Assume that value place in both columns is RAVI. SQL commands are to be terminated with ______________ 7. 2. The maximum number of character that can be stored in CHAR type is 4. (2) SELECT hiredate FROM emp ORDER BY hiredate. What is the size of sname and sname1 5. _________is used to compare one value with a set of values. 3. 5 and 1. (2) NUMBER. 10. salary*12 AS Annual SalaryFROM employees. salary*12 AS INITCAP(ANNUAL SALARY)FROM employees 55 . Examine the trace instance chart for employee table. (2) SELECT ename. salary*12 Annual SalaryFROM employees.4.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1. sname1 varchar2(6)). 3.Which SQL statement generates the alias Annual Salary for the calculated column SALARY*12? (1) SELECT ename. (4) SELECT hiredate FROM emp ORDER BY hiredate DESC. (3) NUMBER(p. Assume there is a table student(sname char(6). (3) SELECT ename. Display employees in ascending order of 5th column in the table 9.23? (1) LONG. s) (4) None 11. Which SQL statement will you use? (1) SELECT hiredate FROM emp. salary*12 Annual SalaryFROM employees. (3) SELECT emp FROM emp ORDER by hiredate.

LAST_NAME VARCHAR2 (25). SALARY NUMBER(8. The EMP table has these columns: ENAME VARCHAR2(35). Which statement about SQL is true? (1) Null values are displayed last in the ascending sequences. Management wants a list of names of employees who have been with the company for more than five years. first_name FROM employee WHERE dept_id is NULL which change should you make to achieve the desired result? (1) Create an outer join. (2) Data values are displayed in descending order by default. (4) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE (SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE)* 365 > 5. (3) Query executes successfully (4) Add a second condition to the where condition 3.2)HIRE_DATE DATE. (3) You cannot specify a column alias in an ORDER BY clause. (2) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE HIRE_DATE-SYSDATE > 5. 2. (2) Change the column in the where condition. Which SQL statement displays the required results? (1) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE > 5. FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) DEPT_ID NUMBER(9) You need to display the names of the employees that are not assigned to the department. Evaluate this SQL statement. (3) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE (SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE)/365 > 5. \ 56 . SELECT last_name. The employee table contains these columns.Siva Kumar HVK 1. (4) You cannot sort query results by a column that is not included in the SELECT list.

which executes whenever we call it and returns a value to the calling place. Say you wanted to know how many employees are there. COUNT The function COUNT returns the number of rows that satisfy the condition in the WHERE clause. These functions are classified into two types Predefined functions User defined functions Predefined functions These functions are again classified into two types Group or Aggregate Functions Single row Functions Aggregate Functions These functions are also referred to as group functions. They return a value based on the values in a column.Siva Kumar HVK FUNCTIONS A function is a sub program. OUTPUT: COUNT(*) -------14 ANALYSIS It counts if row presents in the table 57 . INPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP.

NUM_OF_EMP ------------------14 INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(COMM) FROM EMP. COUNT(*) -------4 ANALYSIS It counts only those when there is a value in comm. INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE JOB = ‘MANAGER’. Column Note: Count (comm) faster than count(*) Count(*) count the row when a row present in the table where as Count(comm) counts the row only when there is a value in the column. COUNT(*) ------4 ANALYSIS It counts only managers 58 . try an alias: INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) NUM_OF_EMP FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK To make the code more readable.

TOTAL_SALARY TOTAL_COMM ------------. SUM(COMM) TOTAL_COMM FROM EMP WHERE JOB = ‘SALESMAN’. SUM(COMM) TOTAL_COMM.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT count (distinct job) FROM EMP.---------5600 2200 59 . FROM EMP.---------29025 2200 INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY. TOTAL_SALARY TOTAL_COMM ------------. COUNT (*) ------4 ANALYSIS It counts only distinct jobs SUM SUM does just that. INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY OUTPUT: TOTAL_SALARY ------------29025 ANALYSIS FROM EMP. It returns the sum of all values in a column. Find the total salary drawn by all the employees INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY.

INPUT: SQL> SELECT AVG(sal) average_salary 2 FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK AVG The AVG function computes the average of a column. OUTPUT: AVERAGE_SALARY --------------2073.21429 ANALYSIS Find the average salary of all the employees INPUT: SQL> SELECT AVG(COMM) average_comm FROM EMP. OUTPUT: AVERAGE_COMM ------------ 550 ANALYSIS Functions ignores null rows 60 .

OUTPUT: MAX(ENAME) -------- WARD ANALYSIS Max of name is identified based on ASCII value INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX (hiredate) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK MAX INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: MAX(HIREDATE) ------------- 12-JAN-83 61 . OUTPUT: MAX(SAL) -------- 5000 ANALYSIS Takes the value from one different rows from one particular column INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX(ENAME) FROM EMP.

OUTPUT: MIN (ENAME) -------- ADAMS INPUT SELECT SUM(SAL).COUNT(*) FROM EMP.------------29025 2073.MIN(SAL).-------------.Siva Kumar HVK MIN INPUT: SQL> SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP.-------------. OUTPUT SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) COUNT(*) -------------.--------------.AVG(SAL).MAX(SAL). OUTPUT: MIN(SAL) -------- 800 INPUT: SQL> SELECT MIN(ENAME) FROM EMP.21429 800 5000 14 ANALYSIS All the aggregate functions can be used together in a single SQL statement 62 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 4 2 Hrs Revision / Practicals 63 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 1&2 5 Hrs Topics Single Row Functions Exercise 64 .

For example: INPUT: SQL> SELECT ABS(-10) ABSOLUTE_VALUE FROM dual. ABS The ABS function returns the absolute value of the number you point to. These functions are classified into different types Arithmetic Functions Character Functions Date functions Miscellaneous Functions Arithmetic Functions Many of the uses you have for the data you retrieve involve mathematics. OUTPUT ABSOLUTE_VALUE ---------------------------10 ANALYSIS ABS changes all the negative numbers to positive and leaves positive numbers alone.e. Dual is a system table or dummy table from where we can display system information (i.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS These functions work on each and every row and return a value to the calling places. system date and username etc) or we can make our own calculations. Most Implementations of SQL provide arithmetic functions similar to that of operators covered here. 65 .

678) ----------------12 INPUT: SQL> SELECT FLOOR(12.Siva Kumar HVK CEIL and FLOOR CEIL returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to its argument.000) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: FLOOR(12.678) FLOOR DUAL.000) ----------------12 66 . INPUT: SQL> SELECT CEIL(12.145) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: FLOOR(12. returning the largest integer equal to or less than its argument. to get the next higher integer number INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT FLOOR(12.145) ----------------13 INPUT: SQL> SELECT CEIL(12.000) FROM DUAL. FLOOR does just the reverse.000) ----------------12 ANALYSIS Minimum we require one decimal place . OUTPUT: CEIL(12. OUTPUT: CEIL(12.

OUTPUT: MOD(5.2) --------------1 INPUT SQL> SELECT MOD(2. OUTPUT: MOD(2. 67 .2) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK MOD It returns remainder when we divide one value with another value INPUT SQL> SELECT MOD(5. it returns numerator value as remainder.5) FROM DUAL.5) --------------2 ANALYSIS When numerator value less than denominator.

OUTPUT: 125 SIGN SIGN returns -1 if its argument is less than 0. 0 if its argument is equal to 0.3) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK POWER To raise one number to the power of another. In this function the first argument is raised to the power of the second: INPUT: SQL> SELECT POWER(5.----------1 1 0 SQRT The function SQRT returns the square root of an argument. and 1 if its argument is greater than 0 INPUT: SQL> SELECT SIGN(-10). use POWER.SIGN(0) FROM DUAL. Because the square root of a negative number is undefined. 2 68 . OUTPUT: SIGN(-10) SIGN(10) SIGN(0) ---------. INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT SQRT(4) FROM DUAL.---------. you cannot use SQRT on negative numbers. SIGN(10).

For this example the database is set to ASCII. INPUT: SQL> SELECT CHR(65) FROM DUAL. CHR CHR returns the character equivalent of the number it uses as an argument. ‘ KANTH’) FROM DUAL. The character it returns depends on the character set of the database. OUTPUT KRISHNA KANTH 69 .Siva Kumar HVK Character Functions Many implementations of SQL provide functions to manipulate characters and strings of characters. OUTPUT: A CONCAT It is similar to that of concatenate operator ( | | ) INPUT: SQL> SELECT CONCAT(‘KRISHNA’.

INITCAP(ENAME) “AFTER”FROM EMP. INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME “BEFORE”. LOWER changes all the characters to lowercase. SQL>SELECT ENAME.LOWER(ENAME) LOWER_CASE FROM EMP. OUTPUT: BEFORE ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD AFTER ---------Smith Allen Ward Jones Martin Blake Clark Scott King Turner Adams James Ford LOWER and UPPER As you might expect.Siva Kumar HVK INITCAP INITCAP capitalizes the first letter of a word and makes all other characters lowercase. UPPER does just the changes all the characters to uppercase.UPPER(ENAME) UPPER_CASE. ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER UPPER_CASE ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER LOWER_CASE ---------smith allen ward jones martin blake clark scott king turner adams james ford miller 70 .

Siva Kumar HVK LPAD and RPAD LPAD and RPAD take a minimum of two and a maximum of three arguments.10. OUTPUT: 5000****** 71 .’*’) FROM EMP.' --------------**********SMITH **********ALLEN ***********WARD **********JONES *********MARTIN **********BLAKE **********CLARK **********SCOTT ***********KING *********TURNER **********ADAMS **********JAMES ***********FORD *********MILLER ANALYSIS: 15 locations allocated to display ename. INPUT SQL> SELECT RPAD(5000. The first argument is the character string to be operated on. The following statement adds five pad characters. out of that.15. assuming that the field LASTNAME is defined as a 15-character field: INPUT: SQL> SELECT LPAD(ENAME. name is occupying some space and in the remaining space to the left side of the name pads with *. and the optional third argument is the character to pad it with. The second is the number of characters to pad it with. or it can be a single character or a character string.’*’) FROM DUAL. The third argument defaults to a blank.15. OUTPUT: LPAD(ENAME.

like LPAD and RPAD. RTRIM(ENAME. INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. If you use a second argument that is not a blank. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER RTRIM(ENAM ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNE ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLE ANALYSIS Removes the rightmost character 72 . these trim functions will trim that character the same way they trim the blanks in the following examples. is a character string.Siva Kumar HVK LTRIM and RTRIM LTRIM and RTRIM take at least one and at most two arguments. The optional second element is either a character or character string or defaults to a blank.’R’) FROM EMP. The first argument.

The second is the search key. search string removed from the given string INPUT SQL> SELECT REPLACE (‘RAMANA’. SYNTAX : REPLACE(STRING.Siva Kumar HVK REPLACE REPLACE does just that.’MA’) FROM DUAL. If the third argument is left out or NULL.’MA’. Of its three arguments. the first is the string to be searched.’MA’.SEARCH_STRING. OUTPUT RANA 73 . VI’) FROM DUAL. each occurrence of the search key on the string to be searched is removed and is not replaced with anything.REPLACE_STRING) INPUT: SQL> SELECT REPLACE (‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT RANA ANALYSIS When the replace string is missing. The last is the optional replacement string. OUTPUT RAVINA INPUT SQL> SELECT REPLACE(‘RAMANA’. NULL) FROM DUAL.

SUBSTR This three-argument function enables you to take a piece out of a target string. The third argument is the number of characters to show.STARTING_POSITION[. When search string matches. INPUT: SQL> SELECT TRANSLATE(‘RAMANA’. and the TO string.’MA’. OUTPUT: RDCDND ANALYSIS Notice that the function is case sensitive. it replaces with corresponding replace string and if any one character is matching in the search string . it replaces with corresponding replace character.1.NO_OF_CHARACTERS]) INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.’CD’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: RAM ANALYSIS It takes first 3 characters from first character 74 . The first argument is the target string.Siva Kumar HVK TRANSLATE The function TRANSLATE takes three arguments: the target string. Elements of the target string that occur in the FROM string are translated to the corresponding element in the TO string. The second argument is the position of the first character to be output. SYNTAX SUBSTR(STRING. the FROM string.3) FROM DUAL.

OUTPUT: RANA ANALYSIS First two characters and last two characters are combined together as a single string INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT: MAN ANALYSIS It takes 3 characters from third position INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.-2. OUTPUT: NA ANALYSIS You use a negative number as the second argument.2) FROM DUAL.-2. the starting point is determined by counting backwards from the end.3.3) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: MANA ANALYSIS When third argument is missing.1.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.2) || SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. it takes all the character from starting position 75 .3) FROM DUAL.2) FROM DUAL. INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.

’A’) FROM DUAL. Its first argument is the target string. The third and forth are numbers representing where to start looking and which match to report.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SUBSTR(HIREDATE.4.4. OUTPUT 2 ANALYSIS Find the position of the first occurrence of letter A 76 . ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the current month SYSDATE is a single row function. The second argument is the pattern to match. use INSTR. INSTR To find out where in a string a particular pattern occurs.3).3) = SUBSTR(SYSDATE. This example returns a number representing occurrence of O starting with the second the first INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’. which gives the current date.

’a’) FROM DUAL.’A’.1. OUTPUT 6 ANALYSIS Find the position of the second occurrence of letter A from 3rd position of the string 77 . • Third argument represents from which position. OUTPUT 0 ANALYSIS Function is case sensitive.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’.3.’A’.2) FROM DUAL. it returns 0 (zero) when the given character is not found. INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’. SQL> SELECT INSTR (‘RAMANA’.2) FROM DUAL. Fourth argument represents. which occurrence. OUTPUT 4 ANALYSIS • Find the position of the second occurrence of letter A from the beginning of the string.

They are mainly useful for changing date formats and number formats. or to include different formatting arguments.Siva Kumar HVK Conversion Functions These functions provide a handy way of converting one type of data to another. The following example illustrates the primary use of TO_CHAR: INPUT: SQL> SELECT SAL. Different Implementations may also use it to convert other data types. TO_CHAR The primary use of TO_CHAR is to convert a number into a character. So we can say that it is a string. like Date. into a character. OUTPUT: SAL ---------800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 5000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 TO_CHAR(SAL) ---------------------------------------800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 5000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 ANALYSIS After conversion. Converted information is left aligned. 78 . TO_CHAR(SAL) FROM EMP.

'DD-MON-YY') -----------------------------24-MAR-07 79 .Siva Kumar HVK The main usage of this function is. to change the date formats and number formats INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.’DD/MM/YYYY’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DD-MON-YY’) FROM DUAL.'DD/MM/YYYY') -----------------------------24/03/2007 ANALYSIS Convert the default date format to DD/MM/YYYY format INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.Siva Kumar HVK Date Formats INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DAY MONTH YEAR’) FROM DUAL.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DY-MON-YY’) FROM DUAL.'DAYMONTHYEAR') -----------------------------SATURDAY MARCH TWO THOUSAND SEVEN ANALYSIS: DAY gives the total day name MONTH gives the total month name YEAR writes the year number in words 80 .'DY-MON-YY') -----------------------------SAT-MAR-07 DY displays the first 3 letters from the day name INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.

OUTPUT: SYSDATE TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.------------------------------------------------------------------17-DEC-80 SEVENTEENTH DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY 20-FEB-81 TWENTIETH FEBRUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 22-FEB-81 TWENTY-SECOND FEBRUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 02-APR-81 SECOND APRIL NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 28-SEP-81 TWENTY-EIGHTH SEPTEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 01-MAY-81 FIRST MAY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 09-JUN-81 NINTH JUNE NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 09-DEC-82 NINTH DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-TWO 17-NOV-81 SEVENTEENTH NOVEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 08-SEP-81 EIGHTH SEPTEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 12-JAN-83 TWELFTH JANUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-THREE 03-DEC-81 THIRD DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 03-DEC-81 THIRD DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 23-JAN-82 TWENTY-THIRD JANUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-TWO ANALYSIS: Converts all hire dates in EMP table into Words 81 .'DDSPTHMONTHYEAR') --------.’DDSPTH MONTH YEAR’) FROM DUAL. Depends upon the number it gives either ST / RD/ST/ND format INPUT: SQL> SELECT HIREDATE.'DDSPTHMONTHYEAR') --------. OUTPUT: HIREDATE TO_CHAR(HIREDATE.TO_CHAR(HIREDATE.’DDSPTH MONTH YEAR’) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.------------------------------------------------------------------24-MAR-07 TWENTY-FOURTH MARCH TWO THOUSAND SEVEN ANALYSIS: DD gives the day number DDSP Writes day number in words TH is the format.

’Q’) -----------------------------1 INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(’10-SEP-2005’).’Q’) FROM DUAL.'Q') ---------------------------------------3 ANALYSIS: To_date is data conversion function.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. which converts given string into date type INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: Gives in the quarter the given date falls TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’W’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(TO_DATE('10-SEP-2005').’Q’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: Gives the week number in the current month ( In which week given date falls in the current month) TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’W’) -----------------------------4 82 .

’WW’) FROM DUAL.’HH24:MI:SS’) FROM DUAL.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR( -------20:43:12 ANALYSIS: HH24 returns Hours in 24 hour format MI returns Minutes SS returns Seconds } } Returns time from current date } 83 .’HH:MI:SS AM’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: SYSDATE TO_CHAR(SYSDATE) -----------------------------------24-MAR-07 12 ANALYSIS: Returns no. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(SYS ----------08:40:17 PM ANALYSIS: HH returns Hours MI returns Minutes SS returns Seconds } } Returns time from current date } INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. of weeks worked during the year.

Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(12567.999.’L99.99') ----------------------------12.99') ----------------------------$12.999.567.567. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(12567.'99.99’) FROM DUAL.00 ANALYSIS: Converts the given number into comma format with two decimal places INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(12567.'L99.00 ANALYSIS: Display the local currency symbol 84 .999.’99.999.99’) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(12567.

OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(-12567.999.00> ANALYSIS: PR Parenthesis negative number 85 .99PR’) FROM DUAL.99PR') ----------------------------------<$12.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(-12567.'L99.’L99.999.567.

Converted information is right aligned. 86 . It demonstrates the time and date functions. and of course.----------------------800 800 1600 1600 1250 1250 2975 2975 1250 1250 2850 2850 2450 2450 3000 3000 5000 5000 1500 1500 1100 1100 950 950 3000 3000 1300 1300 ANALYSIS After conversion. it converts a string into a number.Siva Kumar HVK TO_NUMBER TO_NUMBER is the companion function to TO_CHAR. For example: INPUT: SQL> SELECT SAL. and most major implementations of SQL have functions to cope with these concepts. OUTPUT: SAL TO_NUMBER(TO_CHAR(SAL)) ---------. So we can say that it is a number. Date and Time Functions We live in a civilization governed by times and dates. TO_NUMBER((TO_CHAR(SAL)) FROM EMP.

OUTPUT: MATURITY_DATE -------------------24-SEP-07 ANALYSIS It adds 6 months to the system date INPUT: SQL> SELECT HIREDATE. For example.Siva Kumar HVK ADD_MONTHS This function adds a number of months to a specified date. say a customer deposited some amount on a particular date for a period of 6 months. 33 years of service from date of join is retirement date LAST_DAY 87 . OUTPUT: HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 09-DEC-82 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 12-JAN-83 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 RETIRE_DATE --------------17-DEC-13 20-FEB-14 22-FEB-14 02-APR-14 28-SEP-14 01-MAY-14 09-JUN-14 09-DEC-15 17-NOV-14 08-SEP-14 12-JAN-16 03-DEC-14 03-DEC-14 23-JAN-15 ANALYSIS Find the retirement date of an employee Assume. ADD_MONTHS(HIREDATE.33*12) RETIRE_DATE FROM EMP. 6) MATURITY_DATE FROM DUAL. To find the maturity date of the deposit INPUT: SQL> SELECT ADD_MONTHS (SYSDATE.

2928548 25. For example.MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.3089838 25.7928548 24. you need to know what the last day of the month INPUT: SQL> SELECT LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) FROM DUAL.8976935 25.4917795 25. Result is divided with 12 to get the experience 88 .3089838 25.HIREDATE)/12 EXPERIENCE FROM EMP. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER EXPERIENCE ---------26.9783387 25.2713494 26.0912419 25.171887 ANALYSIS Finds number of months between sysdate and hiredate .545543 24.Siva Kumar HVK LAST_DAY returns the last day of a specified month. OUTPUT: LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) ------------------------31-MAR-07 ANALYSIS Find the last date of the month MONTHS_BETWEEN Used to find the number of months between two given months INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME.0966182 26.3546827 25.2014569 25.

'PDT').21.Siva Kumar HVK LOCALTIMESTAMP Returns Local timestamp in the active time zone. OUTPUT LOCALTIMESTAMP -----------------------------------25-MAR-07 06.'DD/MM/Y YYY HH : MI :SS PM') from DUAL.02. Here are the time zones you can use with this function: Abbreviation Time Zone AST or ADT Atlantic standard or daylight time BST or BDT Bering standard or daylight time CST or CDT Central standard or daylight time EST or EDT Eastern standard or daylight time GMT Greenwich mean time HST or HDT Alaska-Hawaii standard or daylight time MST or MDT Mountain standard or daylight time NST Newfoundland standard time PST or PDT Pacific standard or daylight time YST or YDT Yukon standard or daylight time You can adjust your time like this: INPUT SQL> select TO_CHAR(new_time(LOCALTIMESTAMP.'EsT'. with no time zone information shown INPUT SQL> SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL.312000 PM NEW_TIME This function is used to adjust the time according to the time zone you are in. OUTPUT TO_CHAR(NEW_TIME(LOCALTIM ------------------------25/03/2007 04 : 32 :55 PM 89 .

'PDT') from emp. OUTPUT: HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 09-DEC-82 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 12-JAN-83 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 NEW_TIME( --------16-DEC-80 19-FEB-81 21-FEB-81 01-APR-81 27-SEP-81 30-APR-81 08-JUN-81 08-DEC-82 16-NOV-81 07-SEP-81 11-JAN-83 02-DEC-81 02-DEC-81 22-JAN-82 ANALYSIS Like magic. all the times are in the new time zone and the dates are adjusted. new_time(hiredate. 90 .'EsT'.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> select hiredate.

It display the date of the next coming Monday.’MONDAY’) FROM DUAL. 2007. OUTPUT: NEXT_DAY( --------26-MAR-07 ANALYSIS If the sysdate is Saturday. March 24. SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL 91 . EXTRACT We can use Extract function in the place of to_char function from Oracle 9i. SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK NEXT_DAY NEXT_DAY finds the name of the first day of the week that is equal to or later than another specified date. INPUT: SQL> SELECT NEXT_DAY(SYSDATE.

Example select (sysdate . For sysdate it takes 0.to_date('10-NOV-2007')) day to second from dual OUTPUT +000000009 11:04:07 Analysis Find the difference with days and time. Both were introduced in Oracle9i Database. minutes and seconds (including fractional seconds). and both conform to the ISO SQL standard.to_date('10-jan-2004')) year to month from dual OUTPUT +000000003-10 Analysis Returns the difference.Siva Kumar HVK Interval Data types (Only from 9i) Oracle supports two interval datatypes. INTERVAL YEAR to MONTH Allows you to define and interval of time in terms of years and months INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND Allows you to define an interval of time in terms of days. Example Select (sysdate . No of years and months between both the dates. hours.00 hrs as starting time 92 .

'dd-mon-rr'). then: • • If you enter a date in the first half of the century (i. If you enter a date in the latter half of the century (i.-------------------19/11/2050 2088 2118 93 . from 50 through 99). SQL> SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL: Interpreting Two-digit Years Oracle provides the RR format element to interpret two-digit years. RR returns the current century.-------------------19/11/2007 1988 2018 When we reach the year 2050. to_char(to_date('14-oct-88'.e. from 0 through 49).e.-------------------. to_char(to_date('14-oct-18'.'dd-mon-rr'). For example select to_char(sysdate.'yyyy') "year 18" from dual OUTPUT current date Year 88 year 18 ------------------------.'yyyy') "Year 88". If the Current year is in the first half of the century ( years 0 through 49). RR will interpret the same dates differently current date Year 88 year ------------------------.Siva Kumar HVK Note :.'dd/mm/yyyy') "current date".-------------------.We can also change the default format for a given session using the ALTER SESSION command SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = ‘DD/MM/YYYY’. RR returns the previous century.

5. • SELECT NUMTOYMINTERVAL(10.'year') from dual.'year') from dual.3.’DAY’) FROM DUAL.999.999 Some number Some number Some number Some number of of of of months ranging from 0 through 11 days ranging from 0 through 999. NUMTOYMINTERVAL (10. Name Description Some number of years ranging from 1 through YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR MINUTE SECOND 999.999.'YEAR') ----------------------------------------------------------------------+000000010-06 SQL> select numtoyminterval (10. The function NUMTOYMINTERVAL (pronounced “ num to Y M interval”) converts a numeric value an interval of type INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH. SQL> select numtoyminterval (10.5.Siva Kumar HVK Going from Numbers to Intervals The NUMTOYMINTERVAL and NUMTODSINTERVAL functions allow you to convert a single numeric value to one of the interval data types.999999999 94 .'YEAR') ----------------------------------------------------------------------+000000010-03 Try the following formats SELECT NUMTOYMINTERVAL(10.999 hours ranging from 0 through 23 minutes ranging from 0 through 59 • Some number of seconds ranging from 0 through 59.5. NUMTOYMINTERVAL (10.’MONTH’) FROM DUAL.5.3.

000000 ANALYSIS Oracle automatically taken care of normalizing the input value of 1440 minutes to an interval value of 1 day. OUTPUT +01 00:00. This function (pronounced “num to D S interval”) likewise converts a numeric value to an interval of type INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND.00. Example SQL> select NUMTODSINTERVAL(1440.Siva Kumar HVK NUMTODSINTERVAL This function allows converting a single numeric value to one of the interval data types.’minute’) from dual. 95 .

1.Siva Kumar HVK Miscellaneous Functions Here are three miscellaneous functions you may find useful.9.67) FROM DUAL. MAX IS A GROUP FUNCTION 2) GREATEST TAKES VALUES FROM DIFFERENT COLUMNS FROM EACH ROW.2. Assume there is a student table ROLLNO 1 2 3 4 NAME RAVI KRIS BABU ANU STUDENT SUB1 SUB2 55 22 78 55 55 22 44 55 SUB3 86 65 44 66 SUB4 45 12 77 88 96 . OUTPUT: GREATEST --------83 ANALYSIS Displays the greatest of the given set of values Difference between GREATEST AND MAX IS 1) GREATEST IS SINGLE ROW FUNCTION.83. WHERE AS MAX TAKES VALUES FROM DIFFERENT ROWS FROM A COLUMN. GREATEST and LEAST INPUT: SQL> SELECT GREATEST(10.

LEAST(SUB1. SUB4.SUB3.SUB3. OUTPUT: USER -------SCOTT ANALYSIS Displays the current sessions user name We can also display username using environment command SQL> SHOW USER 97 .SUB3.SUB4) LEAST_MARK FROM STUDENT OUTPUT: RNO NAME 1 2 3 4 USER USER returns the character name of the current user of the database. GREATEST(SUB1.Siva Kumar HVK To find the greatest and Least Marks INPUT: SQL> SELECT NAME.SUB2.SUB1.SUB2. SUB1 SUB2 55 78 55 44 22 55 22 55 SUB3 SUB4 86 65 44 66 45 12 77 88 RAVI KRIS BABU ANU GREATEST MARK 86 78 77 88 LEAST MARK 22 12 22 44 INPUT: SQL> SELECT USER FROM DUAL.SUB4) GREATEST_MARK.SUB2.

DECODE is often able to fill the gap between SQL and the functions of a procedural language.. If column1 has a value of value1. then display output3 instead of the column's current value. then display output2 instead of the column's current value. output2..THEN statement in a procedural programming language. then display output1 instead of the column's current value. value1. SYNTAX: DECODE (column1. If column1 has a value of anything other than value1 or value2. The standard language of SQL lacks procedural functions that are contained in languages such as COBOL and C. 98 . output1. If column1 has a value of value2.Siva Kumar HVK The DECODE Function The DECODE function is one of the most powerful commands in SQL*Plus--and perhaps the most powerful. Where flexibility is required for complex reporting needs. output3) The syntax example performs the DECODE function on column1. value2. The DECODE statement is similar to an IF.

’SALESMAN’.OFFICER instead of SALESMAN When JOB has a value ANALYST . then display EXEC instead of CLERK When JOB has a value SALESMAN .’VP’. ‘S. JOB.OFFICER VP S.’EXEC’. OUTPUT ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK PROMOTION --------EXEC S.OFFICER EXEC EXEC PM EXEC ANALYSIS When JOB has a value CLERK .OFFICER S. then display PM instead of ANALYST When JOB has a value MANAGER .’PM’.’MANAGER’.’CLERK’.’ANALYST’.OFFICER’.OFFICER VP VP PM PRESIDENT S.JOB) PROMOTION FROM EMP. then display S.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. then display VP instead of MANAGER OTHERWISE DISPLAY SAME JOB 99 . DECODE(JOB.

’ before the name based on their Gender 100 .5 SALESMAN 1250 1500 MANAGER 2850 3705 MANAGER 2450 3185 ANALYST 3000 3750 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1500 1800 CLERK 1100 1210 CLERK 950 1045 ANALYST 3000 3750 CLERK 1300 1430 ANALYSIS When JOB has a value CLERK . SEX.SAL.’ANALYST’.DECODE(JOB.sex INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.’MANAGER’. ‘MS.---------. then giving 10% increment When JOB has a value SALESMAN .’ or ‘Ms.1.’MR.JOB. OUTPUT ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB SAL NEW_SAL --------.25.’SALESMAN’.’MALE’.2. ANALYSIS Adding Mr.’||ENAME) FROM EMP.SAL*1. SAL*1.SAL) NEW_SAL FROM EMP. DECODE(SEX. then giving 30% increment OTHERWISE no increment Assume there is a table with empno.SAL*1.SAL*1.’CLERK’.3.---------CLERK 800 880 SALESMAN 1600 1920 SALESMAN 1250 1500 MANAGER 2975 3867.Siva Kumar HVK To give increments designations to the employees based on their INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.’||ENAME. then giving 25% increment When JOB has a value MANAGER .ename. then giving 20% increment When JOB has a value ANALYST .

you can use the CASE function in place of DECODE. Example SQL> SELECT JOB. The CASE function uses the keywords when.OFFICER VP S. JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK CASEJOBWH --------EXEC S.OFFICER EXEC EXEC ANALYST EXEC ANALYSIS Works similar to that of DECODE 101 . CASE JOB WHEN 'MANAGER' then 'VP' WHEN 'CLERK' THEN 'EXEC' WHEN 'SALESMAN' THEN 'S.OFFICER VP VP ANALYST PRESIDENT S. then. which may make the resulting code easier to follow than an equivalent DECODE.Siva Kumar HVK CASE As of Oracle 9i. and end to indicate the logic path followed.OFFICER S. else.OFFICER' ELSE JOB END FROM EMP.

another column. SAL + COMM TOTAL FROM EMP. DATE.Siva Kumar HVK NVL If the value is NULL. but the value and substitute must be the same data type. this function is equal to substitute.---------. If the value is not NULL. VARCHAR2.COMM. and other data types. this function is equal to value. it can be used with CHAR.---------7369 800 7499 1600 300 1900 7521 1250 500 1750 7566 2975 7654 1250 1400 2650 7698 2850 7782 2450 7788 3000 7839 5000 7844 1500 0 1500 7876 1100 7900 950 7902 3000 7934 1300 ANALYSIS Arithmetic operation is possible only when value is there in both columns 102 .---------. OUTPUT EMPNO SAL COMM TOTAL ---------. SYNTAX NVL(value. Substitute can be a literal number.SAL. substitute) INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. NVL is not restricted to numbers. or a computation.

INPUT SQL>SELECT DEPTNO.---------7369 800 800 7499 1600 300 1900 7521 1250 500 1750 7566 2975 2975 7654 1250 1400 2650 7698 2850 2850 7782 2450 2450 7788 3000 3000 7839 5000 5000 7844 1500 0 1500 7876 1100 1100 7900 950 950 7902 3000 3000 7934 1300 1300 ANALYSIS Using NVL.RATIO_TO_REPORT(SUM(SAL)) OVER() FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. 103 . we are substituting 0 if COMM is NULL.301464255 20 10875 . OUTPUT EMPNO SAL COMM TOTAL ---------.323858742 ANALYSIS RATIO_TO_REPORT FUNCTION FINDS THE SALARY RATIO OF THAT DEPARTMENT OVER THE TOTAL SALARY OF ALL THE EMPLOYEES.374677003 30 9400 .------------------------------10 8750 .---------.0) TOTAL FROM EMP.SUM(SAL). SAL + NVL(COMM.SAL.COMM. OUTPUT DEPTNO SUM(SAL) RATIO_TO_REPORT(SUM(SAL))OVER() ---------.---------.---------.

ASCII Finds the ASCII value of the given character SQL> SELECT ASCII(‘A’) FROM DUAL. SQL> SELECT SAL. 104 .LENGTH(ENAME) FROM EMP.LENGTH(SAL) FROM EMP. CAST Converts one type of information into another type SQL> SELECT 50 numb. cast(50 as varchar2(2) value from dual. SQL> SELECT LENGTH(SYSDATE) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK LENGTH Finds the length of the given information SQL> SELECT ENAME.

print as NO COMM Add number of days to the given date Display the first and last two characters from a given name and combine them as a single string (Use only functions) Find the difference between two given dates Display all the names which contain underscore subtract number of months from given date 105 . Print *’s as number of thousands are there in the number Display the ename. If the commission is NULL. _____________ format option is used to get complete year spelled out in TO_CHAR function.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise _____________ function performs one to one character substitution. comm. ___________ symbol is used to combine tow given strings What happens if “replace string” is not given for REPLACE function Can a number be converted to DATE? Convert the value of name in the EMP table to lower case letters Display the names of the employees who have more than 4 characters in the name.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 3 3 Hrs Exercise Annexure Query .I 106 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 4 3 Hrs

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Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 1 3 Hrs

Topics Group by clause CUBE and ROLLUP functions Having clause Exercise

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Siva Kumar HVK GROUP BY CLAUSE
Group by statement groups all the rows with the same column value. Use to generate summary output from the available data. Whenever we use a group function in the SQL statement, we have to use a group by clause.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, COUNT (*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------ANALYST 2 CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 PRESIDENT 1 SALESMAN 4

ANALYSIS
Counts number of employees under each and every job. When we are grouping on job, initially jobs are placed in ascending order in a temporary segment. On the temporary segment, group by clause is applied, so that on each similar job count function applied.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, SUM (SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 4150 MANAGER 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 SALESMAN 5600

ANALYSIS With each job, it finds the total salary

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Siva Kumar HVK ERROR with GROUP BY Clause
Note : Only grouped columns allowed in the group by clause When ever we are using a group function in the SQL statement, we have to use group by clause.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP; OUTPUT SELECT JOB, COUNT (*) FROM EMP * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00937: not a single-group group function ANALYSIS This result occurs because the group functions, such as SUM and COUNT, are designated to tell you something about a group or rows, not the individual rows of the table. This error is avoided by using JOB in the group by clause, which forces the COUNT to count all the rows grouped within each job.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,ENAME,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT SELECT JOB,ENAME,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression ANALYSIS In the above query, JOB is only the grouped column where as ENAME column is not a grouped column. What ever the columns we are grouping, the same column is allowed to display.

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INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, MIN(SAL),MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) --------- ---------- ---------ANALYST 3000 3000 CLERK 800 1300 MANAGER 2450 2975 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1250 1600

ANALYSIS

For displaying Total summary information from the table.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, SUM(SAL),AVG(SAL),MIN(SAL),MAX(SAL) ,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) COUNT(*) --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------ANALYST 6000 3000 3000 3000 2 CLERK 4150 1037.5 800 1300 4 MANAGER 8275 2758.33333 2450 2975 3 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 SALESMAN 5600 1400 1250 1600 4

ANALYSIS With each job, finds the total summary information.

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COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO. OUTPUT JOB DEPT10 DEPT20 DEPT30 TOTAL --------. SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.---------.20. Department wise total salaries With a matrix style report. INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB.10. SUM(SAL) TOTAL FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB.---------. OUTPUT DEPTNO ---------10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 ANALYSIS JOB COUNT(*) --------.SAL)) DEPT10.---------CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 CLERK 2 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 1 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 SALESMAN 4 113 .JOB.JOB.30. initially all the designations are placed in ascending order of designations. then DECODE function (Single row function) applies on each and every row of that group and checks the DEPTNO.SAL)) DEPT20. If DEPTNO=10. Then group by clause groups similar designations. it passes corresponding salary as an argument to SUM() .---------ANALYST 6000 6000 CLERK 1300 1900 950 4150 MANAGER 2450 2975 2850 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 5600 5600 ANALYSIS When we apply group by. INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK To display the output Designation wise. SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.SAL)) DEPT30.---------.SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.

COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO. OUTPUT DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------. we have to use an Environment command SQL> CLEAR BREAK.JOB.Siva Kumar HVK To display the DEPTNO only one time INPUT SQL> BREAK ON DEPTNO SKIP 1 SQL> SELECT DEPTNO. which breaks the information on repetitive column and displays them only once.JOB. 114 . SKIP 1 used with BREAK to leave one blank line after completion of each Deptno.--------. 2 2 1 1 1 4 To remove the given break .---------10 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 20 CLERK ANALYST MANAGER 30 CLERK MANAGER SALESMAN ANALYSIS Break is Environment command .

.] group_function(column). Syntax SELECT [column. ●ROLLUP grouping produces a result set containing the regular grouped rows and the subtotal values. 115 . ●CUBE grouping produces a result set containing the rows from ROLLUP and cross-tabulation rows The ROLLUP and CUBE operators are available only in Oracle8i and later releases.. FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY [CUBE] group_by_expression] [HAVING having_expression] [ORDER BY column].Siva Kumar HVK Group by with ROLLUP and CUBE Operators ●Use Rollup or CUBE with Group by to produce super aggregate rows by cross-referencing columns.

Siva Kumar HVK CUBE function
We can use CUBE function to generate subtotals for all combinations of the values in the group by clause.( CUBE and ROLLUP are available only from 9i)

INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO,JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY CUBE(DEPTNO,JOB); OUTPUT
DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------- --------- ---------14 CLERK 4 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 3 SALESMAN 4 PRESIDENT 1 10 3 10 CLERK 1 10 MANAGER 1 10 PRESIDENT 1 20 5 20 CLERK 2 20 ANALYST 2 20 MANAGER 1 30 6 30 CLERK 1 30 MANAGER 1 DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------- --------- ---------30 SALESMAN 4 ANALYSIS

Cube displays the out with all the permutation and combination of all the columns given a CUBE function.

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Siva Kumar HVK ROLLUP FUNCTION
It is similar to that of CUBE function

INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO,JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY ROLLUP(DEPTNO,JOB) OUTPUT
DEPTNO ---------10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 3 CLERK 2 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 1 5 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 SALESMAN 4 6 14

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Siva Kumar HVK HAVING CLAUSE
Whenever we are using a group function in the condition, we have to use having clause. Having clause is used along with group by clause. For example, to display Designation wise total salaries

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 4150 MANAGER 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 SALESMAN 5600

To Display only those designations, whose total salary is more than 5000

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SUM(SAL) > 5000 GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SUM(SAL) > 5000 GROUP BY JOB * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here

ANALYSIS
Where clause doesn’t allow using group function in the condition. When we are using group function in the condition, we have to use having clause.

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Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING SUM(SAL) > 5000; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 MANAGER 8275 SALESMAN 5600

ANALYSIS
Displays all the designations whose total salary is more than 5000.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING COUNT(*) BETWEEN 3 AND 5; OUTPUT
JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 SALESMAN 4

ANALYSIS
Displays all the designations whose number where employees between 3 and 5

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Siva Kumar HVK INPUT
SQL> SELECT SAL FROM EMP GROUP BY SAL HAVING COUNT(SAL) > 1;

OUTPUT
SAL ---------1250 3000

ANALYSIS
Displays all the salaries, which are appearing more than one time in the table.

POINTS TO REMEMBER • WHERE clause can be used to check for conditions based on values of columns and expressions but not the result of GROUP functions. HAVING clause is specially designed to evaluate the conditions that are based on group functions such as SUM , COUNT etc. HAVING clause can be used only when GROUP BY clause is used.

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Siva Kumar HVK ORDER OF EXECUTION Here are the rules ORCALE uses to execute different clauses given in SELECT command Selects rows based on Where clause Groups rows based on GROUP BY clause Calculates results for each group Eliminate groups based on HAVING clause Then ORDER BY is used to order the results Example INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB.SUM (SAL) FROM EMP WHERE JOB != ‘CLERK’ GROUP BY JOB HAVING SUM(SAL) > 5000 ORDER BY JOB DESC. 121 .

Siva Kumar HVK EXERCISE ANNEXURE – A QUERY 2 122 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 2 2 Hrs Topics Nested Sub Queries Single row Sub queries Multi Row Sub query Multi column Sub query Co-related Sub query Scalar Sub Queries ANY ALL and EXISTS Exercise 123 .

Siva Kumar HVK Presentation Nested Sub queries Nesting is the act of embedding a sub query within another sub query. 124 . We can write different types sub queries Single row sub queries Multi row sub queries Multi column sub queries Correlated sub queries. SYNTAX Select * FROM SOMETHING WHERE (SUBQUERY (SUBQUERY (SUBQUERY))). Sub queries can be nested as deeply as your implementation of SQL allows. then we have to write different queries one included in another. Whenever particular information is not accessible through a single query.

OUTPUT ENAME HIREDATE ---------.Siva Kumar HVK Single row sub query A Sub query which returns only one value. OUTPUT ENAME -----------KING SAL ---------5000 ANALYSIS Right side query is called as child query and left side query is called parent query. To get the employee. For example. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. who is drawing maximum salary? INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.--------ADAMS 12-JAN-83 ANALYSIS Display the least experienced employee 125 .SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL = ( SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP). HIREDATE FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE = ( SELECT MAX(HIREDATE) FROM EMP). child query executes first before executing parent query. In nested queries.

OUTPUT ENAME SAL ---------.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. Query To display all the employees whose salary lines between minimum and maximum salaries INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN (SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP) AND (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP). 126 .SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL < (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP).---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Display all the employees whose salary is less than the maximum salary of all the employees.

SAL FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO=30 AND SAL < (SELECT MAX (SAL) FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = 20). Multi row Sub queries A sub query.ENAME. which returns more than one value. we have to use IN operator for comparison.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL IN(SELECT SAL FROM EMP GROUP BY SAL HAVING COUNT(*)> 1). OUTPUT ENAME ---------.WARD MARTIN SCOTT FORD SAL --------1250 1250 3000 3000 ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who are drawing similar salaries When child query returns more than one value. 127 . Query Display all the employees from department 30 whose salary is less than maximum salary of department 20. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. INPUT SQL>SELECT ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK Display all the employees who are getting maximum commission in the organization SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM = (SELECT MAX(COMM) FROM EMP).

SQL> SELECT EMPNO.ENAME.SAL FROM EMP WHERE (DEPTNO. 128 . ANALYSIS Identify the employee who is drawing minimum salary and update with the maximum salary of all the employees.DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK Multi Column Sub Queries When sub queries returns values from different columns.MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO).---------KING 10 5000 SCOTT 20 3000 FORD 20 3000 BLAKE 30 2850 ANALYSIS Display all the employees who are drawing maximum salaries in each department DML STATEMENTS IN SUB QUERIES To modify the salary of an employee who is drawing minimum salary with the salary of the employee who is drawing maximum salary INPUT SQL> UPDATE EMP SET SAL = (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP) WHERE EMPNO = (SELECT EMPNO FROM EMP WHERE SAL = (SELECT MIN (SAL) FROM EMP)). OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7839 7788 7902 7698 ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------.SAL)IN (SELECT DEPTNO.---------.

Inserts all the selected rows into EMP1 table. 129 . ANALYSIS EMP1 is an existing table.Siva Kumar HVK To insert selected rows from emp table to emp1 table INPUT SQL> INSERT INTO EMP1 SELECT * FROM EMP .

depending upon the value passed by sub query.Siva Kumar HVK CORRELATED SUB QUERIES A correlated sub query is a sub query that receives a value from the main query and then sends a value back to main query.DEPTNO).DEPTNO. EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7782 7844 7876 7900 7934 ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------. For example Display all the employees whose salary is less than maximum salary of each department SQL> SELECT EMPNO.---------. This continues until all rows of main query are retrieved 130 .---------SMITH 20 800 ALLEN 30 1600 WARD 30 1250 JONES 20 2975 MARTIN 30 1250 CLARK 10 2450 TURNER 30 1500 ADAMS 20 1100 JAMES 30 950 MILLER 10 1300 ANALYSIS Find department wise maximum salaries and display the employees whose salary is less than that value for each department Execution Sequence of steps in Correlated sub queries A row from main query is retrieved Executes sub query with the value retrieved from main query Sub query returns a value to main query Main query’s current row is either selected or not.SAL FROM EMP X WHERE SAL < (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = X.ENAME.

ename. OR select deptno.sal<(select max(sal) from emp where deptno = e. 2. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7788 7902 ENAME SAL ---------.deptno). select e. e. Display the employees who have no one reporting to? A. job.empno.deptno). A Few More Examples on Correlated Subqueries: 1. 4. select empno.ENAME. select empno. select ename.deptno).sal). Display the employees who have atleast one person reportig to them? A.ename. deptno from emp e where exists (select 1 from emp where mgr = e. select distinct deptno. 5. job. Display the employees who are earning more than the avg salary in thier respective depts? A. 3.deptno.empno). Display the employees who are not getting max sal in each dept? A. ename. deptno from emp e where &n = (select count(*) from emp where sal > x.empno. deptno from emp e where sal > (select avg(sal) from emp where deptno = e. select ename. 6. Find the deptnos which doesnt have any emps in it? A.ename. sal.sal from emp e 131 . sal.sal from emp e where e.empno).deptno).SAL). Display all the employee details under the deptnos which have less than N number of employees in it? A. 7. e. dname from dept d where not exists (select 1 from emp where deptno = d.sal from emp e where &n >= (select count(*) from emp where deptno = e.Siva Kumar HVK To display the nth highest paid employee INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.SAL FROM EMP X WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SAL >=X.---------SCOTT 3000 FORD 3000 ANALYSIS It selects each row from emp table from parent query and finds the distinct count for each salary whose salary >= the salary returned by main query. Display the details of employee who is drawing nth max sal from emp table? A. deptno from emp e where exists (select 1 from emp where mgr = e. select deptno.

And the conditions which filter out the maximum records should be placed at the end after the joins as the parsing is done from BOTTOM to TOP.EMPNO) . 132 .deptno group by deptno having count(1)<= &n) order by deptno.ename / Least Efficient ( 156 Mill Sec) SQL>SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. SQL>SELECT * FROM EMP E WHERE 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. Most Efficient (110 Mill Sec) SQL>SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. SQL>SELECT * FROM EMP E WHERE SAL >=5000 AND JOB = 'MANAGER' AND 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. SQL> SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK where exists (select 1 from emp where deptno=e.EMPNO) and SAL >=5000 AND JOB = 'MANAGER' SQL> SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. Table joins should be written first before any condition of WHERE clause.

---------ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS >ANY displays greater than any values in the list.Siva Kumar HVK ANY And ALL Operators Both are used for comparing one value against a set of values. The operator can be any one of the standard relational operators ( =. 133 . <. !=) and list is a series of values. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL ---------. <= . >=. >.ENAME.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL > ANY(SELECT SAL FROM EMP). SYNTAX Operator ANY list Operator ALL list INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.

SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL < ANY (SELECT SAL FROM EMP).SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL >ALL(SELECT SAL FROM EMP).ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.ENAME. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL ---------. OUTPUT no rows selected ANALYSIS Greater than Maximum of list 134 .---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Less than ANY of the list of values INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.

2000.ENAME.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.---------.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL <ALL(3000.---------7839 KING 5000 ANALYSIS Greater than maximum of List INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.4000).---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Less than minimum of List 135 .4000).SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL >ALL(3000. OUTPUT EMPNO ENAME SAL ---------. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7654 7844 7876 7900 7934 ENAME SAL ---------.2000.

It checks any row is retrieved from sub query or not. INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. If any row is retrieved from sub query the EXISTS returns true otherwise it returns False.SAL. Remember The following important points to be remembered while dealing with sub queries Sub query can not use ORDER BY clause. EXISTS is different from other operators like IN . OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL MGR ---------. instead.MGR FROM EMP X WHERE EXISTS(SELECT MGR FROM EMP WHERE X.Siva Kumar HVK EXISTS And NOT EXISTS Operators These two operators are exclusively used in correlated sub query. and NOT EXISTS does the opposite. Because ORDER BY clause must be the last clause of SELECT BETWEEN … AND operator can not be used with Sub queries 136 . because it doesn’t compare values of columns.---------.MGR = EMPNO). ANY etc.ENAME.---------SMITH 800 7902 ALLEN 1600 7698 WARD 1250 7698 JONES 2975 7839 MARTIN 1250 7698 BLAKE 2850 7839 CLARK 2450 7839 SCOTT 3000 7566 TURNER 1500 7698 ADAMS 1100 7788 JAMES 950 7698 FORD 3000 7566 MILLER 1300 7782 Note :Use EXISTS in place of IN for Base Tables to improve the performance. EXISTS checks whether any row is existing in the sub query.

Display the employees from other departments whose designation is matching with the designation of the above employee. Display the details of subjects that have been taken by more than two students 137 .Siva Kumar HVK Exercise In department 20. one employee is drawing minimum salary and is having some designation. Display all the employees whose salary is within ±1000 from the average salary of all the employees. Display the employees who reported to KING Display all the employees whose salary is less than the minimum salary of MANAGERS. Display the details of students who have paid the highest amount so far in their course.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 3 2 Hrs Exercise Annexure Query III 138 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 4 1 Hrs Revision / Doubts 139 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 1&2 5 Hrs Topics Integrity Constraints DDL and DML commands Transactional Control statements Referential Integrity constraints Exercise 140 .

Constraints are normally defined at the time of creating table. View a constraint in the Data dictionary . But it is also possible to define constraints after the table is created. Oracle server makes sure that the constraints are not violated whenever a row is inserted. Define a constraint at the column or table level. 141 .Siva Kumar HVK Presentation INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS Constraints are used to implement standard rules such as uniqueness in the key filed and business rule such as AGE column should contain a value between 15 and 60 etc.At the same time as the table is created. or . Constraint Guidelines Name a constraint or the Oracle server generates a name by using the SYS_Cn format Create a constraint either: . If constraint is not satisfied the operation will fail.After the table has been created. deleted or updated.

i. UNIQUE + NOT NULL = PRIMARY KEY • Automatically creates unique index to enforce uniqueness. Various types of Integrity constraints PRIMARY KEY UNIQUE NOT NULL CHECK PRIMARY KEY It is used to uniquely identify rows in a table. Column Constraint A constraint given at the column level is called as Column constraint. ( It maintains uniqueness in the data and null values are not acceptable). It may consist of more than one column. It may refer to more than one column of the table.Siva Kumar HVK TYPES OF CONSTRAINTS Constraints are classified into two types Table Constraints Column Constraints Table Constraint A constraint given at the table level is called as Table Constraint. if so. A typical example is PRIMARY KEY constraint that is used to define composite primary key. It cannot refer to column other than the column. 142 . There can be only one primary key in a table. at which it is defined. it is called as composite primary key. A typical example is PRIMARY KEY constraint when a single column is the primary key of the table.e. It defines a rule for a single column.

Siva Kumar HVK UNIQUE acceptable. For example. or delete from a pseudocolumn. 143 . you cannot insert into. no two rows of table can have duplicate values in a specified column or set of columns. Note: The NOT NULL constraint can be specified only at the column level.Queries that refer to other values in other rows Note: . The column (or set of columns) included in the definition of the UNIQUE key constraint is called the unique key.Pseudocolumns are not actual columns in a table but they behave like columns. Defines a condition that each row must satisfy The following expressions are not allowed . If the UNIQUE constraint comprises more than one column.that is.USER functions . NOT NULL Uniqueness not maintained and null values are not acceptable.References to CURRVAL. update. you can select clause from pseudo columns.UID. Maintains unique and NULL values are Example : EmailID A UNIQUE key integrity constraint requires that every value in a column or set of columns (key) be unique. • Oracle automatically creates a unique index for the column.Calls to SYSDATE. CHECK Defines the condition that should be satisfied before insertion and updating is done. the group of columns is called a composite unique key. NEXTVAL and ROWNUM pseudocolumns . However. not at the table level.

“-“ i. Create Table CREATE TABLE <TABLE-NAME> (COLUMN DEFINITION1. Example : SQL>CREATE TABLE EMPL47473 (EMPNO NUMBER(3)CONSTRAINT PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO PRIMARY KEY. A table or a column name must never start a number but they can contain numbers in them 2. Drop DDL STATEMENTS COMMITS AUTOMATICALLY. “#”. Columns in a table = 1000 Rules: 1. SALARY NUMBER (7.2) CHECK (SALARY BETWEEN 10000 AND 70000)).# are used mainly for system tables. $. Syntax :Column Def : <Name> Data type [Default Value] [constraint <name> constraint type] Note: = Min.’F’)). Alter. ENAME VARCHAR2 (10) NOT NULL. Column in a table = 1 Max. There is no need to save explicitly.Siva Kumar HVK DDL (Data Definition language) Create. They can’t consist of any special characters other than “$”. DESIGNATION VARCHAR2 (15). 144 . GENDER CHAR(1) CONSTRAINT CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER CHECK(UPPER (GENDER) IN (‘M’. EMAIL_ID VARCHAR2 (30) UNIQUE. COLUMN DEFINITION2).e.

Tables defined by a user are stored in a data dictionary table USER_TABLES SQL> DESCRIBE USER_CONSTRAINTS SQL> SELECT CONSTRAINT_NAME. Select statement is used to view the constraints defined on the table 145 . CONSTRAINT_TYPE.'F') SALARY BETWEEN 10000 AND 70000 SYS_C003022 Describe displays structure of the data dictionary table. system creates a constraint with the name SYS_Cn. OUTPUT CONSTRAINT_NAME CONSTRAINTTYPE SEARCH_CONDITION ---------------------------.------------------------------------------------------SYS_C003018 C "ENAME" IS NOT NULL CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER SYS_C003020 PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO ANALYSIS C C P UPPER (GENDER) IN ('M'. Constraints defined on a particular table are store in a data dictionary table USER_CONSTRAINTS. SEARCH_CONDITION FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'EMPL47473'. USER_CONS_COLUMNS.Siva Kumar HVK Note : Constraint name is useful for manipulating the given constraint When the constraint name is not given at the time of defining constraints.

COLUMN_NAME FROM USER_CONS_COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'EMPL47473'. Select statement is used to view the constraints defined on the column 146 .---------------------------GENDER EMPNO ENAME SALARY EMAIL_ID ANALYSIS Describe displays structure of the data dictionary table.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> DESCRIBE USER_CONS_COLUMNS SQL> SELECT CONSTRAINT_NAME. OUTPUT CONSTRAINT_NAME --------------------------------CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO SYS_C003018 SYS_C003020 SYS_C003022 COLUMN_NAME .

Siva Kumar HVK ALTER TABLE Used to modify the structure of a table SYNTAX ALTER TABLE <TABLENAME> [ ADD | MODIFY | DROP | RENAME] ( COLUMN(S)).for modifying the structure of columns . It creates constraint name with SYS_Cn.for renaming the column name ( Only from 9i) SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD (ADDRESS VARCHAR2 (30). ADD MODIFY DROP RENAME .for removing a column in the table ( 8i) . 147 . SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 MODIFY (ENAME CHAR (15). ANALYSIS To remove the primary key from table.PINCODE VARCHAR2(7)). SALARY NUMBER (8.2)). SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 RENAME COLUMN ENAME TO EMPNAME Note: This command is also useful for manipulating constraints INPUT SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP PRIMARY KEY.for adding new columns into the table . ANALYSIS To add primary key in the table without constraint name. SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP COLUMN PINCODE.ADDRESS). Other constraints are removed only by referring constraint name. SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP (DESIGNATION. INPUT SQL>ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD PRIMARY KEY(EMPNO). DOJ DATE.

’&EMPNAME’.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL>ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD CONSTRAINT PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO PRIMARY KEY(EMPNO).’RAVI’. OR SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(&EMPNO . OR SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473(EMPNO.’&EMAIL_ID’. ANALYSIS To add primary key in the table with constraint name DATA MANIPULATION INSERTING ROWS SYNTAX INSERT INTO TABLENAME [ COLUMNNAME. ANALYSIS We can’t skip primary key and NOT NULL columns 148 .SALARY) VALUES(&EMPNO.&SALARY).’RAVI’. ‘RAMESH_B@YAHOO.COLUMNNAME. 5000).’7EMPNAME’.’&GENDER’. TO INSERT SPECIFIED COLUMNS IN THE TABLE SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473(EMPNO.EMPNAME.] VALUES(VALUE1 VALUE2 VALUE3 ) SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(101.….’10-JAN-2001’).’M’.EMPNAME.5000.SALARY) VALUES(101.COM’.&SALARY.’&DOJ’).

SQL> SAVEPOINT A SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(106.’10-JAN-2001’).’LATHA’. For saving the information we have to use a command COMMIT. SAVEPOINT We can use save points to roll back portions of your current set of transactions For example SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(105.’KIRAN’.COM’.’F’. SQL>ROLLBACK. ‘KIRAN_B@YAHOO. SQL> SAVEPOINT B 149 .’15-JAN-2002’).’M’.5000.SAVEPOINT ( Called as Transactional processing statements) SQL>COMMIT. ANALYSIS Shadow page destroys automatically without transferring the information back to the table.Siva Kumar HVK Note :.5000. ‘LATHA_D@YAHOO. ANALYSIS Information from shadow page flushed back to the table and shadow page gets destroyed automatically. ROLLBACK.COM’.Changes made on the database are recorded only in the shadow page.

When we SELECT data from the table SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPL47473. Note : Rollback works only on uncommitted data A DDL transaction after a DML transaction.15000.--------KIRAN_B@YAHOO. such as a computer failure. any DDL command forces a commit. exit (the equivalent to exit). it does this as cleanup work the next time the database is brought back up. Oracle automatically roll back any uncommitted work. ‘RADHA_V@GMAIL. 150 . IMPLICIT COMMIT The actions that will force a commit to occur. We can use an Environment command SET VERIFY OFF to remove the old and new messages while inserting data. even without your instructing it to.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(107.’15-JAN-2002’).---------.’F’.COM 5000 10-JAN-01 LATHA_D@YAHOO.COM 5000 15-JAN-02 RADHA_V@GMAIL. If the machine or database goes down. Now roll back just the last insert: SQL> ROLLBACK TO B. updates or deletes. and you experience serious difficulties. but not yet explicitly or implicitly committed them.COM’. or quit.’RADHA’. EMPNO ------105 106 107 EMPNAME ---------KIRAN LATHA RADHA G M F F EMAIL_ID SALARY DOJ -----------------. AUTO ROLLBACK If you’ve completed a series of inserts. automatically commits.COM 15000 15-JAN-02 The output shows the three new records we’ve added .

All locks acquired during statement processing Space in the redo log buffer cache Overhead associated with any internal Oracle mechanisms to manage the resources in the previous three items. By issuing frequent COMMIT statements. 151 .Siva Kumar HVK ISSUE Frequent commit statements Whenever possible. the performance of the program is enhanced & its resource requirements are minimized as COMMIT frees up the following resources: Information held in the rollback segments to undo the transaction if necessary. issue frequent COMMIT statements in all your programs.

SAL*1.2. column2 = expression WHERE <condition>.15).SAL*1. Example SQL> CREATE TABLE EMP47473 AS SELECT EMPNO.SAL. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. 152 . ANALYSIS To give uniform increments to all the employees SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SAL = DECODE (JOB. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. UPDATING ROWS This command is used to change the data of the table SYNTAX UPDATE <TABLENAME> SET column1 = expression.Siva Kumar HVK CREATING A TABLE FROM ANOTHER TABLE SYNTAX CREATE TABLE <TABLENAME> AS SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <EXISTING TABLE> [WHERE <CONDITION>].’CLERK’.1. To add a new column in the table SQL> ALTER TABLE EMP47473 ADD(SEX CHAR(1)). SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473.1.SAL*1.ENAME.JOB FROM EMP. ‘SALESMAN’. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SAL = SAL*1.

’Ms. Before the existing name as per the SEX value 153 .’MILLER’. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. ANALYSIS ADD Mr.’M’. or Ms.’||ENAME. SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.’BLAKE’). SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473 . SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET ENAME = DECODE(SEX. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SEX = ‘F’ WHERE SEX IS NULL.’Mr.’||ENAME). SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SEX = ‘M’ WHERE ENAME IN (‘KING’.

154 .Siva Kumar HVK DELETING ROWS - SYNTAX DELETE FROM <TABLENAME> WHERE <CONDITION>. TRUNCATING A TABLE SYNTAX TRUNCATE TABLE <TABLENAME> Note : Removes all the rows from table. SQL> DELETE FROM EMP47473 WHERE SEX = ‘M’. it automatically commits. SQL> COMMIT | ROLLBACK. It is a DDL statement. Once the table is truncated. It removes the data along with table definitions and the table. Deleting specified rows is Not possible. It is a DDL statement Droping a table SYNTAX DROP TABLE <TABLENAME> Note : Table is dropped permanently.

155 .Siva Kumar HVK Adding comments to a table You can add comments up to 2000 bytes about a column. The comment is stored in the data dictionary and can be viewed in one of the following data dictionary views in the COMMENTS column: ALL_COL_COMMENTS USER_COL_COMMENTS ALL_TAB_COMMENTS USER_TAB_COMMENTS Syntax COMMENT ON TABLE table | COLUMN table. view by using the COMMENT statement.column IS ‘text’ . table.

dno) Deptno of Department47473 is a primary key Empno of Employee47473 is a primary key Dno of Employee47473 is a reference key 156 .Siva Kumar HVK REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS This constraint is useful for maintaining relation with other table. dname) Employee47473 (Empno. salary. On Delete Set NULL Converts dependent foreign key values to null. On delete cascade Deletes the dependent rows in the child table when a row in the parent table is deleted. Various referential integrity constraints we can use in Oracle are Foreign Key References On delete cascade On Delete Set NULL Foreign Key: Defines the column in the child table at the table constraint level References table Identifies the table and column in the parent Reference key accepts NULL and duplicate values. ename. Example Department47473 (Deptno .

2) check(salary > 0). quantity number (3) check (quantity > 0). stock number (3) check (stock > 0)). SQL>Create table itemtran (trnno number (3). SQL>Create table itemmaster (itemno number (3) primary key. trntype char (1) check (upper (trntype) in (‘R’. salary number(7. itemno number (3) references itemmaster (itemno).Siva Kumar HVK Solution SQL>Create table department47473 (deptno number(3) primary key. 157 . Assume the case where supermarket selling various items and customers order the items. dname varchar2(20) Not null). dno number(3) references department47473(deptno) on delete cascade). primary key (trnno. Itemno Trnno Itemmaster itemname stock Itemtran itemno trndate trntype quantity Assume the case where with each transaction customer orders more than one item. itemno)).’I’)). itemname varchar2 (10). SQL>Create table employee47473(empno number(3) primary key. trndate date. ename varchar2(10) Not null.

ANALYSIS Removing the primary key along with Reference key ALTER TABLE <TABLENAME> DISABLE PRIMARY KEY ALTER TABLE <tablename> DISABLE PRIMARY KEY CASCADE. Note : It is not possible to enable using cascade 158 .Siva Kumar HVK DROP TABLE <TABLENAME> CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ANALYSIS Dropping the table along with constraints ALTER TABLE <tablename> DROP PRIMARY KEY CASCADE.

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise • Consider a training institute conducting different courses. attributes and define them with relations 159 . into which the students are joining for various courses ( Also. assume the case where same student can join in more than one course) The students may pay the fee in installments • Identify the tables.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 3 2 Hrs Topics Joins 160 .

Siva Kumar HVK
Presentation

JOINS Objectives
Join will enable you to gather and manipulate data across several tables. By One of the most powerful features of SQL is its capability to gather and manipulate data from across several tables. Without this feature you would have to store all the data elements necessary for each application in one table. Without common tables you would need to store the same data in several tables.

Objectives After completing this lesion, you should be able to do the following. ■ Write SELECT statements to access data from more than one table using equality and nonequality join. ■ View Data that generally does not meet condition by using outer joins ■ Join a table itself by using self join a join

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Siva Kumar HVK TYPES OF JOINS Oracle Proprietary Joins(8i and prior) ●EquiJoin ●Non-equi join ●Outer join ●SelfJoin SQL:1999 Compliant Joins: ● Cross Joins ● Natural Joins ● Using caluse ● Full or two sided outer join ● Arbitrary join conditions For Outer joins

Types of Joins
The Oracle 9i database offers join syntax that is SQL: 1999 compliant. Prior to 9i release, the join syntax was different from the ANSI standards. The new SQL: 1999 compliant join syntax does not offer any performance benefits over the Oracle proprietary join syntax that existed in prior releases.

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Siva Kumar HVK

Joining tables using Oracle Syntax
Use a join to query data from more than one table SELECT Table1.column1, table2.column2

FROM table1,table2 WHERE table1.column1 = table2.column2;
• Write the join condition in the WHERE clause. Prefix the column name with table name when the same column name appears in more than one table.

Guidelines • When writing a SELECT statement that joins tables, precede the common column name with the table name for clarify and to enhance database access. If the same column name appears in more than one table, the column name must be prefixed with the table name. To join n tables together, you need a minimum of n-1 join conditions. This rule many not apply if your table has a concatenated primary key, in which case more than one column is required to uniquely identify each row.

• •

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Siva Kumar HVK

What is An Equi Join?

Departments

Employees

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Siva Kumar HVK Equi join
Extracting the information from more than one table by comparing ( = ) the common information. Note : Equi Joins are also called as simple joins or Inner Joins

To display common column information

SQL> SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,DNAME FROM EMP,DEPT WHERE EMP.DEPTNO = DEPT.DEPTNO;
OUTPUT
EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD JOB SAL DNAME --------- ---------- ---------MANAGER 2450 ACCOUNTING PRESIDENT 5000 ACCOUNTING CLERK 1300 ACCOUNTING CLERK 800 RESEARCH CLERK 1100 RESEARCH ANALYST 3000 RESEARCH ANALYST 3000 RESEARCH MANAGER 2975 RESEARCH SALESMAN 1600 SALES MANAGER 2850 SALES SALESMAN 1250 SALES CLERK 950 SALES SALESMAN 1500 SALES SALESMAN 1250 SALES

ANALYSIS Efficiency is more when we compare the information from lower data table(master table) to Higher data table( child table). When Oracle processes multiple tables, it uses an internal sort/merge procedure to join those tables. First, it scans & sorts the first table (the one specified last in FROM clause). Next, it scans the second table (the one prior to the last in the FROM clause) and merges all of the retrieved from the second table with those retrieved from the first table. It takes around 0.96 seconds

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DNAME FROM DEPT.hisal / ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose salary lies between any pair of low and high salary ranges.ENAME. ANALYSIS Here driving table is EMP. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM DEPT WHERE DEPTNO NOT IN (SELECT DISTINCT DEPTNO FROM EMP).hisal from salgrade g.ename.EMP WHERE EMP. Non-Equi joins Getting the information from more than one table without using comparison (=) operator.-------------------------40 OPERATIONS BOSTON ANALYSIS Displays the details of the department where there are no employees 166 .losal and g.grade.emp e where e. INPUT SQL> select empno.losal. It takes around 26.sal. OUTPUT DEPTNO DNAME LOC ---------. Efficiency is less.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.09 seconds So.DEPTNO.SAL.JOB.sal between g.DEPTNO = DEPT.

167 . SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT UNION ALL SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK We can also get above output using relational algebra operators. SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT UNION SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP. SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT MINUS SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP.

OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME JOB SAL DNAME ---------.Siva Kumar HVK OUTER JOIN It is a join.--------. which forcibly joins multiple tables even without having the common information. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. It is represented by +.EMP WHERE DEPT.---------.DNAME FROM DEPT.ENAME.------------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD MANAGER PRESIDENT CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYST ANALYST MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN 2450 5000 1300 800 1100 3000 3000 2975 1600 2850 1250 950 1500 1250 ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES OPERATIONS 168 .SAL.DEPTNO = EMP.JOB.DEPTNO(+).

DEPTNO. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. DNAME FROM EMP LEFT OUTER JOIN DEPT ON DEPT. RIGHT AND FULL OUTER JOIN As of Oracle 9i.--------. you can use the ANSI SQL standard syntax for outer joins. and forcibly joins from left side table to right side table. DEPT.DEPTNO = EMP. EMPNO ----------7934 7839 7782 7902 7876 7788 7566 7369 7900 7844 7698 7654 7521 7499 ENAME JOB DEPTNO DNAME ---------. In the FROM clause. you can tell Oracle to perform a LEFT.-----------MILLER KING CLARK FORD ADAMS SCOTT JONES SMITH JAMES TURNER BLAKE MARTIN WARD ALLEN CLERK PRESIDENT MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST MANAGER CLERK CLERK SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES ANALYSIS Gets the common information. RIGHT or FULL OUTER join. ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK LEFT. JOB. 169 .DEPTNO.---------.

DEPT. JOB. ENAME. DEPT. 170 . ENAME. JOB.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO. DNAME FROM DEPT LEFT OUTER JOIN EMP ON DEPT. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.DEPTNO = EMP.---------.DEPTNO. DNAME FROM DEPT RIGHT OUTER JOIN EMP ON DEPT.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING 40 OPERATIONS ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables.---------.DEPTNO.DEPTNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------. then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table.DEPTNO = EMP.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables. and then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table.

Most Efficient (Total CPU time = 10.DEPTNO = EMP. DEPT. JOB.MGR FROM EMP E WHERE 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING 40 OPERATIONS ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables. ENAME.6 sec) SELECT ENAME.JOB.EMPNO) AND SAL > 5000 AND JOB = ‘MANAGER’. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------. And the conditions which filter out the maximum records should be placed at the end after the joins as the parsing is done from BOTTOM to TOP For ex. Least Efficient (Total CPU = 153.---------. 171 . then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table.6 Sec) SELECT ENAME.DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.MGR FROM EMP E WHERE SAL > 50000 AND JOB = ‘MANAGER’ AND 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E.JOB. DNAME FROM EMP RIGHT OUTER JOIN DEPT ON DEPT. Position of Joins in where clause Table joins should be written first before any condition of WHERE clause.EMPNO).DEPTNO.

EMPNO.ENAME||'ISWORKINGUNDER'||MANAGE -------------------------------------SCOTT IS WORKING UNDER JONES FORD IS WORKING UNDER JONES ALLEN IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE WARD IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE JAMES IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE TURNER IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE MARTIN IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE MILLER IS WORKING UNDER CLARK ADAMS IS WORKING UNDER SCOTT JONES IS WORKING UNDER KING CLARK IS WORKING UNDER KING BLAKE IS WORKING UNDER KING SMITH IS WORKING UNDER FORD ANALYSIS It displays who is working under whom. OUTPUT WORKER. MGR number appearing against employee is the employee number of manager 172 .MGR = MANAGER. EMP MANAGER WHERE WORKER.ENAME FROM EMP WORKER.Siva Kumar HVK SELF JOIN Joining the table from itself is called as self join. SQL> SELECT WORKER.ENAME || ' IS WORKING UNDER ' || MANAGER.

---------. For example.DEPTNO. • It selects rows from the two tables that have equal values in all matched columns. INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. • If the columns having the same names have different data types. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.-------------MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES 173 .Siva Kumar HVK NATURAL AND INNER JOINS (Introduced in 9i) We can use natural keyword to indicate that a join should be performed based on all columns that have the same name in the two tables being joined.DNAME FROM DEPT 2 NATURAL JOIN EMP. Creating Natural Joins • The Natural join clause is based on all columns in the two tables that have the same name. To get the common information from two tables. an error is returned.ENAME.JOB.

■use the USING clause to match only one column when more than one column matches. the NATURAL JOIN clause can be modified with USING clause to specify the columns that should be used for an equijoin.Siva Kumar HVK Creating Joins with Using Caluse ■ If several columns have the same names but the data types do not match. ■Do not use a table name or alias in the referenced columns ■The NATURAL JOIN and USING clauses are mutually exclusive. 174 .

EMP. DEPT.DEPTNO.DEPTNO. so that you can specify join criteria. and are the alternative to outer joins. ENAME. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM DEPT. 175 .Siva Kumar HVK INNER JOIN Support for INNER join syntax was introduced in Oracle9i. SQL>SELECT EMPNO. DNAME FROM EMP INNER JOIN DEPT ON EMP. inner joins are the default – they return the rows the two tables have in common. OR SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP CROSS JOIN DEPT.DEPTNO = DEPT. JOB.e. ANALYSIS It multiplies the rows from both tables and displays the output i. CROSS JOIN (CARTESIAN PRODUCT) Joining tables without giving proper join condition. 14 rows (emp table) X 4 rows(dept table) = 56 rows. Note that they support ON clause.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 4 1 Hrs EXERCISE ANNEXURE QUERY III 176 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 1 3 Hrs Topics Other Objects Sequence Object Views Indexes Synonyms 177 .

Sequence is the name of the sequence generator INCREMENT BY n specifies the interval between sequence numbers where n is an integer (If this clause is omitted.) MINVALUE n specifies the minimum sequence value NOMINVALUE specifies a minimum value of 1 for an ascending sequence and – (10^26) for a descending sequence (This is the default option.) MAXVALUE n specifies the maximum value the sequence can generate NOMAXVALUE specifies a maximum value of 10^27 for an ascending sequence and –1 for a descending sequence (This is the default option. the sequence increments by 1.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation OTHER OBJECTS SEQUENCE OBJECT Used to generate sequence (Unique) Integers for use of primary keys.) START WITH n specifies the first sequence number to be generated (If this clause is omitted.) The value set must be less than MAXVALUE minus 178 .) CYCLE | NOCYCLE specifies whether the sequence continues to generate values after reaching its maximum or minimum value (NOCYCLE is the default Option. the sequence starts with 1. the Oracle server caches 20 values. SYNTAX CREATE SEQUENCE sequence [INCREMENT BY n] [START WITH n] [{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] [{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] [{CYCLE | NOCYCLE}] [{CACHE n | NOCACHE}].) CACHE n | NOCACHE specifies how many values the Oracle server preallocates and keep in memory (By default.

This sequence object provides two public member functions NEXTVAL and CURRVAL NEXTVAL is a function which generate next value from sequence object CURRVAL is a function. Note: . which gives the current value of the sequence object Assume there is a table 179 . CREATE SEQUENCE SQNO47473 START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAVALUE 10 CACHE 3 CYCLE.These sequences are stored in a data dictionary table USER_SEQUENCES.Siva Kumar HVK Example CREATE SEQUENCE SQNO47473 START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAXVALUE 10.

&SAL). ‘&ENAME’. Note : We can’t change starting value To remove the sequence object SQL> DROP SEQUENCE <SEQUENCE_NAME>. TO MODIFY THE SEQUNECE OBJECT SQL> ALTER SEQUENCE SQNO47473 INCREMENT BY 2 MAXVALUE 40. VIEWS 180 .NEXTVAL.Siva Kumar HVK EMPNO SAMPLE47473 ENAME SAL To insert the values into the table SQL> INSERT INTO SAMPLE47473 VALUES(SQNO47473.

• It is a named sub query in the FROM clause of the main query. which is a logical representation of a table A view contains no data on its own It is derived from tables Changes made in tables are automatically reflected in views As a view does not store any data the redundancy problem does not arise. which is created using sub query (it is not a schema object.+Critical data in the base table is safeguarded as access to such data can be controlled.Siva Kumar HVK A view is an object. COMPLEX view is a view. However. Changing Base Table through view 181 . Generally used in TOP N Analysis. the base table should exist before the view is used. which is created using more than one table or using group functions INLINE view is a view. It is used to reduce the complexity of the query In Oracle Oracle we can create different types of views SIMPLE COMPLEX INLINE SIMPLE view is a view. SYNTAX CREATE OR REPLACE [FORCE] VIEW <VIEWNAME> AS SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE > [ WITH READ ONLY]. which is created using only one base table. The table on which a view is based is called as base table FORCE option allows view to be created even if the base table doesn’t exist.

ENAME. Example SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW TESTVIEW47473 AS SELECT EMPNO. However for each operation certain conditions are to be satisfied.Siva Kumar HVK A view can also be used to change the data of base table A view can be used to delete. Rules for deleting row The following should NOT be used in the query.These views are stored in a data dictionary table USER_VIEWS 182 . All the rules of Delete are applicable The column being updated should not be derived from an expression.SAL FROM EMP47473. Rules for insertion of rows All the rules of UPDATE Al NOT NULL columns should be included in the view. insert and update rows in the base table. More than one table GROUP BY clause GROUP Function DISTINCT clause Pseudo column ROWNUM Rules for updating rows The following are the rules that are to be satisfied to update base table through view. Note: .

Such views are called as INLINE views. SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW SIMPLEVIEW47473 AS SELECT SUBSTR(HIREDATE. ANALYSIS View becomes a read only view WITH CHECK OPTION This option is used to prevent any changes to base table through view. COUNT(*) NUMB FROM EMP47473 GROUP BY JOB.-2) YEAR. SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW CHKVIEW AS SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = 20 WITH CHECK OPTION. We can also create a view using group functions.SAL FROM EMP47473 WITH READ ONLY. Insertion and updation is not allowed into base table through view. It doesn’t allow you to update the condition column as well as it doesn’t allow you to insert the details of employees with DEPTNO other than 20. ENAME. INDEX 183 . They are by default read only.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW TESTVIEW47473 AS SELECT EMPNO. To remove a view SQL> DROP VIEW <VIEWNAME>.

The following are the cases in which Oracle does NOT use index. Just like how book index is sorted in the ascending order of topics. Page number in book index is similar to ROWID if Oracle index.Siva Kumar HVK The concept indexing in Oracle is same as a book index.A UNIQUE index is automatically created when you use PRIMARY KEY and UNIQUE constraints An index can have up to 32 columns. Note :.column2.e. an index in Oracle is a list of values of a column in the ascending order. An oracle index is a database object. It contains the values of the indexed column(s) in the ascending order along with address of each row. Oracle server decides whether to use an index or not.Indexes are stored in the data dictionary table USER_INDEXES. 184 . I. SELECT doesn’t contain WHERE clause When the data size is less SELECT contains WHERE clause. Why to Use An INDEX INDEXES in ORACLE are used for two purposes To speed up data retrieval and thereby improving performance of query To enforce uniqueness Note :. The address of rows are obtained using ROWID pseudo column. SYNTAX CREATE [UNIQUE] INDEX index_name ON table(column1. When Oracle Does Not Use Index Oracle index is completely automatic.…).. you never have to open or close an index. but WHERE clause doesn’t refer to indexed column.

if not designed carefully. So. Having many indexes may have negative impact on the performance because whenever there is a change in the table. A new row’s insertion will effect index and Oracle server implicitly updates index. SQL> CREATE INDEX IDX_NAME ON EMP(UPPER(ENAME)). FUNCTIONAL INDEX As of Oracle8i. When we create index on such columns. So this will put more burden on the machine if more number of indexes are created on a table.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT contains WHERE clause and WHERE clause uses indexed columns but indexed column is modified in the WHERE clause. Negative Side of an Index INDEX plays an important role in improving performance. Removing an index doesn’t invalidate existing applications. 185 . we may store the information in any case. but at the same time not having an index may effects performance. because applications are not directly dependent on index. we can create functional-based indexes. we can convert them in to single case. But at the same time it may also degrade performance. Dropping an Index SYNTAX DROP INDEX <INDEXNAME>. immediately index is to reflect that change. When we are storing alpha-numeric information. before creating index. information is placed in different ranges of indexes.

all in the schema of the materialized view. Materialized View Log: When DML changes are made to master table data. Oracle Database uses these objects to maintain the materialized view data. a materialized view contains the rows resulting from a query against one or more base tables or views. Oracle Database must re-execute the materialized view query to refresh the materialized view. Oracle Database creates one internal table and at least one index.SAL FROM EMP ORDER BY SAL DESC) WHERE ROWNUM <= 3. This process is called a complete refresh. Oracle Database stores rows describing those changes in the materialized view log and then uses the materialized view log to refresh materialized views based on the master table. SELECT ROWNUM. A materialized view provides access to table data by storing the results of a query in a separate schema object. Example ROWID ROWNUM SYADATE NEXTVAL CURRVAL NULL LEVEL Are called as Pseudo-columns. replicate. and may create one view. a fast refresh takes less time than a complete refresh. ENAME. and distribute data. Unlike an ordinary view. A materialized view log is located in the master database in the same schema as the master table.SAL FROM (SELECT EMPNO. Usually. compute.EMPNO. Materialized Views: Materialized views are schema objects that can be used to summarize.ENAME. A master table can have only one materialized view log defined on 186 . This process is called incremental or fast refresh. You must have the privileges necessary to create these objects. EMPNO. TO DISPLAY 3 HIGHEST PAID EMPLOYEES SQL> SELECT ROWNUM. When you create a materialized view. ENAME FROM EMP. Without a materialized view log. which does not take up any storage space or contain any data.Siva Kumar HVK PSEUDO COLUMN A pseudo-column is a column that yields a value when selected but which is not an actual column of the table.

you must create a materialized view log for each of the tables referenced by the materialized view. Oracle performs a complete refresh even if a fast refresh is possible. The default index is used to speed up incremental (FAST) refresh of the materialized view. Syntax: <CACHE | NOCACHE> REFRESH MODES FAST Clause The FAST refreshes use the materialized view logs (as seen above) to send the rows that have changed from master tables to the materialized view. Oracle Database can use this materialized view log to perform fast refreshes for all fast-refreshable materialized views based on the master table. Syntax: <USING INDEX | USING NO INDEX> Follow the Steps: 187 . To fast refresh a materialized join view. You should create a materialized view log for the master tables if you specify the REFRESH FAST clause. Force Clause When you specify a FORCE clause. then default tablespace values are used. Syntax: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW <[schema.]name> [LOGGING] [CACHE] [TABLESPACE <tablespace_name>] BUILD IMMEDIATE [REFRESH <FAST | FORCE | COMPLETE>] [ON <COMMIT | DEMAND>] [<USING INDEX | USING NO INDEX>] [START WITH <date> NEXT <date_calculation>] [FOR UPDATE] [STORAGE CLAUSE] AS (<SQL statement>). This attribute is useful for small lookup tables. FORCE is the default. BUILD: Specifies when to populate the materialized view. Complete Clause The complete refresh re-creates the entire materialized view. COMPLETE. or FORCE). If you do not specify a refresh method (FAST.Siva Kumar HVK it. NOCACHE specifies that the blocks are placed at the least recently used end of the LRU list. USING INDEX If USING INDEX is not specified. Specify IMMEDIATE to indicate that the materialized view is to be populated immediately. Oracle performs a fast refresh if possible. otherwise complete refresh. CACHE specifies that the blocks retrieved for this table are placed at the most recently used end of the least recently used (LRU) list in the buffer cache when a full table scan is performed. If you request a complete refresh. CACHE: For data that will be accessed frequently.

Now. Select * from emp_2mv. create materialized view log on emp_2 with primary key. CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW emp_2mv BUILD IMMEDIATE REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT AS SELECT * FROM emp_2. Create a force materialized view as follows: create materialized view emp_2mv build immediate refresh force on demand with primary key as select * from emp_2. 8. So. Now repeat the 2nd step. create or replace view emp_2v as select * from emp_2. issue the select statement on materialized view too. 3. Desc user_snapshots. Inference: As the materialized view definition is ON COMMIT. 188 . issue the COMMIT statement and check the emp_2mv. Create a normal view on emp_2. 2.Siva Kumar HVK 1. select name. rowid. it didn’t get updated the changes till the commit statement. Update any row and check for changes. Select * from emp_2v. Find the difference that materialized view doesn’t updates the changes. update emp_2 set mgr = 3456 where empno = 2345. now create a log on the table. Try to create a materialized view as follows on the same table(cannot create a refresh FAST materialized view without creating log on the table). Create materialized view log afresh with primary key. query from user_snapshots where regexp_like(name. Check the definition of materialized views in USER_SNAPSHOTS data dictionary table. 5. Without commit statement first check the normal view. Now. Observe the change. 7. 6. 4. 9. Update the view as follows update emp_2 set mgr = 7788 where empno = 2345. '[eE][mM][pP][_]'). Now. create materialized view log on emp_2 with primary key. drop all the materialized view logs and views on the table emp_2.

Use DBMS_MVIEW. create materialized view emp_2mv refresh complete start with sysdate next sysdate+1/24*60*30 as select * from emp_2. Below is the example which refreshes the materialized view data every day at night 12.refresh(‘emp_2mv’). There would not be any changes.01.02am.REFRESH built-in package to refresh the materialized view. execute dbms_mview. Now.Siva Kumar HVK select * from emp_2mv. 189 . We can automate the process of refreshing materialized view at some time in a day or weekly. observe the changes in materialized view.

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1) Display the string SATYAM in the format S A T Y A M 2) Display only even rows from the table 3) Display one year calendar 4) Display how many a’s are there in the given string 5) Remove duplicate rows from the given table Empno ename 1 x 2 y 3 z 1 x 3 z 6) Find out how many columns are there in a given table(Use the data dictionary table USER_TAB_COLUMNS) Course : Oracle 190 .

Siva Kumar HVK Day Session Duration : : : 5 2 2 Hrs Topics Advanced Queries Analytical Queries Presentation 191 .

88 10 111807. DEFAULT_RANK SAL -----------. Oracle has embedded analytical functions in SQL statement to cater to most of the requirements of data mining. they get the same rank.32 6 184563. In the example. and n-tiles of the values in a result set.68 7 153802.---------1 855945. For example. These functions are listed below Ranking For calculating ranks.6 11 66870.6 1 855945. see the ranks between 1 and 4. to find out top three salaried employees SQL> SELECT RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL DESC) DEFAULT_RANK.91 ANALYSIS When different employees salary is same. SAL FROM EMP.6 4 641959. percentiles.6 1 855945.77 12 10000 13 6810.24 7 153802.Siva Kumar HVK ANALYTICAL QUERIES Analytical functions are used mainly for the analysis of data as required by decision-making managers.2 5 196867. There is a gap between ranks. DENSE_RANK 192 .68 9 129461.

DEFAULT_RANK SAL -----------.---------1 855945.68 5 153802.Siva Kumar HVK The main difference between RANK () and DENSE_RANK () is that in the DENSE_RANK () there is no gap between ranks.6 8 66870.24 5 153802. SAL FROM EMP.32 4 184563.68 6 129461.6 1 855945.6 1 855945.88 7 111807. SQL> SELECT DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL DESC) DEFAULT_RANK.2 3 196867.91 ROW_NUMBER 193 .77 9 10000 10 6810.6 2 641959.

6 194 .6 11 12 855945.Siva Kumar HVK The function row number assigns unique rank to each row even if they are having the same value of order by expression. The rows will get the same rank if their order by expression has the same value.---------1 1 6810.SAL FROM EMP OUTPUT DEFAULT_RANK RW_NUM SAL -----------.68 6 7 153802.88 6 6 153802.32 10 10 641959.24 9 9 196867.6 5 5 129461.---------.2 11 11 855945.77 4 4 111807. ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) RW_NUM. INPUT SQL> SELECT RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) DEFAULT_RANK.6 11 13 855945.91 2 2 10000 3 3 66870.68 8 8 184563.

--------CLERK 1234 CLERK SALESMAN 746.5 SALESMAN SALESMAN 1244. Where as NULLIF produces NULL. NVL() substitute value.COMM.JOB. This is like a complement of the NVL function. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.16 SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN 3483. if value matches. OUTPUT ENAME --------------ss ss allen WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD phani JOB COMM NULLIF(JO --------.65 SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST ANALYST SALESMAN 0 SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYST ANALYST se 20000 se ANALYSIS It is just opposite to NVL().'MANAGER') FROM EMP. It produces NULL value if the expression has a specified value. NVL2 Function 195 .Siva Kumar HVK NULLIF FUNCTION This function produces NULL value if the expression has a specified value.---------.NULLIF(JOB. if its is NULL.

COMM.expr2. NVL2 returns expr2. INPUT SQL> SELECT COMM. which is having the first NOT NULL value.COMM.0) ---------. OUTPUT COMM NVL2(COMM. The arguments expr2 and expr3 can have any datatype except LONG. 196 .NVL2(COMM. either expr2 or expr3 will be returned.----------------0 300 300 500 500 0 1400 1400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coalesce Function This function takes n arguments and produces first argument. Syntax NVL2(expr1. If expr1 is NULL . If expr1 is not NULL. The expr1 can have any data type. NVL2 returns expr3.Siva Kumar HVK It is an extended form of NVL.expr3) In NVL2. expr1 can never be returned.0) FROM EMP.

Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT ENAME.16 20 7839 855945.6 641959. Using this facility you Load data in multiple tables in single insert statement Load multiple rows in the same table in single insert statement Load data conditionally in the table.6 855945. MGR. MGR) COAL FROM EMP.---------.88 111807.6 66870.77 20 7566 66870. DEPTNO.32 30 7698 746.6 30 7839 855945.16 JONES 855945.5 WARD 1244. SAL. ENAME COMM --------------ss ss 1234 allen 746.2 184563. SAL.6 30 7698 111807.5 153802.68 30 7698 3483.24 30 7698 0 129461.6 10 7839 855945. COALESCE (COMM. DEPTNO.65 BLAKE CLARK SCOTT TURNER 0 ADAMS JAMES FORD phani 20000 SAL DEPTNO MGR COAL ---------.68 30 7698 1244.77 10000 90 9822 20000 Multiple Insert and Merge statements Oracle 9i provides enhanced facility of loading data in the table using select statement. COMM.2 20 7566 641959.---------6810.65 855945.88 20 7788 129461.6 153802.91 20 7902 1234 196867.6 MARTIN 3483. Multiple insert statement There are four types of multiple inert statements Unconditional insert statement Pivoting insert statement Conditional insert statement Insert first statement Unconditional Insert Statement 197 .---------.

pname.deptno). Conditional Insert statement It inserts the data into the table only when condition is satisfied.software s.table2.Siva Kumar HVK This statement enables to you insert data in multiple tables using a single insert statement.deptno We can load the data conditionally into three tables by using following statement SQL> insert all When deptno = 10 then Insert into table1 values(empno.ename.sal.title.salary from programmer p.job.sal.course.salary) Into example2 values(pname. To understand this query consider the three tables from Annexure To insert the data into two tables Example1(pname.title.salary) Example2(pname.cost) Insert all Into example1 values(pname.course.deptno). Assume there are three tables with structure (table1.pname and s. When deptno = 30 then Insert into table3 values(empno.ename.sal.ename.deptno from emp 198 .cost) Select p. When deptno = 20 then Insert into table2 values(empno.ename.title.job. studies st Where p.deptno).sal. Select empno.job.sal.pname = s.table3) Empno.pname = st.job.pname.cost.ename.course.

Siva Kumar HVK Insert First statement Insert first When deptno = 10 then Insert into values(empno.deptno).deptno). When deptno = 30 then Insert into values(empno.ename.sal.ename.sal. table1 table2 table3 The difference between Insert First and Insert All is that in the formar at the most one row is inserted into the table while latter rows may be inserted into multiple tables.ename.deptno).job. When deptno = 20 then Insert into values(empno.job.ename.job.sal.sal.deptno from emp. Select empno. 199 .

Dictionary locks are always implicit. Oracle uses two locking types DML locks .Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 3 2 Hrs Topics Locking Mechanisms Object Privileges Security Synonyms Exercise Presentation LOCKING MECHANISMS To ensure data integrity oracle uses locks. Can be either table or row level. Implicit locks are undertaken by Oracle. Dictionary locks – used to protect the database structure Locks may be explicit or implicit. 200 . Oracle will lock any resource when it detects a valid attempt to update the resource.used to protect data. A process or user instigates explicit locks. DML locks may be implicit or explicit. Locks are used to prevent destructive interaction between processes accessing the same resource.

It results an error LOCK TABLE EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified 201 . Locks are held until either a transaction is committed / rolled back. With this SELECT we lock all the rows in the result set for later update. They are EXCLUSIVE(X) SHARE(S) ROW SHARE(RS) ROW EXCLUSIVE (RX) LOCK ALLOWS QUERIES BUT NOTHING ELSE Lock allows queries but not updates Lock allows concurrent process access to table.Siva Kumar HVK There are five locking modes. then he has to issue a command LOCK TABLE SCOTT. Locking using SELECT for UPDATE SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE EMPNO = 7521 FOR UPDATE OF SAL NOWAIT. The NOWAIT keyword specifies that we don’t want the statement to wait until. Same as row share but no share mode locking. If X wants to lock the EMP table. and current locks on the table are removed. Scott has given some privileges on EMP table to X user.EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT. The OF keyword prefixes the column identification area which specifies which columns are going to be updated by us at a later date. Updates. Assume that there are two users SCOTT AND X In the Scott user there is one table with the name EMP. Deletes and inserts use this lock mode. Resource may not be locked exclusively. which is already locked by X LOCK TABLE EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE. if he tries to the lock the table. The FOR UPDATE tells Oracle to lock each row as it processes it. Now from SCOTT user .

if user wants to share his object with other users.Siva Kumar HVK SECURITY What is a privilege A privilege is a right to access an object such as a table. function or package.SELECT. For example. procedure. he has to grant privileges on the object to other users. System privilege A system privilege is a right to perform certain operation in the system. Object Privileges User owns the object that he/she creates. or to execute a particular type of SQL command such as CREATE TABLE. PACKAGE AND OBJECT TYPE 202 . SEQUENCE. An object is a table. Privileges are classified into two categories depending upon what type of right they give to the user. Object Privileges System privileges Object privilege An object privilege is a right to perform a particular operation on an object. EXECUTE. The following are the list of object privileges available in Oracle ALTER.INDEX. such as TABLE. VIEW. sequence.FUNCTION.. only the owner and DBA can access the object.UPDATE DELETE These privileges are given on various objects. But. the privilege to create a table is a system privilege. PROCEDURE. Unless otherwise specified. view etc.INSERT. view.

REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES To remove the given privileges.EMP EMPNO = 7521. he can select as well as update the information in EMP table.X is a user Now from X user. SET SAL = 11000 WHERE Restricting privilege to certain columns GRANT UPDATE(SAL) ON EMP TO X. we can use REVOKE command REVOKE <PRIVILEGES> ON <OBJECT> FROM <USER>.any object privileges -. Note :.Siva Kumar HVK SYNTAX GRANT <PRIVILEGES> | ALL [(COLUMN1.to grant all privileges -. X user can modify only sal value in the EMP table.EMP.to grant privilege to all the users of the Example GRANT SELECT. 203 .COLUMN2)] ON <OBJECT> Privileges ALL PUBLIC system.UPDATE ON EMP TO X. So. UPDATE SCOTT. -. SELECT * FROM SCOTT.

Siva Kumar HVK Using Synonyms To simplify accessing tables owned by other users. Creating private synonym. By creating a synonym you can avoid giving the owner name while accessing table of other users. A synonym is another name(alias) to a table or view.EMP. Now we can access EMP table which is there in SCOTT user using synonym EMPL as SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPL. CREATE SYNONYM EMPL FOR SCOTT. PUBLIC SYNONYM EMPL FOR 204 . SQL>CREATE SCOTT. Public Synonym Public synonym is available for all the users. create a SYNONYM. We can create two types of synonyms Private Synonyms Public Synonyms Any user can create private synonym.EMP. where as public synonym is created by only DBA using a keyword called public.

Getting Started. it may be preferable to use SQL*Loader rather than something like FTP. State Name. SQL*Loader is fully described in the Oracle Server Utilities User’s Guide. You’ve got 50 rows of data – each containing the State Abbreviation. an [optional] unofficial State Slogan. and the number of State Residents Who Drink Bottled Water. there is a brief comparison of FTP versus SQL*Loader. it may be worthwhile to use SQL*Loader. If you need to transfer local data to a remote database on some recurring basis. for example. and PC’s. At the end of this document. SQL*Loader has lots and lots of options which can be used to handle various types of data and levels of complexity. what to do if something goes wrong. 205 . If you already have the data in some other format.where to load it. Most often. SQL*Loader runs on Unix. The data file contains data. you might want to use SQL*Loader. mainframes. SQL*Loader takes two input files – a control file and a data file – and loads the data into a single Oracle table. an Example Say.Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 4 1 Hrs Topic SQL*Loader Presentation What is SQL*Loader? SQL*Loader is Oracle’s utility program for loading data into an Oracle table. that you’ve got an Excel spreadsheet with State data already in it. This document is just about running it from a Windows PC. etc. Why Use SQL*Loader From Your PC? If you need to transfer quite a lot of data from your machine to an Oracle database table. and the control file contains information about the data -. This document is just about getting started.

90203049 proud of Bill.csv step will optionally and automatically enclose that data in double quotes.mystates.csv) file.csv input file. The INTEGER EXTERNAL describes the datatype in the C:\mystates. Oxygen?".0 Again!. The fourth column is numeric data – it totals the number of state residents who drink bottled water.csv' REPLACE INTO TABLE EMPL FIELDS TERMINATED BY '.Colorado has no state slogan.) Here’s what you do: 1) Create your data file. There are. State_Abbrev.California.ctl) containing these lines: LOADDATA INFILE 'C:\EMPLOYEE. "remove any existing rows before starting the load." There's also an INSERT [into empty table] and APPEND [to existing rows] option. ENAME INTEGER EXTERNAL) The REPLACE keyword says. 206 . So. The TRAILING NULLCOLS statement handles the missing data. Save your Excel spreadsheet data AS a Comma-Separated-Variable (*.mystates table. and Nbr_Residents_WDBW are the actual column names defined in the sp. if any of the data elements already contain a comma. In addition.' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' TRAILING NULLCOLS (EMPNO.Siva Kumar HVK (Is 50 rows of data really sufficient to justify this exercise? That’s debatable."Dude? You want.5 hit of Champions like. C:\mystates. after your Save AS command.3000 WI. Because the first three items are of character datatype. but let’s say you’ve thought it over and you DO want to SQL*load your data into a 4-column Oracle table at UW-Stevens Point.Arkansas. Notice there is some missing data in the data file -. This will automatically put commas between each of the four data elements. another 2) Create your control file.Wisconsin.Colorado. This is easy. you might have a file named C:\MyStates.csv that contains data like this: AR. it was not necessary to further describe them – character is the default.. it tells SQL*Loader to load any missing data as NULL values. lots of available options described in the Utilities User’s Guide.We are sure CO. State_Slogan. Using any text editor. State_Name. The remote table is called sp. the Save AS *. create a file (say. as we said earlier.Rose Bowl CA.

execute SQL*Loader as follows: sqlldr scott/tiger@ELTP control=C:\mystates. or DELETE and INSERT if you're using the REPLACE option in the control file. • • At an MS-DOS prompt (or the Start. You must have the target database (say.Siva Kumar HVK 3) Create a table with the name referred in ctl file with required columns 4)Run Prerequisites: • SQL*Loader You must have SQL*Loader and SQL*Net installed on your machine.exe. The SQL*Loader program may have a version number included as part of its name. it’s probably already there. it’s called ‘ELTP’) configured as SQL*Net service in your local tnsnames. look in the file C:\mystates. how many rows -. You must have authorization to modify the sp. you can get the Oracle Client Software installation CD and install "UTILITIES". This is pretty standard stuff.ctl When the load completes.exe.mystates table (INSERT.ora file. Or maybe it will be just sqlldr. If it's not installed. something like sqlldr73. You can look for it in your ORAWIN95 or ORANT \BIN directory.exe or sqlldr80.if any -. and other information that may be useful to reassure or debug. In the example below we assume that user SCOTT with password TIGER has appropriate authorization. 207 .were NOT loaded. Run menu) .log. This log file will contain information about how many rows were loaded.

csv may contain features that are incompatible with CSV (comma delimited). type a name for your CSV file (for example. When you are prompted. Click the CSV file that you saved in step 4 of the "Edit the Excel Worksheet" section. b. Note In Excel 2007. Address. and then click Save As.csv). Note You may be prompted to save the file again. skip this step. Note In Excel 2007. and then exit Excel. 208 . 3. and then click Exit Excel. In the File name box. click the Microsoft Office Button. 5. On the File menu. In the Save as type box. and then exit Microsoft Excel. and then click Open. Note In Word 2007. click No. you can click Yes. Then save a copy in the latest Excel format. Start Microsoft Word. click Open. • To preserve the features.Siva Kumar HVK How to convert Excel Sheet into CSV(Comma separated variable) file This article describes how to convert a single column of addresses in a Microsoft Excel worksheet into a comma-separated value (CSV) file that you can import into another program (for example. Click Yes when you receive the following message: Address. Do you want to keep the workbook in this format? • To keep this format. click All Files (*. click Close. On the File menu. click the Microsoft Office Button. c. • To save only the active sheet. Note For the address example in this article. click Help. d. Note In Word 2007. click Options. In the Files of type box. click the Microsoft Office Button. click Yes. Click OK when you receive the following message: The selected file type does not support workbooks that contain multiple sheets. • To see what might be lost. and then click Save. 2.*). repeat steps c and d. In the Save As dialog box: a. save them individually using a different file name for each. 2. • To save all sheets. click Close. On the Tools menu. 4. 3. and then click Open. the Excel worksheet contains the following address information: A B 1 2 3 ravi kris babu 1. Microsoft Word). or select a file type that supports multiple sheets. click CSV (Comma delimited) (*. click Save As. which leaves out any incompatible features.csv). Edit the CSV File in Microsoft Word 1. On the File menu. click OK.

and then click Word Options. 209 . b. Click the Microsoft Office Button. follow these steps: a. Click Display. c. Click Paragraph marks under the Always show these formatting marks on the screen. click to select the All check box. and then click OK.Siva Kumar HVK On the View tab. Note In Word 2007.

FLASHBACK or FLASHBACK ANY system privilege. Oracle will create as many or as few as are required to satisfy our transaction workloads. of course. From 9i. undo_retention=n (set in pfile/spfile. In other words. SQL> SELECT * FROM t.Siva Kumar HVK Flashback Query Flashback query in oracle 9i Release 1 Flashback query is a new feature of Oracle 9i. Flashback query works in tandem with another new feature of Oracle 9i. whereby Oracle manages our rollback segments for us.--------------. within system limits. tablespace_name 4 FROM all_tables 5 WHERE ROWNUM <= 5.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM 210 . table_name. these being the size of the undo tablespace and a new parameter named undo_retention. Flashback query enables us to query the undo segments directly. Sample data For our sample data we will create a test table and copy a few rows and columns of ALL_TABLES as follows. Table created. SQL> CREATE TABLE temp 2 AS 3 SELECT owner. This parameter specifies the number of seconds that Oracle should retain undo data for us. we can query our data from a point in time before we or any other users made permanent changes to it. we require the following system elements: • • • • undo_management=auto (set in pfile/spfile). and EXECUTE privilege on DBMS_FLASHBACK. it enables us to query our data as it existed in a previous state. This is. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. undo_tablespace=[undo tablespace name] (set in pfile/spfile). automatic undo management (AUM). either by SCN (System Change Number) or by timestamp. where n is a positive number of seconds). Requirements To be able to use flashback query. we know these segments as "undo segments" and under automatic management.

SYSDATE will not be affected. since flashback can happen even if a commit has been done. DBMS_FLASHBACK can be used within logon triggers to enable Flashback without changing the application code. The flashback is session based and can restore to an SCN that is passed as an argument. DML and DDL operations and distributed operations are not allowed while a session is running in Flashback mode. If you need to perform a Flashback over a 24-hour period. This way. you can recover the deleted rows. SCNs allow recovery to a specific change. You may want to use DBMS_FLASHBACK for the following reasons: • • • Self-service repair.Siva Kumar HVK SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. You can use PL/SQL cursors opened before disabling Flashback to perform DML. When enabling Flashback using a wall-clock time. This is different from two phase commit(2PC) and the ability to rollback a change. An SCN identifies the exact version of the database. DBMS_FLASHBACK Package The DBMS_FLASHBACK package provides the ability to restore specific data according to an SCN(System Change Number) captured by a snapshot. Different concurrent sessions (connections) in the database can perform Flashback to different wall-clock times or SCNs. Under Automatic Undo Management (AUM) mode. Decision support system (DSS) and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications. For finer grain control of Flashback. Packaged applications such as e-mail and voicemail. as each SCN is unique and acts as an identifier for point-in-time recovery PL/SQL cursors opened in Flashback mode return rows as of the flashback time or SCN. the DBA should set the undo retention parameter to 24 hours. the database chooses an SCN that was generated within five minutes of the time specified. the system retains enough undo information to regenerate the older versions of the data. You can use Flashback to restore deleted e-mail by re-inserting the deleted message into the current message box. you can use retention control to control how far back in time to go for the version of the database you need. In a Flashback-enabled session. You can perform data analysis or data modeling to track seasonal demand. you can enable an SCN. 211 . it will continue to provide the current time. SCN (System Change Number) is an oracle internal numbering scheme that identifies changes to the database. If you accidentally delete rows from a table.

212 . SCN ---------592967 1 row selected. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. Now we can enable flashback query to the point in time before we changed our data (i.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT DBMS_FLASHBACK. We can see this below. We can now see our data in its original state (i. we must disable it using DBMS_FLASHBACK as follows. 5 rows updated. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. Once in "flashback query mode". post-update form. SQL> UPDATE temp SET tablespace_name = LOWER(tablespace_name). SQL>exec DBMS_FLASHBACK.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp.e. To leave "flashback query mode". SQL> SELECT * FROM temp.e.GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER AS scn 2 FROM dual. Commit complete. SQL> COMMIT. We can now see the data in its current. using the earlier SCN).--------------. before we changed the TABLESPACE_NAME to lower-case). any queries we run will return data consistent with the SCN we enabled.ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER(5929 67). PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.--------------.

There are a number of uses for this feature. Furthermore using the Flashback Query. We might view this as a somewhat ambitious claim for the technology. it is very useful.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. In 9. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Session altered. Flashback query does not need to be explicitly enabled and disabled via package calls. this is restricted to the period specified by undo_retention (with some variance depending on transaction loads). OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.2. it is invoked directly by this syntax.FF3'.DISABLE. Note: ALTER SESSION is simply a convenience to enable a consistent timestamp format mask without having to supply it explicitly. we can query our data AS OF TIMESTAMP or AS OF SCN directly. In fact. SQL> SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP 2 FROM dual. but of course.--------------.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> exec DBMS_FLASHBACK. we'll use a timestamp (another new feature of Oracle 9i) instead of an SCN. such as data recovery. SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT = 'DD-MONYYYY HH24:MI:SS. adhoc change-tracking or point-in-time queries. Oracle suggests that it is feasible to build flashback query capabilities into our applications. 213 . SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. LOCALTIMESTAMP -----------------------22-NOV-2002 21:31:01. SQL> UPDATE temp SET table_name = LOWER(table_name). but as a short-term recovery mechanism.750 1 row selected. Flashback Query in 9i release 2: AS OF [scn|timestamp] Oracle 9i Release 2 makes flashback query significantly easier by building the capability into the SQL FROM clause itself.

2 flashback query results above. SQL> SELECT * 2 FROM temp AS OF TIMESTAMP TO_TIMESTAMP('22-NOV-2002 21:31:01. we can be more precise with our flashback query.-------------------SYS seg$ system SYS clu$ system SYS obj$ system SYS file$ system SYS col$ system 5 rows selected. We can see the effect of this in our 9.0 example. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. but only once every five minutes. A particularly good use for this is for resetting test data during development and unit-testing. Now we can invoke flashback query as of the timestamp prior to our update. Our flashback query correctly returns the original upper-case TABLE_NAME data but it also returns the original upper-case TABLESPACE_NAME data also. A note on flashback precision As noted earlier. however. This tells us that the SCN that Oracle mapped to our timestamp is from a time before we ran the 9. It is also a good short-term recovery tool for rectifying minor mistakes. flashback query timestamps are mapped to SCNs.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.--------------. Using an SCN. SQL> COMMIT.Siva Kumar HVK 5 rows updated.--------------. This is much easier! The extended FROM clause is simple and intuitive to use and is more likely to encourage developers to use flashback query.750').0 example update will be a few greater than before we began (there is no other activity on 214 . We will take a guess that the SCN after our 9. This makes flashback queries with timestamps subject to precision errors. Commit complete.

Using the SCN enabled us to be far more precise with our flashback query.--------------. we'll remove the current data and replace it with the data as it existed after our 9. SQL> SELECT * FROM t. lower-case TABLESPACE_NAME). SQL> INSERT INTO temp 2 SELECT * FROM temp AS OF SCN 592969. SQL> SELECT * FROM t AS OF SCN 592969.0 example) but before the second update (9.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected.2). SQL> COMMIT. Commit complete.Siva Kumar HVK this test system). we can either update the table from the flashback query source or we can delete the current data and insert the flashback data in much easier way. 5 rows created. 5 rows deleted. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. we will try a 9. SQL> DELETE FROM temp.0 examples (i.e. We can now see the data as it existed after the first update (9.--------------. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. Using this. In the example below.2 flashback query AS OF SCN. Recovering data Using the AS OF syntax. 215 .

you can recover and re-insert the missing employees. insert into employee values (10. /* keep_scn is a temporary table to store scns that we are interested in. '13-dec90'). Invalid system change number specified. employee_name varchar2(20). Using the Flashback feature. Time specified is too old. hiredate date). In the 9i Release 1 variant of flashback query. User cannot begin read only or serializable transactions in Flashback mode. The sequence would be: enable flashback -> open flashback cursor -> disable flashback -> open current cursor -> fetch and compare data. 216 . this simplicity of flashback query in 9i Release 2 makes this complex variant largely redundant. 8180 8181 DBMS_FLASHBACK Example The following example illustrates how Flashback can be used when the deletion of a senior employee triggers the deletion of all the personnel reporting to him. */ create table keep_scn (scn number). DBMS_FLASHBACK Error Messages Error 8182 8184 8183 8185 Description In Flashback mode. set echo on create table employee (employee_no number(5) primary key. salary number. User cannot enable Flashback within an uncommitted transaction. 250000. user cannot perform DML or DDL operations. 'Susie Tiger'. null. SYS cannot enable Flashback mode. '5-jul-81'). User cannot enable Flashback within another Flashback session. /* Populate the company with employees */ insert into employee values (1. If we need to search for changes to specific columns.Siva Kumar HVK Data changes between current and flashback data can be identified quite simply by set queries using MINUS/UNION. 1. employee_mgr number(5)constraint mgr_fkey references employee on delete cascade. we can join the current and flashback datasets together (we can also use the 9i FULL OUTER JOIN for this purpose). insert into employee values (20.disable. 1000000. 'Joe Johnson'. 500000. '12-aug84'). execute dbms_flashback. 'John Doe'. As stated throughout this article. 10. this would only be possible in PL/SQL.

'4-nov96'). '18-sep93'). commit. begin I := dbms_flashback. 65000. 150000. '3-may95'). 100000. 'Nancy Doe'. insert into employee values (310. insert into employee values (210. insert into employee values (300. / /* Show Scott's org */ select lpad(' '. 210. dbms_flashback. 20. commit. commit. 100. 'Bob Smith'. 100000. 'Charles Smith'. begin select scn into restore_scn from keep_scn. /* notice that all of scott's employees are gone */ select lpad(' '. insert into employee values (200. 'Gary Smith'. 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = 1 order by level.disable. insert into keep_scn values (I). 100. 'Scott Tiger'. insert into employee values (220.get_system_change_number. 200000. 'Jane Johnson'. /* Put back scott's organization */ declare restore_scn date. '22mar-88'). '11apr-87'). 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr 217 .Siva Kumar HVK insert into employee values (100. 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = 1 order by level. '3-feb-86'). execute dbms_flashback. end.enable_at_system_change_number (restore_scn). 100. /* Store this snapshot for later access through Flashback */ declare I number. 75000. 210. /* Show the entire org */ select lpad(' '. /* Scott decides to retire but the transaction is done incorrectly */ delete from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'.

/* Open c1 with Flashback enabled. employee_mgr into scotts_emp. employee_mgr.employee_name. */ fetch c1 into c1_rec. declare scotts_emp number. for c1_rec in c1 loop if (c1_rec. 218 .disable.employee_no.Siva Kumar HVK start with employee_no = (select employee_no from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger') order by level. employee_name. begin select employee_no. c1_rec is c1 % ROWTYPE.employee_mgr = scotts_emp) then insert into employee values (c1_rec. scotts_mgr number. loop /* Note that all the DML operations inside the loop are performed with Flashback disabled. c1_rec. */ open c1. */ dbms_flashback. hiredate from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = (select employee_no from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'). /* Disable Flashback. cursor c1 is select employee_no. exit when c1%NOTFOUND. scotts_mgr from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'. salary.

c1_rec. end.employee_no != scotts_emp) then insert into employee values (c1_rec.salary. / execute dbms_flashback. c1_rec. c1_rec.Siva Kumar HVK scotts_mgr.hiredate). The snapshot time is set to the SCN that most closely matches the time specified in query_time. disable. end if.employee_no.hiredate). c1_rec. DBMS_FLASHBACK Subprograms ENABLE_AT_TIME Procedure This procedure enables Flashback for the entire session. 219 .salary. end loop. c1_rec. c1_rec. end if. else if (c1_rec. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK.employee_name.employee_mgr.ENABLE_AT_TIME ( query_time IN TIMESTAMP).

Using the TO_TIMESTAMP function: Example: execute dbms_flashback. In the Flashback mode. 'DDMM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')). You provide the format you want to use. 220 . A time stamp can be specified in the following ways: Using the TIMESTAMP constructor: Example: execute dbms_flashback. Parameters Parameter query_scn Description The system change number (SCN). 2:35 PM. 2001. the time zone information is truncated. 12:00 A. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER Procedure This procedure takes an SCN as an input parameter and sets the session snapshot to the specified number. Note that if the query time contains a time zone. If the time is omitted from query time.Siva Kumar HVK Parameters Parameter Description query_time This is an input parameter of type TIMESTAMP. that is.enable_at_time(TIMESTAMP '2001-01-09 12:31:00'). The format depends on the NLS settings. all queries return data consistent as of the specified wall-clock time or SCN. Use the NLS format and supply a string. a version number for the database that is incremented on every transaction commit.enable_at_time(TO_TIMESTAMP('12-02-2001 14:35:00'.ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE ( query_scn IN NUMBER). This example shows the TO_TIMESTAMP function for February 12.M. it defaults to the beginning of the day.

This helps you store specific snapshots.GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER ( RETURN NUMBER). SELECT salary from emp where name = 'Joe' EXECUTE dbms_flashback.disable. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. Joe. 2000: EXECUTE dbms_flashback.enable_at_time('30-AUG-2000'). You can obtain the current change number and stash it away for later use. 221 . Example The following example queries the salary of an employee. on August 30. DISABLE Procedure This procedure disables the Flashback mode for the entire session.Siva Kumar HVK GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER Function This function returns the current SCN as an Oracle number datatype.DISABLE. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK.

Siva Kumar HVK ANNEXURE Table : Studies NAME (PNAME) SPLACE COURSE NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL TYPE VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) NAME STUDIED PLACE COURSE STUDIED TABLE : SOFTWARE NAME (PNAME) TITLE DEV_IN SCOST DCOST SOLD NULL ? NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL TYPE VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(7.2) NUMBER(4) NAME DEVELOPED PROJECT NAME LANGUAGE DEVELOPED SOFTWARE COST DEVELOPMENT COST NO OF SOFTWARE SOLD Data in Table : STUDIES PNAME ANAND ALTAF JULIANA KAMALA MARY NELSON PATRICK QADIR RAMESH REBECCA REMITHA REVATHI VIJAYA SPLACE SABHARI COIT BITS PRAGATHI SABHARI PRAGATHI SABHARI APPLE SABHARI BPILLANI BDPS SABHARI BDPS COURSE PGDCA DCA MCA DCP PGDCA DAP DCA HDCP PGDCA DCA DCS DAP DCA COST 45000 7200 22000 5000 4600 6200 5200 14000 4500 11000 6000 5000 48000 222 .2) NUMBER(7.

Siva Kumar HVK TABLE : SOFTWARE PNAME ANAND ANAND JULIANA KAMALA MARY PATRICK QADIR QADIR QADIR RAMESH RAMESH REMITHA REMITHA REVATHI REVATHI VIJAYA TITLE PARACHUTES VIDEO TITLING PACK INVENTORY CONTROL PAYROLL PACKAGE FINANCIAL ACC.S/W CODE GENERATION READ ME BOMBS AWAY VACCINES HOTEL MANAGEMENT DEAD LEE PC UTILITIES TSR HELP PACKAGE HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT QUIZ MASTER ISR EDITION DEV_IN BASIC PASCAL COBOL DBASE ORACLE COBOL C++ ASSEMBLY C DBASE PASCAL C ASSEMBLY PASCAL BASIC C SCOST DCOST SOLD 399 7500 3000 9000 18000 4500 300 750 1900 12000 599 725 2500 1100 3200 900 6000 16000 3500 20000 85000 20000 1200 5000 3400 3500 4500 5000 6000 75000 2100 700 43 9 0 7 4 23 84 11 21 4 73 51 6 2 15 6 Data in Table : PROGRAMMER PNAME DOB DOJ S E X M M F F F M M M M F F F F PROF1 PROF2 SALARY ANAND ALTAF JULIANA KAMALA MARY NELSON PATRICK QADIR RAMESH REBECCA REMITHA REVATHI VIJAYA 21-APR-66 02-JUL-64 31-JAN-68 30-OCT-68 24-JUN-70 11-SEP-85 10-NOV-65 31-AUG-65 03-MAY-67 01-JAN-67 19-APR-70 02-DEC-69 14-DEC-65 21-APR-92 13-NOV-90 21-APR-90 02-JAN-92 01-FEB-91 11-OCT-89 21-APR-90 21-APR-91 28-FEB-91 01-DEC-90 20-APR-93 02-JAN-92 02-MAY-92 PASCAL CLIPPER COBOL C C++ COBOL PASCAL ASSEMBLY PASCAL BASIC C PASCAL FOXPRO BASIC COBOL DBASE DBASE ORACLE DBASE CLIPPER C DBASE COBOL ASSEMBLY BASIC C 3200 2800 3000 2900 4500 2500 2800 3000 3200 2500 3600 3700 3500 223 .

Find out the number of copies which should be sold in order to recover the development cost of each package. Who are the programmers who celebrate their birthday’s during the current month? How many female programmers are there? What are the languages known by the male programmers What is the average salary How many people draw 2000 to 4000? Display the details of those who don’t know Clipper. What is the price of the costliest software developed in BASIC How many packages were developed in DBASE? How many programmers studied at Pragathi? How many programmers paid 5000 to 10000 for their course? What is the average course fee? Display the details of programmers knowing C How many programmers know either COBOL or PASCAL? How many programmers don’t know PASCAL and C? How old is the oldest male programmer? What is the average age of female programmers? Calculate the experience in years for each programmer and display along with the names. in descending order. which have not been sold so far? Find out the cost of the software developed by Mary? Display the institute names from the studies table without the duplicates How many different courses are mentioned in the studies table? Display the names of the programmers whose names contain 2 occurrences of the letter ‘A’ 224 .Siva Kumar HVK QUERY – I Find out the selling cost average for packages developed in pascal. Display the details of packages for which development cost have been recovered. COBOL or Pascal Display the details of those who will be completing 2 years of services this year? Calculate the amount to be recovered for those packages whose development cost has not yet been recovered? List the packages. Display the names and ages of all the programmers Display the names of those who have done the DAP course What is the highest number of copies sold by a package Display the names and date of birth of all programmers born in January Display the lowest course fee How many programmers have done the PGDCA course How much revenue has been earned through sale of packages developed in C Display the software’s developed by Ramesh How many programmers studied at Sabhari? Display the details of the packages whose sales crossed 2000 mark.

Siva Kumar HVK Display the names of the programmers whose names contains 5 characters How many female programmers knowing COBOL have more than 2 yrs experience What is the length of the shortest name in the programmer table What is the average development cost of a package developed in COBOL Display the name. doj of those month of birth and month of joining are same QUERY – II Display the cost of the package developed by each programmer Display the sales values of the packages developed by the each programmer Display the number of packages sold by each programmer Display the sales cost of the packages developed by each programmer Display each language name with average development cost. Display each institute name with number of courses . scost. lowest and average salaries for those earning more than 2000 225 . DCOST and amount to be recovered for each programmer for those whose dcost has not yet been recovered Display the highest. costliest package and cheapest packages developed by him / her.sex. average selling cost and average price per copy Display each programmer’s name. dob(dd/mm/yy format) . dob. dcost and difference between scost and dcost in descending order of difference Display the names of the packages whose names contain more than 1 word Display the name. DOJ(dd/mm/yy format) for all the programmers What is the amount paid in salaries of the male programmers who don’t know COBOL Display the title . average cost per course Display each Institute name with number of students Display the names of male and female programmers Display the programmer’s name and their packages Display the number of packages in each language except C and C++ Display the number of packages in each language for which development cost is less than 1000 Display the average difference between SCOST and DCOST for each language Display the total SCOST.

Siva Kumar HVK QUERY – III Who is the most experienced programmer knowing pascal? Which course has been done by the most of the students? Which course has the lowest selling cost? Display the courses whose fees are within 1000/.) of the average fee Who developed the package that has sold the least number of copies Which language was used to develop most number of packages Display the names of the packages which have been sold less than the average number of copies Who is the youngest male programmer born in 1965 In which year most number of programmers born Which female programmer earning more than 3000/.C++.( + or . How many packages developed by female programmers earning more than the highest paid male programmer How many packages were developed by the most experienced programmer from BDPS 226 . Where did he / she study.does not know C. ORACLE OR DBASE Which programmer has developed highest no of packages Who are the male programmers earning below the average salary of female programmers Display the details of those who are drawing salary Display the details of the software developed by the male programmers earning more than 3000 Display the details of the software developed in C by female programmers of Pragathi How many months it will take for each programmer to recover their cost of study Display the details of the software developed in the language which is not the programmers first proficiency Display the details of the software developed in the language which is neither the first nor second proficiency of the programmer Who are the programmers who joined in the same day Display the programmers who are drawing same salary Which is the costliest package developed by a person with under 3 years experience What is the average salary for those whose software sales value is more than 50.000 How many packages were developed by the person who developed the cheapest package .

job. Note: Do not display Kochhar in the result set. location ID. department number. department number. and department name for all employees Create a unique listing of all jobs that are in department 80. and salary of any employee whose department number and salary both match the department number and salary of any employee who earns a commission. Display the last name.Siva Kumar HVK QUERY . Find all employees who are not supervisors.IV Write a query to display the last name. hire date. Include the location of the department in the output. department name. Write a query to display the department names of those departments whose total salary cost is above one eighth (1/8) of the total salary cost of the whole company Write a query to display the last name. First do this using the NOT EXISTS operator b. 227 . and salary of any employee whose salary and commission match the salary and commission of any employee located in location ID 1700. Write a query to display the employee last name. Write a query to display the last names of the employees who have one or more coworkers in their departments with later hire dates but higher salaries. Create a query to display the employees who earn a salary that is higher than the salary of all of the sales managers (JOB_ID = 'SA_MAN'). and city of all employees who earn a commission. a. department number. and salary for all employees who have the same salary and commission as Kochhar. and department name for all employees who work in Toronto. Can this be done by using the NOT IN operator? How. Display the employee last name and department name for all employees who have an a (lowercase) in their last names Write a query to display the last name. department name. Create a query to display the last name. or why not? Write a query to display the last names of the employees who earn less than the average salary in their departments. Sort the results on salary from highest to lowest.

Siva Kumar HVK display all employees including King. irrespective of the job IDs 228 . Create a query that displays the name. department name. Order the results by the employee number. and grade for all employees. department numbers. Create a query to display the name and hire date of any employee hired after employee Davies. job. salary. Show the structure of the JOB_GRADES table. who has no manager. Write a query to display the following for those employees whose manager ID is less than 120: • Manager ID • Job ID and total salary for every job ID for employees who report to the same manager • Total salary of those managers • Total salary of those managers. Give each column an appropriate label. and all the employees who work in the same department as a given employee. Create a query that displays employee last names.

position. cust_address FROM customers. 5. SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT DISTINCT position. Selection. DEPARTMENT d WHERE e. cust_name. SELECT name. projection. join Selection. SELECT* FROM customers. position. projection. 4. 4. d. 2. name.DEPARTMENT_ID. projection. address FROM customers.DEPARTMENT_ID. DISTINCT manager FROM employee.Siva Kumar HVK OCA SAMPLE QUESTIONS Question: 1 Which SELECT statement should you use if you want to display unique combinations of the POSITION and MANAGER values from the EMPLOYEE table? 1. intersection. 5. Question: 2 You need to produce a report for mailing labels for all customers. position. join Difference.e. The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: CUST_ID CUST_NAME CUST_ADDRESS CUST_PHONE NUMBER(4) NOT NULL VARCHAR2(100) VARCHAR2(150) VARCHAR2(20) Which SELECT statement accomplishes this task? 1. cust_phone FROM customers. 4. which capabilities of a SELECT statement are performed? 1. phone FROM customers. SELECT cust_id. 2. manager FROM employee. product 229 . SELECT id. cust_address. Question: 3 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT e. FROM EMP e. join Difference.EMPLOYEE_ID.e.. 2.DEPARTMENT_NAME. join Intersection. 3. projection.LAST_NAME. manager DISTINCT FROM employee. 3. address. SELECT cust_name. In the statement. manager FROM employee. The mailing label must have only the customer name and address. 3.DEPARTMENT_ID = d.

6. ORDER BY clause must precede the WHERE clause. Viewing 3. id_number. m. you issue this SELECT statement: SELECT * From orders. 2. SELECT id_number. You use this statement to retrieve data from a data table for __________. ORDER BY clause is executed first in the query execution. 5. manufacturer_id FROM product ORDER BY manufacturer_id. SELECT p. ORDER BY clause is executed on the client side. 3. Truncating Question: 6 Which SQL SELECT statement performs a projection. 4. Updating 2. Question: 5 From SQL*Plus. 1.id_number. city FROM manufacturer AND manufacturer_id = 'NF10032' ORDER BY city. m. ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement.manufacturer_id = m. 4. a selection. manufacturer m WHERE p.manufacturer_id = 'NF10032'. 3. Deleting 4. SELECT id_number.city FROM product p. and join when executed? 1.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 4 Which two statements are true regarding the ORDER BY clause? 1.manufacturer_id AND m. The The The The The The sort is in ascending by order by default. SELECT manufacturer_id. manufacturer_id FROM product WHERE manufacturer_id = 'NF10032'. 230 . Inserting 5. 2.manufacturer_id. sort is in descending order by default.

customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code IS NULL. Question: 8 Evaluate these two SQL statements: SELECT last_name. 4. hire_date FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY 2 DESC. hire_date FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY salary DESC. SELECT last_name. salary . SELECT customer_id. SELECT customer_id. 231 . SELECT customer_id. 2. SELECT customer_id.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 7 The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_NAME VARCHAR2(100) NOT NULL STREET_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(150) CITY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) STATE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) PROVINCE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) COUNTRY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) POSTAL_CODE VARCHAR2(12) CUSTOMER_PHONE VARCHAR2(20) Which statement finds the rows in the CUSTOMERS table that do not have a postal code? 1. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal code IS NVL. The two statements produce identical results. What is true about them? 1. 5. salary. 3. SELECT customer_id. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code = NULL. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code CONTAINS NULL. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code = '________'.

. 3. ROLLBACK. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement returns an error ORA-04043: object DEPT does not exist. EMPLOYEES (EMPLOYEE_ID is the primary key. 4. e. The second statement returns a syntax error. e.emp_name "Employee". m. 2. MGR_ID is the ID of managers and refers to the EMPLOYEE_ID) EMPLOYEE_ID EMP_NAME 101 Smith 102 Martin 103 Chris 104 John 105 Diana 106 Bryan 108 Jennifer 110 Bob 120 Ravi DEPT_ID 20 10 20 30 30 40 30 40 20 MGR_ID 120 105 120 108 108 110 110 110 JOB_ID SA_REP CLERK IT_ADMIN HR_CLERK HR_MGR AD_ASST HR_DIR EX_DIR SA_DIR SALARY 4000 2500 4200 2500 5000 3000 6500 8000 6500 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT e.Siva Kumar HVK 2. DESCRIBE DEPT What is true about the set? 1. 4.employee_id "Mgr_id". Question: 10 Examine the data of the EMPLOYEES table. There is no need to specify DESC because the results are sorted in descending order by default.employee_id "Emp_id".emp_name "Manager" 232 . The ROLLBACK statement frees the storage space occupies by the DEPT table. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement displays the structure of the DEPT table. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement displays the structure of the DEPT table only if the COMMIT statement introduced before the ROLLBACK statement. 3. The two statements can be made to produce identical results by adding a column alias for the salary column in the second SQL statement. dname VARCNAR2(14). loc VARCNAR2(13)).salary. Question: 9 Evaluate the set of SQL statements: CREATE TABLE dept (deptno NUMBER(2). m.

employee_id AND e. employees m WHERE e. What is its output? 1.--------.---------.--------.---------.------------. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.salary > 4000.--------.---------.Siva Kumar HVK FROM employees e.-------------120 Ravi 6500 110 Bob 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Bob 103 Chris 4200 120 Ravi 105 Diana 500 108 Jennifer Manager 3.------------.mgr_id = m.------------. Manager Manager 233 . EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.--------.-------------110 Bob 8000 Bob 120 Ravi 6500 110 Ravi 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Jennifer 103 Chris 4200 120 Chris 105 Diana 5000 108 Diana Manager 2.-------------110 Bob 800 120 Ravi 6500 110 Bob 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Bob 103 Chris 4200 120 Ravi 105 Diana 5000 108 Jennifer D EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.---------. The SQL statement produces an error. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.------------.-------------110 Bob 8000 110 Bob 120 Ravi 6500 120 Ravi 108 Jennifer 6500 108 Jennifer 103 Chris 4200 103 Chris 105 Diana 5000 105 Dina 5.

Which of the following statement correctly describes how to specify a column alias? 1. 3. The NVL function accomplishes which of the following tasks? 1. 4. Enables you to specify alternated out for NULL column values. 2. This feature cannot be implemented through /SQL*Plus. Question: 13 You want to use a function in you column clause of a SQL statement. Nullifies the value of the column out put. 4. 4. Place the alias after each column separated by a comma to describe the column. Assists in the distribution of output across multiple columns. database name. Prompt variables 4. Place the alias at the end of the statement to describe the table. Question: 14 You want to use SQL*Plus to connect to the oracle database. Replacement variables 3. Which of the following choices does not indicate a component you must specify when logging into the oracle? 1. 3. 234 . username password.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 11 Which /SQL*Plus feature can be used to replace values in the WHERE clause? 1. Question: 12 You are formulating queries in a SQL*Plus. Enables you to specify alternate output for non-NULL column values. The The The The SQL*Plus Keyword. Place the alias at the beginning of the statement to describe the table. 2. Substitution variables 2. 3. 2. Instead-of variables 5. Place the alias after each column separated by a space to describe the column.

hire_date||' / '||depart_date "Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date IS NOT NULL. SELECT employee_id||' . SELECT employee_id||' . 5. 235 .'||last_name AS Former Employee. hire_date||' / '||depart_date 'Term of Employment' FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date > NULL. The data should display in this format: Former Employee Term of Employment ---------------------------. hire_date||' / '||depart_date "AS Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95'.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 15 The EMPLOYEE_HISTORY table contains these columns: EMPLOYEE_ID NUMBER LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) DEPARTMENT_ID NUMBER POSITION VARCHAR2(30) SALARY NUMBER(6. You need to create a report to display all former employees that were hired on or after January 1. 4.---------------------------------14837 . SELECT employee_id||' . hire_date||' / '||depart_date "Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date <> NULL. SELECT employee_id||' .2) HIRE_DATE DATE DEPART_DATE DATE The EMPLOYEE_HISTORY table contains only former employees. hire_date||' / '||depart_date AS Term of Employment FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95'.'||last_name "Former Employee". 3. SELECT employee_id||' .'||last_name 'Former Employee'.SMITH 10-MAY-92 / 01-JUN-01 Which SELECT statement could you use? 1.'||last_name "Former Employee". 2. 1996.'||last_name "AS Former Employee".

salary > 4000. 2.salary.emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e. SELECT employee_id "Emp_id". SELECT e.employee_id AND e.mgr_id AND e. for all the employees who have a manager and earn more than 4000? 1.salary. m. e. A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 0 E) 4 Question: 17 Examine the data of the EMPLOYEES table. e.emp_name "Employee". MGR_ID is the ID of managers and refers to the EMPLOYEE_ID) EMPLOYEE_ID 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 110 120 EMP_NAME Smith Martin Chris John Diana Bryan Jennifer Bob Ravi DEPT_ID 20 10 20 30 30 40 30 40 20 MGR_ID 120 105 120 108 108 110 110 110 JOB_ID SA_REP CLERK IT_ADMIN HR_CLERK HR_MGR AD_ASST HR_DIR EX_DIR SA_DIR SALARY 4000 2500 4200 2500 5000 3000 6500 8000 6500 Which statement lists the ID. EMPLOYEES (EMPLOYEE_ID is the primary key. e. SELECT e. emp_name "Employee".employee_id "Emp_id". and salary of the employee. and the ID and name of the employee's manager. m. employees m WHERE e.salary > 4000. m.'||Job "Employee Information" FROM employee.emp_name "Employee".emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e. name. How many columns are presented after executing this query: SELECT Empno||'. employees m WHERE e. m. 3.employee_id "Mgr_id". employee_id "Mgr_id".employee_id "Mgr_id". e. 236 .mgr_id = m.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 16 The EMPloyee table contains these columns: Empno Number(4) Ename Varchar2(10) job Varchar2(10) sal Varchar2(10) You need to display the employees information by using this query.mgr_id = m.'||Ename||'.employee_id "Emp_id". emp_name "Manager" FROM employees WHERE salary > 4000. salary.

Remove the table aliases from the WHERE clause.order_amount. product p WHERE customer.salary. You want to identify the person who makes the highest salary for all employees.. You want to rank the top three sales representatives who have sold the maximum number of products. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name =’_A%’. Question: 20 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT c.product_id = p.customer_id. employees m WHERE e. Which SQL statement displays the required results? 1.emp_name "manager" FROM employees e.salary. 3. 2. Which change will correct the problem? 1. 2.order_id.employee_id "Emp_id".mgr_id "Mgr_id". m. e. Remove the table alias from the ORDER BY clause and use only the column name. 4. m.salary > 4000. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name LIKE ‘*A%’ Question: 19 In which scenario would TOP N analysis be the best solution? 1. 4.emp_name "Employee".product_name FROM customer c. Include the ORDER_AMOUNT column in the SELECT list. SELECT e.customer_id = curr_order.employee_id "Emp_id". Question: 18 You need to display the last names of those employees who have the letter “A” as the second character in their names. employees m WHERE e.customer_id AND o.mgr_id = m.Siva Kumar HVK 4. 5. o. Use the table aliases instead of the table names in the WHERE clause.order_date.employee_id AND e. e. p.emp_name "Employee". You want to find the manager supervising the largest number of employees. m. m. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last_name LIKE ‘_A%’.employee_id AND e.mgr_id "Mgr_id". Use the table name in the ORDER BY clause. curr_order o. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name =’*A%’ 3. This statement fails when executed. SELECT e. e.employee_id = m. 5. 2. 237 . e. 4. o.product_id ORDER BY o. You want to identify the most senior employee in the company.salary > 4000. 3.emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e.

to designate the ORDER table location 2.3) The registrar has requested a report listing the students' grade point averages (GPA).Siva Kumar HVK Question: 21 You want to display the titles of books that meet these criteria: 1. Purchased before January 21. gpa 238 . 2001 2. to restrict the rows returned by a GROUP BY clause Question: 23 The STUDENT_GRADES table has these columns: STUDENT_ID NUMBER(12) SEMESTER_END DATE GPA NUMBER(4. 4. SELECT student_id. 3.900) AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date ASC. to compare PRODUCT_ID values to 7382 3. to display only unique PRODUCT_ID values 4. sorted from highest grade point average to lowest within each semester. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price between 500 and 900 AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase_date. Question: 22 For which task would you use the WHERE clause in a SELECT statement? 1. semester_end. starting with the most recently bought book. Which statement accomplishes this? 1. Which statement should you use? 1. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE (price < 500 OR price > 900) AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date DESC. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price IN (500. Price is less then $500 or greater than $900 You want to sort the results by their data of purchase. starting from the earliest date. 2. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price < 500 or > 900 AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date DESC.

4. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total BETWEEN 100 and 2000. order_total FROM orders HAVING order_total BETWEEN 100 and 2000. semester_end ASC. 2. order_id. semester_end DESC.00 dollars? 1. Which two statements retrieve orders with an inclusive total that ranges between 100. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end.Siva Kumar HVK FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end DESC. 3. SELECT student_id. SELECT student_id. order_total FROM orders RANGE ON order_total (100 AND 2000) INCLUSIVE. 5. SELECT customer_id. order_id. semester_end. Question: 25 Examine the structure of the PRODUCT table.00 and 2000. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total >= 100 and order_total <= 2000. Question: 24 The ORDERS table has these columns: ORDER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(12) NOT NULL ORDER_TOTAL NUMBER(10. semester_end. 4. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY gpa DESC. SELECT customer_id. SELECT student_id.2) The ORDERS table tracks the Order nnmher. order_id. 3. SELECT customer_id. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY gpa DESC.. and the customer to whom the Order belongs. SELECT student_id. SELECT customer_id. SELECT customer_id. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total >= 100 and <= 2000. gpa ASC. gpa DESC. PRODUCT Table PRODUCT _ID NUMBER Primary Key PRODUCT_NAME VARCHAR2(25) 239 . gpa DESC. semester_end. the order total. order_id. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end ASC. 2. order_id. semester_end. 5.

Siva Kumar HVK SUPPLIER_ID CATERORY_ID QTY_PER_UNIT NUMBER references SUPPLIER(SUPPLIER_ID) NUMBER NUMBER LIST_RRICE NUMBER (5. 2. You want the product numbers displayed alphabetically by supplier. product_id. Mary Elizabeth HST_RELIG 240 .------------------Jones. product_id. 3. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 SORT BY supplier_id. then by product number from lowest to highest. Question: 26 Examine the data in TEACHER table. 4. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 ORDER BY supplier_id. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 ORDER BY supplier_id. product_id. product_id DESC. Which statement should you use to achieve the required results? 1. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit > 500 SORT BY supplier_id. ID LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME SUBJECT_ID 88 Tsu Ming HST_AMER 70 Smith Ellen HST_INDIA 56 Jones Karen HST_REVOL 58 Hann Jeff HST_CURR 63 Hopewell Mary Elizabetn HST_RELIG Which query should you use to return the following values from the TEACHER table? Name Subject ------------------------------------. Karen HST_REVOL Hopewell.2) You want to display all product identification numbers of products for which there are 500 or more available for immediate sale.2) COST NUMBER (5.

100 260 400 600 Question: 28 Examine the structure of the STUDENTS table: STUDENT_ID NUMBER Primary Key STUDENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30) COURSE_ID VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL MARKS NUMBER START_DATE DATE FINISH_DATE DATE You need to create a report of the 10 students who achieved the highest ranking in the course INT SQL and who completed the course in the year 1999. 2. 2. 4. SELECT last_name||'. Which SQL statement accomplishes this task? 1. 3. 241 . subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE 'HST_%'. 3. '||first_name "Name". marks. '||first_name "Name". Question: 27 You query the database with this SQL statement: SELECT bonus FROM salary WHERE bonus BETWEEN 1 AND 250 OR (bonus IN(190. 600) AND bonus BETWEEN 250 AND 500). 4. 500. SELECT student_ id. SELECT last_name||'. Which value could the statement return? 1. SELECT last_name||'.Siva Kumar HVK 1. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE '%HST\_R%' ESC '\ '. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id = 'HST\_R%'. ROWNUM "Rank" FROM students WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks DESC. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE 'HST\_%' ESCAPE '\'. '||first_name "Name". SELECT last_name||'. '||first_name "Name".

quantity FROM line_item WHERE quantity BETWEEN 9 AND 101 AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id DESC. Which statement should you use to display the desired result? 1. Constraint foreign key PRODUCT_ID REFERENCES PRODUCT(PRODUCT_ID)). product_id. SELECT order_id. marks FROM students WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks DESC). marks. 3. ORDER_ID). SELECT student_id. SELECT student_id. QUANTITY NUMBER(9). and quantity of each item where the quantity ranges from 10 through 100. The results must be sorted by order number from lowest to highest and then further sorted by quantity from highest to lowest. ROWID "Rank" FROM students WHERE ROWID <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks. You must display the order number.Siva Kumar HVK 2. ROWNUM "Rank" FROM (SELECT student_id. The order numbers must be in the range of 1500 through 1575. Constraint primary key (LINE_ITEM_ID. marks FROM students ORDER BY marks DESC) WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL'. 4. line item number. SELECT student_id. ORDER_ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL. ROWNUM "Rank” FROM (SELECT student_id. marks. Question: 29 Examine the structure of the LINE_ITEM table. LINE_ITEM_ID NUMBER(9). product identification number. PRODUCT_ID NUMBER(9) NOT_NULL. quantity DESC. 242 . line_item_id. marks. Constraint foreign key ORDER_ID REFERENCES CURR_ORDER(ORDER_ID).

25) "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. product_id. retail. and the profit for item number 783920. product_id. line_item_id.2) You need to create a report that displays the cost.retail . quantity FROM line_item WHERE (quantity > 10 AND quantity < 100) AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id ASC.2) RETAIL NUMBER(7.retail . line_item_id.25) "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. SELECT order_id. SELECT cost.cost * . 3. SELECT cost. quantity FROM line_item WHERE (quantity > 9 OR quantity < 101) AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id. retail. (retail . quantity. and then deduct an administrative fee of 25 percent of this derived value. product_id. 3.25 "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. SELECT cost. (retail . quantity. SELECT order_id. retail . quantity DESC. subtract the cost of the item from its retail price. 4.cost . SELECT cost. quantity FROM line_item WHERE quantity BETWEEN 10 AND 100 AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id. line_item_id.cost .cost) .25 "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. 243 . retail. Question: 30 The ITEM table contains these columns: ITEM_ID NUMBER(9) COST NUMBER(7. 4.cost) . retail.cost) * .cost) * . 2. the retail price. Which SELECT statement produces the desired results? 1.retail .((retail . (retail .(cost * .Siva Kumar HVK 2. To calculate the profit. SELECT order_id.

2) DEPARTMENT_ID NUMBER(6) You need to display the employees who have not been assigned to any department. The SQL statement displays the desired results.2) RETAIL NUMBER(7.10) . retail * 1. 3. Statement 1 and statement 2 will return the same value. One of the statements will NOT execute.25 + 5.25) + 5.10) AS Calculated Profit FROM item. Evaluate these two SQL statements: 1. You write the SELECT statement: SELECT LAST_NAME.10 "Calculated Profit" FROM item. The column in the WHERE clause should be changed to display the desired results. Statement 1 will display the 'Calculated Profit' column heading.00 . What is true about this SQL statement? 1.(cost * 1.cost * 1.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 31 The ITEM table contains these columns: ITEM_ID NUMBER(9) COST NUMBER(7. 2.cost * . The operator in the WHERE clause should be changed to display the desired results.00 . 4. DEPARTMENT_ID FROM EMP WHERE DEPARTMENT_ID = NULL. SELECT item_id.(cost * . 3. The WHERE clause should be changed to use an outer join to display the desired results. 2. Statement 1 will return a higher value than statement 2. SALARY. 4. SELECT item_id.10 .2) The RETAIL and COST columns contain values greater than zero. 244 . Question: 32 The EMP table contains these columns: LAST NAME VARCHAR2(25) SALARY NUMBER(6. 2. What will be the result? 1. (retail * 1.

Question: 35 The ACCOUNT table contains these columns: ACCOUNT_ID NUMBER(12) PREVIOUS_BALANCE NUMBER(7.payments > credit_limit AND account_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 2000. The statement returns only accounts that have NO previous balance.009) of the previous balance. 2. The finance charge is . where will the NULL record appears? 1. A WHERE clause can be used to restrict both rows and groups. At the beginning of the list. new purchases value. 3. 5. In the middle of the list. 0) current balance FROM account WHERE (new_purchases + (previous_balance * 1. 4. 3. 6.009 finance_charge. and finance charge value.2) CREDIT_LIMIT NUMBER(7) You need to display the account number.9 percent (. 0) * 1. finance charge. 2. A HAVING clause can be used to restrict groups only. 2. NVL(previous_balance.2) PAYMENTS NUMBER(7. The statement calculates the current balance incorrectly. 4. 0) + (NVL(previous_balance. Evaluate this statement: SELECT account_id. The column you are sorting on contains NULL records. Question: 34 You are sorting data in a table in you SELECT statement in descending order. Adding the previous balance value.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 33 Which two statements are true about WHERE and HAVING clauses? 1. NVL(new_purchases. The statement calculates the finance charge incorrectly. A WHERE clause CANNOT be used in a query of the query uses a HAVING clause.2) NEW_PURCHASES NUMBER(7. and current balance for accounts 1500 through 2000 with a current balance greater than the account's credit limit. At the end of the list.009)) . A WHERE clause can be used to restrict rows only. and then subtracting the payments value yields the current balance value. A HAVING clause can be used to restrict both rows and groups. 3. 245 . A HAVING clause CANNOT be used in subqueries.009) NVL(payments. 0) * . At the same location they are listed in the unordered table. Which statement about this SELECT statement is true? 1.

Siva Kumar HVK 4. SELECT dept_id. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. job_cat. job_cat. Question: 36 Examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table: EMP_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) DEPT_ID NUMBER(2) JOB_CAT VARCHARD2(30) SALARY NUMBER(8. The statement returns only accounts that have new purchases. job_cat. SELECT last_name. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE salary > MAX(salary). job_cat. SELECT last_name. SELECT last_name. The EMP table contains these columns: LAST NAME VARCNAR2(35) NOT NULL SALARY NUMBER(9. 12*salary*commison_pct FROM emp. MAX(salary) FROM employees. SELECT dept_id.0)) FROM emp. 12*salary*(decode(commission_pct. and payments values. 2.2) Which statement shows the maximum salary paid in each job category of each department? 1.2) Which statement ensures that a value is displayed in the calculated columns for all employees? 1. SELECT last_name.0) FROM emp. 12*salary*(nvl(commission_pct. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. job_cat. 12*salary* (commission_pct. SELECT dept_id. 3. previous balance. 246 . Question: 37 Management has asked you to calculate the value 12*salary* comossion_pct for all the employees in the EMP table. job_cat. 4. 4. 3. SELECT dept_id. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. 2.0)) FROM emp. salary. job_cat. 5.2) NOT NULL COMMISION_PCT NUMBER(4. SELECT dept_id.

YYYY') TO_DATE(SYSDATE. DDD Month. 'FMDY. YYYY') FROM dual. SELECT last_name. COUNT(start_date) 4. (salary * 12) * commission_pct FROM EMPLOYEES. 2001". SELECT last_name. DDD Month. 'FMDD. 3. Which SQL statement displays the desired results? 1. EMPLOYEES. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.0) FROM (salary * 12) * NVL2(commission_pct. MAXIMUM(start_date) Question: 39 The EMPLOYEE tables has these columns: LAST_NAME VARCNAR2(35) SALARY NUMBER(8. Which two aggregate functions are valid on the START_DATE column? 1. 5. DD Month. 'FMDay. DY Month. MIN(start_date) 6. AVG(start_date) 3. 2.2) COMMISSION_PCT NUMBER(5. YYYY') FROM dual.2) You want to display the name and annual salary multiplied by the commission_pct for all employees. 'FMDAY. EMPLOYEES. 2. 0) FROM Question: 40 You would like to display the system date in the format "Monday. SUM(start_date) 2. 3.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 38 Examine the description of the STUDENTS table: STD_ID NUMBER(4) COURSE_ID VARCHARD2(10) START_DATE DATE END_DATE DATE. (salary * 12) * IFNULL(commission_pct. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. 0) FROM (salary * 12) * NVL(commission_pct. YYYY') FROM dual. 'FMDY. 4. 4. SELECT last_name. end_date) 5. EMPLOYEES. For records that have a NULL commission_pct. 01 June. SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT TO_DATE(SYSDATE. 'YYY') FROM dual. Question: 41 Evaluate the SQL statement: 247 . DD Month. a zero must be displayed against the calculated column. AVG(start_date. Which SELECT statement should you use? 1. SELECT last_name.

Question: 43 Which three SELECT statements displays 2000 in the format “$2. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.000. 3. 6. ‘$2.999. 0 2.00’) FROM dual. The statement returns an error at the SELECT clause.NNN. ‘$9. ‘$#. 1 3. Examine this SELECT statement based on the MARKS table: SELECT subj1+subj2 total_marks. The statement executes successfully and returns the student ID and sum of all marks for each student who obtained more than the average mark in each subject.-1). What is the result of the SELECT statement? 1. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.999. 2. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.00’) FROM dual. What will be displayed? 1. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.00 4.00’) FROM dual.NN ’) FROM dual. The statement returns an error at the ORDER BY clause.00”? 1. The statement returns an error at the WHERE clause.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT ROUND(TRUNC(MOD(1600.###.##’) FROM dual. 4. 248 . 3. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. std_id FROM marks WHERE subj1 > AVG(subj1) AND subj2 > AVG(subj2) ORDER BY total marks. ‘$0. ‘$N. 0. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. ‘$9. 2. 4.2) FROM dual. An error statement Question: 42 Examine the description of the MARKS table: STD_ID NUMBER(4) STUDENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30) SUBJ1 NUMBER(3) SUBJ2 NUMBER(3) SUBJ1 and SUBJ2 indicate the marks obtained by a student in two subjects.000. 5.99’) FROM dual.10).000.

MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000.2) Which statement shows the department ID. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. SELECT dept_id. 2. MIN(salary). MIN(salary). only of the minimum salary is less then 5000 and the maximum salary is more than 15000? 1. 3. and maximum salary paid in that department. 4. salary HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. SELECT dept_id. MIN(salary). MIN(salary(. MAX(salary) FROM employees HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. minimum salary. SELECT dept_id. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000 GROUP BY dept_id. 249 . 5. DEPT_ID NUMBER(2) JOB_CAT VARCHAR2(30) SALARY NUMBER(8. SELECT dept_id. MIN(salary). MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. SELECT dept_id.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 44 Examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table: EMP_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(30).

DECODE translates an expression after comparing it to each search value. or the first expression if they are not equal. expression. You can use aggregate functions on a table. You can use aggregate functions in any clause of a SELECT statement. 7. INSTR returns the numeric position of a named character. 2.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 45 Which two are true about aggregate functions? 1. You can mix single row columns with aggregate functions in the column list of a SELECT statement by grouping on the single row columns. 2. or functions as parameters to an aggregate function. NULLIF compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal. 250 . 3. or value to n decimal places. 5. You can use aggregate functions only in the column list of the SELECT clause and in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. TRIM trims the heading of trailing characters (or both) from a character string. TRUNCATE rounds the column. 4. 6. only by grouping the whole table as one single group. 6. 5. or the first expression of they are not equal. NVL2 returns the first non-null expression in the expression list. You cannot group the rows of a table by more than one column while using aggregate functions. 4. constants. expressions. 3. Question: 46 Which four statements correctly describe functions that are available in SQL? 1. You can pass column names. NVL compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal.

4.physician_id. SELECT patient_id FROM admission WHERE COUNT(physician_id) > 1. PATIENT Table PATIENT_ID NUMBER Primary Key LAST_NAME VARCHAR2 (30) FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2 (25) DOB DATE INS_CODE NUMBER PHYSICIAN Table PHYSICIAN _ID LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME LICENSE_NO HIRE_DTAE NUMBER Primary Key VARCHAR2 (30) NOT NULL VARCHAR2 (25) NOT NULL NUMBER (7) NOT NULL DATE ADMISSION Table PATIENT_ID NUMBER NOT NULL. 2. SELECT DISTINCT a.physician_id <> a2.patient_id FROM admission a. Primary Key.patient_id FROM patient p WHERE p. admission a2 WHERE a.patient_id = a2. PHYSICIAN. SELECT patient_id FROM patient FULL OUTER JOIN physician. Primary Key. and ADMISSION tables.patient_id IN (SELECT patient_id FROM admission GROUP BY patient_id HAVING COUNT(*) > 1).Siva Kumar HVK Question: 47 Examine the structures of the PATIENT. SELECT p. References PHYSICIAN_ID column of the PHYSICIA table ADMIT_DATE DATE DISCHG_DATE DATE ROOM_ID NUMBER Foreign key to ROOM_ID of the ROOM table Which SQL statement will produce a list of all patients who have more than one physician? 1. References PATIENT_ID column of the PATIENT table PHYSICIAN_ID NUMBER NOT NULL.patient_id AND a. 251 . 3.

TO_DATE 5. Before the WHERE clause 3. where is the GROUP BY clause placed in the SELECT statement? 1. TRUNC 4. TRIM 2. RESTRICT 4. HAVING 3. MOD 6. GROUP BY 5. REPLACE 3.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 48 Which clause should you use to exclude group results? 1. Immediately after the SELECT clause 2. CASE 252 . WHERE 2. Before the FROM clause 4. After the WHERE clause Question: 50 Which two are character manipulation functions? 1. ORDER BY Question: 49 In a SELECT statement that includes a WHERE clause. After the ORDER BY clause 5.