Siva Kumar HVK

Oracle 10g Structured Query Language (SQL)

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Siva Kumar HVK

Table of Contents
Unit 1 Topic
Introduction to Oracle • What is Oracle • Oracle’s role in Client/Server Computing • What is Personal Oracle • Features of Oracle • Database Architecture • Overall System Architecture • Oracle Instance • SGA memory structure • Query process • Oracle versions • Oracle9i Features & Benefits • Oracle9i Products • What 9i supports • Data concurrency and consistency • Locking and Read Consistency • Environment • Summary Exercises OPERATORS AND QUERIES • Oracle Data types • Introduction to SQL • SQL in Application Programming • Writing simple queries • Expressions, conditions and Operators • Arithmetic Operators • Comparison Operators • Character Operators • Concatenation operator • Logical Operators • Miscellaneous Operators: IN, BETWEEN and DISTINCT • Distinct operator • Order by clause • Exercise FUNCTIONS • Predefined functions • Group functions • Aggregate functions • Single row functions • Arithmetic Functions • Character Functions • Conversion Functions • Date and Time Functions • Miscellaneous Functions • Exercise GROUP • • • • • • • AND HAVING CLAUSE GROUP BY CLAUSE ERROR with GROUP BY Clause Using Break CUBE and ROLLUP HAVING clause Points to remember Order of Execution Exercise

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SUB QUERIES Single row sub queries Multi row sub queries Multi column sub queries Correlated sub queries.

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DML statements in sub queries ANY and ALL operators EXISTS And NOT EXISTS Operators Points to remember • Exercise INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS • Integrity constraints • Table and Column level constraints • DDL statements • DML statements • COMMIT, ROLLBACK and SAVEPOINT • Implicit commit, Auto Rollback • Defining and Viewing constraints • Creating table from other tables • Referential Integrity constraints • Exercise JOINING TABLES • What is a Join • Perform an equi-join • Perform a non-equi-join • Perform an outer join • Join a table to itself • Left, right and full outer join • Natural and Inner joins • Cross join (cartesian product) Exercise OTHER OBJECTS • Sequence Object • Altering sequence • Views • Rules for deleting, updating and inserting rows • Index • Simple and Functional Index ADVANCED QUERIES • Top n analysis • Analitical queries • Rank, dense_rank, row_number • Case expressions • Nullif, nvl2, coalesec • Multiple insert and merge statements LOCKING MECHANISMS • What is Locking • DML and Dictionary locks • Explicit and Implicit Locking • Example SECURITY • What is Privilege • Object and system privileges • GRANT and REVOKE • Using Synonyms SQL*LOADER FLASHBACK QUERY ANNEXURE OCP QUESTIONS • • • •

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ORACLE
Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle SQL 1 1 3 Hrs

Topics Introduction to Oracle Oracle’s Role in Client / Server Computing Oracle Features Database Architecture Overall System Structure Oracle Instance Query Process Oracle versions, features and Benefits Oracle9i – ORDBMS Data Concurrency And Consistency Environment Summary Exercise

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Siva Kumar HVK

Presentation
Introduction
It is a DBMS, which manages a large amount of data in a multi user environment so that many users concurrently access the data. It also provides security and Recovery. It stores and manages data using relational model. Oracle is the name of database management system developed by Oracle Corporation. Oracle server manages data in the database. Users access Oracle server using SQL commands. So Oracle server receives SQL commands from users and executes them on the database.

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ORACLE SERVER
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Siva Kumar HVK Oracle’s Role in Client / Server Computing Client/Server computing is a method in which Database is stored on the server in the network A dedicated program. Applications running on the clients interact with the user. Personal Oracle can support up to 15 database connections. which is also stored on the server. The latest version of the Oracle server is 9i. The following are some of the platforms on which Oracle runs. Oracle server runs on different platforms. The other name to database server is Back-End. 6 . back-end may run on mainframe and front-end may be on a PC. also called as front-end from clients. For example. It is possible to develop an application using Personal Oracle and deploy it in a Client / Server environment. that accesses back-end running on the server. This is unlike other flavors where Oracle Server runs on Server and Front-end runs on Client. User access the data in database by running application. runs on the server to manage database. called back-end. Oracle is a database system that runs on the server. Windows NT. Back-end takes care of total database management. Novel Netware Unix What is Personal Oracle? Personal Oracle is one of the flavors of Oracle. which may be of different types. Client application and back-end run on different machines. In this Oracle server and client both run on the same machine. and used to manage the data.

potentially hundreds of pita bytes in size. Data Concurrence Oracle supports concurrent access to database by multiple users. Oracle server allows code to be stored in the database in the form of procedures and functions. Oracle server does all database management whereas Client does user interface.Siva Kumar HVK Features of Oracle The following are some of the important features of Oracle Server. This allows centralization of the code and reduces network traffic. Support for Client / Server environment Oracle allows process to be split between client and server. Application development in Oracle can be ported to any operating system with little or no modifications. It is easy to port Oracle applications. Data Security Oracle provides security in different levels – system level and object level. It also makes implementation of security easier through Roles. which protects the investment of customer. It also allows efficient usage of space by providing full control on space management. These rules need not be included at the application level. Portability Oracle software can be ported to different operating systems and it is the name on all systems. Industry acceptance standards Oracle server is 100% compliant with Entry of the ANSI / ISO standards. It automatically locks and unlocks rows to maintain integrity of the data. network protocols etc. Oracle adheres to industry standards for data access language. Enforced Integrity Oracle allows users to define business rules and enforce them. Large Database Support Oracle supports largest database. This makes Oracle an ‘open’ system. 7 .

All changes made to the database are written to redo log file. including the names of the other files in the database (Extension of file is ctl) Database Name Names and locations of data files and redo log files. (Filenames redo01. Redo Log Files Every database has a set of two or more Redo Log files. Path We can use this Oracle\oradata\orcl path in the server to see all the 3 types of files 8 . Redo Log files are used in failure recovery. The set of redo log files is known as databases redo log.Siva Kumar HVK Database Architecture A database contains any length of information. Physical level Logical Level View level Physical Level The Physical structure of the database is placed in Physical level. Every table that is stored in the database is a part of these files. This data hiding can be done using various data abstraction methods. Data Files It contains the data of the database. It is physically a set of three operating system files. Data Files Redo log files Control files These files automatically create when database is created. In any RDBMS we can use 3 levels of data abstractions.log) Control Files Contain information required to verify the integrity of the database. we have to show only required information by hiding the unwanted information. Only Oracle Server can interpret these data files. But for the end user.

Segments Data into table spaces comes in the form of segments. For example we can use a table space called PAYROLL to store all the data related to payroll application. DBA can take the backup. By making a tablespace off-line. An extent is made with in a data file. Every database contains SYSTEM tablespace. SYSTEM tablespace contains the data dictionary tables. 9 .Siva Kumar HVK Logical Structure Logical Structure is independent of Physical structure. It is possible to make tablespace temporarily unavailable by making it off-line and makes it available again by changing it to on-line. This is automatically created when a database is created. Each Tablespace contains 65536 data files N number of such Table spaces creates a database. Example Table is a segment An Oracle database requires up to 4 types of segments Data segments Index Segments Rollback segments Temporary segments It is used to store data of tables Used to store indexes Undo information is stored Oracle stores Temporary tables Extents The storage space is allocated to segments is in the form of Extents. Tablespaces Segments Extents Blocks Tablespace Each Database is a collection of tablespaces. Each Oracle database contains the following components. N Number of continuous db blocks makes up an Extent.

Figure 1 illustrates a typical variation of ORACLE's memory and process structures.Siva Kumar HVK ORACLE Architecture and Terminology This section will provide a basic understanding of ORACLE including the concepts and terminology of the ORACLE Server. Before you can begin to use ORACLE. It is important that you read through this section to familiarize yourself with the concepts and terminology to be used throughout this manual. some of the memory structures and processes in this diagram are discussed in the following section. you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner.'' 10 . see page 115 of ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual. Most of the information contained in this section is DIRECTLY extracted from ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual'' and all credit should be attributed to ORACLE. For more information on these memory structures and processes.

ORACLE Architecture 11 .Siva Kumar HVK Figure 1.

Memory Structures ORACLE creates and uses memory structures to complete several jobs. Processes A process is a ``thread of control'' or a mechanism in an operating system that can execute a series of steps. System Global Area (SGA) is a shared memory region allocated by ORACLE that contains data and control information for one ORACLE instance.Siva Kumar HVK Memory Structures and Processes The mechanisms of ORACLE execute by using memory structures and processes. 12 . and the shared pool) and the program global area. For example. A user process is created and maintained to execute the software code of an application program (such as a PRO*C program) or an ORACLE tool (such as SQL*PLUS). An ORACLE instance contains the SGA and the background processes. User processes communicate with the server processes through the program interface. The Program Global Area (PGA) is a memory buffer that contains data and control information for a server process. memory is used to store program code being executed and data that is shared among users. The SGA is allocated when an instance starts and deallocated when the instance shuts down. Each instance that is started has its own SGA. The information in a PGA depends on the configuration of ORACLE. The user process also manages the communication with the server processes. Processes are jobs or tasks that work in the memory of these computers. All memory structures exist in the main memory of the computers that constitute the database system. Some operating systems use the terms job or task. A PGA is created by ORACLE when a server process is started. Several basic memory structures are associated with ORACLE: the system global area (which includes the database and redo log buffers. An ORACLE database system has two general types of processes: user processes and ORACLE processes.

The operations on a database must adhere to a pre-defined set of integrity rules. views.g. dictate how the physical space of a database is used. sequences. stored procedures).Siva Kumar HVK ORACLE processes are called by other processes to perform functions on behalf of the invoking process. Integrity rules protect the data and the structures of a database. the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting the access to logical storage structures. clusters. segments. including tablespaces. 13 . Integrity Rule Integrity rules are the laws that govern which operations are allowed on the data and structures of a database. Database Structures The relational model has three major aspects: Structures Structures are well-defined objects that store the data of a database. and extents.. ORACLE creates a server process to handle requests from connected user processes. indexes. ORACLE also creates a set of background processes for each instance (see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual'' pages 1-18. An ORACLE database has both a physical and a logical structure. The schema objects and the relationships among them form the relational design of a database. Logical Database Structure An ORACLE database's logical structure is determined by: • • one or more tablespaces. the database's schema objects (e. Operations Operations are clearly defined actions that allow users to manipulate the data and structures of a database. tables. 1-19). The logical storage structures. Structures and the data contained within them can be manipulated by operations. By separating physical and logical database structure.

tablespaces. each comprised of two data files (for a total of six data files). suppose a table is created in a specific tablespace using the CREATE TABLE command with the TABLESPACE option. and tablespaces When a schema object such as a table or index is created. its segment is created within a designated tablespace in the database. A more complicated database might have three tablespaces. segments. For example.Siva Kumar HVK Tablespaces and Data Files Tablespaces are the primary logical storage structures of any ORACLE database. Although databases. The space for this table's data segment is allocated in one or more of the data files that constitute the specified tablespace. The usable data of an ORACLE database is logically stored in the tablespaces and physically stored in the data files associated with the corresponding tablespace. they have important differences: databases and tablespaces An ORACLE database is comprised of one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. tablespaces and data files Each tablespace in an ORACLE database is comprised of one or more operating system files called data files. The database's data is collectively stored in the database's tablespaces. the simplest ORACLE database would have one tablespace. schema objects. An object's segment allocates space in only one tablespace of a database. and segments are closely related. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship. 14 . with one data file. For example. databases and data files A database's data is collectively stored in the data files that constitute each tablespace of the database. data files. A tablespace's data files physically store the associated database data on disk.

the names of the tables that are owned by you or ones to which you have access. Every ORACLE database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM. You can query these data dictionary tables to obtain pertinent information about the database. for example. Control availability of data by taking individual tablespaces online or offline.Siva Kumar HVK Figure 2. Perform partial database backup or recovery operations. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database. A database administrator can use tablespaces to do the following: • • • • • Control disk space allocation for database data. Assign specific space quotas for database users. which is automatically created when the database is created. Data Files and Tablespaces A database is divided into one or more logical storage units called tablespaces. 15 . Allocate data storage across devices to improve performance.

For example. and segments. Extents. An extent cannot span files. while each index's data is stored in its own index segment. 16 . After a data file is initially created. therefore. and Segments ORACLE allocates database space for all data in a database. The units of logical database allocations are data blocks. A segment is a set of extents which have been allocated for a specific type of data structure. Data Blocks. however. Therefore. an object can ``span'' one or more data files. A data file can be associated with only one tablespace. An ORACLE database uses and allocates free database space in ORACLE data blocks. One or more datafiles form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace. ORACLE uses the free space in the associated data files to allocate extents for the segment. though. rollback segments. The extents of a single segment can be allocated in one or more data files of a tablespace (see Figure 3). The database administrator and endusers cannot control which data file stores an object. when the existing extents of a segment are full. Figure 4 illustrates a typical ORACLE data block. ORACLE allocates space for segments in extents. an ORACLE database's data is stored in data blocks (also called logical blocks. extents. The data in the segments of objects (data segments. Segments The level of logical database storage above an extent is called a segment. the space is reserved to hold only the data for future segments of the associated tablespace . the allocated disk space does not contain any data. the extents of a segment may or may not be contiguous on disk.it cannot store any other program's data. Figure 3 illustrates the relationships between these data structures. and may or may not span files. ORACLE allocates another extent for that segment. or pages). Extents The next level of logical database space is called an extent.Siva Kumar HVK Data files associated with a tablespace store all the database data in that tablespace. Because extents are allocated as needed. each table's data is stored in its own data segment. a data file is a repository for the data of any object within a specific tablespace. An extent is a specific number of contiguous data blocks that are allocated for storing a specific type of information. index segments. As a segment (such as the data segment for a table) is created and grows in a tablespace. Note that a schema object does not correspond to a specific data file. rather. ORACLE blocks. Data Blocks At the finest level of granularity. and so on) in a tablespace are physically stored in one or more of the data files that constitute the tablespace. and only one database. and all are stored in the same tablespace.

or clustered data. equal to the ORACLE data block size (specifically set when the database is created . Extents and Data Blocks ORACLE manages the storage space in the data files of a database in units called data blocks. A data block is the smallest unit of I/O used by a database. The ORACLE block format is similar regardless of whether the data block contains table. A data block corresponds to a block of physical bytes on disk. Figure 4 shows the format of the block. This block size can differ from the standard I/O block size of the operating system that executes ORACLE. index. 17 .Siva Kumar HVK Figure 3.2048). The Relationship Among Segments.

Siva Kumar HVK Figure 4. segment type. 18 . Row Directory This portion of the block contains row information about the actual rows in the block (including addresses for each row piece in the row data area). Rows can span blocks. or rollback. While some block overhead is fixed in size (about 107 bytes). Once the space has been allocated in the row directory of a block's header. the total block overhead size is variable. such as block address. index. such as data. Table Directory The table directory portion of the block contains information about the tables having rows in this block. Row Data This portion of the block contains table or index data. Data Block Format Header (Common and Variable) The header contains general block information. this space is not reclaimed when the row is deleted.

the free space of the data block can only be used for updates to rows already contained in the data block. Before this value is achieved. In addition. No matter what type. a data block used for this table's data segment is not considered for the insertion of any new rows until the amount of used space in the blocks falls to 39\% or less (assuming that the block's used space has previously reached PCTFREE). This extent is called the segment's initial extent.g. Space Used for Transaction Entries Data blocks allocated for the data segment of a table. Two space management parameters. PCTFREE and PCTUSED. allow a developer to control the use of free space for inserts of and updates to the rows in data blocks. For example. Both of these parameters can only be specified when creating or altering tables and clusters (data segments). the storage parameter PCTFREE can also be specified when creating or altering indicies (index segments). Whether issued insertions actually occur in a given data block is a function of the value for the space management parameter PCTFREE and the amount of current free space in that data block. or the index segment of an index can also use free space for transaction entries. After a data block becomes full. ORACLE automatically allocates an incremental extent for that segment. assume that you specify the following parameter within a CREATE TABLE statement: pctfree 20 This states that 20\% of each data block used for this table's data segment will be kept free and available for possible updates to the existing rows already within each block.Siva Kumar HVK Free Space Free space is used to insert new rows and for updates to rows that require additional space (e. when a trailing null is updated to a non-null value). The PCTFREE parameter is used to set the percentage of a block to be reserved (kept free) for possible updates to rows that already are contained in that block.. An incremental extent is a 19 . each segment in a database is created with at least one extent to hold its data. cluster. assume that you specify the following parameter within a CREATE TABLE statement: pctused 40 In this case. as determined by PCTFREE. For example. the block is not considered for the insertion of new rows until the percentage of the block being used falls below the parameter PCTUSED. If the data blocks of a segment's initial extent become full and more space is required to hold new data.

see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual. The data segment for a table is indirectly created via the CREATE TABLE/SNAPSHOT command. Storage parameters for a table.'' 20 . snapshot. or cluster control the way that a data segment's extents are allocated. For more information on Data Blocks. Each ORACLE database is comprised of these types of files: one or more data files. two or more redo log files. Setting these storage parameters directly via the CREATE TABLE/SNAPSHOT/CLUSTER or ALTER TABLE/SNAPSHOT/CLUSTER commands affects the efficiency of data retrieval and storage for that data segment. Segments and Extents. see ``ORACLE7 Server Concepts Manual. For more information on these physical storage files. and one or more control files. The files of a database provide the actual physical storage for database information.Siva Kumar HVK subsequent extent of the same or incremented size of the previous extent in that segment.'' Physical Database Structure An ORACLE database's physical structure is determined by the operating system files that constitute the database. Every non-clustered table in an ORACLE database has a single data segment to hold all of its data.

Maintaining the Free Space of Data Blocks with PCTFREE and PCTUSED 21 .Siva Kumar HVK Figure 5.

Buffer manager This is responsible for fetching data from disk storage into main memory. Transaction Manager It ensures concurrent transaction executions processed without conflicting. application programs and queries submitted to the system. which handles different responsibilities of over all system. The functional components of a database system are Query processor Component Storage manager component Query Processor Component This component is a collection of the following processes. DDL Interpreter It interprets DDL statements and records them in a set of tables Query evaluation engine It executes lower level instructions generated by the DML compiler Storage manager component It is an Interface between the data stored in the database. Authorization and Integrity manager It tests for satisfaction of integrity constraints and checks the authority of users to access data. 22 . DML Compiler : It translates DML statements into a lower level instructions that the query evaluation engine understands Embedded DML precompiler It converts DML statements embedded in an application program into normal procedure calls in the host language. File manager It manages the allocation of space on disk and the data structures used to represent information.Siva Kumar HVK Overall System Structure A database system is partitioned into modules.

The database buffer cache is used to store the most recently used data. Every time a database is started. and written to. These SQL statements may be submitted by a user process or. a memory area called System Global Area (SGA) or Shared Global Area is allocated and one or more processes are started. in the case of stored procedures. read from the data dictionary. the data files. The redo log buffer is used to track changes made to the database by the server and background processes. SGA consists of several memory structures: The shared pool is used to store the most recently executed SQL statements and the most recently used data from the data dictionary.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle Instance Every oracle database is associated with an Oracle Instance. The combination of SGA and Oracle processes is called as Oracle Instance. 23 . The data is read from.

the server process performs the following functions: Searches for an existing copy of the SQL statement in the shared pool validates the SQL statement by checking its syntax Performs data dictionary lookups to validate table and column definitions 24 . There are three main stages in the processing of a query: Parse Execute Fetch Parsing During the parse stage. the SQL statement is passed from the user process to the server process.Siva Kumar HVK Query process 1 Parse 2 Execute 3 Fetch 3 Server Process DB 1 User Process 2 Client When User connects to the database. During the parse. and a parsed representation of the SQL statement is loaded into a shared SQL area. it automatically creates two different processes called as User process and Server Process. The server process executes the statements sent from the user process. The user process is the application program that originates SQL statements.

and the before image of an INSERT contains the row location information. With each fetch process.Siva Kumar HVK Execute Execute: Identify rows selected The steps to be taken when executing the statement The optimizer is the function in the Oracle Server that determines the optimal execution plan. The processing of a DELETE or INSERT command uses similar steps. The before image for a DELETE contains the column values in the deleted row. buffers that are not the same as the corresponding blocks on the disk. Fetch Fetch: Return rows to user process. Both of these changes are done in the database buffer cache. it can fetch 20 records at a time. DML Processing Steps A data manipulation language (DML) statement requires only two phases of processing: Parse is the same as the parse phase used for processing a query Execute requires additional processing to make data changes DML Execute Phase The server process records the before image to the rollback block and updates the data block. Because the changes made to the blocks are only recorded in memory structures and are not written immediately to disk. a computer failure that causes the loss of the SGA can also lose these changes. 25 . Any changed blocks in the buffer cache are marked as dirty buffers: that is.

Siva Kumar HVK Oracle Versions Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle Oracle 6. deploy and manage Internet applications.0 8i 9i 10g 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2003 Object based ORDBMS Internet based Application Application server Features & Benefits Oracle Scalability One Management Interface 9i Reliability Internet Common Skill Sets Single Dev Model Features Oracle offers a comprehensive high performance infrastructure for ebusiness.1 7.2 7.0 7.It provides everything needed to develop.0 7. easy development options Common skill sets including SQL.JAVA and XML One Management interface for all applications 26 . It is called Oracle9i. available and secure architecture One development model.3 8. PL/SQL. Benefits Scalability from departments to enterprise e-business sites Reliable.

Siva Kumar HVK 9i Products There are two products. Application Server 9i Application server runs all the applications and 9i database stores our data. They provide a complete and simple infrastructure for Internet applications. applications and data 27 . Oracle 9i Application server runs Portals or web sites Java Transactional Applications Provides integration between users.

Read Consistency For a query. Locks are used to prevent destructive interference. Note: it is the responsibility of the application developer to unlock rows that are locked by committing or rolling back the transaction. the data retrieved is consistent with the time at which the query started. it is locked so that other users cannot modify it until X completes modification. it doesn’t stop users querying the row. But the goal of the database system is to reduce wait time so that it is negligible to each user. Oracle provides a new engine that brings objectoriented programming. One way of managing data concurrency is by making other users wait until their turn comes. For instance. complex data types. Oracle returns a timepoint-based version of data. Locking Oracle uses Locks to control data concurrency. Data Concurrency And Consistency Data concurrency allows many users to access the same data at the same time. That means. That means users reading the data will not be interrupted by user modifying and vice-versa.Siva Kumar HVK Oracle9i: ORDBMS Oracle is the first object-capable database developed by Oracle Corporation. when user X is modifying a row. complex business objects. However. 28 . So any changes made to database since query started will not be available. Oracle 9i supports User-Defined data types and objects Fully compatible with relational database (It supports all the CODD rules) Support of multimedia and Large objects It also support client server and web based applications Oracle 9i can scale tens of thousands of concurrent users and support up to 512 peta bytes of data (One pita byte = 1000 tera bytes and One terabyte = 1000 GB). and full compatibility with the relational world. Oracle uses locking mechanism and multiversioning to increase data concurrency while maintaining data integrity. At the same time data integrity should not be compromised. It extends the data modeling capabilities of Oracle 8 to support a new object relational database model. when a user is accessing the data.

where as iSQL*plus. This data is substituted for the data that has changed since query started. in the query result. if they attempt to update identical rows at the same time. ISQL*plus is (Available only from Oracle 9i) An Environment Oracle proprietary Keywords can be abbreviated Runs on a browser Centrally loaded. Rollback segment keeps a copy of unchanged data. doesn’t have to be implemented on each machine 29 . SQL*plus and iSQL*plus. Environment Oracle uses two types of Environments for executing our SQL statements.Siva Kumar HVK Ready consistency is made possible In Oracle using Rollback segment. This ensures readers do not wait for writers and vice-versa and ensures that writers only wait for other writers. does not have to be implemented on each machine Difference between SQL*Plus and ISQL*plus SQL*Plus is a CUI and iSQL*Plus runs on a browser SQL*plus should be loaded in each every client system. centrally loaded.

to rollback segment to provide read consistency. 30 . An Oracle Instance is the combination of SGA and Oracle process. The logical structure of the database is independent of physical structure of the database. User is concerned with only the logical structure of the database. Oracle uses locking mechanism to manage data concurrency. Oracle instance contains a collection of background processes. It copies the data of a row. before the row is changed. In a Client/Server environment.Siva Kumar HVK Summary Oracle is RDBMS. where each process does a specific job. Oracle runs on the server as back-end to manage the data.

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) SGA stands for _______________________________ _____________ is the name of the tablespace that is automatically created when a database is created. In which segment the data of a table is stored? What is the difference between Personal Oracle and Client/Server Oracle Redo Log files are also called as ______________ File extension of control file is ___________ ________ Number of data files are there in each table space What is Oracle Instance? What is the maximum storage capacity of Oracle database What is Application server? 31 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 2 2 Hrs Topics Oracle data types Introduction to SQL An overview of SQL SQL in Application programming Structured Query Language SQL statements Simple Queries Operators. Expressions and Expressions 32 .

depending on the choice of national character set. Truncates leftover blank spaces. 33 . which is associated with a specific storage format. CHAR datatype Fixed length character data of length size in bytes.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation Oracle Datatypes Each column value and constant in a SQL statement has a data type. NVARCHAR2(size) Variable length characters strings having a maximum size of 4000 bytes (Default size is 1) Or characters. Oracle provides the following builtin data types. VARCHAR2 (size) Variable length characters strings having a maximum size of 4000 bytes (Default size is 1). you must specify a data type for each of its columns. Truncates leftover blank spaces. with byte values corresponding to the character. When you create a table. constraints.( Default size is 1 and maximum size is 2000). Character Data types CHAR Data type VARCHAR2 and VARCHAR Data types NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 Data types LONG Data type NUMBER Data type DATE Data type LOB Data types BLOB data type CLOB and NCLOB data types BFILE Data type RAW and LONG RAW Data types Character Datatypes The character data types store character (alphanumeric) data in strings. and a valid range of values. Padded on right with blanks to full length of size.

These two data types allow storing pictures. RAW(size) Raw binary date.d) For number column specified with d digits after the decimal point. BLOB 34 . TIMESTAMP(precision) WITHLOCAL TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP. expressions. size bytes long. where precision is the number of digits in the fractional part of the seconds field (default is 6). NUMBER (5. functions. Only one LONG column is allowed in a table. DATE Valid date ranges from January 1. (Default date format DD-MON-YY) TIMESTAMP(precision) Date plus time. For example. where clause or indexes. otherwise the same as LONG. CLOB Character Large object.4712 BC to December 31.9999 AD. LONG RAW Raw binary data.99 without an error. Long column cannot be used in sub queries. TIMESTAMP(precision) WITH TIME ZONE Timestamp plus time zone displacement value. up to 4GB in length. with normalized to local time zone. Maximum size is 2000 bytes.2) could nothing larger than 999. LONG Character data of variable size up to 2GB in length.Siva Kumar HVK NUMBER(size.

Siva Kumar HVK Binary large object. up to 4GB in length. 35 . BFILE Pointer to a binary operating system file.

SQL enables a programmer or database administrator to do the following: Modify a database's structure Change system security settings Add user permissions on databases or tables Query a database for information Update the contents of a database 36 . SQL describes what data to retrieve. delete. or insert. in contrast to the procedural or third generation languages (3GLs) such as COBOL and C that had been created up to that time. NOTE: Nonprocedural means what rather than how. rather than how to perform the operation. SQL makes an RDBMS possible. Although these standard-making bodies prepare standards for database system designers to follow. The initials stand for Structured Query Language. where SQL was developed in the late 1970s. In technology in a single-user business application positions the application for future growth. SQL is a nonprocedural language. this set-oriented database language is SQL. the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). In fact. that can still be bought today for various platforms and environments). or RDBMS. The characteristic that differentiates a DBMS from an RDBMS is that the RDBMS provides a set-oriented database language. currently promote SQL standards to industry. For most RDBMS. The ANSI-92 standard is the standard for the SQL used throughout this book. An Overview of SQL SQL is the standard language used to manipulate and retrieve data from these relational databases. California. all database products differ from the ANSI standard to some degree. and the language itself is often referred to as "sequel. Set oriented means that SQL processes sets of data in groups. For example.Siva Kumar HVK Introduction to SQL A Brief History of SQL The history of SQL begins in an IBM laboratory in San Jose. Two standards organizations." It was originally developed for IBM's DB2 product (a relational database management system.

you can define. and manipulate data in the tables. Using SQL.Siva Kumar HVK Structured Query Language Oracle server supports ANSI standard SQL and contains extensions. you can communicate with the Oracle server.) SQL Statements SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE MERGE CREATE ALTER DROP RENAME TRUNCATE COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT GRANT REVOKE Data retrieval Data manipulation language(DML) Data definition language (DDL) Transaction control Data control language (DCL) 37 . retrieve. SQL has the following advantages • • • Efficient Easy to learn and use Functionally complete (With SQL.

some implementations of SQL do not use the semicolon as a terminator. Your First Query INPUT: SQL> select * from EMP. This format follows the alignment convention in which numeric data types are right justified and character data types are left justified.---------. OUTPUT: EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO -----. the semicolon at the end of the statement tells the interpreter that you are finished writing the query. Microsoft Query and Borland's ISQL don't require a terminator. f ll bl i d h h i h l Terminating an SQL Statement In some implementations of SQL.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT AND FROM It is a building block for data retrieval in SQL. 38 .--------. The database determines the order in which to return the columns.---------.--------. because your query is typed in an edit box and executed when you push a button. For example. On the other hand. For example. Syntax : SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE>.---------. Oracle's SQL*PLUS won't execute the query until it finds a semicolon (or a slash). The asterisk (*) in select * tells the database to return all the columns associated with the given table described in the FROM clause.---------7369 SMITH CLERK 7902 17-DEC-80 800 20 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7698 20-FEB-81 1600 300 30 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7698 22-FEB-81 1250 500 30 7566 JONES MANAGER 7839 02-APR-81 2975 20 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 28-SEP-81 1250 1400 30 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7839 01-MAY-81 2850 30 7782 CLARK MANAGER 7839 09-JUN-81 2450 10 7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7566 09-DEC-82 3000 20 7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7698 08-SEP-81 1500 0 30 7876 ADAMS CLERK 7788 12-JAN-83 1100 20 7900 JAMES CLERK 7698 03-DEC-81 950 30 7902 FORD ANALYST 7566 03-DEC-81 3000 20 7934 MILLER CLERK 7782 23-JAN-82 1300 10 ANALYSIS: Notice that columns 6 and 8 in the output statement are right justified and that columns 2 and 3 are left justified.---------.

sal.Siva Kumar HVK Changing the Order of the Columns We can change the order of selection of columns INPUT: SQL> SELECT empno. covering different data types such as String. Expressions. ENAME = 'KING'. SELECT sal FROM EMP. In fact. pretty much anything following a clause (SELECT or FROM. which is an example of a Boolean expression. ENAME = 'KING' will be either TRUE or FALSE. Conditions. 39 .--------. DESIGNATION. examine the following expression: WHERE ENAME = 'KING' It contains a condition. In the following example amount is an expression that returns the value contained in the amount column. SAL are expressions: SELECT ENAME. depending on the condition =. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL JOB COMM ---------. SAL FROM EMP.---------SMITH 800 CLERK ALLEN 1600 SALESMAN 300 WARD 1250 SALESMAN 500 JONES 2975 MANAGER MARTIN 1250 SALESMAN 1400 BLAKE 2850 MANAGER CLARK 2450 MANAGER SCOTT 3000 ANALYST KING 5000 PRESIDENT TURNER 1500 SALESMAN 0 ADAMS 1100 CLERK JAMES 950 CLERK FORD 3000 ANALYST MILLER 1300 CLERK 14 rows selected. DESIGNATION. job. comm from EMP.---------. Expression types are very broad. In the following statement NAME. and Operators Expressions The definition of an expression is simple: An expression returns a value. for example) is an expression. Now. and Boolean. ename. Numeric.

FROM. Which would yield only one record: EMPNO ENAME JOB MGR HIREDATE SAL COMM DEPTNO -----. If you wanted a particular EMPLOYEE. the constant is 'KING'.--------. Without the WHERE clause. SELECT.Siva Kumar HVK Conditions If you ever want to find a particular item or group of items in your database. and WHERE are the three most frequently used clauses in SQL. WHERE simply causes your queries to be more selective. the condition is ENAME = 'KING' To find everyone in your organization who worked more than 100 hours last month. In the preceding example. the constant is 100. you could type 40 . Conditions are contained in the WHERE clause. your condition would be SAL > 2000 Conditions enable you to make selective queries.---------. the most useful thing you could do with a query is display all records in the selected table(s).-------------------------------7839 KING PRESIDENT 17-NOV-81 5000 10 ANALYSIS: This simple example shows how you can place a condition on the data that you want to retrieve.---------. and a comparison operator. you could type INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME = 'KING'. In the first example the variable is ENAME. The WHERE Clause The syntax of the WHERE clause is SYNTAX: SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE> WHERE <SEARCH CONDITION>. If you wanted a particular EMPLOYEE. a constant.---------.--------. and the comparison operator is =. conditions comprise a variable. You need to know about two more elements before you can write conditional queries: the WHERE clause and operators. and the comparison operator is >. In there most common form.---------. In the second example the variable is SAL. you need one or more conditions.

minus (-). OUTPUT EMPNO ENAME JOB 7369 SMITH CLERK 7499 ALLEN SALESMAN 7521 WARD SALESMAN 7566 JONES MANAGER 7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 7698 BLAKE MANAGER 7782 CLARK MANAGER 7788 SCOTT ANALYST 7844 TURNER SALESMAN 7876 ADAMS CLERK 7900 JAMES CLERK 7902 FORD ANALYST 7934 MILLER CLERK MGR HIREDATE 7902 17-DEC-80 7698 20-FEB-81 7698 22-FEB-81 7839 02-APR-81 7698 28-SEP-81 7839 01-MAY-81 7839 09-JUN-81 7566 09-DEC-82 7698 08-SEP-81 7788 12-JAN-83 7698 03-DEC-81 7566 03-DEC-81 7782 23-JAN-82 SAL 800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 COMM 300 500 1400 DEPTNO 20 30 30 20 30 30 10 20 30 20 30 20 10 0 ANALYSIS: Displays all the employees other than KING. character.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM BIKES WHERE ENAME != 'KING'. Arithmetic Operators The arithmetic operators are plus (+). Operators Operators are the elements you use inside an expression to articulate how you want specified conditions to retrieve data. Modulo returns the integer remainder of a division. 41 . multiply (*). logical. The first four are self-explanatory. set. and miscellaneous. Operators fall into six groups: arithmetic. comparison. divide (/). OR SQL> SELECT * FROM BIKES WHERE ENAME <> 'KING'.

NULL means nothing is in that field. the comparison will come back Unknown.Siva Kumar HVK Comparison Operators True to their name. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM IS NULL. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 3000 AND SAL <= 4000. most flavors of SQL change Unknown to FALSE and provide a special operator. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM IS NOT NULL. FALSE. A zero or a blank is a value. you need to know a little about the concept of NULL. In database terms NULL is the absence of data in a field. Because Unknown is an uncomfortable condition. comparison operators compare expressions and return one of three values: TRUE. It does not mean a column has a zero or a blank in it. IS NULL. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL NOT BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. If you make a comparison like Field = 9 and the only value for Field is NULL. 42 . To understand how you could get an Unknown. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 2000. or Unknown. to test for a NULL condition.

but that process would be time-consuming.Siva Kumar HVK Character Operators You can use character operators to manipulate the way character strings are represented. you could use LIKE. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names not beginning with letter A 43 . both in the output of data and in the process of placing conditions on data to be retrieved. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names begins with letter A INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME NOT LIKE ‘A%’. This section describes two character operators: the LIKE operator and the || operator. which conveys the concept of character concatenation. Consider the following: INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘A%’. LIKE operator What if you wanted to select parts of a database that fit a pattern but weren't quite exact matches? You could use the equal sign and run through all the possible cases. Instead.

(Implicit data conversion takes place). ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose salary begins with number 4. ANALYSIS Displays all the names whose name contains letter A more than one time INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE LIKE ‘%DEC%’. INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE LIKE ‘%81’. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names contains letter A (Any number of A’s) INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%A%’. 44 . ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the month of December.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%’. ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the year 81. INPUT: SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL LIKE ‘4%’.

OUTPUT: EMPNO ---------7521 7654 7900 ENAME ---------WARD MARTIN JAMES ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose second letter is A INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘__A%’.ENAME FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘_A%’. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------AVINASH_K ANAND_VARDAN ADAMS_P ANALYSIS Displays all the employees with underscore (_). OUTPUT: ENAME ---------BLAKE CLARK ADAMS ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose third letter is A (Two underscores followed by A) INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘A%\_%’ ESCAPE ‘\’. INPUT: SQL> SELECT EMPNO. ‘\’ Escape character Underscore is used to identify a position in the string.Siva Kumar HVK Underscore (_) The underscore is the single-character wildcard. 45 . To treat _ as a character we have to use Escape (\) character.

OUTPUT ENAME||JOB ------------------SMITHCLERK ALLENSALESMAN WARDSALESMAN JONESMANAGER MARTINSALESMAN BLAKEMANAGER CLARKMANAGER SCOTTANALYST KINGPRESIDENT TURNERSALESMAN ADAMSCLERK JAMESCLERK FORDANALYST MILLERCLERK ANALYSIS Combines both name and designation as a single string. MANAGER MARTIN . PRESIDENT TURNER . SALESMAN WARD . INPUT SQL>SELECT ENAME || ‘ . OUTPUT ENAME||'. ANALYST KING . CLERK ANALYSIS Combines both name and designation as a single string separated by. ‘ || JOB FROM EMP. CLERK ALLEN . ANALYST MILLER .Siva Kumar HVK Concatenation ( ||) operator Used to combine two given strings INPUT SELECT ENAME || JOB FROM EMP. SALESMAN ADAMS . CLERK JAMES . CLERK FORD . MANAGER SCOTT . 46 . SALESMAN JONES . SALESMAN BLAKE .'||JOB ---------------------SMITH . MANAGER CLARK .

47 . SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL NOT BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL >= 3000 AND SAL <= 4000. SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN 3000 AND 4000.Siva Kumar HVK Logical Operators INPUT: SELECT ENAME FROM EMP WHERE ENAME LIKE ‘%A%’ and ENAME NOT LIKE ‘%A%A%’ OUTPUT ENAME ---------ALLEN WARD MARTIN BLAKE CLARK JAMES ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose names contains letter A exactly one time.

48 . The above statement takes more time to parse it.'MANAGER'). JOB FROM EMP WHERE JOB= 'CLERK' OR JOB =‘MANAGER’ OR JOB = 'SALESMAN'. and salesman. BETWEEN and DISTINCT The two operators IN and BETWEEN provide shorthand for functions you already know how to do. You could type the following: INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE JOB IN('CLERK'. which reduces the efficiency. clerk. and salesman. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK TURNER ADAMS JAMES MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYSIS Display employees with designations manager.Siva Kumar HVK Miscellaneous Operators: IN. clerk.'SALESMAN'. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK TURNER ADAMS JAMES MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYSIS Display employees with designations manager.

OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SCOTT KING FORD JOB --------ANALYST PRESIDENT ANALYST ANALYSIS Display designations other than manager.'MANAGER').HIREDATE FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE IN (’01-MAY-1981’.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME.'SALESMAN'. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------BLAKE SCOTT HIREDATE --------01-MAY-81 09-DEC-82 ANALYSIS Note : Efficiency is more when we write the query using IN operator rather than OR operator.JOB FROM EMP WHERE JOB NOT IN('CLERK'. 49 .’09-DEC-1982’). and salesman INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. clerk.

Distinct operator by default displays the information in ascending order. OUTPUT: JOB --------ANALYST CLERK MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN ANALYSIS Distinct operator displays unique designations. 50 .Siva Kumar HVK DISTINCT OPERATOR INPUT: SQL> SELECT DISTINCT JOB FROM EMP.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 3 2 Hrs Topics Order BY clause Exercise Functions Group functions 51 .

52 . OUTPUT ENAME ---------ADAMS ALLEN BLAKE CLARK FORD JAMES JONES KING MARTIN MILLER SCOTT SMITH TURNER WARD ANALYSIS Display employees in ascending order of names.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation ORDER BY CLAUSE Display the information in a particular order (Ascending or descending order) Syntax SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE> WHERE <CONDITION> ORDER BY <COLUMN(S)>. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME.

Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB. .ENAME.ENAME. OUTPUT: Display employees in descending order by jobs. With each job it places the information in descending order of names. With each job it places the information in ascending order of names. INPUT SQL> SELECT * 53 FROM EMP where JOB != ‘CLERK’ ORDER BY JOB. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY job.SAL FROM EMP ORDER BY JOB. OUTPUT JOB --------ANALYST ANALYST CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER PRESIDENT SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN ANALYSIS ENAME SAL ---------. ename desc. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY job desc. With each job it places the information in descending order of names. OUTPUT: Display employees in ascending order by jobs. name desc.---------FORD 3000 SCOTT 3000 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 MILLER 1300 SMITH 800 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 JONES 2975 KING 5000 ALLEN 1600 MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 WARD 1250 Display employees in ascending order of jobs.

ANALYSIS It places the information in the order of third column in the table. 54 .Siva Kumar HVK We can also use order by clause as INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY 3.

23? (1) LONG. You want to display each employee hiredate from earliest to latest. (4) SELECT ename. The maximum number of character that can be stored in CHAR type is 4. s) (4) None 11. Which SQL statement will you use? (1) SELECT hiredate FROM emp. 10. How many LONG columns can a table contain?_______ 6.4.234. Display employees in ascending order of 5th column in the table 9. (2) SELECT hiredate FROM emp ORDER BY hiredate. 3. salary*12 AS Annual SalaryFROM employees. 2.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1. _________is used to compare one value with a set of values. sname1 varchar2(6)). Examine the trace instance chart for employee table. (2) NUMBER. salary*12 AS INITCAP(ANNUAL SALARY)FROM employees 55 . (4) SELECT hiredate FROM emp ORDER BY hiredate DESC.Which SQL statement generates the alias Annual Salary for the calculated column SALARY*12? (1) SELECT ename. SQL commands are to be terminated with ______________ 7. What is the size of sname and sname1 5. (3) SELECT ename. 3. (3) NUMBER(p. salary*12 Annual SalaryFROM employees. Assume there is a table student(sname char(6). Assume that value place in both columns is RAVI. salary*12 Annual SalaryFROM employees. (2) SELECT ename. Display list of employees that start with letter C 8. 5 and 1. _________ is the operator used to compare a column with null value. (3) SELECT emp FROM emp ORDER by hiredate. Which data type should you use for interest rates with varying and unpredictable decimal places such as 1.

Management wants a list of names of employees who have been with the company for more than five years. Which SQL statement displays the required results? (1) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE > 5. first_name FROM employee WHERE dept_id is NULL which change should you make to achieve the desired result? (1) Create an outer join.LAST_NAME VARCHAR2 (25).Siva Kumar HVK 1. Evaluate this SQL statement. \ 56 . (2) Data values are displayed in descending order by default. 2. FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) DEPT_ID NUMBER(9) You need to display the names of the employees that are not assigned to the department. (4) You cannot sort query results by a column that is not included in the SELECT list. (3) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE (SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE)/365 > 5. (2) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE HIRE_DATE-SYSDATE > 5. (3) You cannot specify a column alias in an ORDER BY clause. The EMP table has these columns: ENAME VARCHAR2(35). The employee table contains these columns. SALARY NUMBER(8. (3) Query executes successfully (4) Add a second condition to the where condition 3. Which statement about SQL is true? (1) Null values are displayed last in the ascending sequences. (4) SELECT ENAMEFROM EMPWHERE (SYSDATE-HIRE_DATE)* 365 > 5. SELECT last_name.2)HIRE_DATE DATE. (2) Change the column in the where condition.

INPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP. which executes whenever we call it and returns a value to the calling place. COUNT The function COUNT returns the number of rows that satisfy the condition in the WHERE clause. Say you wanted to know how many employees are there.Siva Kumar HVK FUNCTIONS A function is a sub program. These functions are classified into two types Predefined functions User defined functions Predefined functions These functions are again classified into two types Group or Aggregate Functions Single row Functions Aggregate Functions These functions are also referred to as group functions. OUTPUT: COUNT(*) -------14 ANALYSIS It counts if row presents in the table 57 . They return a value based on the values in a column.

COUNT(*) ------4 ANALYSIS It counts only managers 58 .Siva Kumar HVK To make the code more readable. COUNT(*) -------4 ANALYSIS It counts only those when there is a value in comm. INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE JOB = ‘MANAGER’. try an alias: INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) NUM_OF_EMP FROM EMP. NUM_OF_EMP ------------------14 INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT COUNT(COMM) FROM EMP. Column Note: Count (comm) faster than count(*) Count(*) count the row when a row present in the table where as Count(comm) counts the row only when there is a value in the column.

Siva Kumar HVK INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT count (distinct job) FROM EMP. SUM(COMM) TOTAL_COMM FROM EMP WHERE JOB = ‘SALESMAN’. SUM(COMM) TOTAL_COMM. COUNT (*) ------4 ANALYSIS It counts only distinct jobs SUM SUM does just that. FROM EMP. Find the total salary drawn by all the employees INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY.---------5600 2200 59 . It returns the sum of all values in a column.---------29025 2200 INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY. TOTAL_SALARY TOTAL_COMM ------------. TOTAL_SALARY TOTAL_COMM ------------. INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUM(SAL) TOTAL_SALARY OUTPUT: TOTAL_SALARY ------------29025 ANALYSIS FROM EMP.

OUTPUT: AVERAGE_SALARY --------------2073.21429 ANALYSIS Find the average salary of all the employees INPUT: SQL> SELECT AVG(COMM) average_comm FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK AVG The AVG function computes the average of a column. OUTPUT: AVERAGE_COMM ------------ 550 ANALYSIS Functions ignores null rows 60 . INPUT: SQL> SELECT AVG(sal) average_salary 2 FROM EMP.

OUTPUT: MAX(SAL) -------- 5000 ANALYSIS Takes the value from one different rows from one particular column INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX(ENAME) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: MAX(HIREDATE) ------------- 12-JAN-83 61 .Siva Kumar HVK MAX INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: MAX(ENAME) -------- WARD ANALYSIS Max of name is identified based on ASCII value INPUT: SQL> SELECT MAX (hiredate) FROM EMP.

Siva Kumar HVK MIN INPUT: SQL> SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP.AVG(SAL).COUNT(*) FROM EMP.-------------.21429 800 5000 14 ANALYSIS All the aggregate functions can be used together in a single SQL statement 62 .-------------.------------29025 2073. OUTPUT: MIN(SAL) -------- 800 INPUT: SQL> SELECT MIN(ENAME) FROM EMP. OUTPUT: MIN (ENAME) -------- ADAMS INPUT SELECT SUM(SAL).MAX(SAL).--------------. OUTPUT SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) COUNT(*) -------------.MIN(SAL).

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 1 4 2 Hrs Revision / Practicals 63 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 1&2 5 Hrs Topics Single Row Functions Exercise 64 .

65 . ABS The ABS function returns the absolute value of the number you point to. system date and username etc) or we can make our own calculations. Dual is a system table or dummy table from where we can display system information (i.e. For example: INPUT: SQL> SELECT ABS(-10) ABSOLUTE_VALUE FROM dual. OUTPUT ABSOLUTE_VALUE ---------------------------10 ANALYSIS ABS changes all the negative numbers to positive and leaves positive numbers alone. These functions are classified into different types Arithmetic Functions Character Functions Date functions Miscellaneous Functions Arithmetic Functions Many of the uses you have for the data you retrieve involve mathematics. Most Implementations of SQL provide arithmetic functions similar to that of operators covered here.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation SINGLE ROW FUNCTIONS These functions work on each and every row and return a value to the calling places.

OUTPUT: FLOOR(12. INPUT: SQL> SELECT CEIL(12.145) ----------------13 INPUT: SQL> SELECT CEIL(12. OUTPUT: CEIL(12. OUTPUT: FLOOR(12.678) FLOOR DUAL.678) ----------------12 INPUT: SQL> SELECT FLOOR(12.000) ----------------12 66 .000) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK CEIL and FLOOR CEIL returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to its argument. to get the next higher integer number INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT FLOOR(12. FLOOR does just the reverse.145) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: CEIL(12.000) FROM DUAL.000) ----------------12 ANALYSIS Minimum we require one decimal place . returning the largest integer equal to or less than its argument.

2) --------------1 INPUT SQL> SELECT MOD(2. OUTPUT: MOD(5.5) FROM DUAL. it returns numerator value as remainder.5) --------------2 ANALYSIS When numerator value less than denominator. 67 .2) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK MOD It returns remainder when we divide one value with another value INPUT SQL> SELECT MOD(5. OUTPUT: MOD(2.

OUTPUT: 125 SIGN SIGN returns -1 if its argument is less than 0. use POWER. OUTPUT: SIGN(-10) SIGN(10) SIGN(0) ---------.SIGN(0) FROM DUAL. you cannot use SQRT on negative numbers.----------1 1 0 SQRT The function SQRT returns the square root of an argument. SIGN(10). In this function the first argument is raised to the power of the second: INPUT: SQL> SELECT POWER(5.3) FROM DUAL. Because the square root of a negative number is undefined.---------. 2 68 .Siva Kumar HVK POWER To raise one number to the power of another. INPUT/OUTPUT: SQL> SELECT SQRT(4) FROM DUAL. 0 if its argument is equal to 0. and 1 if its argument is greater than 0 INPUT: SQL> SELECT SIGN(-10).

OUTPUT: A CONCAT It is similar to that of concatenate operator ( | | ) INPUT: SQL> SELECT CONCAT(‘KRISHNA’.Siva Kumar HVK Character Functions Many implementations of SQL provide functions to manipulate characters and strings of characters. For this example the database is set to ASCII. INPUT: SQL> SELECT CHR(65) FROM DUAL. CHR CHR returns the character equivalent of the number it uses as an argument. OUTPUT KRISHNA KANTH 69 . ‘ KANTH’) FROM DUAL. The character it returns depends on the character set of the database.

ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER UPPER_CASE ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER LOWER_CASE ---------smith allen ward jones martin blake clark scott king turner adams james ford miller 70 .LOWER(ENAME) LOWER_CASE FROM EMP. UPPER does just the changes all the characters to uppercase. LOWER changes all the characters to lowercase.INITCAP(ENAME) “AFTER”FROM EMP. INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME “BEFORE”.UPPER(ENAME) UPPER_CASE. SQL>SELECT ENAME. OUTPUT: BEFORE ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD AFTER ---------Smith Allen Ward Jones Martin Blake Clark Scott King Turner Adams James Ford LOWER and UPPER As you might expect.Siva Kumar HVK INITCAP INITCAP capitalizes the first letter of a word and makes all other characters lowercase.

OUTPUT: LPAD(ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK LPAD and RPAD LPAD and RPAD take a minimum of two and a maximum of three arguments. or it can be a single character or a character string. OUTPUT: 5000****** 71 . The first argument is the character string to be operated on.15. INPUT SQL> SELECT RPAD(5000. The second is the number of characters to pad it with.’*’) FROM EMP. and the optional third argument is the character to pad it with. assuming that the field LASTNAME is defined as a 15-character field: INPUT: SQL> SELECT LPAD(ENAME.10.' --------------**********SMITH **********ALLEN ***********WARD **********JONES *********MARTIN **********BLAKE **********CLARK **********SCOTT ***********KING *********TURNER **********ADAMS **********JAMES ***********FORD *********MILLER ANALYSIS: 15 locations allocated to display ename.’*’) FROM DUAL. The following statement adds five pad characters. name is occupying some space and in the remaining space to the left side of the name pads with *.15. The third argument defaults to a blank. out of that.

’R’) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK LTRIM and RTRIM LTRIM and RTRIM take at least one and at most two arguments. these trim functions will trim that character the same way they trim the blanks in the following examples. RTRIM(ENAME. INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER RTRIM(ENAM ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNE ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLE ANALYSIS Removes the rightmost character 72 . like LPAD and RPAD. is a character string. If you use a second argument that is not a blank. The optional second element is either a character or character string or defaults to a blank. The first argument.

’MA’.’MA’.’MA’) FROM DUAL.SEARCH_STRING. NULL) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT RAVINA INPUT SQL> SELECT REPLACE(‘RAMANA’. SYNTAX : REPLACE(STRING. If the third argument is left out or NULL. Of its three arguments. VI’) FROM DUAL. each occurrence of the search key on the string to be searched is removed and is not replaced with anything. OUTPUT RANA 73 .Siva Kumar HVK REPLACE REPLACE does just that. search string removed from the given string INPUT SQL> SELECT REPLACE (‘RAMANA’. the first is the string to be searched.REPLACE_STRING) INPUT: SQL> SELECT REPLACE (‘RAMANA’. The second is the search key. OUTPUT RANA ANALYSIS When the replace string is missing. The last is the optional replacement string.

NO_OF_CHARACTERS]) INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. The third argument is the number of characters to show. Elements of the target string that occur in the FROM string are translated to the corresponding element in the TO string. When search string matches. OUTPUT: RDCDND ANALYSIS Notice that the function is case sensitive.3) FROM DUAL. it replaces with corresponding replace character.STARTING_POSITION[. the FROM string. it replaces with corresponding replace string and if any one character is matching in the search string .’MA’. The second argument is the position of the first character to be output.Siva Kumar HVK TRANSLATE The function TRANSLATE takes three arguments: the target string. and the TO string. OUTPUT: RAM ANALYSIS It takes first 3 characters from first character 74 .1. INPUT: SQL> SELECT TRANSLATE(‘RAMANA’. SYNTAX SUBSTR(STRING.’CD’) FROM DUAL. SUBSTR This three-argument function enables you to take a piece out of a target string. The first argument is the target string.

-2.-2.2) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: MAN ANALYSIS It takes 3 characters from third position INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.2) FROM DUAL.3) FROM DUAL.1.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. the starting point is determined by counting backwards from the end. OUTPUT: MANA ANALYSIS When third argument is missing.2) || SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’.3.3) FROM DUAL. OUTPUT: RANA ANALYSIS First two characters and last two characters are combined together as a single string INPUT: SQL> SELECT SUBSTR(‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT: NA ANALYSIS You use a negative number as the second argument. it takes all the character from starting position 75 .

ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who joined in the current month SYSDATE is a single row function. OUTPUT 2 ANALYSIS Find the position of the first occurrence of letter A 76 . use INSTR. Its first argument is the target string.’A’) FROM DUAL. INSTR To find out where in a string a particular pattern occurs.4. The second argument is the pattern to match. This example returns a number representing occurrence of O starting with the second the first INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’.3) = SUBSTR(SYSDATE.4. The third and forth are numbers representing where to start looking and which match to report. which gives the current date.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SUBSTR(HIREDATE.3).

1. OUTPUT 6 ANALYSIS Find the position of the second occurrence of letter A from 3rd position of the string 77 . SQL> SELECT INSTR (‘RAMANA’.2) FROM DUAL.2) FROM DUAL. • Third argument represents from which position.’A’.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’.3. it returns 0 (zero) when the given character is not found. Fourth argument represents. OUTPUT 4 ANALYSIS • Find the position of the second occurrence of letter A from the beginning of the string. which occurrence. INPUT SQL> SELECT INSTR(‘RAMANA’. OUTPUT 0 ANALYSIS Function is case sensitive.’A’.’a’) FROM DUAL.

or to include different formatting arguments. Converted information is left aligned. TO_CHAR The primary use of TO_CHAR is to convert a number into a character. TO_CHAR(SAL) FROM EMP. So we can say that it is a string. OUTPUT: SAL ---------800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 5000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 TO_CHAR(SAL) ---------------------------------------800 1600 1250 2975 1250 2850 2450 3000 5000 1500 1100 950 3000 1300 ANALYSIS After conversion.Siva Kumar HVK Conversion Functions These functions provide a handy way of converting one type of data to another. like Date. 78 . They are mainly useful for changing date formats and number formats. Different Implementations may also use it to convert other data types. The following example illustrates the primary use of TO_CHAR: INPUT: SQL> SELECT SAL. into a character.

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.Siva Kumar HVK The main usage of this function is.’DD/MM/YYYY’) FROM DUAL. to change the date formats and number formats INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.'DD/MM/YYYY') -----------------------------24/03/2007 ANALYSIS Convert the default date format to DD/MM/YYYY format INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DD-MON-YY’) FROM DUAL.'DD-MON-YY') -----------------------------24-MAR-07 79 .

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.'DY-MON-YY') -----------------------------SAT-MAR-07 DY displays the first 3 letters from the day name INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.’DAY MONTH YEAR’) FROM DUAL.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.Siva Kumar HVK Date Formats INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.'DAYMONTHYEAR') -----------------------------SATURDAY MARCH TWO THOUSAND SEVEN ANALYSIS: DAY gives the total day name MONTH gives the total month name YEAR writes the year number in words 80 .’DY-MON-YY’) FROM DUAL.

'DDSPTHMONTHYEAR') --------.’DDSPTH MONTH YEAR’) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: HIREDATE TO_CHAR(HIREDATE. OUTPUT: SYSDATE TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’DDSPTH MONTH YEAR’) FROM EMP. Depends upon the number it gives either ST / RD/ST/ND format INPUT: SQL> SELECT HIREDATE.------------------------------------------------------------------17-DEC-80 SEVENTEENTH DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY 20-FEB-81 TWENTIETH FEBRUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 22-FEB-81 TWENTY-SECOND FEBRUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 02-APR-81 SECOND APRIL NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 28-SEP-81 TWENTY-EIGHTH SEPTEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 01-MAY-81 FIRST MAY NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 09-JUN-81 NINTH JUNE NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 09-DEC-82 NINTH DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-TWO 17-NOV-81 SEVENTEENTH NOVEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 08-SEP-81 EIGHTH SEPTEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 12-JAN-83 TWELFTH JANUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-THREE 03-DEC-81 THIRD DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 03-DEC-81 THIRD DECEMBER NINETEEN EIGHTY-ONE 23-JAN-82 TWENTY-THIRD JANUARY NINETEEN EIGHTY-TWO ANALYSIS: Converts all hire dates in EMP table into Words 81 .------------------------------------------------------------------24-MAR-07 TWENTY-FOURTH MARCH TWO THOUSAND SEVEN ANALYSIS: DD gives the day number DDSP Writes day number in words TH is the format.'DDSPTHMONTHYEAR') --------.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(HIREDATE.

which converts given string into date type INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’Q’) FROM DUAL.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’W’) FROM DUAL.'Q') ---------------------------------------3 ANALYSIS: To_date is data conversion function. OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: Gives the week number in the current month ( In which week given date falls in the current month) TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.’Q’) FROM DUAL.’W’) -----------------------------4 82 .’Q’) -----------------------------1 INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(’10-SEP-2005’).Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(TO_DATE('10-SEP-2005'). OUTPUT: SYSDATE --------24-MAR-07 ANALYSIS: Gives in the quarter the given date falls TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.

INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE.TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(SYS ----------08:40:17 PM ANALYSIS: HH returns Hours MI returns Minutes SS returns Seconds } } Returns time from current date } INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. of weeks worked during the year. OUTPUT: SYSDATE TO_CHAR(SYSDATE) -----------------------------------24-MAR-07 12 ANALYSIS: Returns no. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR( -------20:43:12 ANALYSIS: HH24 returns Hours in 24 hour format MI returns Minutes SS returns Seconds } } Returns time from current date } 83 .’HH24:MI:SS’) FROM DUAL.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT SYSDATE.’HH:MI:SS AM’) FROM DUAL.’WW’) FROM DUAL.

OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(12567.99') ----------------------------12. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(12567.999.999.00 ANALYSIS: Display the local currency symbol 84 .99') ----------------------------$12.567.'99.00 ANALYSIS: Converts the given number into comma format with two decimal places INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(12567.999.99’) FROM DUAL.’99.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(12567.567.999.'L99.99’) FROM DUAL.’L99.

00> ANALYSIS: PR Parenthesis negative number 85 .567.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> SELECT TO_CHAR(-12567.999. OUTPUT: TO_CHAR(-12567.’L99.99PR') ----------------------------------<$12.99PR’) FROM DUAL.999.'L99.

----------------------800 800 1600 1600 1250 1250 2975 2975 1250 1250 2850 2850 2450 2450 3000 3000 5000 5000 1500 1500 1100 1100 950 950 3000 3000 1300 1300 ANALYSIS After conversion. 86 . it converts a string into a number. So we can say that it is a number. and most major implementations of SQL have functions to cope with these concepts.Siva Kumar HVK TO_NUMBER TO_NUMBER is the companion function to TO_CHAR. OUTPUT: SAL TO_NUMBER(TO_CHAR(SAL)) ---------. For example: INPUT: SQL> SELECT SAL. TO_NUMBER((TO_CHAR(SAL)) FROM EMP. Date and Time Functions We live in a civilization governed by times and dates. It demonstrates the time and date functions. Converted information is right aligned. and of course.

For example. To find the maturity date of the deposit INPUT: SQL> SELECT ADD_MONTHS (SYSDATE. OUTPUT: HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 09-DEC-82 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 12-JAN-83 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 RETIRE_DATE --------------17-DEC-13 20-FEB-14 22-FEB-14 02-APR-14 28-SEP-14 01-MAY-14 09-JUN-14 09-DEC-15 17-NOV-14 08-SEP-14 12-JAN-16 03-DEC-14 03-DEC-14 23-JAN-15 ANALYSIS Find the retirement date of an employee Assume. say a customer deposited some amount on a particular date for a period of 6 months. OUTPUT: MATURITY_DATE -------------------24-SEP-07 ANALYSIS It adds 6 months to the system date INPUT: SQL> SELECT HIREDATE. 6) MATURITY_DATE FROM DUAL.33*12) RETIRE_DATE FROM EMP. 33 years of service from date of join is retirement date LAST_DAY 87 .Siva Kumar HVK ADD_MONTHS This function adds a number of months to a specified date. ADD_MONTHS(HIREDATE.

7928548 24. For example.4917795 25.2928548 25.545543 24.3089838 25.8976935 25.0912419 25. you need to know what the last day of the month INPUT: SQL> SELECT LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) FROM DUAL.MONTHS_BETWEEN(SYSDATE.2014569 25.Siva Kumar HVK LAST_DAY returns the last day of a specified month.HIREDATE)/12 EXPERIENCE FROM EMP.0966182 26.3546827 25.9783387 25.171887 ANALYSIS Finds number of months between sysdate and hiredate .3089838 25. OUTPUT: LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) ------------------------31-MAR-07 ANALYSIS Find the last date of the month MONTHS_BETWEEN Used to find the number of months between two given months INPUT: SQL> SELECT ENAME. Result is divided with 12 to get the experience 88 .2713494 26. OUTPUT: ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER EXPERIENCE ---------26.

'DD/MM/Y YYY HH : MI :SS PM') from DUAL.'EsT'. Here are the time zones you can use with this function: Abbreviation Time Zone AST or ADT Atlantic standard or daylight time BST or BDT Bering standard or daylight time CST or CDT Central standard or daylight time EST or EDT Eastern standard or daylight time GMT Greenwich mean time HST or HDT Alaska-Hawaii standard or daylight time MST or MDT Mountain standard or daylight time NST Newfoundland standard time PST or PDT Pacific standard or daylight time YST or YDT Yukon standard or daylight time You can adjust your time like this: INPUT SQL> select TO_CHAR(new_time(LOCALTIMESTAMP. with no time zone information shown INPUT SQL> SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. OUTPUT LOCALTIMESTAMP -----------------------------------25-MAR-07 06.02.21.312000 PM NEW_TIME This function is used to adjust the time according to the time zone you are in. OUTPUT TO_CHAR(NEW_TIME(LOCALTIM ------------------------25/03/2007 04 : 32 :55 PM 89 .Siva Kumar HVK LOCALTIMESTAMP Returns Local timestamp in the active time zone.'PDT').

new_time(hiredate. all the times are in the new time zone and the dates are adjusted.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT: SQL> select hiredate. OUTPUT: HIREDATE --------17-DEC-80 20-FEB-81 22-FEB-81 02-APR-81 28-SEP-81 01-MAY-81 09-JUN-81 09-DEC-82 17-NOV-81 08-SEP-81 12-JAN-83 03-DEC-81 03-DEC-81 23-JAN-82 NEW_TIME( --------16-DEC-80 19-FEB-81 21-FEB-81 01-APR-81 27-SEP-81 30-APR-81 08-JUN-81 08-DEC-82 16-NOV-81 07-SEP-81 11-JAN-83 02-DEC-81 02-DEC-81 22-JAN-82 ANALYSIS Like magic.'EsT'.'PDT') from emp. 90 .

2007. INPUT: SQL> SELECT NEXT_DAY(SYSDATE. SELECT EXTRACT(DAY FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL SELECT EXTRACT(YEAR FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL 91 .Siva Kumar HVK NEXT_DAY NEXT_DAY finds the name of the first day of the week that is equal to or later than another specified date. It display the date of the next coming Monday. SELECT EXTRACT(MONTH FROM SYSDATE) FROM DUAL.’MONDAY’) FROM DUAL. March 24. EXTRACT We can use Extract function in the place of to_char function from Oracle 9i. OUTPUT: NEXT_DAY( --------26-MAR-07 ANALYSIS If the sysdate is Saturday.

and both conform to the ISO SQL standard.00 hrs as starting time 92 .Siva Kumar HVK Interval Data types (Only from 9i) Oracle supports two interval datatypes. For sysdate it takes 0. Example select (sysdate . No of years and months between both the dates.to_date('10-NOV-2007')) day to second from dual OUTPUT +000000009 11:04:07 Analysis Find the difference with days and time. Example Select (sysdate . hours. Both were introduced in Oracle9i Database. INTERVAL YEAR to MONTH Allows you to define and interval of time in terms of years and months INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND Allows you to define an interval of time in terms of days.to_date('10-jan-2004')) year to month from dual OUTPUT +000000003-10 Analysis Returns the difference. minutes and seconds (including fractional seconds).

-------------------.'yyyy') "Year 88". RR returns the current century.-------------------.Siva Kumar HVK Note :. If you enter a date in the latter half of the century (i. from 0 through 49).-------------------19/11/2007 1988 2018 When we reach the year 2050. If the Current year is in the first half of the century ( years 0 through 49). RR returns the previous century. SQL> SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL: Interpreting Two-digit Years Oracle provides the RR format element to interpret two-digit years. For example select to_char(sysdate.-------------------19/11/2050 2088 2118 93 . to_char(to_date('14-oct-18'. to_char(to_date('14-oct-88'. RR will interpret the same dates differently current date Year 88 year ------------------------.'dd-mon-rr'). then: • • If you enter a date in the first half of the century (i.We can also change the default format for a given session using the ALTER SESSION command SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = ‘DD/MM/YYYY’.'yyyy') "year 18" from dual OUTPUT current date Year 88 year 18 ------------------------. from 50 through 99).'dd/mm/yyyy') "current date".e.'dd-mon-rr').e.

’DAY’) FROM DUAL.'YEAR') ----------------------------------------------------------------------+000000010-06 SQL> select numtoyminterval (10. NUMTOYMINTERVAL (10.999999999 94 .5.'year') from dual.'year') from dual.5.999 hours ranging from 0 through 23 minutes ranging from 0 through 59 • Some number of seconds ranging from 0 through 59.999.'YEAR') ----------------------------------------------------------------------+000000010-03 Try the following formats SELECT NUMTOYMINTERVAL(10. • SELECT NUMTOYMINTERVAL(10.999 Some number Some number Some number Some number of of of of months ranging from 0 through 11 days ranging from 0 through 999. NUMTOYMINTERVAL (10. SQL> select numtoyminterval (10. The function NUMTOYMINTERVAL (pronounced “ num to Y M interval”) converts a numeric value an interval of type INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH.3.999.5.Siva Kumar HVK Going from Numbers to Intervals The NUMTOYMINTERVAL and NUMTODSINTERVAL functions allow you to convert a single numeric value to one of the interval data types.’MONTH’) FROM DUAL.5.3. Name Description Some number of years ranging from 1 through YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR MINUTE SECOND 999.

This function (pronounced “num to D S interval”) likewise converts a numeric value to an interval of type INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND. 95 . OUTPUT +01 00:00.Siva Kumar HVK NUMTODSINTERVAL This function allows converting a single numeric value to one of the interval data types.00.’minute’) from dual. Example SQL> select NUMTODSINTERVAL(1440.000000 ANALYSIS Oracle automatically taken care of normalizing the input value of 1440 minutes to an interval value of 1 day.

83.1. MAX IS A GROUP FUNCTION 2) GREATEST TAKES VALUES FROM DIFFERENT COLUMNS FROM EACH ROW.67) FROM DUAL. GREATEST and LEAST INPUT: SQL> SELECT GREATEST(10.2. Assume there is a student table ROLLNO 1 2 3 4 NAME RAVI KRIS BABU ANU STUDENT SUB1 SUB2 55 22 78 55 55 22 44 55 SUB3 86 65 44 66 SUB4 45 12 77 88 96 . OUTPUT: GREATEST --------83 ANALYSIS Displays the greatest of the given set of values Difference between GREATEST AND MAX IS 1) GREATEST IS SINGLE ROW FUNCTION.9.Siva Kumar HVK Miscellaneous Functions Here are three miscellaneous functions you may find useful. WHERE AS MAX TAKES VALUES FROM DIFFERENT ROWS FROM A COLUMN.

SUB3.SUB2. SUB1 SUB2 55 78 55 44 22 55 22 55 SUB3 SUB4 86 65 44 66 45 12 77 88 RAVI KRIS BABU ANU GREATEST MARK 86 78 77 88 LEAST MARK 22 12 22 44 INPUT: SQL> SELECT USER FROM DUAL.SUB3. GREATEST(SUB1. OUTPUT: USER -------SCOTT ANALYSIS Displays the current sessions user name We can also display username using environment command SQL> SHOW USER 97 . LEAST(SUB1.SUB3.SUB2.SUB2.SUB4) LEAST_MARK FROM STUDENT OUTPUT: RNO NAME 1 2 3 4 USER USER returns the character name of the current user of the database. SUB4.Siva Kumar HVK To find the greatest and Least Marks INPUT: SQL> SELECT NAME.SUB4) GREATEST_MARK.SUB1.

Siva Kumar HVK The DECODE Function The DECODE function is one of the most powerful commands in SQL*Plus--and perhaps the most powerful. output3) The syntax example performs the DECODE function on column1. value2. If column1 has a value of value1. DECODE is often able to fill the gap between SQL and the functions of a procedural language. SYNTAX: DECODE (column1. If column1 has a value of value2. The standard language of SQL lacks procedural functions that are contained in languages such as COBOL and C. then display output2 instead of the column's current value. 98 . The DECODE statement is similar to an IF.. Where flexibility is required for complex reporting needs. If column1 has a value of anything other than value1 or value2.THEN statement in a procedural programming language. value1. output2. output1. then display output3 instead of the column's current value. then display output1 instead of the column's current value..

’ANALYST’. then display S.OFFICER VP S.’MANAGER’. ‘S. then display VP instead of MANAGER OTHERWISE DISPLAY SAME JOB 99 .OFFICER VP VP PM PRESIDENT S.OFFICER S. then display PM instead of ANALYST When JOB has a value MANAGER .’EXEC’.’VP’.OFFICER’.’SALESMAN’.’PM’.’CLERK’. DECODE(JOB. OUTPUT ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK PROMOTION --------EXEC S.JOB) PROMOTION FROM EMP. then display EXEC instead of CLERK When JOB has a value SALESMAN .Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. JOB.OFFICER EXEC EXEC PM EXEC ANALYSIS When JOB has a value CLERK .OFFICER instead of SALESMAN When JOB has a value ANALYST .

3.SAL*1.---------CLERK 800 880 SALESMAN 1600 1920 SALESMAN 1250 1500 MANAGER 2975 3867.SAL*1.1. OUTPUT ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB SAL NEW_SAL --------. ANALYSIS Adding Mr.Siva Kumar HVK To give increments designations to the employees based on their INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. ‘MS. SAL*1.SAL*1.’MANAGER’.’||ENAME.’MALE’. SEX.’ before the name based on their Gender 100 . then giving 25% increment When JOB has a value MANAGER .SAL. then giving 10% increment When JOB has a value SALESMAN .SAL) NEW_SAL FROM EMP.’CLERK’.25.’SALESMAN’. then giving 30% increment OTHERWISE no increment Assume there is a table with empno.DECODE(JOB.5 SALESMAN 1250 1500 MANAGER 2850 3705 MANAGER 2450 3185 ANALYST 3000 3750 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1500 1800 CLERK 1100 1210 CLERK 950 1045 ANALYST 3000 3750 CLERK 1300 1430 ANALYSIS When JOB has a value CLERK .JOB.’ANALYST’.2.sex INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. then giving 20% increment When JOB has a value ANALYST .ename.---------.’ or ‘Ms.’MR.’||ENAME) FROM EMP. DECODE(SEX.

JOB --------CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST PRESIDENT SALESMAN CLERK CLERK ANALYST CLERK CASEJOBWH --------EXEC S. you can use the CASE function in place of DECODE.OFFICER EXEC EXEC ANALYST EXEC ANALYSIS Works similar to that of DECODE 101 . CASE JOB WHEN 'MANAGER' then 'VP' WHEN 'CLERK' THEN 'EXEC' WHEN 'SALESMAN' THEN 'S. else. Example SQL> SELECT JOB.OFFICER VP VP ANALYST PRESIDENT S.Siva Kumar HVK CASE As of Oracle 9i.OFFICER VP S. and end to indicate the logic path followed. The CASE function uses the keywords when.OFFICER' ELSE JOB END FROM EMP. then. which may make the resulting code easier to follow than an equivalent DECODE.OFFICER S.

DATE.---------7369 800 7499 1600 300 1900 7521 1250 500 1750 7566 2975 7654 1250 1400 2650 7698 2850 7782 2450 7788 3000 7839 5000 7844 1500 0 1500 7876 1100 7900 950 7902 3000 7934 1300 ANALYSIS Arithmetic operation is possible only when value is there in both columns 102 . OUTPUT EMPNO SAL COMM TOTAL ---------. or a computation.SAL. If the value is not NULL.Siva Kumar HVK NVL If the value is NULL. and other data types. but the value and substitute must be the same data type.COMM. this function is equal to substitute. VARCHAR2. substitute) INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.---------. SAL + COMM TOTAL FROM EMP. it can be used with CHAR. NVL is not restricted to numbers. Substitute can be a literal number. this function is equal to value. SYNTAX NVL(value. another column.---------.

323858742 ANALYSIS RATIO_TO_REPORT FUNCTION FINDS THE SALARY RATIO OF THAT DEPARTMENT OVER THE TOTAL SALARY OF ALL THE EMPLOYEES.RATIO_TO_REPORT(SUM(SAL)) OVER() FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO. OUTPUT DEPTNO SUM(SAL) RATIO_TO_REPORT(SUM(SAL))OVER() ---------. we are substituting 0 if COMM is NULL.0) TOTAL FROM EMP. 103 .------------------------------10 8750 . SAL + NVL(COMM.---------. INPUT SQL>SELECT DEPTNO.301464255 20 10875 .---------.SAL.374677003 30 9400 . OUTPUT EMPNO SAL COMM TOTAL ---------.---------7369 800 800 7499 1600 300 1900 7521 1250 500 1750 7566 2975 2975 7654 1250 1400 2650 7698 2850 2850 7782 2450 2450 7788 3000 3000 7839 5000 5000 7844 1500 0 1500 7876 1100 1100 7900 950 950 7902 3000 3000 7934 1300 1300 ANALYSIS Using NVL.COMM.SUM(SAL).---------.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.

CAST Converts one type of information into another type SQL> SELECT 50 numb. SQL> SELECT LENGTH(SYSDATE) FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK LENGTH Finds the length of the given information SQL> SELECT ENAME.LENGTH(SAL) FROM EMP. 104 . ASCII Finds the ASCII value of the given character SQL> SELECT ASCII(‘A’) FROM DUAL. cast(50 as varchar2(2) value from dual.LENGTH(ENAME) FROM EMP. SQL> SELECT SAL.

Print *’s as number of thousands are there in the number Display the ename.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise _____________ function performs one to one character substitution. _____________ format option is used to get complete year spelled out in TO_CHAR function. If the commission is NULL. print as NO COMM Add number of days to the given date Display the first and last two characters from a given name and combine them as a single string (Use only functions) Find the difference between two given dates Display all the names which contain underscore subtract number of months from given date 105 . comm. ___________ symbol is used to combine tow given strings What happens if “replace string” is not given for REPLACE function Can a number be converted to DATE? Convert the value of name in the EMP table to lower case letters Display the names of the employees who have more than 4 characters in the name.

I 106 .Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 3 3 Hrs Exercise Annexure Query .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Estimated Time : : : : Oracle 2 4 3 Hrs

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Topics Group by clause CUBE and ROLLUP functions Having clause Exercise

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Siva Kumar HVK GROUP BY CLAUSE
Group by statement groups all the rows with the same column value. Use to generate summary output from the available data. Whenever we use a group function in the SQL statement, we have to use a group by clause.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, COUNT (*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------ANALYST 2 CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 PRESIDENT 1 SALESMAN 4

ANALYSIS
Counts number of employees under each and every job. When we are grouping on job, initially jobs are placed in ascending order in a temporary segment. On the temporary segment, group by clause is applied, so that on each similar job count function applied.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, SUM (SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 4150 MANAGER 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 SALESMAN 5600

ANALYSIS With each job, it finds the total salary

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Siva Kumar HVK ERROR with GROUP BY Clause
Note : Only grouped columns allowed in the group by clause When ever we are using a group function in the SQL statement, we have to use group by clause.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP; OUTPUT SELECT JOB, COUNT (*) FROM EMP * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00937: not a single-group group function ANALYSIS This result occurs because the group functions, such as SUM and COUNT, are designated to tell you something about a group or rows, not the individual rows of the table. This error is avoided by using JOB in the group by clause, which forces the COUNT to count all the rows grouped within each job.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,ENAME,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT SELECT JOB,ENAME,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00979: not a GROUP BY expression ANALYSIS In the above query, JOB is only the grouped column where as ENAME column is not a grouped column. What ever the columns we are grouping, the same column is allowed to display.

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INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, MIN(SAL),MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) --------- ---------- ---------ANALYST 3000 3000 CLERK 800 1300 MANAGER 2450 2975 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 1250 1600

ANALYSIS

For displaying Total summary information from the table.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB, SUM(SAL),AVG(SAL),MIN(SAL),MAX(SAL) ,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) AVG(SAL) MIN(SAL) MAX(SAL) COUNT(*) --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------ANALYST 6000 3000 3000 3000 2 CLERK 4150 1037.5 800 1300 4 MANAGER 8275 2758.33333 2450 2975 3 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 5000 5000 1 SALESMAN 5600 1400 1250 1600 4

ANALYSIS With each job, finds the total summary information.

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it passes corresponding salary as an argument to SUM() . INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB. OUTPUT JOB DEPT10 DEPT20 DEPT30 TOTAL --------.JOB. then DECODE function (Single row function) applies on each and every row of that group and checks the DEPTNO. Department wise total salaries With a matrix style report.SAL)) DEPT20.20.SAL)) DEPT10.---------.SAL)) DEPT30.COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO.SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO. OUTPUT DEPTNO ---------10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 ANALYSIS JOB COUNT(*) --------.JOB. INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO.---------ANALYST 6000 6000 CLERK 1300 1900 950 4150 MANAGER 2450 2975 2850 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 5000 SALESMAN 5600 5600 ANALYSIS When we apply group by. If DEPTNO=10.10. Then group by clause groups similar designations. SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.---------. SUM(SAL) TOTAL FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB.Siva Kumar HVK To display the output Designation wise.---------CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 CLERK 2 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 1 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 SALESMAN 4 113 . SUM(DECODE(DEPTNO.---------.30. initially all the designations are placed in ascending order of designations.

SKIP 1 used with BREAK to leave one blank line after completion of each Deptno.--------.JOB.Siva Kumar HVK To display the DEPTNO only one time INPUT SQL> BREAK ON DEPTNO SKIP 1 SQL> SELECT DEPTNO. which breaks the information on repetitive column and displays them only once.COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO. 2 2 1 1 1 4 To remove the given break . OUTPUT DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------. we have to use an Environment command SQL> CLEAR BREAK. 114 .---------10 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 20 CLERK ANALYST MANAGER 30 CLERK MANAGER SALESMAN ANALYSIS Break is Environment command .JOB.

●CUBE grouping produces a result set containing the rows from ROLLUP and cross-tabulation rows The ROLLUP and CUBE operators are available only in Oracle8i and later releases. FROM table [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY [CUBE] group_by_expression] [HAVING having_expression] [ORDER BY column].] group_function(column). Syntax SELECT [column... ●ROLLUP grouping produces a result set containing the regular grouped rows and the subtotal values.Siva Kumar HVK Group by with ROLLUP and CUBE Operators ●Use Rollup or CUBE with Group by to produce super aggregate rows by cross-referencing columns. 115 .

Siva Kumar HVK CUBE function
We can use CUBE function to generate subtotals for all combinations of the values in the group by clause.( CUBE and ROLLUP are available only from 9i)

INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO,JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY CUBE(DEPTNO,JOB); OUTPUT
DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------- --------- ---------14 CLERK 4 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 3 SALESMAN 4 PRESIDENT 1 10 3 10 CLERK 1 10 MANAGER 1 10 PRESIDENT 1 20 5 20 CLERK 2 20 ANALYST 2 20 MANAGER 1 30 6 30 CLERK 1 30 MANAGER 1 DEPTNO JOB COUNT(*) ---------- --------- ---------30 SALESMAN 4 ANALYSIS

Cube displays the out with all the permutation and combination of all the columns given a CUBE function.

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Siva Kumar HVK ROLLUP FUNCTION
It is similar to that of CUBE function

INPUT SQL> SELECT DEPTNO,JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY ROLLUP(DEPTNO,JOB) OUTPUT
DEPTNO ---------10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 PRESIDENT 1 3 CLERK 2 ANALYST 2 MANAGER 1 5 CLERK 1 MANAGER 1 SALESMAN 4 6 14

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Siva Kumar HVK HAVING CLAUSE
Whenever we are using a group function in the condition, we have to use having clause. Having clause is used along with group by clause. For example, to display Designation wise total salaries

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB; JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 CLERK 4150 MANAGER 8275 PRESIDENT 5000 SALESMAN 5600

To Display only those designations, whose total salary is more than 5000

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SUM(SAL) > 5000 GROUP BY JOB; OUTPUT
SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SUM(SAL) > 5000 GROUP BY JOB * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00934: group function is not allowed here

ANALYSIS
Where clause doesn’t allow using group function in the condition. When we are using group function in the condition, we have to use having clause.

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Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,SUM(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING SUM(SAL) > 5000; OUTPUT
JOB SUM(SAL) --------- ---------ANALYST 6000 MANAGER 8275 SALESMAN 5600

ANALYSIS
Displays all the designations whose total salary is more than 5000.

INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB,COUNT(*) FROM EMP GROUP BY JOB HAVING COUNT(*) BETWEEN 3 AND 5; OUTPUT
JOB COUNT(*) --------- ---------CLERK 4 MANAGER 3 SALESMAN 4

ANALYSIS
Displays all the designations whose number where employees between 3 and 5

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Siva Kumar HVK INPUT
SQL> SELECT SAL FROM EMP GROUP BY SAL HAVING COUNT(SAL) > 1;

OUTPUT
SAL ---------1250 3000

ANALYSIS
Displays all the salaries, which are appearing more than one time in the table.

POINTS TO REMEMBER • WHERE clause can be used to check for conditions based on values of columns and expressions but not the result of GROUP functions. HAVING clause is specially designed to evaluate the conditions that are based on group functions such as SUM , COUNT etc. HAVING clause can be used only when GROUP BY clause is used.

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SUM (SAL) FROM EMP WHERE JOB != ‘CLERK’ GROUP BY JOB HAVING SUM(SAL) > 5000 ORDER BY JOB DESC. 121 .Siva Kumar HVK ORDER OF EXECUTION Here are the rules ORCALE uses to execute different clauses given in SELECT command Selects rows based on Where clause Groups rows based on GROUP BY clause Calculates results for each group Eliminate groups based on HAVING clause Then ORDER BY is used to order the results Example INPUT SQL> SELECT JOB.

Siva Kumar HVK EXERCISE ANNEXURE – A QUERY 2 122 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 2 2 Hrs Topics Nested Sub Queries Single row Sub queries Multi Row Sub query Multi column Sub query Co-related Sub query Scalar Sub Queries ANY ALL and EXISTS Exercise 123 .

124 . We can write different types sub queries Single row sub queries Multi row sub queries Multi column sub queries Correlated sub queries. then we have to write different queries one included in another. Whenever particular information is not accessible through a single query.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation Nested Sub queries Nesting is the act of embedding a sub query within another sub query. SYNTAX Select * FROM SOMETHING WHERE (SUBQUERY (SUBQUERY (SUBQUERY))). Sub queries can be nested as deeply as your implementation of SQL allows.

For example. child query executes first before executing parent query. OUTPUT ENAME -----------KING SAL ---------5000 ANALYSIS Right side query is called as child query and left side query is called parent query. HIREDATE FROM EMP WHERE HIREDATE = ( SELECT MAX(HIREDATE) FROM EMP). OUTPUT ENAME HIREDATE ---------. who is drawing maximum salary? INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.--------ADAMS 12-JAN-83 ANALYSIS Display the least experienced employee 125 . To get the employee. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL = ( SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP).Siva Kumar HVK Single row sub query A Sub query which returns only one value. In nested queries.

Query To display all the employees whose salary lines between minimum and maximum salaries INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE SAL BETWEEN (SELECT MIN(SAL) FROM EMP) AND (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP). 126 . OUTPUT ENAME SAL ---------.---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Display all the employees whose salary is less than the maximum salary of all the employees.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL < (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP).Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME.

SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL IN(SELECT SAL FROM EMP GROUP BY SAL HAVING COUNT(*)> 1). we have to use IN operator for comparison. OUTPUT ENAME ---------.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK Display all the employees who are getting maximum commission in the organization SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE COMM = (SELECT MAX(COMM) FROM EMP). which returns more than one value. 127 . SQL> SELECT EMPNO. INPUT SQL>SELECT ENAME.SAL FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO=30 AND SAL < (SELECT MAX (SAL) FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = 20). Multi row Sub queries A sub query.WARD MARTIN SCOTT FORD SAL --------1250 1250 3000 3000 ANALYSIS Displays all the employees who are drawing similar salaries When child query returns more than one value. Query Display all the employees from department 30 whose salary is less than maximum salary of department 20.

---------KING 10 5000 SCOTT 20 3000 FORD 20 3000 BLAKE 30 2850 ANALYSIS Display all the employees who are drawing maximum salaries in each department DML STATEMENTS IN SUB QUERIES To modify the salary of an employee who is drawing minimum salary with the salary of the employee who is drawing maximum salary INPUT SQL> UPDATE EMP SET SAL = (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP) WHERE EMPNO = (SELECT EMPNO FROM EMP WHERE SAL = (SELECT MIN (SAL) FROM EMP)).DEPTNO.---------.ENAME. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7839 7788 7902 7698 ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------.MAX(SAL) FROM EMP GROUP BY DEPTNO). ANALYSIS Identify the employee who is drawing minimum salary and update with the maximum salary of all the employees.SAL)IN (SELECT DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK Multi Column Sub Queries When sub queries returns values from different columns. 128 .SAL FROM EMP WHERE (DEPTNO.

Inserts all the selected rows into EMP1 table. ANALYSIS EMP1 is an existing table. 129 .Siva Kumar HVK To insert selected rows from emp table to emp1 table INPUT SQL> INSERT INTO EMP1 SELECT * FROM EMP .

---------. depending upon the value passed by sub query. For example Display all the employees whose salary is less than maximum salary of each department SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO).DEPTNO.ENAME.SAL FROM EMP X WHERE SAL < (SELECT MAX(SAL) FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = X. EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7782 7844 7876 7900 7934 ENAME DEPTNO SAL ---------.---------SMITH 20 800 ALLEN 30 1600 WARD 30 1250 JONES 20 2975 MARTIN 30 1250 CLARK 10 2450 TURNER 30 1500 ADAMS 20 1100 JAMES 30 950 MILLER 10 1300 ANALYSIS Find department wise maximum salaries and display the employees whose salary is less than that value for each department Execution Sequence of steps in Correlated sub queries A row from main query is retrieved Executes sub query with the value retrieved from main query Sub query returns a value to main query Main query’s current row is either selected or not.Siva Kumar HVK CORRELATED SUB QUERIES A correlated sub query is a sub query that receives a value from the main query and then sends a value back to main query. This continues until all rows of main query are retrieved 130 .

select deptno. 2.---------SCOTT 3000 FORD 3000 ANALYSIS It selects each row from emp table from parent query and finds the distinct count for each salary whose salary >= the salary returned by main query.Siva Kumar HVK To display the nth highest paid employee INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7788 7902 ENAME SAL ---------. select ename.ENAME. Display the employees who have atleast one person reportig to them? A.empno. ename. Display the employees who have no one reporting to? A. 5. deptno from emp e where &n = (select count(*) from emp where sal > x. job. 7. 6.sal from emp e 131 .deptno).ename. select empno. OR select deptno.sal from emp e where &n >= (select count(*) from emp where deptno = e. Display the employees who are earning more than the avg salary in thier respective depts? A.SAL FROM EMP X WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT SAL) FROM EMP WHERE SAL >=X.ename. Display the employees who are not getting max sal in each dept? A. dname from dept d where not exists (select 1 from emp where deptno = d.deptno). Find the deptnos which doesnt have any emps in it? A. Display the details of employee who is drawing nth max sal from emp table? A. select empno. sal. select ename.sal from emp e where e. select distinct deptno. Display all the employee details under the deptnos which have less than N number of employees in it? A. deptno from emp e where sal > (select avg(sal) from emp where deptno = e.deptno.empno).empno).sal). ename. deptno from emp e where exists (select 1 from emp where mgr = e. 4. e.deptno). e. 3.deptno). sal.empno. A Few More Examples on Correlated Subqueries: 1. select e. deptno from emp e where exists (select 1 from emp where mgr = e.sal<(select max(sal) from emp where deptno = e.SAL). job.

Siva Kumar HVK where exists (select 1 from emp where deptno=e.EMPNO) . And the conditions which filter out the maximum records should be placed at the end after the joins as the parsing is done from BOTTOM to TOP. SQL>SELECT * FROM EMP E WHERE SAL >=5000 AND JOB = 'MANAGER' AND 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. 132 .ename / Least Efficient ( 156 Mill Sec) SQL>SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. SQL> SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. SQL>SELECT * FROM EMP E WHERE 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E.deptno group by deptno having count(1)<= &n) order by deptno. Most Efficient (110 Mill Sec) SQL>SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL. Table joins should be written first before any condition of WHERE clause.EMPNO) and SAL >=5000 AND JOB = 'MANAGER' SQL> SELECT SYSTIMESTAMP FROM DUAL.

<.---------ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 KING 5000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS >ANY displays greater than any values in the list. The operator can be any one of the standard relational operators ( =. !=) and list is a series of values. >. >=.Siva Kumar HVK ANY And ALL Operators Both are used for comparing one value against a set of values.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL > ANY(SELECT SAL FROM EMP).ENAME. 133 . SYNTAX Operator ANY list Operator ALL list INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. <= . OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL ---------.

---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 SCOTT 3000 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 FORD 3000 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Less than ANY of the list of values INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL < ANY (SELECT SAL FROM EMP).SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL >ALL(SELECT SAL FROM EMP).Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL ---------.ENAME. OUTPUT no rows selected ANALYSIS Greater than Maximum of list 134 .ENAME.

---------SMITH 800 ALLEN 1600 WARD 1250 MARTIN 1250 TURNER 1500 ADAMS 1100 JAMES 950 MILLER 1300 ANALYSIS Less than minimum of List 135 .2000.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL <ALL(3000.ENAME.---------7839 KING 5000 ANALYSIS Greater than maximum of List INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7654 7844 7876 7900 7934 ENAME SAL ---------.4000). OUTPUT EMPNO ENAME SAL ---------.SAL FROM EMP WHERE SAL >ALL(3000.---------.2000.4000).

---------. If any row is retrieved from sub query the EXISTS returns true otherwise it returns False. INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.Siva Kumar HVK EXISTS And NOT EXISTS Operators These two operators are exclusively used in correlated sub query. ANY etc. because it doesn’t compare values of columns. and NOT EXISTS does the opposite. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME SAL MGR ---------. EXISTS is different from other operators like IN . It checks any row is retrieved from sub query or not.---------SMITH 800 7902 ALLEN 1600 7698 WARD 1250 7698 JONES 2975 7839 MARTIN 1250 7698 BLAKE 2850 7839 CLARK 2450 7839 SCOTT 3000 7566 TURNER 1500 7698 ADAMS 1100 7788 JAMES 950 7698 FORD 3000 7566 MILLER 1300 7782 Note :Use EXISTS in place of IN for Base Tables to improve the performance.MGR = EMPNO).SAL. Because ORDER BY clause must be the last clause of SELECT BETWEEN … AND operator can not be used with Sub queries 136 .ENAME. EXISTS checks whether any row is existing in the sub query. Remember The following important points to be remembered while dealing with sub queries Sub query can not use ORDER BY clause. instead.MGR FROM EMP X WHERE EXISTS(SELECT MGR FROM EMP WHERE X.

Display the details of students who have paid the highest amount so far in their course. Display the details of subjects that have been taken by more than two students 137 . Display the employees who reported to KING Display all the employees whose salary is less than the minimum salary of MANAGERS. Display the employees from other departments whose designation is matching with the designation of the above employee. one employee is drawing minimum salary and is having some designation. Display all the employees whose salary is within ±1000 from the average salary of all the employees.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise In department 20.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 3 2 Hrs Exercise Annexure Query III 138 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 3 4 1 Hrs Revision / Doubts 139 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 1&2 5 Hrs Topics Integrity Constraints DDL and DML commands Transactional Control statements Referential Integrity constraints Exercise 140 .

or . View a constraint in the Data dictionary . If constraint is not satisfied the operation will fail. Define a constraint at the column or table level. 141 . Oracle server makes sure that the constraints are not violated whenever a row is inserted. Constraint Guidelines Name a constraint or the Oracle server generates a name by using the SYS_Cn format Create a constraint either: . Constraints are normally defined at the time of creating table.At the same time as the table is created. But it is also possible to define constraints after the table is created.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS Constraints are used to implement standard rules such as uniqueness in the key filed and business rule such as AGE column should contain a value between 15 and 60 etc.After the table has been created. deleted or updated.

at which it is defined. It defines a rule for a single column. UNIQUE + NOT NULL = PRIMARY KEY • Automatically creates unique index to enforce uniqueness. if so.e. It may consist of more than one column. It cannot refer to column other than the column. 142 . A typical example is PRIMARY KEY constraint when a single column is the primary key of the table. A typical example is PRIMARY KEY constraint that is used to define composite primary key.Siva Kumar HVK TYPES OF CONSTRAINTS Constraints are classified into two types Table Constraints Column Constraints Table Constraint A constraint given at the table level is called as Table Constraint. ( It maintains uniqueness in the data and null values are not acceptable). Column Constraint A constraint given at the column level is called as Column constraint. It may refer to more than one column of the table. Various types of Integrity constraints PRIMARY KEY UNIQUE NOT NULL CHECK PRIMARY KEY It is used to uniquely identify rows in a table. it is called as composite primary key. There can be only one primary key in a table. i.

References to CURRVAL.Queries that refer to other values in other rows Note: . If the UNIQUE constraint comprises more than one column. the group of columns is called a composite unique key. However. NOT NULL Uniqueness not maintained and null values are not acceptable.Pseudocolumns are not actual columns in a table but they behave like columns. • Oracle automatically creates a unique index for the column. 143 . not at the table level. Maintains unique and NULL values are Example : EmailID A UNIQUE key integrity constraint requires that every value in a column or set of columns (key) be unique.USER functions . update. or delete from a pseudocolumn.Siva Kumar HVK UNIQUE acceptable. Note: The NOT NULL constraint can be specified only at the column level.Calls to SYSDATE. you can select clause from pseudo columns. The column (or set of columns) included in the definition of the UNIQUE key constraint is called the unique key. no two rows of table can have duplicate values in a specified column or set of columns. you cannot insert into.UID. NEXTVAL and ROWNUM pseudocolumns . CHECK Defines the condition that should be satisfied before insertion and updating is done.that is. Defines a condition that each row must satisfy The following expressions are not allowed . For example.

EMAIL_ID VARCHAR2 (30) UNIQUE. “-“ i.’F’)). They can’t consist of any special characters other than “$”. Alter. $. Columns in a table = 1000 Rules: 1. ENAME VARCHAR2 (10) NOT NULL. Syntax :Column Def : <Name> Data type [Default Value] [constraint <name> constraint type] Note: = Min. Create Table CREATE TABLE <TABLE-NAME> (COLUMN DEFINITION1. COLUMN DEFINITION2).Siva Kumar HVK DDL (Data Definition language) Create. Drop DDL STATEMENTS COMMITS AUTOMATICALLY.2) CHECK (SALARY BETWEEN 10000 AND 70000)). 144 . A table or a column name must never start a number but they can contain numbers in them 2. “#”.e. Column in a table = 1 Max. Example : SQL>CREATE TABLE EMPL47473 (EMPNO NUMBER(3)CONSTRAINT PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO PRIMARY KEY. There is no need to save explicitly. GENDER CHAR(1) CONSTRAINT CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER CHECK(UPPER (GENDER) IN (‘M’.# are used mainly for system tables. DESIGNATION VARCHAR2 (15). SALARY NUMBER (7.

system creates a constraint with the name SYS_Cn.------------------------------------------------------SYS_C003018 C "ENAME" IS NOT NULL CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER SYS_C003020 PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO ANALYSIS C C P UPPER (GENDER) IN ('M'. USER_CONS_COLUMNS. Select statement is used to view the constraints defined on the table 145 . Constraints defined on a particular table are store in a data dictionary table USER_CONSTRAINTS. Tables defined by a user are stored in a data dictionary table USER_TABLES SQL> DESCRIBE USER_CONSTRAINTS SQL> SELECT CONSTRAINT_NAME. SEARCH_CONDITION FROM USER_CONSTRAINTS WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'EMPL47473'. CONSTRAINT_TYPE.'F') SALARY BETWEEN 10000 AND 70000 SYS_C003022 Describe displays structure of the data dictionary table.Siva Kumar HVK Note : Constraint name is useful for manipulating the given constraint When the constraint name is not given at the time of defining constraints. OUTPUT CONSTRAINT_NAME CONSTRAINTTYPE SEARCH_CONDITION ---------------------------.

---------------------------GENDER EMPNO ENAME SALARY EMAIL_ID ANALYSIS Describe displays structure of the data dictionary table. Select statement is used to view the constraints defined on the column 146 .Siva Kumar HVK SQL> DESCRIBE USER_CONS_COLUMNS SQL> SELECT CONSTRAINT_NAME.COLUMN_NAME FROM USER_CONS_COLUMNS WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'EMPL47473'. OUTPUT CONSTRAINT_NAME --------------------------------CHK_EMPL47473_GENDER PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO SYS_C003018 SYS_C003020 SYS_C003022 COLUMN_NAME .

ANALYSIS To remove the primary key from table. ANALYSIS To add primary key in the table without constraint name.ADDRESS).for modifying the structure of columns . ADD MODIFY DROP RENAME .for adding new columns into the table .2)). Other constraints are removed only by referring constraint name. INPUT SQL>ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD PRIMARY KEY(EMPNO). 147 . DOJ DATE.for renaming the column name ( Only from 9i) SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD (ADDRESS VARCHAR2 (30).for removing a column in the table ( 8i) . SALARY NUMBER (8.Siva Kumar HVK ALTER TABLE Used to modify the structure of a table SYNTAX ALTER TABLE <TABLENAME> [ ADD | MODIFY | DROP | RENAME] ( COLUMN(S)). SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP (DESIGNATION. SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP COLUMN PINCODE. SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 RENAME COLUMN ENAME TO EMPNAME Note: This command is also useful for manipulating constraints INPUT SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 DROP PRIMARY KEY. It creates constraint name with SYS_Cn. SQL> ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 MODIFY (ENAME CHAR (15).PINCODE VARCHAR2(7)).

OR SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(&EMPNO .….&SALARY). ‘RAMESH_B@YAHOO. TO INSERT SPECIFIED COLUMNS IN THE TABLE SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473(EMPNO.&SALARY. ’&EMPNAME’.] VALUES(VALUE1 VALUE2 VALUE3 ) SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(101. OR SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473(EMPNO.’RAVI’.EMPNAME.’&GENDER’.SALARY) VALUES(101.5000.’M’.’10-JAN-2001’).EMPNAME.Siva Kumar HVK INPUT SQL>ALTER TABLE EMPL47473 ADD CONSTRAINT PK_EMPL47473_EMPNO PRIMARY KEY(EMPNO).’&EMAIL_ID’.’RAVI’. ANALYSIS We can’t skip primary key and NOT NULL columns 148 .’7EMPNAME’.COM’. 5000). ANALYSIS To add primary key in the table with constraint name DATA MANIPULATION INSERTING ROWS SYNTAX INSERT INTO TABLENAME [ COLUMNNAME.SALARY) VALUES(&EMPNO.’&DOJ’).COLUMNNAME.

COM’. ROLLBACK. SAVEPOINT We can use save points to roll back portions of your current set of transactions For example SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(105.Siva Kumar HVK Note :.’15-JAN-2002’). SQL> SAVEPOINT B 149 . For saving the information we have to use a command COMMIT.’LATHA’. ANALYSIS Information from shadow page flushed back to the table and shadow page gets destroyed automatically. ‘KIRAN_B@YAHOO.COM’. SQL> SAVEPOINT A SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(106.’M’.SAVEPOINT ( Called as Transactional processing statements) SQL>COMMIT.Changes made on the database are recorded only in the shadow page.5000.’10-JAN-2001’). SQL>ROLLBACK. ‘LATHA_D@YAHOO. ANALYSIS Shadow page destroys automatically without transferring the information back to the table.5000.’F’.’KIRAN’.

any DDL command forces a commit.---------. but not yet explicitly or implicitly committed them. or quit.’F’. If the machine or database goes down.--------KIRAN_B@YAHOO.’15-JAN-2002’).COM 15000 15-JAN-02 The output shows the three new records we’ve added .15000. When we SELECT data from the table SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPL47473.COM 5000 10-JAN-01 LATHA_D@YAHOO. even without your instructing it to. 150 . and you experience serious difficulties.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> INSERT INTO EMPL47473 VALUES(107. ‘RADHA_V@GMAIL.COM 5000 15-JAN-02 RADHA_V@GMAIL. automatically commits. such as a computer failure.’RADHA’. IMPLICIT COMMIT The actions that will force a commit to occur.COM’. Note : Rollback works only on uncommitted data A DDL transaction after a DML transaction. Now roll back just the last insert: SQL> ROLLBACK TO B. Oracle automatically roll back any uncommitted work. it does this as cleanup work the next time the database is brought back up. updates or deletes. We can use an Environment command SET VERIFY OFF to remove the old and new messages while inserting data. EMPNO ------105 106 107 EMPNAME ---------KIRAN LATHA RADHA G M F F EMAIL_ID SALARY DOJ -----------------. exit (the equivalent to exit). AUTO ROLLBACK If you’ve completed a series of inserts.

Siva Kumar HVK ISSUE Frequent commit statements Whenever possible. By issuing frequent COMMIT statements. issue frequent COMMIT statements in all your programs. 151 . All locks acquired during statement processing Space in the redo log buffer cache Overhead associated with any internal Oracle mechanisms to manage the resources in the previous three items. the performance of the program is enhanced & its resource requirements are minimized as COMMIT frees up the following resources: Information held in the rollback segments to undo the transaction if necessary.

152 .SAL*1.SAL*1.SAL*1. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.SAL.ENAME.Siva Kumar HVK CREATING A TABLE FROM ANOTHER TABLE SYNTAX CREATE TABLE <TABLENAME> AS SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <EXISTING TABLE> [WHERE <CONDITION>].1. UPDATING ROWS This command is used to change the data of the table SYNTAX UPDATE <TABLENAME> SET column1 = expression. Example SQL> CREATE TABLE EMP47473 AS SELECT EMPNO.1. ANALYSIS To give uniform increments to all the employees SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SAL = DECODE (JOB. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. ‘SALESMAN’. To add a new column in the table SQL> ALTER TABLE EMP47473 ADD(SEX CHAR(1)).’CLERK’.15).JOB FROM EMP.2. SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SAL = SAL*1. column2 = expression WHERE <condition>.

’BLAKE’). SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET ENAME = DECODE(SEX. SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473. SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP47473 .’||ENAME.’Mr.’M’.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SEX = ‘M’ WHERE ENAME IN (‘KING’. SQL> UPDATE EMP47473 SET SEX = ‘F’ WHERE SEX IS NULL. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK. or Ms. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.’MILLER’. Before the existing name as per the SEX value 153 .’Ms.’||ENAME). ANALYSIS ADD Mr. SQL> COMMIT / ROLLBACK.

Siva Kumar HVK DELETING ROWS - SYNTAX DELETE FROM <TABLENAME> WHERE <CONDITION>. SQL> DELETE FROM EMP47473 WHERE SEX = ‘M’. 154 . It removes the data along with table definitions and the table. It is a DDL statement Droping a table SYNTAX DROP TABLE <TABLENAME> Note : Table is dropped permanently. Once the table is truncated. it automatically commits. Deleting specified rows is Not possible. SQL> COMMIT | ROLLBACK. TRUNCATING A TABLE SYNTAX TRUNCATE TABLE <TABLENAME> Note : Removes all the rows from table. It is a DDL statement.

155 . view by using the COMMENT statement. The comment is stored in the data dictionary and can be viewed in one of the following data dictionary views in the COMMENTS column: ALL_COL_COMMENTS USER_COL_COMMENTS ALL_TAB_COMMENTS USER_TAB_COMMENTS Syntax COMMENT ON TABLE table | COLUMN table. table.Siva Kumar HVK Adding comments to a table You can add comments up to 2000 bytes about a column.column IS ‘text’ .

salary. ename. Example Department47473 (Deptno . Various referential integrity constraints we can use in Oracle are Foreign Key References On delete cascade On Delete Set NULL Foreign Key: Defines the column in the child table at the table constraint level References table Identifies the table and column in the parent Reference key accepts NULL and duplicate values. On delete cascade Deletes the dependent rows in the child table when a row in the parent table is deleted. dno) Deptno of Department47473 is a primary key Empno of Employee47473 is a primary key Dno of Employee47473 is a reference key 156 .Siva Kumar HVK REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS This constraint is useful for maintaining relation with other table. dname) Employee47473 (Empno. On Delete Set NULL Converts dependent foreign key values to null.

SQL>Create table itemtran (trnno number (3). quantity number (3) check (quantity > 0). trndate date. dname varchar2(20) Not null). primary key (trnno. itemno)). itemno number (3) references itemmaster (itemno). 157 . SQL>Create table employee47473(empno number(3) primary key. SQL>Create table itemmaster (itemno number (3) primary key. itemname varchar2 (10).’I’)). ename varchar2(10) Not null. stock number (3) check (stock > 0)). salary number(7. Assume the case where supermarket selling various items and customers order the items. trntype char (1) check (upper (trntype) in (‘R’. dno number(3) references department47473(deptno) on delete cascade). Itemno Trnno Itemmaster itemname stock Itemtran itemno trndate trntype quantity Assume the case where with each transaction customer orders more than one item.Siva Kumar HVK Solution SQL>Create table department47473 (deptno number(3) primary key.2) check(salary > 0).

ANALYSIS Removing the primary key along with Reference key ALTER TABLE <TABLENAME> DISABLE PRIMARY KEY ALTER TABLE <tablename> DISABLE PRIMARY KEY CASCADE. Note : It is not possible to enable using cascade 158 .Siva Kumar HVK DROP TABLE <TABLENAME> CASCADE CONSTRAINTS ANALYSIS Dropping the table along with constraints ALTER TABLE <tablename> DROP PRIMARY KEY CASCADE.

attributes and define them with relations 159 . assume the case where same student can join in more than one course) The students may pay the fee in installments • Identify the tables.Siva Kumar HVK Exercise • Consider a training institute conducting different courses. into which the students are joining for various courses ( Also.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 3 2 Hrs Topics Joins 160 .

Siva Kumar HVK
Presentation

JOINS Objectives
Join will enable you to gather and manipulate data across several tables. By One of the most powerful features of SQL is its capability to gather and manipulate data from across several tables. Without this feature you would have to store all the data elements necessary for each application in one table. Without common tables you would need to store the same data in several tables.

Objectives After completing this lesion, you should be able to do the following. ■ Write SELECT statements to access data from more than one table using equality and nonequality join. ■ View Data that generally does not meet condition by using outer joins ■ Join a table itself by using self join a join

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Siva Kumar HVK TYPES OF JOINS Oracle Proprietary Joins(8i and prior) ●EquiJoin ●Non-equi join ●Outer join ●SelfJoin SQL:1999 Compliant Joins: ● Cross Joins ● Natural Joins ● Using caluse ● Full or two sided outer join ● Arbitrary join conditions For Outer joins

Types of Joins
The Oracle 9i database offers join syntax that is SQL: 1999 compliant. Prior to 9i release, the join syntax was different from the ANSI standards. The new SQL: 1999 compliant join syntax does not offer any performance benefits over the Oracle proprietary join syntax that existed in prior releases.

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Siva Kumar HVK

Joining tables using Oracle Syntax
Use a join to query data from more than one table SELECT Table1.column1, table2.column2

FROM table1,table2 WHERE table1.column1 = table2.column2;
• Write the join condition in the WHERE clause. Prefix the column name with table name when the same column name appears in more than one table.

Guidelines • When writing a SELECT statement that joins tables, precede the common column name with the table name for clarify and to enhance database access. If the same column name appears in more than one table, the column name must be prefixed with the table name. To join n tables together, you need a minimum of n-1 join conditions. This rule many not apply if your table has a concatenated primary key, in which case more than one column is required to uniquely identify each row.

• •

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Siva Kumar HVK

What is An Equi Join?

Departments

Employees

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Siva Kumar HVK Equi join
Extracting the information from more than one table by comparing ( = ) the common information. Note : Equi Joins are also called as simple joins or Inner Joins

To display common column information

SQL> SELECT EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,SAL,DNAME FROM EMP,DEPT WHERE EMP.DEPTNO = DEPT.DEPTNO;
OUTPUT
EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD JOB SAL DNAME --------- ---------- ---------MANAGER 2450 ACCOUNTING PRESIDENT 5000 ACCOUNTING CLERK 1300 ACCOUNTING CLERK 800 RESEARCH CLERK 1100 RESEARCH ANALYST 3000 RESEARCH ANALYST 3000 RESEARCH MANAGER 2975 RESEARCH SALESMAN 1600 SALES MANAGER 2850 SALES SALESMAN 1250 SALES CLERK 950 SALES SALESMAN 1500 SALES SALESMAN 1250 SALES

ANALYSIS Efficiency is more when we compare the information from lower data table(master table) to Higher data table( child table). When Oracle processes multiple tables, it uses an internal sort/merge procedure to join those tables. First, it scans & sorts the first table (the one specified last in FROM clause). Next, it scans the second table (the one prior to the last in the FROM clause) and merges all of the retrieved from the second table with those retrieved from the first table. It takes around 0.96 seconds

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INPUT SQL> select empno.hisal from salgrade g.ename.SAL.EMP WHERE EMP.emp e where e.hisal / ANALYSIS Displays all the employees whose salary lies between any pair of low and high salary ranges.-------------------------40 OPERATIONS BOSTON ANALYSIS Displays the details of the department where there are no employees 166 . Non-Equi joins Getting the information from more than one table without using comparison (=) operator.DEPTNO = DEPT.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.sal between g.losal and g.sal.JOB.ENAME. OUTPUT DEPTNO DNAME LOC ---------.09 seconds So.losal.DEPTNO. It takes around 26. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM DEPT WHERE DEPTNO NOT IN (SELECT DISTINCT DEPTNO FROM EMP).grade. Efficiency is less.DNAME FROM DEPT. ANALYSIS Here driving table is EMP.

SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT MINUS SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK We can also get above output using relational algebra operators. SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT UNION SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP. SQL> SELECT DEPTNO FROM DEPT UNION ALL SELECT DEOTNO FROM EMP. 167 .

It is represented by +.EMP WHERE DEPT. which forcibly joins multiple tables even without having the common information.Siva Kumar HVK OUTER JOIN It is a join.--------.SAL.---------.------------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD MANAGER PRESIDENT CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYST ANALYST MANAGER SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN CLERK SALESMAN SALESMAN 2450 5000 1300 800 1100 3000 3000 2975 1600 2850 1250 950 1500 1250 ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES OPERATIONS 168 .DNAME FROM DEPT. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME JOB SAL DNAME ---------.ENAME.DEPTNO(+).JOB. SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO = EMP.

ENAME. you can tell Oracle to perform a LEFT. EMPNO ----------7934 7839 7782 7902 7876 7788 7566 7369 7900 7844 7698 7654 7521 7499 ENAME JOB DEPTNO DNAME ---------. RIGHT AND FULL OUTER JOIN As of Oracle 9i.-----------MILLER KING CLARK FORD ADAMS SCOTT JONES SMITH JAMES TURNER BLAKE MARTIN WARD ALLEN CLERK PRESIDENT MANAGER ANALYST CLERK ANALYST MANAGER CLERK CLERK SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN SALESMAN SALESMAN 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES SALES ANALYSIS Gets the common information. you can use the ANSI SQL standard syntax for outer joins.DEPTNO. JOB. and forcibly joins from left side table to right side table. SQL> SELECT EMPNO. DEPT.--------. DNAME FROM EMP LEFT OUTER JOIN DEPT ON DEPT. RIGHT or FULL OUTER join.Siva Kumar HVK LEFT.DEPTNO.DEPTNO = EMP.---------. In the FROM clause. 169 .

DNAME FROM DEPT LEFT OUTER JOIN EMP ON DEPT. DEPT.DEPTNO.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables. and then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table. JOB.DEPTNO = EMP. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.---------. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO. ENAME. DNAME FROM DEPT RIGHT OUTER JOIN EMP ON DEPT. ENAME.DEPTNO.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING 40 OPERATIONS ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables. 170 .---------.DEPTNO. DEPT. JOB. then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table. SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO = EMP.

DEPT.DEPTNO.EMPNO) AND SAL > 5000 AND JOB = ‘MANAGER’. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7369 7499 7521 7566 7654 7698 7782 7788 7839 7844 7876 7900 7902 7934 ENAME ---------SMITH ALLEN WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT KING TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD MILLER JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO.-------------CLERK 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING ANALYST 20 RESEARCH PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 30 SALES ANALYST 20 RESEARCH CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING 40 OPERATIONS ANALYSIS Gets the common information from both tables.MGR FROM EMP E WHERE SAL > 50000 AND JOB = ‘MANAGER’ AND 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E. DNAME FROM EMP RIGHT OUTER JOIN DEPT ON DEPT.DEPTNO = EMP.JOB. Position of Joins in where clause Table joins should be written first before any condition of WHERE clause. And the conditions which filter out the maximum records should be placed at the end after the joins as the parsing is done from BOTTOM to TOP For ex.EMPNO). ENAME.JOB.6 sec) SELECT ENAME. JOB. Most Efficient (Total CPU time = 10.MGR FROM EMP E WHERE 25 < (SELECT COUNT(*) FROM EMP WHERE MGR = E.6 Sec) SELECT ENAME.---------. 171 . then forcibly joins from dept table to emp table. Least Efficient (Total CPU = 153.

MGR = MANAGER.ENAME FROM EMP WORKER. EMP MANAGER WHERE WORKER. MGR number appearing against employee is the employee number of manager 172 . OUTPUT WORKER.Siva Kumar HVK SELF JOIN Joining the table from itself is called as self join. SQL> SELECT WORKER.ENAME || ' IS WORKING UNDER ' || MANAGER.ENAME||'ISWORKINGUNDER'||MANAGE -------------------------------------SCOTT IS WORKING UNDER JONES FORD IS WORKING UNDER JONES ALLEN IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE WARD IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE JAMES IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE TURNER IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE MARTIN IS WORKING UNDER BLAKE MILLER IS WORKING UNDER CLARK ADAMS IS WORKING UNDER SCOTT JONES IS WORKING UNDER KING CLARK IS WORKING UNDER KING BLAKE IS WORKING UNDER KING SMITH IS WORKING UNDER FORD ANALYSIS It displays who is working under whom.EMPNO.

an error is returned. To get the common information from two tables. • It selects rows from the two tables that have equal values in all matched columns. • If the columns having the same names have different data types. INPUT SQL> SELECT EMPNO.DEPTNO.ENAME. For example.DNAME FROM DEPT 2 NATURAL JOIN EMP. OUTPUT EMPNO ---------7782 7839 7934 7369 7876 7902 7788 7566 7499 7698 7654 7900 7844 7521 ENAME ---------CLARK KING MILLER SMITH ADAMS FORD SCOTT JONES ALLEN BLAKE MARTIN JAMES TURNER WARD JOB DEPTNO DNAME --------.-------------MANAGER 10 ACCOUNTING PRESIDENT 10 ACCOUNTING CLERK 10 ACCOUNTING CLERK 20 RESEARCH CLERK 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH ANALYST 20 RESEARCH MANAGER 20 RESEARCH SALESMAN 30 SALES MANAGER 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES CLERK 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES SALESMAN 30 SALES 173 .Siva Kumar HVK NATURAL AND INNER JOINS (Introduced in 9i) We can use natural keyword to indicate that a join should be performed based on all columns that have the same name in the two tables being joined.JOB. Creating Natural Joins • The Natural join clause is based on all columns in the two tables that have the same name.---------.

174 . ■Do not use a table name or alias in the referenced columns ■The NATURAL JOIN and USING clauses are mutually exclusive. ■use the USING clause to match only one column when more than one column matches.Siva Kumar HVK Creating Joins with Using Caluse ■ If several columns have the same names but the data types do not match. the NATURAL JOIN clause can be modified with USING clause to specify the columns that should be used for an equijoin.

e. INPUT SQL> SELECT * FROM DEPT. OR SQL> SELECT * FROM EMP CROSS JOIN DEPT. and are the alternative to outer joins. ANALYSIS It multiplies the rows from both tables and displays the output i. 14 rows (emp table) X 4 rows(dept table) = 56 rows. DNAME FROM EMP INNER JOIN DEPT ON EMP. Note that they support ON clause. DEPT. inner joins are the default – they return the rows the two tables have in common. CROSS JOIN (CARTESIAN PRODUCT) Joining tables without giving proper join condition.DEPTNO. ENAME. SQL>SELECT EMPNO. so that you can specify join criteria. JOB.DEPTNO = DEPT.DEPTNO.Siva Kumar HVK INNER JOIN Support for INNER join syntax was introduced in Oracle9i. 175 .EMP.

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 4 4 1 Hrs EXERCISE ANNEXURE QUERY III 176 .

Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 1 3 Hrs Topics Other Objects Sequence Object Views Indexes Synonyms 177 .

) CYCLE | NOCYCLE specifies whether the sequence continues to generate values after reaching its maximum or minimum value (NOCYCLE is the default Option.) MAXVALUE n specifies the maximum value the sequence can generate NOMAXVALUE specifies a maximum value of 10^27 for an ascending sequence and –1 for a descending sequence (This is the default option. SYNTAX CREATE SEQUENCE sequence [INCREMENT BY n] [START WITH n] [{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}] [{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}] [{CYCLE | NOCYCLE}] [{CACHE n | NOCACHE}].) START WITH n specifies the first sequence number to be generated (If this clause is omitted. Sequence is the name of the sequence generator INCREMENT BY n specifies the interval between sequence numbers where n is an integer (If this clause is omitted.) The value set must be less than MAXVALUE minus 178 .) CACHE n | NOCACHE specifies how many values the Oracle server preallocates and keep in memory (By default. the Oracle server caches 20 values.Siva Kumar HVK Presentation OTHER OBJECTS SEQUENCE OBJECT Used to generate sequence (Unique) Integers for use of primary keys. the sequence increments by 1.) MINVALUE n specifies the minimum sequence value NOMINVALUE specifies a minimum value of 1 for an ascending sequence and – (10^26) for a descending sequence (This is the default option. the sequence starts with 1.

Siva Kumar HVK Example CREATE SEQUENCE SQNO47473 START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAXVALUE 10.These sequences are stored in a data dictionary table USER_SEQUENCES. which gives the current value of the sequence object Assume there is a table 179 . Note: . This sequence object provides two public member functions NEXTVAL and CURRVAL NEXTVAL is a function which generate next value from sequence object CURRVAL is a function. CREATE SEQUENCE SQNO47473 START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAVALUE 10 CACHE 3 CYCLE.

VIEWS 180 . TO MODIFY THE SEQUNECE OBJECT SQL> ALTER SEQUENCE SQNO47473 INCREMENT BY 2 MAXVALUE 40. &SAL). ‘&ENAME’. Note : We can’t change starting value To remove the sequence object SQL> DROP SEQUENCE <SEQUENCE_NAME>.NEXTVAL.Siva Kumar HVK EMPNO SAMPLE47473 ENAME SAL To insert the values into the table SQL> INSERT INTO SAMPLE47473 VALUES(SQNO47473.

It is used to reduce the complexity of the query In Oracle Oracle we can create different types of views SIMPLE COMPLEX INLINE SIMPLE view is a view. • It is a named sub query in the FROM clause of the main query. which is created using more than one table or using group functions INLINE view is a view. which is created using only one base table. Changing Base Table through view 181 . COMPLEX view is a view. Generally used in TOP N Analysis. SYNTAX CREATE OR REPLACE [FORCE] VIEW <VIEWNAME> AS SELECT <COLUMNS> FROM <TABLE > [ WITH READ ONLY]. The table on which a view is based is called as base table FORCE option allows view to be created even if the base table doesn’t exist.Siva Kumar HVK A view is an object. However. the base table should exist before the view is used. which is created using sub query (it is not a schema object.+Critical data in the base table is safeguarded as access to such data can be controlled. which is a logical representation of a table A view contains no data on its own It is derived from tables Changes made in tables are automatically reflected in views As a view does not store any data the redundancy problem does not arise.

These views are stored in a data dictionary table USER_VIEWS 182 . However for each operation certain conditions are to be satisfied.ENAME. Rules for insertion of rows All the rules of UPDATE Al NOT NULL columns should be included in the view.Siva Kumar HVK A view can also be used to change the data of base table A view can be used to delete.SAL FROM EMP47473. More than one table GROUP BY clause GROUP Function DISTINCT clause Pseudo column ROWNUM Rules for updating rows The following are the rules that are to be satisfied to update base table through view. Note: . All the rules of Delete are applicable The column being updated should not be derived from an expression. Example SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW TESTVIEW47473 AS SELECT EMPNO. Rules for deleting row The following should NOT be used in the query. insert and update rows in the base table.

-2) YEAR.SAL FROM EMP47473 WITH READ ONLY. Such views are called as INLINE views. It doesn’t allow you to update the condition column as well as it doesn’t allow you to insert the details of employees with DEPTNO other than 20. To remove a view SQL> DROP VIEW <VIEWNAME>. They are by default read only. COUNT(*) NUMB FROM EMP47473 GROUP BY JOB. ENAME. Insertion and updation is not allowed into base table through view. INDEX 183 . SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW CHKVIEW AS SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE DEPTNO = 20 WITH CHECK OPTION.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW TESTVIEW47473 AS SELECT EMPNO. SQL> CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW SIMPLEVIEW47473 AS SELECT SUBSTR(HIREDATE. We can also create a view using group functions. ANALYSIS View becomes a read only view WITH CHECK OPTION This option is used to prevent any changes to base table through view.

an index in Oracle is a list of values of a column in the ascending order.. The address of rows are obtained using ROWID pseudo column. Just like how book index is sorted in the ascending order of topics. When Oracle Does Not Use Index Oracle index is completely automatic. SYNTAX CREATE [UNIQUE] INDEX index_name ON table(column1.Siva Kumar HVK The concept indexing in Oracle is same as a book index. Note :. Oracle server decides whether to use an index or not.…).e.column2.Indexes are stored in the data dictionary table USER_INDEXES. Page number in book index is similar to ROWID if Oracle index. but WHERE clause doesn’t refer to indexed column. SELECT doesn’t contain WHERE clause When the data size is less SELECT contains WHERE clause. I. Why to Use An INDEX INDEXES in ORACLE are used for two purposes To speed up data retrieval and thereby improving performance of query To enforce uniqueness Note :. The following are the cases in which Oracle does NOT use index. 184 . It contains the values of the indexed column(s) in the ascending order along with address of each row. An oracle index is a database object.A UNIQUE index is automatically created when you use PRIMARY KEY and UNIQUE constraints An index can have up to 32 columns. you never have to open or close an index.

Siva Kumar HVK SELECT contains WHERE clause and WHERE clause uses indexed columns but indexed column is modified in the WHERE clause. FUNCTIONAL INDEX As of Oracle8i. because applications are not directly dependent on index. but at the same time not having an index may effects performance. Dropping an Index SYNTAX DROP INDEX <INDEXNAME>. When we are storing alpha-numeric information. Removing an index doesn’t invalidate existing applications. 185 . Negative Side of an Index INDEX plays an important role in improving performance. we can convert them in to single case. But at the same time it may also degrade performance. before creating index. When we create index on such columns. A new row’s insertion will effect index and Oracle server implicitly updates index. SQL> CREATE INDEX IDX_NAME ON EMP(UPPER(ENAME)). we can create functional-based indexes. if not designed carefully. we may store the information in any case. information is placed in different ranges of indexes. So. Having many indexes may have negative impact on the performance because whenever there is a change in the table. immediately index is to reflect that change. So this will put more burden on the machine if more number of indexes are created on a table.

A materialized view provides access to table data by storing the results of a query in a separate schema object. all in the schema of the materialized view. TO DISPLAY 3 HIGHEST PAID EMPLOYEES SQL> SELECT ROWNUM. This process is called incremental or fast refresh. and distribute data. When you create a materialized view. and may create one view. a fast refresh takes less time than a complete refresh. Unlike an ordinary view. replicate. which does not take up any storage space or contain any data. a materialized view contains the rows resulting from a query against one or more base tables or views. Without a materialized view log. Materialized Views: Materialized views are schema objects that can be used to summarize. This process is called a complete refresh.SAL FROM EMP ORDER BY SAL DESC) WHERE ROWNUM <= 3. Example ROWID ROWNUM SYADATE NEXTVAL CURRVAL NULL LEVEL Are called as Pseudo-columns. ENAME. Usually.EMPNO. A materialized view log is located in the master database in the same schema as the master table. You must have the privileges necessary to create these objects.SAL FROM (SELECT EMPNO. A master table can have only one materialized view log defined on 186 . EMPNO. compute. SELECT ROWNUM.ENAME. Oracle Database stores rows describing those changes in the materialized view log and then uses the materialized view log to refresh materialized views based on the master table. ENAME FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK PSEUDO COLUMN A pseudo-column is a column that yields a value when selected but which is not an actual column of the table. Oracle Database creates one internal table and at least one index. Oracle Database uses these objects to maintain the materialized view data. Materialized View Log: When DML changes are made to master table data. Oracle Database must re-execute the materialized view query to refresh the materialized view.

Complete Clause The complete refresh re-creates the entire materialized view. To fast refresh a materialized join view. COMPLETE. otherwise complete refresh. BUILD: Specifies when to populate the materialized view. or FORCE). Syntax: <CACHE | NOCACHE> REFRESH MODES FAST Clause The FAST refreshes use the materialized view logs (as seen above) to send the rows that have changed from master tables to the materialized view. CACHE specifies that the blocks retrieved for this table are placed at the most recently used end of the least recently used (LRU) list in the buffer cache when a full table scan is performed. FORCE is the default. Syntax: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW <[schema. USING INDEX If USING INDEX is not specified. You should create a materialized view log for the master tables if you specify the REFRESH FAST clause. If you do not specify a refresh method (FAST. Oracle performs a fast refresh if possible. you must create a materialized view log for each of the tables referenced by the materialized view. If you request a complete refresh. Oracle performs a complete refresh even if a fast refresh is possible.]name> [LOGGING] [CACHE] [TABLESPACE <tablespace_name>] BUILD IMMEDIATE [REFRESH <FAST | FORCE | COMPLETE>] [ON <COMMIT | DEMAND>] [<USING INDEX | USING NO INDEX>] [START WITH <date> NEXT <date_calculation>] [FOR UPDATE] [STORAGE CLAUSE] AS (<SQL statement>). CACHE: For data that will be accessed frequently. NOCACHE specifies that the blocks are placed at the least recently used end of the LRU list. then default tablespace values are used. The default index is used to speed up incremental (FAST) refresh of the materialized view.Siva Kumar HVK it. Syntax: <USING INDEX | USING NO INDEX> Follow the Steps: 187 . Force Clause When you specify a FORCE clause. Oracle Database can use this materialized view log to perform fast refreshes for all fast-refreshable materialized views based on the master table. Specify IMMEDIATE to indicate that the materialized view is to be populated immediately. This attribute is useful for small lookup tables.

Update the view as follows update emp_2 set mgr = 7788 where empno = 2345. it didn’t get updated the changes till the commit statement. '[eE][mM][pP][_]'). Create a force materialized view as follows: create materialized view emp_2mv build immediate refresh force on demand with primary key as select * from emp_2. 5. Select * from emp_2v. 188 . 6. Now. update emp_2 set mgr = 3456 where empno = 2345. Try to create a materialized view as follows on the same table(cannot create a refresh FAST materialized view without creating log on the table).Siva Kumar HVK 1. Find the difference that materialized view doesn’t updates the changes. Check the definition of materialized views in USER_SNAPSHOTS data dictionary table. Without commit statement first check the normal view. Create materialized view log afresh with primary key. Desc user_snapshots. create or replace view emp_2v as select * from emp_2. select name. Now. Now. query from user_snapshots where regexp_like(name. drop all the materialized view logs and views on the table emp_2. 3. 2. create materialized view log on emp_2 with primary key. create materialized view log on emp_2 with primary key. Select * from emp_2mv. Now repeat the 2nd step. 9. So. now create a log on the table. rowid. issue the select statement on materialized view too. issue the COMMIT statement and check the emp_2mv. 7. 8. 4. Create a normal view on emp_2. Update any row and check for changes. CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW emp_2mv BUILD IMMEDIATE REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT AS SELECT * FROM emp_2. Observe the change. Inference: As the materialized view definition is ON COMMIT.

01. Below is the example which refreshes the materialized view data every day at night 12.Siva Kumar HVK select * from emp_2mv. Now. There would not be any changes. observe the changes in materialized view. execute dbms_mview.refresh(‘emp_2mv’).02am.REFRESH built-in package to refresh the materialized view. Use DBMS_MVIEW. 189 . We can automate the process of refreshing materialized view at some time in a day or weekly. create materialized view emp_2mv refresh complete start with sysdate next sysdate+1/24*60*30 as select * from emp_2.

Siva Kumar HVK Exercise 1) Display the string SATYAM in the format S A T Y A M 2) Display only even rows from the table 3) Display one year calendar 4) Display how many a’s are there in the given string 5) Remove duplicate rows from the given table Empno ename 1 x 2 y 3 z 1 x 3 z 6) Find out how many columns are there in a given table(Use the data dictionary table USER_TAB_COLUMNS) Course : Oracle 190 .

Siva Kumar HVK Day Session Duration : : : 5 2 2 Hrs Topics Advanced Queries Analytical Queries Presentation 191 .

68 9 129461. and n-tiles of the values in a result set.6 11 66870. percentiles. see the ranks between 1 and 4.91 ANALYSIS When different employees salary is same. For example. These functions are listed below Ranking For calculating ranks.88 10 111807.2 5 196867.6 1 855945.24 7 153802.68 7 153802.77 12 10000 13 6810.---------1 855945. DEFAULT_RANK SAL -----------. In the example. There is a gap between ranks. SAL FROM EMP.Siva Kumar HVK ANALYTICAL QUERIES Analytical functions are used mainly for the analysis of data as required by decision-making managers.6 4 641959. Oracle has embedded analytical functions in SQL statement to cater to most of the requirements of data mining. to find out top three salaried employees SQL> SELECT RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL DESC) DEFAULT_RANK.32 6 184563. they get the same rank.6 1 855945. DENSE_RANK 192 .

88 7 111807.77 9 10000 10 6810.6 2 641959.68 6 129461.2 3 196867.6 8 66870. DEFAULT_RANK SAL -----------.68 5 153802. SQL> SELECT DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL DESC) DEFAULT_RANK.Siva Kumar HVK The main difference between RANK () and DENSE_RANK () is that in the DENSE_RANK () there is no gap between ranks.6 1 855945.32 4 184563.24 5 153802.91 ROW_NUMBER 193 .---------1 855945. SAL FROM EMP.6 1 855945.

SAL FROM EMP OUTPUT DEFAULT_RANK RW_NUM SAL -----------.68 6 7 153802.24 9 9 196867.6 194 .32 10 10 641959.---------. INPUT SQL> SELECT RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) DEFAULT_RANK.88 6 6 153802.---------1 1 6810.2 11 11 855945.Siva Kumar HVK The function row number assigns unique rank to each row even if they are having the same value of order by expression.68 8 8 184563.6 5 5 129461.91 2 2 10000 3 3 66870.77 4 4 111807.6 11 13 855945.6 11 12 855945. The rows will get the same rank if their order by expression has the same value. ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY SAL) RW_NUM.

16 SALESMAN MANAGER SALESMAN 3483.---------.--------CLERK 1234 CLERK SALESMAN 746. OUTPUT ENAME --------------ss ss allen WARD JONES MARTIN BLAKE CLARK SCOTT TURNER ADAMS JAMES FORD phani JOB COMM NULLIF(JO --------.JOB.COMM. NVL2 Function 195 . NVL() substitute value. if value matches. if its is NULL.'MANAGER') FROM EMP. INPUT SQL> SELECT ENAME. This is like a complement of the NVL function. Where as NULLIF produces NULL.Siva Kumar HVK NULLIF FUNCTION This function produces NULL value if the expression has a specified value.NULLIF(JOB. It produces NULL value if the expression has a specified value.5 SALESMAN SALESMAN 1244.65 SALESMAN MANAGER MANAGER ANALYST ANALYST SALESMAN 0 SALESMAN CLERK CLERK CLERK CLERK ANALYST ANALYST se 20000 se ANALYSIS It is just opposite to NVL().

----------------0 300 300 500 500 0 1400 1400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coalesce Function This function takes n arguments and produces first argument. If expr1 is not NULL. The expr1 can have any data type.Siva Kumar HVK It is an extended form of NVL.0) FROM EMP. INPUT SQL> SELECT COMM. OUTPUT COMM NVL2(COMM. The arguments expr2 and expr3 can have any datatype except LONG.COMM.COMM.NVL2(COMM. expr1 can never be returned. If expr1 is NULL . Syntax NVL2(expr1. NVL2 returns expr3. 196 . either expr2 or expr3 will be returned.0) ---------. NVL2 returns expr2.expr3) In NVL2.expr2. which is having the first NOT NULL value.

COALESCE (COMM.16 JONES 855945.6 66870.91 20 7902 1234 196867.6 153802.32 30 7698 746.6 641959.65 BLAKE CLARK SCOTT TURNER 0 ADAMS JAMES FORD phani 20000 SAL DEPTNO MGR COAL ---------.6 10 7839 855945.24 30 7698 0 129461.77 10000 90 9822 20000 Multiple Insert and Merge statements Oracle 9i provides enhanced facility of loading data in the table using select statement.88 111807.6 MARTIN 3483.68 30 7698 1244.2 184563. ENAME COMM --------------ss ss 1234 allen 746.16 20 7839 855945. MGR) COAL FROM EMP. MGR.65 855945.6 30 7839 855945.---------6810. DEPTNO.---------.---------.2 20 7566 641959.68 30 7698 3483. COMM. SAL.88 20 7788 129461.5 WARD 1244.77 20 7566 66870. DEPTNO.5 153802. Using this facility you Load data in multiple tables in single insert statement Load multiple rows in the same table in single insert statement Load data conditionally in the table.6 30 7698 111807. SAL.6 855945. Multiple insert statement There are four types of multiple inert statements Unconditional insert statement Pivoting insert statement Conditional insert statement Insert first statement Unconditional Insert Statement 197 .Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT ENAME.

When deptno = 30 then Insert into table3 values(empno. Conditional Insert statement It inserts the data into the table only when condition is satisfied. When deptno = 20 then Insert into table2 values(empno.cost) Insert all Into example1 values(pname. To understand this query consider the three tables from Annexure To insert the data into two tables Example1(pname.sal.title.pname = s.title.ename.salary from programmer p.deptno from emp 198 .job.ename.job.course.pname = st.title.deptno We can load the data conditionally into three tables by using following statement SQL> insert all When deptno = 10 then Insert into table1 values(empno.cost) Select p.course.pname.salary) Example2(pname. Assume there are three tables with structure (table1.pname.ename.salary) Into example2 values(pname.course.software s.pname and s.table3) Empno. studies st Where p.ename.table2.deptno). Select empno.sal.ename.sal.sal.sal.deptno).job.deptno).job.cost.Siva Kumar HVK This statement enables to you insert data in multiple tables using a single insert statement.

deptno).deptno).deptno from emp.ename.sal. Select empno. When deptno = 30 then Insert into values(empno.deptno).ename.ename. When deptno = 20 then Insert into values(empno.sal.sal. table1 table2 table3 The difference between Insert First and Insert All is that in the formar at the most one row is inserted into the table while latter rows may be inserted into multiple tables.job.job.job.Siva Kumar HVK Insert First statement Insert first When deptno = 10 then Insert into values(empno.ename.sal. 199 .

DML locks may be implicit or explicit. A process or user instigates explicit locks. Oracle uses two locking types DML locks . Dictionary locks – used to protect the database structure Locks may be explicit or implicit. Dictionary locks are always implicit. Oracle will lock any resource when it detects a valid attempt to update the resource.Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 3 2 Hrs Topics Locking Mechanisms Object Privileges Security Synonyms Exercise Presentation LOCKING MECHANISMS To ensure data integrity oracle uses locks. Implicit locks are undertaken by Oracle.used to protect data. Can be either table or row level. Locks are used to prevent destructive interaction between processes accessing the same resource. 200 .

The FOR UPDATE tells Oracle to lock each row as it processes it. Same as row share but no share mode locking.Siva Kumar HVK There are five locking modes. If X wants to lock the EMP table. Now from SCOTT user . then he has to issue a command LOCK TABLE SCOTT. Assume that there are two users SCOTT AND X In the Scott user there is one table with the name EMP. It results an error LOCK TABLE EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified 201 . Scott has given some privileges on EMP table to X user. which is already locked by X LOCK TABLE EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE. The OF keyword prefixes the column identification area which specifies which columns are going to be updated by us at a later date. and current locks on the table are removed. Deletes and inserts use this lock mode. if he tries to the lock the table. Locking using SELECT for UPDATE SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE EMPNO = 7521 FOR UPDATE OF SAL NOWAIT. Resource may not be locked exclusively.EMP IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT. With this SELECT we lock all the rows in the result set for later update. The NOWAIT keyword specifies that we don’t want the statement to wait until. Locks are held until either a transaction is committed / rolled back. They are EXCLUSIVE(X) SHARE(S) ROW SHARE(RS) ROW EXCLUSIVE (RX) LOCK ALLOWS QUERIES BUT NOTHING ELSE Lock allows queries but not updates Lock allows concurrent process access to table. Updates.

SEQUENCE. such as TABLE. view etc. EXECUTE. Unless otherwise specified. Object Privileges User owns the object that he/she creates. if user wants to share his object with other users.FUNCTION. System privilege A system privilege is a right to perform certain operation in the system.INDEX. For example.UPDATE DELETE These privileges are given on various objects. Privileges are classified into two categories depending upon what type of right they give to the user. An object is a table. or to execute a particular type of SQL command such as CREATE TABLE. view. function or package. The following are the list of object privileges available in Oracle ALTER.SELECT. procedure. the privilege to create a table is a system privilege. only the owner and DBA can access the object. VIEW. But. PROCEDURE.INSERT.Siva Kumar HVK SECURITY What is a privilege A privilege is a right to access an object such as a table.. sequence. he has to grant privileges on the object to other users. PACKAGE AND OBJECT TYPE 202 . Object Privileges System privileges Object privilege An object privilege is a right to perform a particular operation on an object.

REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES To remove the given privileges.Siva Kumar HVK SYNTAX GRANT <PRIVILEGES> | ALL [(COLUMN1. Note :. X user can modify only sal value in the EMP table. UPDATE SCOTT.to grant all privileges -. he can select as well as update the information in EMP table.EMP EMPNO = 7521. 203 .any object privileges -. SET SAL = 11000 WHERE Restricting privilege to certain columns GRANT UPDATE(SAL) ON EMP TO X.X is a user Now from X user.to grant privilege to all the users of the Example GRANT SELECT. So. SELECT * FROM SCOTT. we can use REVOKE command REVOKE <PRIVILEGES> ON <OBJECT> FROM <USER>. -.UPDATE ON EMP TO X.COLUMN2)] ON <OBJECT> Privileges ALL PUBLIC system.EMP.

where as public synonym is created by only DBA using a keyword called public.EMP. Now we can access EMP table which is there in SCOTT user using synonym EMPL as SQL> SELECT * FROM EMPL. A synonym is another name(alias) to a table or view. create a SYNONYM. Creating private synonym. We can create two types of synonyms Private Synonyms Public Synonyms Any user can create private synonym. PUBLIC SYNONYM EMPL FOR 204 .Siva Kumar HVK Using Synonyms To simplify accessing tables owned by other users. CREATE SYNONYM EMPL FOR SCOTT.EMP. Public Synonym Public synonym is available for all the users. By creating a synonym you can avoid giving the owner name while accessing table of other users. SQL>CREATE SCOTT.

At the end of this document. Why Use SQL*Loader From Your PC? If you need to transfer quite a lot of data from your machine to an Oracle database table. that you’ve got an Excel spreadsheet with State data already in it. SQL*Loader is fully described in the Oracle Server Utilities User’s Guide. SQL*Loader has lots and lots of options which can be used to handle various types of data and levels of complexity. mainframes. and the control file contains information about the data -. you might want to use SQL*Loader. what to do if something goes wrong. The data file contains data. an [optional] unofficial State Slogan. and PC’s.Siva Kumar HVK Course Day Session Duration : : : : Oracle 5 4 1 Hrs Topic SQL*Loader Presentation What is SQL*Loader? SQL*Loader is Oracle’s utility program for loading data into an Oracle table. for example. and the number of State Residents Who Drink Bottled Water. it may be worthwhile to use SQL*Loader. Most often. it may be preferable to use SQL*Loader rather than something like FTP. If you already have the data in some other format. etc. You’ve got 50 rows of data – each containing the State Abbreviation. This document is just about getting started. there is a brief comparison of FTP versus SQL*Loader. 205 .where to load it. SQL*Loader runs on Unix. an Example Say. SQL*Loader takes two input files – a control file and a data file – and loads the data into a single Oracle table. This document is just about running it from a Windows PC. Getting Started. If you need to transfer local data to a remote database on some recurring basis. State Name.

This will automatically put commas between each of the four data elements. create a file (say. the Save AS *. you might have a file named C:\MyStates.California. if any of the data elements already contain a comma. as we said earlier." There's also an INSERT [into empty table] and APPEND [to existing rows] option. So. ENAME INTEGER EXTERNAL) The REPLACE keyword says. C:\mystates. it was not necessary to further describe them – character is the default.Siva Kumar HVK (Is 50 rows of data really sufficient to justify this exercise? That’s debatable.5 hit of Champions like.mystates table.) Here’s what you do: 1) Create your data file. In addition.0 Again!. There are.csv that contains data like this: AR. The INTEGER EXTERNAL describes the datatype in the C:\mystates. another 2) Create your control file. and Nbr_Residents_WDBW are the actual column names defined in the sp.csv input file. This is easy. The TRAILING NULLCOLS statement handles the missing data.mystates.ctl) containing these lines: LOADDATA INFILE 'C:\EMPLOYEE.csv' REPLACE INTO TABLE EMPL FIELDS TERMINATED BY '.' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' TRAILING NULLCOLS (EMPNO. "remove any existing rows before starting the load. State_Abbrev. The fourth column is numeric data – it totals the number of state residents who drink bottled water. it tells SQL*Loader to load any missing data as NULL values. after your Save AS command.Colorado has no state slogan. Because the first three items are of character datatype. The remote table is called sp.3000 WI."Dude? You want.Arkansas. but let’s say you’ve thought it over and you DO want to SQL*load your data into a 4-column Oracle table at UW-Stevens Point. Save your Excel spreadsheet data AS a Comma-Separated-Variable (*. lots of available options described in the Utilities User’s Guide.We are sure CO. Notice there is some missing data in the data file -. State_Name. State_Slogan.Wisconsin.Rose Bowl CA.90203049 proud of Bill. Oxygen?".csv) file.Colorado. Using any text editor. 206 .csv step will optionally and automatically enclose that data in double quotes..

how many rows -. You must have the target database (say. Or maybe it will be just sqlldr. something like sqlldr73. or DELETE and INSERT if you're using the REPLACE option in the control file. The SQL*Loader program may have a version number included as part of its name. You can look for it in your ORAWIN95 or ORANT \BIN directory.mystates table (INSERT.Siva Kumar HVK 3) Create a table with the name referred in ctl file with required columns 4)Run Prerequisites: • SQL*Loader You must have SQL*Loader and SQL*Net installed on your machine. it’s called ‘ELTP’) configured as SQL*Net service in your local tnsnames. you can get the Oracle Client Software installation CD and install "UTILITIES". This log file will contain information about how many rows were loaded. 207 . and other information that may be useful to reassure or debug. In the example below we assume that user SCOTT with password TIGER has appropriate authorization.exe or sqlldr80.log. execute SQL*Loader as follows: sqlldr scott/tiger@ELTP control=C:\mystates.exe. Run menu) .if any -. it’s probably already there.exe. • • At an MS-DOS prompt (or the Start. This is pretty standard stuff.were NOT loaded.ora file. If it's not installed.ctl When the load completes. look in the file C:\mystates. You must have authorization to modify the sp.

*).Siva Kumar HVK How to convert Excel Sheet into CSV(Comma separated variable) file This article describes how to convert a single column of addresses in a Microsoft Excel worksheet into a comma-separated value (CSV) file that you can import into another program (for example. Microsoft Word). Edit the CSV File in Microsoft Word 1. Do you want to keep the workbook in this format? • To keep this format. and then exit Microsoft Excel. click Save As. 3.csv may contain features that are incompatible with CSV (comma delimited). click OK. 4. click Close. Click Yes when you receive the following message: Address. Start Microsoft Word. • To preserve the features. 3. or select a file type that supports multiple sheets. In the Save As dialog box: a.csv). click Options. Note You may be prompted to save the file again. c. 2. which leaves out any incompatible features. Note In Word 2007. and then click Open. On the Tools menu. Note In Word 2007. and then exit Excel. • To save only the active sheet. click Open. On the File menu. In the Files of type box. d. • To see what might be lost. b. and then click Open. click Help. Address. On the File menu. click Yes.csv). click No. click the Microsoft Office Button. In the File name box. click the Microsoft Office Button. Click OK when you receive the following message: The selected file type does not support workbooks that contain multiple sheets. and then click Save As. • To save all sheets. click Close. Note In Excel 2007. On the File menu. and then click Exit Excel. skip this step. click All Files (*. and then click Save. Note For the address example in this article. the Excel worksheet contains the following address information: A B 1 2 3 ravi kris babu 1. 2. you can click Yes. type a name for your CSV file (for example. 208 . Click the CSV file that you saved in step 4 of the "Edit the Excel Worksheet" section. In the Save as type box. Then save a copy in the latest Excel format. save them individually using a different file name for each. When you are prompted. Note In Excel 2007. repeat steps c and d. click the Microsoft Office Button. click CSV (Comma delimited) (*. 5.

click to select the All check box. Click the Microsoft Office Button. and then click Word Options.Siva Kumar HVK On the View tab. follow these steps: a. 209 . b. Note In Word 2007. Click Paragraph marks under the Always show these formatting marks on the screen. c. Click Display. and then click OK.

Sample data For our sample data we will create a test table and copy a few rows and columns of ALL_TABLES as follows. Flashback query works in tandem with another new feature of Oracle 9i. Flashback query enables us to query the undo segments directly.Siva Kumar HVK Flashback Query Flashback query in oracle 9i Release 1 Flashback query is a new feature of Oracle 9i. automatic undo management (AUM). and EXECUTE privilege on DBMS_FLASHBACK. SQL> SELECT * FROM t. either by SCN (System Change Number) or by timestamp.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM 210 . OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. SQL> CREATE TABLE temp 2 AS 3 SELECT owner. of course. This is.--------------. Oracle will create as many or as few as are required to satisfy our transaction workloads. undo_retention=n (set in pfile/spfile. where n is a positive number of seconds). Table created. these being the size of the undo tablespace and a new parameter named undo_retention. table_name. we know these segments as "undo segments" and under automatic management. it enables us to query our data as it existed in a previous state. tablespace_name 4 FROM all_tables 5 WHERE ROWNUM <= 5. Requirements To be able to use flashback query. From 9i. In other words. FLASHBACK or FLASHBACK ANY system privilege. whereby Oracle manages our rollback segments for us. we can query our data from a point in time before we or any other users made permanent changes to it. we require the following system elements: • • • • undo_management=auto (set in pfile/spfile). undo_tablespace=[undo tablespace name] (set in pfile/spfile). This parameter specifies the number of seconds that Oracle should retain undo data for us. within system limits.

This way. If you need to perform a Flashback over a 24-hour period. SCNs allow recovery to a specific change. 211 . the system retains enough undo information to regenerate the older versions of the data. Under Automatic Undo Management (AUM) mode. You can use Flashback to restore deleted e-mail by re-inserting the deleted message into the current message box. the DBA should set the undo retention parameter to 24 hours. since flashback can happen even if a commit has been done. The flashback is session based and can restore to an SCN that is passed as an argument. You can perform data analysis or data modeling to track seasonal demand. SCN (System Change Number) is an oracle internal numbering scheme that identifies changes to the database. If you accidentally delete rows from a table. DBMS_FLASHBACK Package The DBMS_FLASHBACK package provides the ability to restore specific data according to an SCN(System Change Number) captured by a snapshot. as each SCN is unique and acts as an identifier for point-in-time recovery PL/SQL cursors opened in Flashback mode return rows as of the flashback time or SCN. For finer grain control of Flashback.Siva Kumar HVK SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. Packaged applications such as e-mail and voicemail. You may want to use DBMS_FLASHBACK for the following reasons: • • • Self-service repair. Decision support system (DSS) and online analytical processing (OLAP) applications. When enabling Flashback using a wall-clock time. You can use PL/SQL cursors opened before disabling Flashback to perform DML. An SCN identifies the exact version of the database. you can enable an SCN. the database chooses an SCN that was generated within five minutes of the time specified. SYSDATE will not be affected. DBMS_FLASHBACK can be used within logon triggers to enable Flashback without changing the application code. Different concurrent sessions (connections) in the database can perform Flashback to different wall-clock times or SCNs. In a Flashback-enabled session. you can recover the deleted rows. This is different from two phase commit(2PC) and the ability to rollback a change. DML and DDL operations and distributed operations are not allowed while a session is running in Flashback mode. you can use retention control to control how far back in time to go for the version of the database you need. it will continue to provide the current time.

GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER AS scn 2 FROM dual. SCN ---------592967 1 row selected.--------------. 5 rows updated.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. post-update form. Once in "flashback query mode". SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.e. SQL>exec DBMS_FLASHBACK. SQL> COMMIT. To leave "flashback query mode". SQL> UPDATE temp SET tablespace_name = LOWER(tablespace_name). using the earlier SCN). Commit complete. we must disable it using DBMS_FLASHBACK as follows. We can now see the data in its current.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> SELECT DBMS_FLASHBACK. We can see this below. We can now see our data in its original state (i.ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER(5929 67). before we changed the TABLESPACE_NAME to lower-case).e. 212 . SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.--------------. Now we can enable flashback query to the point in time before we changed our data (i. any queries we run will return data consistent with the SCN we enabled.

DISABLE. we can query our data AS OF TIMESTAMP or AS OF SCN directly. In fact. Note: ALTER SESSION is simply a convenience to enable a consistent timestamp format mask without having to supply it explicitly. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------.750 1 row selected. In 9. There are a number of uses for this feature. this is restricted to the period specified by undo_retention (with some variance depending on transaction loads).2.Siva Kumar HVK SQL> exec DBMS_FLASHBACK. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp. Session altered. Oracle suggests that it is feasible to build flashback query capabilities into our applications. Flashback Query in 9i release 2: AS OF [scn|timestamp] Oracle 9i Release 2 makes flashback query significantly easier by building the capability into the SQL FROM clause itself. Flashback query does not need to be explicitly enabled and disabled via package calls.FF3'. but as a short-term recovery mechanism. we'll use a timestamp (another new feature of Oracle 9i) instead of an SCN. it is invoked directly by this syntax. SQL> UPDATE temp SET table_name = LOWER(table_name). PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. Furthermore using the Flashback Query. such as data recovery. 213 . SQL> ALTER SESSION SET NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT = 'DD-MONYYYY HH24:MI:SS. We might view this as a somewhat ambitious claim for the technology. but of course. adhoc change-tracking or point-in-time queries.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected.--------------. LOCALTIMESTAMP -----------------------22-NOV-2002 21:31:01. SQL> SELECT LOCALTIMESTAMP 2 FROM dual. it is very useful.

however. but only once every five minutes.-------------------SYS seg$ system SYS clu$ system SYS obj$ system SYS file$ system SYS col$ system 5 rows selected. we can be more precise with our flashback query.0 example. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. SQL> COMMIT.-------------------SYS SEG$ SYSTEM SYS CLU$ SYSTEM SYS OBJ$ SYSTEM SYS FILE$ SYSTEM SYS COL$ SYSTEM 5 rows selected. Our flashback query correctly returns the original upper-case TABLE_NAME data but it also returns the original upper-case TABLESPACE_NAME data also.2 flashback query results above. We will take a guess that the SCN after our 9. We can see the effect of this in our 9.0 example update will be a few greater than before we began (there is no other activity on 214 . Commit complete. It is also a good short-term recovery tool for rectifying minor mistakes. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. A note on flashback precision As noted earlier. SQL> SELECT * FROM temp.750'). SQL> SELECT * 2 FROM temp AS OF TIMESTAMP TO_TIMESTAMP('22-NOV-2002 21:31:01. This makes flashback queries with timestamps subject to precision errors. Using an SCN.--------------. This is much easier! The extended FROM clause is simple and intuitive to use and is more likely to encourage developers to use flashback query. flashback query timestamps are mapped to SCNs.--------------. A particularly good use for this is for resetting test data during development and unit-testing. Now we can invoke flashback query as of the timestamp prior to our update.Siva Kumar HVK 5 rows updated. This tells us that the SCN that Oracle mapped to our timestamp is from a time before we ran the 9.

SQL> SELECT * FROM t. Using the SCN enabled us to be far more precise with our flashback query.2 flashback query AS OF SCN. we'll remove the current data and replace it with the data as it existed after our 9. we can either update the table from the flashback query source or we can delete the current data and insert the flashback data in much easier way. 5 rows created. Using this. We can now see the data as it existed after the first update (9.e. SQL> INSERT INTO temp 2 SELECT * FROM temp AS OF SCN 592969.--------------. SQL> COMMIT.--------------.-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. OWNER TABLE_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME --------------. SQL> SELECT * FROM t AS OF SCN 592969. Recovering data Using the AS OF syntax. lower-case TABLESPACE_NAME).Siva Kumar HVK this test system). 215 .-------------------SYS SEG$ system SYS CLU$ system SYS OBJ$ system SYS FILE$ system SYS COL$ system 5 rows selected. In the example below. 5 rows deleted. SQL> DELETE FROM temp. we will try a 9. Commit complete.2).0 example) but before the second update (9.0 examples (i.

/* keep_scn is a temporary table to store scns that we are interested in. 1. execute dbms_flashback. 216 . User cannot begin read only or serializable transactions in Flashback mode. insert into employee values (20. salary number. In the 9i Release 1 variant of flashback query. employee_mgr number(5)constraint mgr_fkey references employee on delete cascade. set echo on create table employee (employee_no number(5) primary key. hiredate date). 1000000. you can recover and re-insert the missing employees.Siva Kumar HVK Data changes between current and flashback data can be identified quite simply by set queries using MINUS/UNION. 250000. 'Susie Tiger'. 500000. user cannot perform DML or DDL operations. The sequence would be: enable flashback -> open flashback cursor -> disable flashback -> open current cursor -> fetch and compare data. 'John Doe'. we can join the current and flashback datasets together (we can also use the 9i FULL OUTER JOIN for this purpose). User cannot enable Flashback within another Flashback session.disable. As stated throughout this article. '5-jul-81'). '12-aug84'). If we need to search for changes to specific columns. 8180 8181 DBMS_FLASHBACK Example The following example illustrates how Flashback can be used when the deletion of a senior employee triggers the deletion of all the personnel reporting to him. insert into employee values (10. null. /* Populate the company with employees */ insert into employee values (1. */ create table keep_scn (scn number). SYS cannot enable Flashback mode. this would only be possible in PL/SQL. Using the Flashback feature. employee_name varchar2(20). Time specified is too old. User cannot enable Flashback within an uncommitted transaction. DBMS_FLASHBACK Error Messages Error 8182 8184 8183 8185 Description In Flashback mode. 10. Invalid system change number specified. this simplicity of flashback query in 9i Release 2 makes this complex variant largely redundant. 'Joe Johnson'. '13-dec90').

/* Show the entire org */ select lpad(' '. 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = 1 order by level. begin I := dbms_flashback. 'Nancy Doe'. execute dbms_flashback. commit. / /* Show Scott's org */ select lpad(' '. 75000. insert into employee values (300. '4-nov96'). 100000. 'Charles Smith'. commit. insert into employee values (310. 150000. insert into employee values (210. begin select scn into restore_scn from keep_scn. '11apr-87').get_system_change_number. 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr 217 . 65000. 210. 'Bob Smith'. 210. '18-sep93').disable. commit.Siva Kumar HVK insert into employee values (100. 100000. /* Put back scott's organization */ declare restore_scn date.enable_at_system_change_number (restore_scn). end. insert into employee values (200. 100. insert into employee values (220. 20. 200000. 'Gary Smith'. 100. /* Scott decides to retire but the transaction is done incorrectly */ delete from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'. 'Jane Johnson'. insert into keep_scn values (I). '3-feb-86'). 100. dbms_flashback. 'Scott Tiger'. /* notice that all of scott's employees are gone */ select lpad(' '. /* Store this snapshot for later access through Flashback */ declare I number. '22mar-88'). '3-may95'). 2*(level-1)) || employee_name Name from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = 1 order by level.

employee_name. scotts_mgr number. begin select employee_no. employee_mgr into scotts_emp. */ dbms_flashback. cursor c1 is select employee_no. employee_mgr. salary. */ fetch c1 into c1_rec. c1_rec.employee_mgr = scotts_emp) then insert into employee values (c1_rec. for c1_rec in c1 loop if (c1_rec. loop /* Note that all the DML operations inside the loop are performed with Flashback disabled.disable. c1_rec is c1 % ROWTYPE. /* Open c1 with Flashback enabled. scotts_mgr from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'.employee_no. employee_name. */ open c1. exit when c1%NOTFOUND. hiredate from employee connect by prior employee_no = employee_mgr start with employee_no = (select employee_no from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger'). declare scotts_emp number. /* Disable Flashback.Siva Kumar HVK start with employee_no = (select employee_no from employee where employee_name = 'Scott Tiger') order by level. 218 .

ENABLE_AT_TIME ( query_time IN TIMESTAMP).salary. The snapshot time is set to the SCN that most closely matches the time specified in query_time. c1_rec. 219 .employee_no != scotts_emp) then insert into employee values (c1_rec.employee_mgr. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK.employee_no.hiredate). / execute dbms_flashback.hiredate). c1_rec. c1_rec. end loop. end. end if. disable.salary. c1_rec. c1_rec. DBMS_FLASHBACK Subprograms ENABLE_AT_TIME Procedure This procedure enables Flashback for the entire session. else if (c1_rec. end if.employee_name. c1_rec.Siva Kumar HVK scotts_mgr.

You provide the format you want to use. Using the TO_TIMESTAMP function: Example: execute dbms_flashback. A time stamp can be specified in the following ways: Using the TIMESTAMP constructor: Example: execute dbms_flashback. The format depends on the NLS settings.M.ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE ( query_scn IN NUMBER). This example shows the TO_TIMESTAMP function for February 12. it defaults to the beginning of the day. In the Flashback mode. 'DDMM-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')). 2001. Note that if the query time contains a time zone. the time zone information is truncated. If the time is omitted from query time. 220 . 2:35 PM. ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER Procedure This procedure takes an SCN as an input parameter and sets the session snapshot to the specified number.enable_at_time(TO_TIMESTAMP('12-02-2001 14:35:00'. Parameters Parameter query_scn Description The system change number (SCN). 12:00 A.enable_at_time(TIMESTAMP '2001-01-09 12:31:00'). that is. Use the NLS format and supply a string. all queries return data consistent as of the specified wall-clock time or SCN. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. a version number for the database that is incremented on every transaction commit.Siva Kumar HVK Parameters Parameter Description query_time This is an input parameter of type TIMESTAMP.

Siva Kumar HVK GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER Function This function returns the current SCN as an Oracle number datatype. Example The following example queries the salary of an employee.DISABLE.GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER ( RETURN NUMBER). on August 30. Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK.enable_at_time('30-AUG-2000'). This helps you store specific snapshots. Joe. SELECT salary from emp where name = 'Joe' EXECUTE dbms_flashback. DISABLE Procedure This procedure disables the Flashback mode for the entire session. 221 . Syntax DBMS_FLASHBACK. 2000: EXECUTE dbms_flashback.disable. You can obtain the current change number and stash it away for later use.

2) NUMBER(4) NAME DEVELOPED PROJECT NAME LANGUAGE DEVELOPED SOFTWARE COST DEVELOPMENT COST NO OF SOFTWARE SOLD Data in Table : STUDIES PNAME ANAND ALTAF JULIANA KAMALA MARY NELSON PATRICK QADIR RAMESH REBECCA REMITHA REVATHI VIJAYA SPLACE SABHARI COIT BITS PRAGATHI SABHARI PRAGATHI SABHARI APPLE SABHARI BPILLANI BDPS SABHARI BDPS COURSE PGDCA DCA MCA DCP PGDCA DAP DCA HDCP PGDCA DCA DCS DAP DCA COST 45000 7200 22000 5000 4600 6200 5200 14000 4500 11000 6000 5000 48000 222 .2) NUMBER(7.Siva Kumar HVK ANNEXURE Table : Studies NAME (PNAME) SPLACE COURSE NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL TYPE VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) NAME STUDIED PLACE COURSE STUDIED TABLE : SOFTWARE NAME (PNAME) TITLE DEV_IN SCOST DCOST SOLD NULL ? NOT NULL NOT NULL NOT NULL TYPE VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(20) VARCHAR2(10) NUMBER(7.

S/W CODE GENERATION READ ME BOMBS AWAY VACCINES HOTEL MANAGEMENT DEAD LEE PC UTILITIES TSR HELP PACKAGE HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT QUIZ MASTER ISR EDITION DEV_IN BASIC PASCAL COBOL DBASE ORACLE COBOL C++ ASSEMBLY C DBASE PASCAL C ASSEMBLY PASCAL BASIC C SCOST DCOST SOLD 399 7500 3000 9000 18000 4500 300 750 1900 12000 599 725 2500 1100 3200 900 6000 16000 3500 20000 85000 20000 1200 5000 3400 3500 4500 5000 6000 75000 2100 700 43 9 0 7 4 23 84 11 21 4 73 51 6 2 15 6 Data in Table : PROGRAMMER PNAME DOB DOJ S E X M M F F F M M M M F F F F PROF1 PROF2 SALARY ANAND ALTAF JULIANA KAMALA MARY NELSON PATRICK QADIR RAMESH REBECCA REMITHA REVATHI VIJAYA 21-APR-66 02-JUL-64 31-JAN-68 30-OCT-68 24-JUN-70 11-SEP-85 10-NOV-65 31-AUG-65 03-MAY-67 01-JAN-67 19-APR-70 02-DEC-69 14-DEC-65 21-APR-92 13-NOV-90 21-APR-90 02-JAN-92 01-FEB-91 11-OCT-89 21-APR-90 21-APR-91 28-FEB-91 01-DEC-90 20-APR-93 02-JAN-92 02-MAY-92 PASCAL CLIPPER COBOL C C++ COBOL PASCAL ASSEMBLY PASCAL BASIC C PASCAL FOXPRO BASIC COBOL DBASE DBASE ORACLE DBASE CLIPPER C DBASE COBOL ASSEMBLY BASIC C 3200 2800 3000 2900 4500 2500 2800 3000 3200 2500 3600 3700 3500 223 .Siva Kumar HVK TABLE : SOFTWARE PNAME ANAND ANAND JULIANA KAMALA MARY PATRICK QADIR QADIR QADIR RAMESH RAMESH REMITHA REMITHA REVATHI REVATHI VIJAYA TITLE PARACHUTES VIDEO TITLING PACK INVENTORY CONTROL PAYROLL PACKAGE FINANCIAL ACC.

which have not been sold so far? Find out the cost of the software developed by Mary? Display the institute names from the studies table without the duplicates How many different courses are mentioned in the studies table? Display the names of the programmers whose names contain 2 occurrences of the letter ‘A’ 224 .Siva Kumar HVK QUERY – I Find out the selling cost average for packages developed in pascal. Display the names and ages of all the programmers Display the names of those who have done the DAP course What is the highest number of copies sold by a package Display the names and date of birth of all programmers born in January Display the lowest course fee How many programmers have done the PGDCA course How much revenue has been earned through sale of packages developed in C Display the software’s developed by Ramesh How many programmers studied at Sabhari? Display the details of the packages whose sales crossed 2000 mark. Who are the programmers who celebrate their birthday’s during the current month? How many female programmers are there? What are the languages known by the male programmers What is the average salary How many people draw 2000 to 4000? Display the details of those who don’t know Clipper. Display the details of packages for which development cost have been recovered. Find out the number of copies which should be sold in order to recover the development cost of each package. COBOL or Pascal Display the details of those who will be completing 2 years of services this year? Calculate the amount to be recovered for those packages whose development cost has not yet been recovered? List the packages. What is the price of the costliest software developed in BASIC How many packages were developed in DBASE? How many programmers studied at Pragathi? How many programmers paid 5000 to 10000 for their course? What is the average course fee? Display the details of programmers knowing C How many programmers know either COBOL or PASCAL? How many programmers don’t know PASCAL and C? How old is the oldest male programmer? What is the average age of female programmers? Calculate the experience in years for each programmer and display along with the names. in descending order.

dob(dd/mm/yy format) . lowest and average salaries for those earning more than 2000 225 . DOJ(dd/mm/yy format) for all the programmers What is the amount paid in salaries of the male programmers who don’t know COBOL Display the title . Display each institute name with number of courses . scost. dob. costliest package and cheapest packages developed by him / her. average selling cost and average price per copy Display each programmer’s name. doj of those month of birth and month of joining are same QUERY – II Display the cost of the package developed by each programmer Display the sales values of the packages developed by the each programmer Display the number of packages sold by each programmer Display the sales cost of the packages developed by each programmer Display each language name with average development cost.sex.Siva Kumar HVK Display the names of the programmers whose names contains 5 characters How many female programmers knowing COBOL have more than 2 yrs experience What is the length of the shortest name in the programmer table What is the average development cost of a package developed in COBOL Display the name. dcost and difference between scost and dcost in descending order of difference Display the names of the packages whose names contain more than 1 word Display the name. average cost per course Display each Institute name with number of students Display the names of male and female programmers Display the programmer’s name and their packages Display the number of packages in each language except C and C++ Display the number of packages in each language for which development cost is less than 1000 Display the average difference between SCOST and DCOST for each language Display the total SCOST. DCOST and amount to be recovered for each programmer for those whose dcost has not yet been recovered Display the highest.

does not know C.( + or .C++. How many packages developed by female programmers earning more than the highest paid male programmer How many packages were developed by the most experienced programmer from BDPS 226 .Siva Kumar HVK QUERY – III Who is the most experienced programmer knowing pascal? Which course has been done by the most of the students? Which course has the lowest selling cost? Display the courses whose fees are within 1000/. ORACLE OR DBASE Which programmer has developed highest no of packages Who are the male programmers earning below the average salary of female programmers Display the details of those who are drawing salary Display the details of the software developed by the male programmers earning more than 3000 Display the details of the software developed in C by female programmers of Pragathi How many months it will take for each programmer to recover their cost of study Display the details of the software developed in the language which is not the programmers first proficiency Display the details of the software developed in the language which is neither the first nor second proficiency of the programmer Who are the programmers who joined in the same day Display the programmers who are drawing same salary Which is the costliest package developed by a person with under 3 years experience What is the average salary for those whose software sales value is more than 50.000 How many packages were developed by the person who developed the cheapest package .) of the average fee Who developed the package that has sold the least number of copies Which language was used to develop most number of packages Display the names of the packages which have been sold less than the average number of copies Who is the youngest male programmer born in 1965 In which year most number of programmers born Which female programmer earning more than 3000/. Where did he / she study.

Display the last name. or why not? Write a query to display the last names of the employees who earn less than the average salary in their departments. location ID. Create a query to display the last name. and salary for all employees who have the same salary and commission as Kochhar. Display the employee last name and department name for all employees who have an a (lowercase) in their last names Write a query to display the last name. 227 . and department name for all employees Create a unique listing of all jobs that are in department 80. department name. department number. Write a query to display the department names of those departments whose total salary cost is above one eighth (1/8) of the total salary cost of the whole company Write a query to display the last name. a. and salary of any employee whose department number and salary both match the department number and salary of any employee who earns a commission. job. and salary of any employee whose salary and commission match the salary and commission of any employee located in location ID 1700. First do this using the NOT EXISTS operator b. department name.Siva Kumar HVK QUERY . department number. Include the location of the department in the output. and city of all employees who earn a commission. Write a query to display the last names of the employees who have one or more coworkers in their departments with later hire dates but higher salaries. department number. Create a query to display the employees who earn a salary that is higher than the salary of all of the sales managers (JOB_ID = 'SA_MAN'). Can this be done by using the NOT IN operator? How.IV Write a query to display the last name. Write a query to display the employee last name. Find all employees who are not supervisors. and department name for all employees who work in Toronto. Note: Do not display Kochhar in the result set. hire date. Sort the results on salary from highest to lowest.

and all the employees who work in the same department as a given employee. salary. job. Create a query to display the name and hire date of any employee hired after employee Davies. Give each column an appropriate label. who has no manager. and grade for all employees. Show the structure of the JOB_GRADES table. Create a query that displays the name. irrespective of the job IDs 228 . department numbers. Create a query that displays employee last names. department name.Siva Kumar HVK display all employees including King. Order the results by the employee number. Write a query to display the following for those employees whose manager ID is less than 120: • Manager ID • Job ID and total salary for every job ID for employees who report to the same manager • Total salary of those managers • Total salary of those managers.

2. projection.DEPARTMENT_ID = d.e. 3. join Selection. DEPARTMENT d WHERE e. SELECT name. 5. 3. join Difference. FROM EMP e. SELECT cust_name. projection. which capabilities of a SELECT statement are performed? 1. position. manager DISTINCT FROM employee. projection. DISTINCT manager FROM employee.DEPARTMENT_ID.LAST_NAME. Selection.DEPARTMENT_ID. address. cust_address. cust_phone FROM customers. 4. SELECT cust_id.DEPARTMENT_NAME. d. position.Siva Kumar HVK OCA SAMPLE QUESTIONS Question: 1 Which SELECT statement should you use if you want to display unique combinations of the POSITION and MANAGER values from the EMPLOYEE table? 1. position. address FROM customers. cust_address FROM customers. SELECT id. The mailing label must have only the customer name and address. SELECT* FROM customers. join Difference. phone FROM customers. join Intersection.e.EMPLOYEE_ID. cust_name. SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT DISTINCT position. The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: CUST_ID CUST_NAME CUST_ADDRESS CUST_PHONE NUMBER(4) NOT NULL VARCHAR2(100) VARCHAR2(150) VARCHAR2(20) Which SELECT statement accomplishes this task? 1. 2. 5. Question: 3 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT e. name.. 4. product 229 . intersection. In the statement. manager FROM employee. 4. projection. 3. Question: 2 You need to produce a report for mailing labels for all customers. manager FROM employee. 2.

SELECT id_number. Inserting 5. manufacturer_id FROM product WHERE manufacturer_id = 'NF10032'. 2.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 4 Which two statements are true regarding the ORDER BY clause? 1. 5. m. id_number. Truncating Question: 6 Which SQL SELECT statement performs a projection. ORDER BY clause comes last in the SELECT statement. SELECT manufacturer_id.manufacturer_id. 2. Deleting 4. city FROM manufacturer AND manufacturer_id = 'NF10032' ORDER BY city. You use this statement to retrieve data from a data table for __________. 4.city FROM product p. The The The The The The sort is in ascending by order by default. ORDER BY clause is executed first in the query execution. sort is in descending order by default. Question: 5 From SQL*Plus.manufacturer_id = m. and join when executed? 1. 1. m.id_number.manufacturer_id AND m. Updating 2. you issue this SELECT statement: SELECT * From orders. 230 . ORDER BY clause is executed on the client side. Viewing 3.manufacturer_id = 'NF10032'. a selection. 6. SELECT p. ORDER BY clause must precede the WHERE clause. 3. SELECT id_number. 3. manufacturer_id FROM product ORDER BY manufacturer_id. 4. manufacturer m WHERE p.

hire_date FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY salary DESC. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code IS NULL. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code = NULL. What is true about them? 1. 231 . SELECT last_name. 3. 5. hire_date FROM EMPLOYEES ORDER BY 2 DESC. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal code IS NVL. SELECT customer_id. SELECT customer_id. The two statements produce identical results.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 7 The CUSTOMERS table has these columns: CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_NAME VARCHAR2(100) NOT NULL STREET_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(150) CITY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) STATE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) PROVINCE_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) COUNTRY_ADDRESS VARCHAR2(50) POSTAL_CODE VARCHAR2(12) CUSTOMER_PHONE VARCHAR2(20) Which statement finds the rows in the CUSTOMERS table that do not have a postal code? 1. SELECT customer_id. Question: 8 Evaluate these two SQL statements: SELECT last_name. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code = '________'. SELECT customer_id. salary . SELECT customer_id. customer_name FROM customers WHERE postal_code CONTAINS NULL. 4. 2. salary.

There is no need to specify DESC because the results are sorted in descending order by default. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement displays the structure of the DEPT table only if the COMMIT statement introduced before the ROLLBACK statement. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement returns an error ORA-04043: object DEPT does not exist. 4. The two statements can be made to produce identical results by adding a column alias for the salary column in the second SQL statement. e. MGR_ID is the ID of managers and refers to the EMPLOYEE_ID) EMPLOYEE_ID EMP_NAME 101 Smith 102 Martin 103 Chris 104 John 105 Diana 106 Bryan 108 Jennifer 110 Bob 120 Ravi DEPT_ID 20 10 20 30 30 40 30 40 20 MGR_ID 120 105 120 108 108 110 110 110 JOB_ID SA_REP CLERK IT_ADMIN HR_CLERK HR_MGR AD_ASST HR_DIR EX_DIR SA_DIR SALARY 4000 2500 4200 2500 5000 3000 6500 8000 6500 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT e.emp_name "Employee". m. Question: 10 Examine the data of the EMPLOYEES table.Siva Kumar HVK 2. e. EMPLOYEES (EMPLOYEE_ID is the primary key. Question: 9 Evaluate the set of SQL statements: CREATE TABLE dept (deptno NUMBER(2).salary..employee_id "Mgr_id". 2.employee_id "Emp_id".emp_name "Manager" 232 . 3. loc VARCNAR2(13)). The second statement returns a syntax error. The DESCRIBE DEPT statement displays the structure of the DEPT table. 4. 3. ROLLBACK. m. DESCRIBE DEPT What is true about the set? 1. dname VARCNAR2(14). The ROLLBACK statement frees the storage space occupies by the DEPT table.

The SQL statement produces an error. Manager Manager 233 .---------.employee_id AND e. What is its output? 1.---------.-------------120 Ravi 6500 110 Bob 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Bob 103 Chris 4200 120 Ravi 105 Diana 500 108 Jennifer Manager 3.--------.--------.salary > 4000.-------------110 Bob 8000 110 Bob 120 Ravi 6500 120 Ravi 108 Jennifer 6500 108 Jennifer 103 Chris 4200 103 Chris 105 Diana 5000 105 Dina 5. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.mgr_id = m. employees m WHERE e.---------.--------.------------. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.-------------110 Bob 800 120 Ravi 6500 110 Bob 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Bob 103 Chris 4200 120 Ravi 105 Diana 5000 108 Jennifer D EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.--------.---------.-------------110 Bob 8000 Bob 120 Ravi 6500 110 Ravi 108 Jennifer 6500 110 Jennifer 103 Chris 4200 120 Chris 105 Diana 5000 108 Diana Manager 2.------------.------------. EMP_id EMPLOYEE SALARY Mgr_id ------.Siva Kumar HVK FROM employees e.------------.

Question: 13 You want to use a function in you column clause of a SQL statement. Which of the following statement correctly describes how to specify a column alias? 1. This feature cannot be implemented through /SQL*Plus. username password. Question: 14 You want to use SQL*Plus to connect to the oracle database. 2. Question: 12 You are formulating queries in a SQL*Plus. Substitution variables 2. Place the alias at the beginning of the statement to describe the table. Instead-of variables 5. 3. Which of the following choices does not indicate a component you must specify when logging into the oracle? 1. 2. Nullifies the value of the column out put. The The The The SQL*Plus Keyword. The NVL function accomplishes which of the following tasks? 1. Replacement variables 3. 3. Prompt variables 4. Place the alias at the end of the statement to describe the table. Assists in the distribution of output across multiple columns. Enables you to specify alternate output for non-NULL column values.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 11 Which /SQL*Plus feature can be used to replace values in the WHERE clause? 1. 4. Place the alias after each column separated by a comma to describe the column. 4. Place the alias after each column separated by a space to describe the column. Enables you to specify alternated out for NULL column values. 3. 4. 234 . database name. 2.

2.---------------------------------14837 . 3. The data should display in this format: Former Employee Term of Employment ---------------------------.'||last_name AS Former Employee. SELECT employee_id||' . You need to create a report to display all former employees that were hired on or after January 1. hire_date||' / '||depart_date "AS Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95'. 1996. SELECT employee_id||' . 235 . hire_date||' / '||depart_date "Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date IS NOT NULL.'||last_name "AS Former Employee". hire_date||' / '||depart_date AS Term of Employment FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95'. SELECT employee_id||' .'||last_name "Former Employee". SELECT employee_id||' . 4.SMITH 10-MAY-92 / 01-JUN-01 Which SELECT statement could you use? 1. hire_date||' / '||depart_date 'Term of Employment' FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date > NULL. SELECT employee_id||' . 5.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 15 The EMPLOYEE_HISTORY table contains these columns: EMPLOYEE_ID NUMBER LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(25) DEPARTMENT_ID NUMBER POSITION VARCHAR2(30) SALARY NUMBER(6. hire_date||' / '||depart_date "Term of Employment" FROM employee_history WHERE hire_date > '31-DEC-95' AND depart_date <> NULL.'||last_name "Former Employee".2) HIRE_DATE DATE DEPART_DATE DATE The EMPLOYEE_HISTORY table contains only former employees.'||last_name 'Former Employee'.

'||Job "Employee Information" FROM employee. EMPLOYEES (EMPLOYEE_ID is the primary key.'||Ename||'. e. A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 0 E) 4 Question: 17 Examine the data of the EMPLOYEES table. employee_id "Mgr_id". and salary of the employee.employee_id "Mgr_id". 236 .employee_id "Emp_id". and the ID and name of the employee's manager. emp_name "Manager" FROM employees WHERE salary > 4000. m.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 16 The EMPloyee table contains these columns: Empno Number(4) Ename Varchar2(10) job Varchar2(10) sal Varchar2(10) You need to display the employees information by using this query. MGR_ID is the ID of managers and refers to the EMPLOYEE_ID) EMPLOYEE_ID 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 110 120 EMP_NAME Smith Martin Chris John Diana Bryan Jennifer Bob Ravi DEPT_ID 20 10 20 30 30 40 30 40 20 MGR_ID 120 105 120 108 108 110 110 110 JOB_ID SA_REP CLERK IT_ADMIN HR_CLERK HR_MGR AD_ASST HR_DIR EX_DIR SA_DIR SALARY 4000 2500 4200 2500 5000 3000 6500 8000 6500 Which statement lists the ID.salary.mgr_id AND e. e.salary > 4000.employee_id "Mgr_id".salary. SELECT e. name. for all the employees who have a manager and earn more than 4000? 1.employee_id "Emp_id". e.mgr_id = m. m. 3. How many columns are presented after executing this query: SELECT Empno||'. employees m WHERE e.emp_name "Employee".emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e. m. 2.mgr_id = m. m. e. employees m WHERE e. SELECT employee_id "Emp_id". salary. emp_name "Employee". SELECT e.emp_name "Employee".salary > 4000.emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e.employee_id AND e.

SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last_name LIKE ‘_A%’.Siva Kumar HVK 4. 2. m. Which SQL statement displays the required results? 1.employee_id "Emp_id".order_amount. This statement fails when executed. e.product_id = p. Question: 20 Evaluate this SQL statement: SELECT c.customer_id AND o.mgr_id = m. product p WHERE customer.employee_id = m.customer_id.order_id.product_name FROM customer c. 3.emp_name "Manager" FROM employees e. 2.order_date. Remove the table aliases from the WHERE clause.salary > 4000.emp_name "manager" FROM employees e. m. Question: 18 You need to display the last names of those employees who have the letter “A” as the second character in their names.employee_id AND e.customer_id = curr_order. o. 4. 237 .product_id ORDER BY o. You want to identify the most senior employee in the company.salary. m. p. o.salary.mgr_id "Mgr_id". You want to find the manager supervising the largest number of employees. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name =’*A%’ 3.emp_name "Employee". You want to identify the person who makes the highest salary for all employees. Which change will correct the problem? 1. 5. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name =’_A%’. employees m WHERE e. 2. Use the table aliases instead of the table names in the WHERE clause. 4. 3. e. SELECT e. e. m. 5. 4.emp_name "Employee". Include the ORDER_AMOUNT column in the SELECT list. SELECT last_name FROM EMP WHERE last name LIKE ‘*A%’ Question: 19 In which scenario would TOP N analysis be the best solution? 1. Remove the table alias from the ORDER BY clause and use only the column name. You want to rank the top three sales representatives who have sold the maximum number of products. Use the table name in the ORDER BY clause.employee_id "Emp_id".employee_id AND e. e.salary > 4000. employees m WHERE e..mgr_id "Mgr_id". curr_order o. SELECT e.

Siva Kumar HVK Question: 21 You want to display the titles of books that meet these criteria: 1. 4. Which statement should you use? 1. Purchased before January 21. SELECT student_id. to designate the ORDER table location 2. starting from the earliest date. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price IN (500. Which statement accomplishes this? 1. 2001 2. starting with the most recently bought book.3) The registrar has requested a report listing the students' grade point averages (GPA). Price is less then $500 or greater than $900 You want to sort the results by their data of purchase. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE (price < 500 OR price > 900) AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date DESC. to display only unique PRODUCT_ID values 4. 2. SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price < 500 or > 900 AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date DESC. semester_end. sorted from highest grade point average to lowest within each semester. Question: 22 For which task would you use the WHERE clause in a SELECT statement? 1.900) AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase date ASC. to compare PRODUCT_ID values to 7382 3. gpa 238 . SELECT book_title FROM books WHERE price between 500 and 900 AND purchase_date < ’21-JAN-2001’ ORDER BY purchase_date. to restrict the rows returned by a GROUP BY clause Question: 23 The STUDENT_GRADES table has these columns: STUDENT_ID NUMBER(12) SEMESTER_END DATE GPA NUMBER(4. 3.

order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total >= 100 and order_total <= 2000.Siva Kumar HVK FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end DESC.2) The ORDERS table tracks the Order nnmher. SELECT student_id. order_id. gpa DESC. SELECT customer_id. Question: 24 The ORDERS table has these columns: ORDER_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER(12) NOT NULL ORDER_TOTAL NUMBER(10. 5. semester_end ASC. semester_end DESC. PRODUCT Table PRODUCT _ID NUMBER Primary Key PRODUCT_NAME VARCHAR2(25) 239 . gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end ASC.00 and 2000. SELECT customer_id. the order total. SELECT student_id.. SELECT customer_id. semester_end. 5. order_id. 2. semester_end. 2. Question: 25 Examine the structure of the PRODUCT table. gpa DESC. 3. order_id. and the customer to whom the Order belongs. order_id. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY gpa DESC. order_total FROM orders RANGE ON order_total (100 AND 2000) INCLUSIVE. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total >= 100 and <= 2000. SELECT student_id. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY gpa DESC. Which two statements retrieve orders with an inclusive total that ranges between 100. semester_end. gpa ASC. SELECT customer_id. semester_end. SELECT customer_id. order_total FROM orders HAVING order_total BETWEEN 100 and 2000. 4. gpa FROM student_grades ORDER BY semester_end. 4. order_id.00 dollars? 1. order_total FROM orders WHERE order_total BETWEEN 100 and 2000. SELECT student_id. 3.

product_id DESC. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 SORT BY supplier_id.2) You want to display all product identification numbers of products for which there are 500 or more available for immediate sale. then by product number from lowest to highest. Mary Elizabeth HST_RELIG 240 .2) COST NUMBER (5.Siva Kumar HVK SUPPLIER_ID CATERORY_ID QTY_PER_UNIT NUMBER references SUPPLIER(SUPPLIER_ID) NUMBER NUMBER LIST_RRICE NUMBER (5. product_id. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 ORDER BY supplier_id. Which statement should you use to achieve the required results? 1. 2. product_id. ID LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME SUBJECT_ID 88 Tsu Ming HST_AMER 70 Smith Ellen HST_INDIA 56 Jones Karen HST_REVOL 58 Hann Jeff HST_CURR 63 Hopewell Mary Elizabetn HST_RELIG Which query should you use to return the following values from the TEACHER table? Name Subject ------------------------------------. You want the product numbers displayed alphabetically by supplier. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit >= 500 ORDER BY supplier_id. SELECT product_id FROM product WHERE qty_per_unit > 500 SORT BY supplier_id. Karen HST_REVOL Hopewell. Question: 26 Examine the data in TEACHER table. 4. product_id.------------------Jones. 3.

500. ROWNUM "Rank" FROM students WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks DESC. marks. 2. SELECT last_name||'. Which SQL statement accomplishes this task? 1. 2. SELECT last_name||'. 100 260 400 600 Question: 28 Examine the structure of the STUDENTS table: STUDENT_ID NUMBER Primary Key STUDENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30) COURSE_ID VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL MARKS NUMBER START_DATE DATE FINISH_DATE DATE You need to create a report of the 10 students who achieved the highest ranking in the course INT SQL and who completed the course in the year 1999. SELECT last_name||'. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE '%HST\_R%' ESC '\ '. '||first_name "Name". '||first_name "Name". 4. Which value could the statement return? 1. SELECT last_name||'.Siva Kumar HVK 1. SELECT student_ id. 4. 3. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id = 'HST\_R%'. 3. 600) AND bonus BETWEEN 250 AND 500). subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE 'HST_%'. 241 . '||first_name "Name". '||first_name "Name". Question: 27 You query the database with this SQL statement: SELECT bonus FROM salary WHERE bonus BETWEEN 1 AND 250 OR (bonus IN(190. subject_id "Subject" FROM teacher WHERE subject_id LIKE 'HST\_%' ESCAPE '\'.

quantity FROM line_item WHERE quantity BETWEEN 9 AND 101 AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id DESC. SELECT student_id. line item number. The order numbers must be in the range of 1500 through 1575. 3. marks. and quantity of each item where the quantity ranges from 10 through 100. 4. QUANTITY NUMBER(9). line_item_id. Constraint foreign key PRODUCT_ID REFERENCES PRODUCT(PRODUCT_ID)). product identification number. ROWID "Rank" FROM students WHERE ROWID <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks. marks. marks. The results must be sorted by order number from lowest to highest and then further sorted by quantity from highest to lowest. SELECT student_id. Which statement should you use to display the desired result? 1. 242 . Question: 29 Examine the structure of the LINE_ITEM table. You must display the order number. SELECT order_id. marks FROM students WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL' ORDER BY marks DESC). quantity DESC. Constraint primary key (LINE_ITEM_ID.Siva Kumar HVK 2. ROWNUM "Rank" FROM (SELECT student_id. marks FROM students ORDER BY marks DESC) WHERE ROWNUM <= 10 AND finish_date BETWEEN '01-JAN-99' AND '31-DEC-99' AND course_id = 'INT_SQL'. ORDER_ID NUMBER(9) NOT NULL. ROWNUM "Rank” FROM (SELECT student_id. PRODUCT_ID NUMBER(9) NOT_NULL. ORDER_ID). LINE_ITEM_ID NUMBER(9). SELECT student_id. product_id. Constraint foreign key ORDER_ID REFERENCES CURR_ORDER(ORDER_ID).

cost) .25 "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. quantity FROM line_item WHERE (quantity > 10 AND quantity < 100) AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id ASC.(cost * .25 "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. quantity. retail.2) You need to create a report that displays the cost. quantity. product_id. retail. SELECT order_id. (retail . retail . SELECT order_id.cost * . and the profit for item number 783920. Which SELECT statement produces the desired results? 1. retail.((retail . 4.retail . line_item_id. SELECT cost. subtract the cost of the item from its retail price.Siva Kumar HVK 2. Question: 30 The ITEM table contains these columns: ITEM_ID NUMBER(9) COST NUMBER(7. product_id.retail . product_id. line_item_id.2) RETAIL NUMBER(7. (retail . 3.25) "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. quantity DESC. SELECT cost. retail. and then deduct an administrative fee of 25 percent of this derived value. To calculate the profit. quantity FROM line_item WHERE (quantity > 9 OR quantity < 101) AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id.cost . line_item_id.cost .cost) . 3. SELECT order_id. quantity FROM line_item WHERE quantity BETWEEN 10 AND 100 AND order_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 1575 ORDER BY order_id.cost) * . 243 . SELECT cost. SELECT cost. the retail price.cost) * .retail .25) "Profit" FROM item WHERE item_id = 783920. 4. 2. (retail .

SELECT item_id. DEPARTMENT_ID FROM EMP WHERE DEPARTMENT_ID = NULL. What will be the result? 1.2) RETAIL NUMBER(7. retail * 1. Statement 1 will return a higher value than statement 2. 3. Question: 32 The EMP table contains these columns: LAST NAME VARCHAR2(25) SALARY NUMBER(6.(cost * 1. What is true about this SQL statement? 1.10 . SELECT item_id. 2. 4. One of the statements will NOT execute. 2. SALARY.25 + 5. 3. The SQL statement displays the desired results. The column in the WHERE clause should be changed to display the desired results.2) The RETAIL and COST columns contain values greater than zero.10) .cost * . (retail * 1.25) + 5. Statement 1 and statement 2 will return the same value. The WHERE clause should be changed to use an outer join to display the desired results.00 . 2.cost * 1.10) AS Calculated Profit FROM item. Evaluate these two SQL statements: 1. You write the SELECT statement: SELECT LAST_NAME. The operator in the WHERE clause should be changed to display the desired results. Statement 1 will display the 'Calculated Profit' column heading.2) DEPARTMENT_ID NUMBER(6) You need to display the employees who have not been assigned to any department.00 .10 "Calculated Profit" FROM item. 244 .Siva Kumar HVK Question: 31 The ITEM table contains these columns: ITEM_ID NUMBER(9) COST NUMBER(7.(cost * . 4.

The column you are sorting on contains NULL records.009) NVL(payments.payments > credit_limit AND account_id BETWEEN 1500 AND 2000. and finance charge value. 4.2) PAYMENTS NUMBER(7. 0) * 1. The statement calculates the current balance incorrectly. 3. Adding the previous balance value. Evaluate this statement: SELECT account_id. NVL(previous_balance. and then subtracting the payments value yields the current balance value. 4. 2. 2. finance charge. 0) current balance FROM account WHERE (new_purchases + (previous_balance * 1. new purchases value. At the beginning of the list. 3. The statement calculates the finance charge incorrectly. 0) + (NVL(previous_balance. 6.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 33 Which two statements are true about WHERE and HAVING clauses? 1. Question: 35 The ACCOUNT table contains these columns: ACCOUNT_ID NUMBER(12) PREVIOUS_BALANCE NUMBER(7. The statement returns only accounts that have NO previous balance. In the middle of the list. Question: 34 You are sorting data in a table in you SELECT statement in descending order.2) CREDIT_LIMIT NUMBER(7) You need to display the account number.009)) . where will the NULL record appears? 1. A HAVING clause CANNOT be used in subqueries. NVL(new_purchases. Which statement about this SELECT statement is true? 1. The finance charge is .009 finance_charge. A WHERE clause can be used to restrict rows only. A WHERE clause can be used to restrict both rows and groups. 245 .009) of the previous balance. A HAVING clause can be used to restrict groups only. At the same location they are listed in the unordered table. 5.9 percent (. 2. 0) * .2) NEW_PURCHASES NUMBER(7. At the end of the list. A HAVING clause can be used to restrict both rows and groups. 3. and current balance for accounts 1500 through 2000 with a current balance greater than the account's credit limit. A WHERE clause CANNOT be used in a query of the query uses a HAVING clause.

MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. job_cat. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE salary > MAX(salary). MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. SELECT dept_id. SELECT dept_id.0) FROM emp. SELECT dept_id. 12*salary*(decode(commission_pct. The statement returns only accounts that have new purchases.2) Which statement shows the maximum salary paid in each job category of each department? 1. 12*salary*commison_pct FROM emp. SELECT dept_id. job_cat.Siva Kumar HVK 4. previous balance.2) Which statement ensures that a value is displayed in the calculated columns for all employees? 1. 12*salary*(nvl(commission_pct. and payments values. 3. job_cat.0)) FROM emp. SELECT last_name. SELECT last_name. job_cat. Question: 36 Examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table: EMP_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) DEPT_ID NUMBER(2) JOB_CAT VARCHARD2(30) SALARY NUMBER(8. SELECT dept_id. 246 . salary. job_cat.0)) FROM emp. The EMP table contains these columns: LAST NAME VARCNAR2(35) NOT NULL SALARY NUMBER(9. job_cat. 5. 2. SELECT last_name.2) NOT NULL COMMISION_PCT NUMBER(4. 12*salary* (commission_pct. Question: 37 Management has asked you to calculate the value 12*salary* comossion_pct for all the employees in the EMP table. 4. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. 2. SELECT last_name. job_cat. 3. 4. MAX(salary) FROM employees.

YYYY') TO_DATE(SYSDATE. For records that have a NULL commission_pct. 2. DY Month. Which SQL statement displays the desired results? 1. 2001". 3. end_date) 5. a zero must be displayed against the calculated column. EMPLOYEES.2) COMMISSION_PCT NUMBER(5. Question: 41 Evaluate the SQL statement: 247 . 3. AVG(start_date) 3. SELECT last_name. COUNT(start_date) 4. DD Month. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. MAXIMUM(start_date) Question: 39 The EMPLOYEE tables has these columns: LAST_NAME VARCNAR2(35) SALARY NUMBER(8. EMPLOYEES. DD Month. 0) FROM Question: 40 You would like to display the system date in the format "Monday. 4.2) You want to display the name and annual salary multiplied by the commission_pct for all employees.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 38 Examine the description of the STUDENTS table: STD_ID NUMBER(4) COURSE_ID VARCHARD2(10) START_DATE DATE END_DATE DATE. Which SELECT statement should you use? 1. 'FMDD. (salary * 12) * commission_pct FROM EMPLOYEES. DDD Month. 'FMDY. (salary * 12) * IFNULL(commission_pct. 5. 'FMDY. DDD Month. 01 June. 'FMDay. SELECT last_name. 2. MIN(start_date) 6. YYYY') FROM dual. 0) FROM (salary * 12) * NVL(commission_pct. SELECT last_name. 4.0) FROM (salary * 12) * NVL2(commission_pct. SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT TO_DATE(SYSDATE. SELECT last_name. AVG(start_date. 'FMDAY. 'YYY') FROM dual. YYYY') FROM dual. SUM(start_date) 2. TO_CHAR(SYSDATE. EMPLOYEES. YYYY') FROM dual. Which two aggregate functions are valid on the START_DATE column? 1.

SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. Question: 43 Which three SELECT statements displays 2000 in the format “$2. The statement returns an error at the WHERE clause.999.2) FROM dual.###. What is the result of the SELECT statement? 1. ‘$9.000. ‘$9.99’) FROM dual. What will be displayed? 1. The statement executes successfully and returns the student ID and sum of all marks for each student who obtained more than the average mark in each subject.00’) FROM dual. 248 . 0 2.00”? 1. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. 6. 2. 1 3. The statement returns an error at the SELECT clause. ‘$N. An error statement Question: 42 Examine the description of the MARKS table: STD_ID NUMBER(4) STUDENT_NAME VARCHAR2(30) SUBJ1 NUMBER(3) SUBJ2 NUMBER(3) SUBJ1 and SUBJ2 indicate the marks obtained by a student in two subjects.999.00 4. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.-1). ‘$#. 4.000. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000. Examine this SELECT statement based on the MARKS table: SELECT subj1+subj2 total_marks. 0. 5. ‘$2.000.NNN. ‘$0. 4.00’) FROM dual. 3. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.Siva Kumar HVK SELECT ROUND(TRUNC(MOD(1600.00’) FROM dual. 3. 2. std_id FROM marks WHERE subj1 > AVG(subj1) AND subj2 > AVG(subj2) ORDER BY total marks. The statement returns an error at the ORDER BY clause.NN ’) FROM dual.##’) FROM dual. SELECT TO_CHAR (2000.10).

MIN(salary). MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. minimum salary. MAX(salary) FROM employees GROUP BY dept_id. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. SELECT dept_id. SELECT dept_id. DEPT_ID NUMBER(2) JOB_CAT VARCHAR2(30) SALARY NUMBER(8.2) Which statement shows the department ID. MIN(salary(. MAX(salary) FROM employees WHERE MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000 GROUP BY dept_id. salary HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. 2. MIN(salary).Siva Kumar HVK Question: 44 Examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table: EMP_ID NUMBER(4) NOT NULL LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(30). MIN(salary). and maximum salary paid in that department. MIN(salary). SELECT dept_id. SELECT dept_id. only of the minimum salary is less then 5000 and the maximum salary is more than 15000? 1. 249 . MAX(salary) FROM employees HAVING MIN(salary) < 5000 AND MAX(salary) > 15000. SELECT dept_id. 3. 5. 4.

3. You can use aggregate functions on a table. only by grouping the whole table as one single group. NVL compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal. 5. expressions. You cannot group the rows of a table by more than one column while using aggregate functions. or value to n decimal places. You can pass column names. You can mix single row columns with aggregate functions in the column list of a SELECT statement by grouping on the single row columns. 6. 2. or the first expression if they are not equal. or the first expression of they are not equal. constants. INSTR returns the numeric position of a named character. NULLIF compares two expressions and returns null if they are equal. 2. 250 . You can use aggregate functions only in the column list of the SELECT clause and in the WHERE clause of a SELECT statement. 6. expression. TRIM trims the heading of trailing characters (or both) from a character string. Question: 46 Which four statements correctly describe functions that are available in SQL? 1. TRUNCATE rounds the column. 5. 4. You can use aggregate functions in any clause of a SELECT statement.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 45 Which two are true about aggregate functions? 1. NVL2 returns the first non-null expression in the expression list. or functions as parameters to an aggregate function. 4. 7. DECODE translates an expression after comparing it to each search value. 3.

admission a2 WHERE a.patient_id FROM admission a. and ADMISSION tables.physician_id. Primary Key.patient_id IN (SELECT patient_id FROM admission GROUP BY patient_id HAVING COUNT(*) > 1). SELECT patient_id FROM admission WHERE COUNT(physician_id) > 1. PHYSICIAN.patient_id = a2.patient_id FROM patient p WHERE p. References PATIENT_ID column of the PATIENT table PHYSICIAN_ID NUMBER NOT NULL. SELECT patient_id FROM patient FULL OUTER JOIN physician. SELECT DISTINCT a. References PHYSICIAN_ID column of the PHYSICIA table ADMIT_DATE DATE DISCHG_DATE DATE ROOM_ID NUMBER Foreign key to ROOM_ID of the ROOM table Which SQL statement will produce a list of all patients who have more than one physician? 1. 4.physician_id <> a2. 3.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 47 Examine the structures of the PATIENT. SELECT p.patient_id AND a. 2. 251 . Primary Key. PATIENT Table PATIENT_ID NUMBER Primary Key LAST_NAME VARCHAR2 (30) FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2 (25) DOB DATE INS_CODE NUMBER PHYSICIAN Table PHYSICIAN _ID LAST_NAME FIRST_NAME LICENSE_NO HIRE_DTAE NUMBER Primary Key VARCHAR2 (30) NOT NULL VARCHAR2 (25) NOT NULL NUMBER (7) NOT NULL DATE ADMISSION Table PATIENT_ID NUMBER NOT NULL.

where is the GROUP BY clause placed in the SELECT statement? 1. WHERE 2. RESTRICT 4. ORDER BY Question: 49 In a SELECT statement that includes a WHERE clause. CASE 252 . TO_DATE 5. REPLACE 3. GROUP BY 5. Immediately after the SELECT clause 2. Before the FROM clause 4. TRIM 2. TRUNC 4. After the ORDER BY clause 5. MOD 6.Siva Kumar HVK Question: 48 Which clause should you use to exclude group results? 1. After the WHERE clause Question: 50 Which two are character manipulation functions? 1. HAVING 3. Before the WHERE clause 3.