Water Management –

Repairs, Maintenance and Water Distribution Problems.
***Dr.S.Tarakeswara rao **M.P.Suri Ganesh *M.Karteek

India continues to struggle with growing financial crunch to complete its water sector infrastructure and its operation and maintenance cost. On the other hand, inadequate institutional reforms and effective implementation has affected its performance level. In recent years, the Government of India has initiated several steps to improve investment and management of water management sector, which includes: Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme, Hydrology Project, setting up of Water Quality Assessment Authority, Command Area Development and water management programme, National Project for Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water Bodies directly linked to Agriculture, Flood Management, and River Basin Organizations. Growing demand across competitive sectors, increasing droughts, declining water quality, particularly of groundwater, and unabated flooding, inter-state river disputes, growing financial crunch, inadequate institutional reforms and enforcement are some of the crucial problems faced by the country’s water sector. Availability of safe drinking water is inadequate. Severe water shortages have already led to a growing number of conflicts between users (agriculture, industry, domestic), intrastate and inter-state. Emerging challenges include management of existing infrastructure and of the water resource itself. Water reform in India mostly focuses on organizational issues rather than the instruments that govern the relationship between the regulator and the user.

___________________________________________________________ Introduction
Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources. Water management planning has regard to all the competing demands for water and seeks to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. This is rarely possible in practice. Provision of canal irrigation and water supply services in India has largely remained with the government agencies. Absence of enforceable water entitlements at all levels is at the root of service shortcomings, water use inefficiency, and unregulated groundwater extraction, negligence of traditional and low-cost water bodies, financial problems and conflicts which plague the water sector. *** Teaching associate Dr.B.R.Ambedkar University, Etcherla, Srikakulam. ** Ph.D scholar Department of commerce and management studies, Dr.B.R. Ambedkar University, Etcherla, Srikakulam.

drinking. Of the water resources on Earth only three per cent of it is not salty and two-thirds of the freshwater is locked up in ice caps and glaciers. At present only about 0. Examples include rare species or ecosystems or the very long term value of ancient ground water reserves. is exploited by mankind in ever increasing demand for sanitation. manufacturing. inappropriate prioritization of government expenditures. the competing demands for the resource. the uses to which it may be put. inaccessible areas and much seasonal rainfall in monsoonal deluges and floods cannot easily be used. Distortion in pricing of water services has further induced substantial overall economic costs by enlarging the gulf between prices and costs. Some of the causal factors are: inadequate revenue generation. a fifth is in remote. Srikakulam. Etcherla. in coastal areas this trend has led to salinity ingress.*Assistant professor in sri Venkateswara College of engineering & technology. For water as a resource this is particularly difficult since sources of water can cross many national boundaries and the uses of water include many that are difficult to assign financial value to and may also be difficult to manage in conventional terms.08 per cent of the entire world’s fresh water. Water resources Water is an essential resource for all life on the planet. revenues not channeled directly to expenditure. Faced with poor water supply services. farmers and urban dwellers have resorted to helping themselves by pumping out groundwater. 2 . measures to and processes to evaluate the significance and worth of competing demands and mechanisms to translate policy decisions into actions on the ground. inadequate performance levels of irrigation projects. Financial crunch has also led to an enormous backlog of maintenance and thereby. leisure and agriculture Successful management of any resources requires accurate knowledge of the resource available. which has led to rapidly declining water tables. Of the remaining one per cent. chronically under-funded Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs.

including water user associations and other NGOs are taking over some public sector irrigation responsibilities. management and ownership is proving to be an effective method for increasing irrigation system efficiency in many cases. As the world's population rises and consumes more food (currently exceeding 6%. live in areas of physical water scarcity.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity. it is expected to reach 9% by 2050). Water user associations are expected to increase in number and importance over the next decade as the stress on self-reliance increases. Studies throughout the world demonstrate that user participation in irrigation services improves access to information. more than 1. water scarcity is becoming an important issue. 3 . Irrigation management: water user associations and NGOs An increasing number of private sector groups. An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population. Industry uses a further 20 per cent and municipalities account for the remaining ten per cent. where there is not enough water to meet all demands. It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity. A further 1. industries and urban development’s expand. where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity makes it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water. consuming 70 per cent. reduces monitoring costs. and establishes a sense of ownership among farmers and increases transparency as well as accountability in decision-making.2 billion. and the emerging bio-fuel crops trade also demands a share of freshwater resources.Agriculture: water's biggest consumer Agriculture is the largest user of the world's freshwater resources. The inclusion of water users in irrigation planning. It found that a fifth of the world's people.

user groups will become even more powerful. the Philippines. to water user associations by 1992. have seldom proved effective. such as water rationing or optimum groundwater pumping regimes. the local base of NGOs may allow them to reach vulnerable or remote groups which are exceptionally difficult to reach with conventional public schemes. for example the catchment protection and sprinkler irrigation techniques introduced by the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme in Gujarat. Cernea. India. the government had transferred more than 400 irrigation systems. Indonesia. NGOs can provide the institutional leadership required to bring about socially optimum solutions. Well-documented examples can be seen in Argentina. Much of their success is attributed to their local knowledge as well as their interest in and experience of regional conditions. Nepal. In addition. for example.Already. These organizations bring fresh views. covering 34 000 ha. On the other hand. They have been particularly active in promoting the interests of poor and disadvantaged groups through articulate and forceful advocacy and service provision. Sri Lanka and Tunisia. new ideas and participatory working methods to other areas of development policy and practice. with their close local contacts and skills in group mobilization and cohesion. laws and regulations that require self-restraint. as farmer financing becomes more commonplace. In Indonesia. Resolution of many water allocation and development problems requires a common willingness to forego personal benefit for the social good. Colombia. variables in development. 4 For further information on NGOs. Other NGOs undertake a wide range of water-related functions. Mexico. Putting people first: sociological . see M. Some NGOs encourage farmers to try new technologies. 62 In the future. but the potential gains are high. Many NGOs stem from local initiatives and operate as independently funded and self-managed groups. governments are turning many aspects of public irrigation systems over to water user associations.bid. Water is not an easy sector in which to promote cooperation. 1985. which makes renewed efforts worthwhile. from developing projects for rural water supplies and minor irrigation to fostering water user associations for water management purposes. Government efforts to promote personal sacrifice through economic policies.

and adjacent to. reservoirs. This will depend on the environment surrounding the different components of the distribution system and the water pressure. Although there are no reports of health effects directly attributed to deposits in pipes. fittings and pipe work may offer direct routes for the contamination of water supplies with pathogens.Water management – repairs Structural deficiencies in tanks. they do provide conditions for proliferation of microorganisms and animals. especially in the smaller diameter pipes which are at greatest risk of low pressures and hence contamination. Tanks and Fittings 5 . and surveyed and maintained in accordance with those risks. Most tanks. and the effects on these of the work being planned. valves. those parts of the network being cleaned. There are sound hygienic reasons for maintaining the internal cleanliness of pipe work. The survey and maintenance of service reservoirs is especially important because of the large populations served by these structures and the absence of internal water pressure at potential contamination points. A network hydraulic model will help in this assessment. the materials and fixtures are potential sources of contamination and therefore the hygienic practices described in Chapter 5 should be followed. An important hygienic requirement is to avoid low or negative pressures in. Emergencies will generate low pressures in most conventional distribution systems. Maintenance and Survey of Reservoirs. The deposits also hinder the maintenance of a disinfectant residual. They require careful planning to be effective and to prevent flow conditions that may allow system contamination. When using swabs or injected air to clean pipe work. It is important to assess normal flow velocities and pressures. They should be prioritized according to sanitary risks. reservoirs and fittings are accessible for inspection and planned maintenance. This may make the water unpalatable and make it difficult to identify contamination of hygienic significance by routine monitoring. Pipe cleaning programmes can be used to maintain the internal cleanliness of a network.

or repaired. long-lasting solutions. sediments may form in tanks and reservoirs due to the relatively low flow velocities that are a feature of these structures. Although such sediments are unlikely to be of direct health significance. to prevent leakage and wastage in the distribution system. by providing storage tanks and service reservoirs). it is important to reduce the hazards that may cause contamination and the risks of ingress of water contaminated with faecal material. fire flow and pipe breaks created low or negative pressures at up to nearly 30% of the pipe intersection points (nodes) incorporated in the models (AWWARF.2001). low or negative pressures may draw in contamination. they make it difficult to maintain a disinfectant residual.Structural deficiencies in tanks and reservoirs may lead to the direct contamination of water supplies with pathogens. However. If the water level of the reservoir drops rapidly. In managing risks from intermittent supplies. For example. MAINTENANCE AND SURVEY OF PIPES 6 . The management of water demand and the implementation of water conservation measures such as hosepipe bans can provide rapid. The occurrence of low and negative pressures can be extensive during emergencies.g. accumulated sediments can be drawn into the pipe work. However. and it may be difficult to operate the system to reduce the risks of backflow. contamination is likely to occur. these measures may be insufficient where the infrastructure needs to be reinforced (e. where they are difficult to remove and have an even greater effect on disinfectant residual and general microbial activity than in the reservoir. Where supplies are intermittent. surge modeling on three well-operated systems in the USA demonstrated that conditions such as the loss of pumping power. joints or connections on valves. Reducing intermittence will require careful analysis of both the causes and the solutions. hydrants and washouts may also allow contamination of the system. This is unlikely if the system is operating at design pressures because the leakage flow will be from the pipe outwards. Faulty seals. Also.

Externally-derived pathogens can potentially persist within deposits in a pipeline (see Section 1. This may result in consumers turning to alternative potentially unsafe sources. Strategies for pipe networks The most important problems associated with networks are: • hygienic water-quality problems • aesthetic water-quality problems • hydraulic deficiencies • structural performance problems • Leakage.3. Deposits provide an environment for the proliferation of microorganisms and animals. This can be a complex process because of the variety of pipe materials and pipe ages usually found in a network. Hygienic water-quality problems are clearly the most important of these. however. The deposits also hinder the maintenance of a disinfectant residual. These strategic investigation and 7 .3). and the fact that a relatively small part of a pipeline may be responsible for a problem. especially in the smaller diameter pipes. such as simple flushing of selected pipe lengths. which are at greatest risk of low pressures and hence contamination. which may make the water unpalatable. maintaining the internal cleanliness of the network is a prudent objective. Many utilities have found that a programme of regular mains cleaning to remove loose deposits and animal infestations has been of great assistance in maintaining water quality in distribution. The costs and complexity of these are obviously different and dictate that problems are investigated in a systematic way based on performance data. and may also make it difficult to identify contamination of hygienic significance by routine monitoring. Although there are no reports of health effects directly attributed to this mechanism. and can present an underlying health concern if resuspended with the deposits and then consumed. identifying the best solution requires information about the other problems. relining pipes with either structural or nonstructural linings and mains renewal. swabbing. A range of activities and solutions may be available.

the network of pipes through which the water is delivered is often referred to as the water mains.planning procedures. or other public entities. • Once treated. or drinking water if the treatment achieves the water quality standards required for human consumption. but are occasionally operated by a commercial enterprise (see water privatization). 2001. is called fresh water if it receives little or no treatment. who must 8 . • In small domestic systems. AWWA. and municipalities. 1998. Near the end point. • These systems are usually owned and maintained by local governments. Water supply networks are part of the master planning of communities. Herz. chlorine is added to the water and it is distributed by the local supply network. or concrete circular pipe. Lei & Sægrov. • The energy that the system needs to deliver the water is called pressure. delivered to the point of consumption. arched brick pipe. which should also consider the future demands on the system. other "pipe" shapes and material may be used. However. ferrous. Representative methodologies for systematic rehabilitation planning have been published (Evins. by gravity feed from a water source (such as a water tower) at a higher elevation. 1998). are beyond the scope of this review. This eliminates the need of a water-tower or any other heightened water reserve to supply the water pressure. therefore becoming water pressure. 1989. WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK • The product.[1] • The water is often transferred from a water reserve such as a large communal reservoir before being transported to a more pressurised reserve such as a watertower. in a number of ways: by a pump. such as square or rectangular concrete boxes. Liebeschuetz & Williams. That energy is transferred to the water. such as cities. the water may be pressurised by a pressure vessel or even by an underground cistern (the latter however does need additional pressurizing). counties. or by compressed air. Today. water supply systems are typically constructed of plastic. Their planning and design requires the expertise of city planners and civil engineers. or wood.

• Maintenance of a biologically safe drinking water is another goal in water distribution. Release of iron from unlined iron pipes can result in customer reports of "red water" at the tap . was one of the great engineering advances that made urbanization possible. future growth. pressure. The simplest adjustment involves control of pH and alkalinity to produce a water that tends to passivate corrosion by depositing a layer of calcium carbonate. The problems normally faced in water supply distribution system are: 9 . pressure loss. Constructioncomparable sewage systems. Typically. etc. Improvement in the quality of the water has been one of the great advances in public health. fire fighting flows. pipe size. • Utilities will often adjust the chemistry of the water before distribution to minimize its corrosiveness. — using pipe network analysis and other tools. such as sodium hypochlorite or monochloramine is added to the water as it leaves the treatment plant. Copper and lead levels at the consumer's tap are regulated to protect consumer health. current demand. a chlorine based disinfectant.consider many factors. Booster stations can be placed within the distribution system to ensure that all areas of the distribution system have adequate sustained levels of disinfection. such as location. Release of copper from copper pipes can result in customer reports of "blue water" and/or a metallic taste. Corrosion of metal pipe materials in the distribution system can cause the release of metals into the water with undesirable aesthetic and health effects. Release of lead can occur from the solder used to join copper pipe together or from brass fixtures. the water quality can degrade by chemical reactions and biological processes. • As water passes through the distribution system. leakage. Common corrosion inhibitors added to the water are phosphates and silicates. Corrosion inhibitors are often added to reduce release of metals into the water.

and fittings in house service connections.1. holes or joints of pipe lines and due to corroded pipes. Degradation of quality of water. The UFW water can be of two types: 1. Reduction in carrying capacity. periodic flushing of the deposits in the transmission mains and distribution pipes and water lost during attending bursts. transmission main. 2. periodic cleaning of the service reservoirs. Wastage of water can also occur due to discarding of stored water when fresh water supply comes in the case of intermittent water supply system. • Physical loss Physical loss is the water actually lost through leakage and wastage. sludge removal from clarifiers. Wastage is the operational loss and the wasteful use and misuse of water by the consumers. 3. Nonphysical loss. leaks and other repair works. Un-accounted for water (Leakage and Wastage of water). Physical loss and 2. Operational loss is the water used in the system for cleaning of filter beds by back washing. • Nonphysical loss 10 . which is not actually billed for and water charges for the same are not realized from the consumers. and distribution system and house service connections through leaks from cracks. and 4. service reservoirs. Inadequate pressures at tail ends of the system • Un-Accounted For Water Un-accounted for water (UFW) is the quantity of water. Leakage is the water lost from storage reservoir.

2. 6. the mechanical errors in meters at the source. which are recording lesser quantity of water than the actual quantity of flow. 4. which are not accounted and billed for Nonphysical loss of water is considered as the loss of revenue. which may result in leaks in joints when there is settlement of the supporting soil. Not detecting and rectifying the badly leaking joints regularly.Nonphysical loss is the quantity of water lost due to 1. The use of sub-standard pipes and fittings leads to imperfect jointing. at various points in the water supply system and at the consumers’ connections. causing leakage in joints. Selection of pipe material with out considering the corrosives of the soil in which the pipes are to be laid and the quality of water the pipe has to carry. due to change of moisture content. 5. Human errors in reading or recording the meter reading lesser than the actual quantity. 7. • Causes for Leakage The causes for the leakage in pipeline are due to the following aspects also. Non-conducting or improper conducting of hydraulic pressure testing of pipeline and joints at the time of installation. Soil movement particularly when the pipes are laid in swelling soils like clay. and Flow through illegal connections. at any time 10% of the joints will be seeping joints (with the loss of water of 1 to 3 Lph / joint) and 1% of the total joints will be badly leaking joints (with the loss of water of 90 to 200 Lph / joint). Lack of quality control in jointing of pipes while installation. which eventually may lead to corrosion of the pipes and fittings. Water hammer pressure disturbs the joints resulting in leakage. 1. 2. Even in a properly maintained system. CONCLUSION 11 . which may cause disturbance to the pipes and joints ultimately resulting in leakage. 3.

• Set up and Strengthen Water Regulatory Authorities at State Level: Currently. In tune with the National Water Policy-2002 focus to provide safe and adequate drinking water to all. The policy also recommends some incentives to promote public private partnership. Maharashtra and Uttara Pradesh (and proposed in Andhra Pradesh) have water regulatory authorities. There is increased realization for a paradigm shift from water resources development to water resources management by restructuring and strengthening existing institutions for better service delivery and resource sustainability. Also. development and management of water resources project for diverse uses. and institutional options for improved local management. c) design models to promote public-private partnerships at subbasin levels for effective operation and maintenance activities. including successful experiment of the water auditing system implemented in Maharashtra. India needs to refine its models of service provision. The National Water Policy 2002 encourages private sector participation in planning. The lessons from these authorities need to be learnt and replicated in other states. Stress should be laid on rainwater harvesting and conservation. These authorities need to be oriented to focus on: a) effective water allocation and entitlement mechanisms at each river basin level to take care of both lean and flush season supplies across competing water uses. integrated water resources management approach has also gained considerable importance. Currently. followed by technological options for treatment.India requires proper design and effective execution of suitable strategic options. and also to provide adequate infrastructure facilities to boost up both backward and 12 . competition in provision of public services could improve efficiency in provision of irrigation and water supply services. which might help in generating financial resources and introducing corporate management and improving service efficiency and accountability to users. b) Evolve locally suitable approaches to promote effective irrigation management transfer at various levels.

if required. guaranteed domestic supplies both in terms of quantity and quality.. both states and central governments and all stakeholders would support such venture. although the targets for covering such ‘no source’ villages are repeatedly achieved. Since. • Support Groundwater Governance: The issue of regulation is important in groundwater management. India needs to revamp its model of drinking water provision. i. with the latter usually based on historical use. the separation of land rights and water entitlements. their numbers grow. those with no identified source of safe drinking water. and. and d) introduce and refine methods for performance measurement at all levels of the irrigation project. supply links need to be provided across the basins. investments have to be focused on creating effective infrastructure and mechanisms to operate them efficiently. and that newer villages are being added to this class. However. it is important to note that despite five decades of planning and over a decade of ‘Drinking Water Missions’ there are large numbers of ‘no source’ villages. Introducing a groundwater management system that ensures balance between abstractions and recharge is a rather difficult. has assigned the highest priority to drinking water. All this would enable to provision of adequate safe drinking water for all in the country. which in turn mean that some ‘covered’ villages are lapsing back into the uncovered category. clarity that the primary responsibility for 13 . If required. This would enable within a river basin. Groundwater management essentially requires a legal framework which constrains the rights of people to pump as much water as they wish from their land. • Provide Water for All: The National Water Policy – 2002.forward linkages to all farmers.e. The country needs to tap assured sources and link them within the river basin. strong government presence to give legal backing for the development of participatory aquifer management associations and to provide the decision-support systems which enable aquifer associations to monitor their resource. above all. Interestingly. For this. provision of drinking water is prime concern. command and control type of approaches to prohibit more abstractions simply do not work. Also.

a Member Water Resource Engineering and a Member Water Resource Economy. It has three members. across states. This Authority has powers to fix the rates for use of water for agriculture. Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh are also planning to set up similar authorities. ecological and human concerns internalized and thereby assessing the impacts by a concrete statute. drinking and other purposes and several related matters. The Authority has a wide range of powers for doing this. other states like Uttara Pradesh. industrial. Maharashtra became the first state to form the Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority (MWRRA). As suggested by its name. a number of national commissions have been constituted by the central government to review specific water policy issues as well as plan for a long-term development of the water sector15. Encouraged by this. the primary function of the Authority is to regulate the water sector in the state. irrigation projects design and construction. second. Planning for big water resources projects should be interdisciplinary with all environmental. At the national level. through an Act in the year 2005. REFERENCES 14 . • From ‘Water resources development’ to ‘Water resources management’: India need to shift its focus from ‘water resources development’ to ‘water resources management’ by restructuring and strengthening existing institutions for better service delivery and resource sustainability. including a Chair.the maintenance of the resource on which they depend is with those who have entitlements to use water from a particular aquifer. one from each of the five major river basins in Maharashtra. Andhra Pradesh has separated its water resources department into two departments in the year 2007: One. For the first time. It also has five invitees. project operation and maintenance.

• Saleth. “Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target :the urban and rural challenge of the decade”.• Ashbolt NJ. Snozzi M (2001). 2nd ed. Indicators of microbial water quality. Rehabilitation of water mains. In: Fewtrell L. Pathogen intrusion into the distribution system. Strategic analysis of water institutions in India: Application of a new research paradigm. UK. Research Report 79. American Water Works Association. standards and health: risk assessment and management for water related infectious diseases. eds. Grabow WOK. 15 . American Water Works Association Research Foundation. Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. R. Managing Canal Irrigation. Bartram J. 2004. AWWARF (2001). • AWWA (2001). Maria. USA. Denver. • • Chambers. USA. IWA Publishing. Robert (1998). Colombo. London.. Switzerland. New Delhi • WHO and UNICEP (2006). Water quality: guidelines.

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