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DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT

Distance 1. The distance traveled by an object is the total length that is traveled by that object. 2. Distance is a scalar quantity. 3. The SI unit of distance is m (metre). Displacement 1. Displacement of an object from a point of reference, O is the shortest distanceof the object from point O in a specific direction. 2. Displacement is a vector quantity. 3. The SI unit of displacement is m (metre). Distance vs Displacement

Distance travelled = 200m Displacement = 120 m, in the direction of Northeast

SPEED AND VELOCITY

Speed 1. Speed is the rate of change in distance. It is a measure of how fast the distance change in a movement. 2. Speed is a scalar quantity. 3. The SI unit of speed is m/s (metre per second)

Equation of Speed

Velocity 1. Velocity is define as the rate of displacement change. It is the measure of how fast the displacement change of a moving object. 2. Velocity is a vector quantity. 3. The unit of displacemnet is m/s (metre per second)

Equation of velocity

ACCELERATION Acceleration Acceleration is the rate of velocity change.Acceleration is a vector quantity. It is a measure of how fast the velocity change. Acceleration is a vector quantity. The unit of acceleration is ms-2. Equation

Additional Notes An object moves with a constant velocity if the magnitude and direction of the motion is always constant. An object experiences changes in velocity if • the magnitude of velocity changes • the direction of the motion changes. An object that experiences changes in velocity is said to have acceleration. An object traveling with a constant acceleration, a, if the velocity changes at a constant rate. Equation of Uniform Acceleration Most of the motion problems can be solved by the following equations. Therefore, make sure that you memorise all of them.

How we know when to use the equation?

There are 3 types of motion: motion with uniform velocity motion with uniform acceleration motion with changing acceleration The 4 equations are used when the motion is uniform acceleration.

• • •

The time interval between two adjacent dots on the ticker-tape is called one tick. Uniform Acceleration .ANALYSIS TICKER TAPE Ticker Timer A ticker-timer consists of an electrical vibrator which vibrates 50 times per second.02 s. The object is moving at a uniform velocity. Uniform Velocity • • • The distance of the dots is equally distributed. This enables it to make 50 dots per second on a ticker-tape being pulled through it. One tick is equal to 1/50 s or 0. All lengths of tape in the chart are of equal length.

the object is moving at a constant acceleration. . • The velocity of the object is increasing uniformly. The length of the strips of tape in the chart decreases uniformly.The distance between the dots increases uniformly.e. The velocity of the object is decreasing uniformly. i.e. Uniform Deceleration • • • • The distance between the dots decreases uniformly. i. the object is decelerating uniformly. • The length of the strips of tape in the chart increase uniformly.

3s b.3s}} = 50cms^{ .1} \hfill \\ \] .4 shows a strip of ticker tape that was pulled through a ticker tape timer that vibrated at 50 times a second.02s = 0. Distance travelled = 15cm \[v = \frac{s}{t} \hfill \\ \] \[v = \frac{{15cm}}{{0. There are 15 ticks from the first dot to the last dot. Example 1 Diagram 2. hence Time taken = 15 × 0.Finding Velocity Velocity of a motion can be determined by using ticker tape through the following equation: Caution!: t is time taken from the first dot to the last dot of the distance measured. average velocity of the object that is represented by the ticker tape? Answer: a. time taken from the first dot to the last dot? b. What is the a.

the gradient of the graph is equal to the velocity of motion. hence.Displacement . velocity = 0 Gradient is constant.Time Graph In a Displacement-Time Graph. velocity is Uniform .Time Graph Gradient = 0 Hence. Analysing Displacement .

hence velocity is uniform and in opposite direction Gradient is increasing. hence velocity is decreasing.Gradient is negative and constant. Gradient is decreasing. hence velocity is increasing. .

Velocity . The area below the velocity-time graph gives a value of the object's displacement. which is the acceleration of the object. Analysing Velocity-Time Graph Uniform velocity Uniform acceleration .Time Graph • • The gradient of the velocity-time gradient gives a value of the changing rate in velocity.

. we need to find the gradient of the velocity time graph and plot it in the acceleration-time graph.Increasing acceleration Uniform deceleration Decreasing acceleration Converting a Velocity-Time graph to Acceleration-Time graph In order to convert a velocity-time graph to acceleration time graph.

Free falling is a motion under gravitational force as the only force acting on the moving object. Launching object upward. In SPM. 2. Dropping Object from High Place 3. you need to know the graphs of free falling of the following movement 1. Object Falling and Bounce Back Launching Object Upward Velocity-Time Graph Acceleration-Time Graph Dropping Object from High Place .

Velocity-Time Graph Acceleration-Time Graph Object Falling and Bounce Back .

Velocity-Time Graph Acceleration-Time Graph .

the coin does not move with the cardboard and falls into the glass because of gravity. Pulling a Book . which is stationary.Mass Mass is defined as the amount of matter. • As a result. an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity (that is. Newton's First Law In the absence of external forces. Inertia Inertia is the property of a body that tends to maintain its state of motion. Explanation: • The inertia of the coin resists the change of its initial state. The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg) Mass is a scalar quantity. with a constant speed in a straight line). Jerking a Card When the cardboard is jerked quickly. the coin will fall into the glass.

Explanation: • • Tension of thread A is higher than string B.Greater Inertia .Thread B will snap. Pull slowly . Pulling a Thread 1. Explanation: • The inertia of the load prevents the force from being transmitted to thread A.When the book is pulled out. Yank quickly . hence causing thread B to snap. Explanation: • Inertia tries to oppose the change to the stationary situation. Larger Mass . when the book is pulled out.Thread A will snap. the books on top do not follow suit. Tension at A = Weight of the load + Pulling Force 2. the books on top will fall downwards. that is.

Explanation: Object with more mass offers a greater resistance to change from its state of motion. It's also more difficult to be stopped from swinging. Empty cart is easier to be moved • An empty cart is easier to be moved compare with a cart full with load. . This is because a cart with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion. • Object with larger mass has larger inertia to resist the attempt to change the state of motion.Bucket filled with sand is more difficult to be moved.

a = gravirational acceleration. p = mv =(2)(10) = 20 kgms-1 . It has both magnitude and direction. Momentum is a vector quantity. What would be the momentum of the ball just before it hits the ground? Answer: In order to find the momentum.Momentum Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity. we need to know the mass and the velocity of the ball right before it hits the ground. g = 10ms-2 The dispacement. The initial velocity. The SI unit of momentum is kgms-1 Formula: Example 1 A student releases a ball with mass of 2 kg from a height of 5 m from the ground. However. v. The final velocity = ? From the equation v2 = u2 + 2as v2 = (0)2 + 2(10)(5) v = 10ms-1 The momentum. This is a free falling motion. The velocity is not given directly. It's given that the mass. u = 0 The acceleration. we can determine the velocity. by using the linear equation of uniform acceleration. s = high = 50m. m = 2kg.

Principle of Conservation of Momentum The principle of conservation of momentum states that in a system make out of objects that react (collide or explode). v. the total momentum is constant if no external force is acted upon the system. of the car A immediately after the crash? Answer: m1 = 600kg m2 = 800kg u1 = 40 ms-1 u2 = 20 ms-1 v1 = ? . If car B moves forwards at 30 ms-1 by the impact. what is the velocity. Sum of Momentum Before Reaction = Sum of Momentum After Reaction Formula Example 1 .Both Object are in the Same Direction before Collision A Car A of mass 600 kg moving at 40 ms-1 collides with a car B of mass 800 kg moving at 20 ms-1 in the same direction.

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (600)(40) + (800)(20) = (600)v1 + (800)(30) 40000 = 600v1 + 24000 600v1 = 16000 v1 = 26.0)(-12) = (0.0)v2 -9 = .67 ms-1 Example 2 .0 ms1 after the collision.0 kg ball moving in the opposite direction at a speed of 12.Both Object are in opposite direction Before Collision A 0.5 kg m2 = 1.0 ms-1.v2 = 30 ms-1 According to the principle of conservation of momentum.0 ms-1 v1 = -14.5)(6) + (1. m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (0. The 0.5)(-14) + (1. Answer: m1 = 0.7 + 1v2 v2 = -2 ms-1 Explosion Before explosion both object stick together and at rest.0 kg u1 = 6. Total Momentum before collision Is zero After collision. both object move at opposite direction.0 ms-1 u2 = -12.50kg ball moves backward at 14. Find the velocity of the second ball after collision. Total Momentum after collision : m1v1 + m2v2 From the law of conservation of momentum: Total Momentum Before collision = Total Momentum after collision 0 = m1v1 + m2v2 .50kg ball traveling at 6.0 ms-1 collides head-on with a 1.0 ms-1 v2 = ? (IMPORTANT: velocity is negative when the object move in opposite direction) According to the principle of conservation of momentum.

m1v1 = . 2. Fire a pistol or rifle Launching a rocket Application in jet engine Fan boat Example 3 A man fires a rifle which has mass of 2. 4. 3.m2v2 (-ve sign means opposite direction) Examples or Application of Conservation of Momentum in Explosion 1.01)(250) (2. what is the recoil velocity of the pistol? Answer This is a typical question of explosion. If the mass of the bullet is 10 g and it reaches a velocity of 250 m/s after shooting.5v1 = -1 ms-1 .01 kg u1 = 0 ms-1 u2 = 0 ms-1 v1 = ? v2 = 250 ms-1 By using the equation of conservation of momentum principle 0 = m1v1 + m2v2 0 = (2.5)v1 = -2.5)v1 + (0.5 kg.5 kg m2 = 0. m1 = 2.

Find the value of v.500)v . and • the momentum is conserved after the collision.) m1 = 8000kg m2 = 1500kg u1 = 30 ms-1 u2 = 20 ms-1 v1 = v v2 = v According to the principle of conservation of momentum. Total Kinetic Energy before Collision = Total Kinetic Energy after Collision Additional notes: • In an elastic collision. Example 1 . The lorry is then accidentally collides with a car of mass 1500kg moving in the same direction with a velocity of 20 ms-1. the 2 objects attach together after the collision. both the vehicles attach together and move with a speed of velocity v.000)(30) + (1.Perfectly Inelastic Collision • A lorry of mass 8000kg is moving with a velocity of 30 ms-1. • Total energy is conserved after the collision.Elastic Collision Elastic collision is the collision where the kinetic energy is conserved after the collision. they move with same speed. and • the momentum is also conserved after the collision. Inelastic Collision Inelastic collision is the collision where the kinetic energy is not conserved after the collision. m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 (8. the 2 objects separated right after the collision. Additional notes: In a perfectly elastic collision.000)v+ (1. • Total energy is conserved after the collision. After the collision.500)(20) = (8. Answer: (IMPORTANT: When 2 object attach together.

2. Fuel is injected and burnt with the compressed air in the combustion chamber. By conservation of momentum. pushing the rocket upwards.42 ms-1 Application of Momentum Rocket 1. 2.270. an equal and opposite momentum is produced and acted on the rocket. 3. 4. .000 = 9500v v = 28. This produces an equal and opposite momentum to push the jet plane forward. Jet Engine 1. which turns the compressor. 3. 4. The hot gas is forced through the engine to turn the turbine blade. 1Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels burn in the combustion chamber. Hot gases are expelled through the exhausts at very high speed . Air is taken in from the front and is compressed by the compressor. 5. The high-speed hot gas produce a high momentum backwards. High-speed hot gases are ejected from the back with high momentum.

Newton's Second Law The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. stationary state. size. 4. there must be a net force acting on it. the effect can change the 1. Formula of Force From Newton's Second Law. The unit of force is Newton ( or kgms-2). we can derived the equation (IMPORTANT: F Must be the net force) . Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force When the forces acting on an object are not balanced. The net force is known as the unbalanced force or the resultant force. Implication: When there is resultant force acting on an object.Effects of Force Force 1. When a force acts on an object. 2. moving slower or change direction). the object will accelerate (moving faster. 3. 5. A force is push or pull exerted on an object. Force is a vector quantity that has magnitude and direction. speed and direction of the object. 3. 2. shape.

find the acceleration of the box when a 300N force is acting on the box horizontally.0 m/s in 5 seconds when is acted by a force. Newton's Second Law: When there is a net force acting on an object. Example 1 A box of mass 150kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface. find the magnitude of the force that is acting? Answer: We know that we can find the magnitude of a force by using the formula F = ma.Summary of Newton's 1st Law and 2nd Law Newton's First Law: When there is no net force acting on an object.u}}{t} \hfill \\ \] \[a = \frac{{25 . the object is either stationary or move with constant speed in a straight line.2} \hfill \\}\] From the formula F = ma = (50)(5) = 250N The force acting on the box is 250N. Answer: F = ma (300) = (150)a a = 2 ms-2 Example 2 A object of mass 50kg is placed on a horizontal floor with a smooth surface. If the velocity of the object changes from stationary to 25. the object will accelerate. but the acceleration is not give directly. We can determine the acceleration from the formula \[a = \frac{{v . .0}}{5} = 5ms^{ . The mass m is already given in the question.

A greater impulse yield a higher velocity change.Impulse Impulse Impulse is defined as the product of the force (F) acting on an object and the time of action (t).05 seconds.500N \hfill \\ \end{gathered} \] Effects of impulse vs Force • A force determines the acceleration (rate of velocity change) of an object. Formula of impulse Impulse is the product of force and time. What is the impulsive force acting on the car during the crash? Answer: \[\begin{gathered} {\text{Impulsive Force}} \hfill \\ F = \frac{{m(v . A greater force produces a higher acceleration.mu Impulsive Force Impulsive Force Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum in a reaction. Impulse exerted on an object is equal to the momentum change of the object. Impulse is a vector quantity. The car hits a street lamp and is stopped in0.u)}}{t} \hfill \\ F = \frac{{(1000)(0 .05}} \hfill \\ F = . Impulse = F × t Impulse = momentum change Impulse = mv . .25)}}{{0. Example 1 A car of mass 1000kg is traveling with a velocity of 25 m/s. It is a force which acts on an object for a very short interval during a collision or explosion. • An impulse determines the velocity change of an object.

2. High Jump . The long jump pit is filled with sand to increase the reaction time when atlete land on it.Examples Involving Impulsive Force Playing football Playing badminton Playing tennis Playing golf Playing baseball Long Jump • • • • • 1. This is to reduce the impulsive force acts on the leg of the atlete because impulsive force is inversely proportional to the reaction time.

Airbag . soft mattress after the jump. Safety Features in Vehicles Crumble Zone The crumple zone increases the reaction time of collision during an accident. Jumping A jumper bends his/her leg during landing. This causes the impulsive force to be reduced and hence reduces the risk of injuries.) • • During a high jump. Seat Belt Prevent the driver and passengers from being flung forward or thrown out of the car during an emergency break.(This image is licenced under the GNU Free Document Licence. The original file is from the Wikipedia. a high jumper will land on a thick.org. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduce the impact of impulsive force acting on the leg of the jumper. This is to increase the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force acting on the high jumper.

Head Rest Reduce neck injury when driver and passengers are thrown backwards when the car is banged from backward. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) Prevent the wheels from locking when brake applied suddenly by adjusting the pressure of the brake fluid. This may reduce injuries caused by scattered glass. Collapsible Steering Columns The steering will swing away from driver’s chest during collision.The inflated airbag during an accident acts as a cushion to lessen the impact when the driver flings forward hitting the steering wheel or dashboard. This may reduce the impulsive force acting on the driver. This may increases the reaction time and hence reduce the impulsive force when passenger knocking on it in accident. Padded Dashboard Cover with soft material. Bumper Made of elastic material so that it can increases the reaction time and hence reduces the impulsive force caused by collision. Passenger Safety Cell . This can prevents the car from skidding. Windscreen Shatter-proof glass is used so that it will not break into small pieces when broken.

The unit of gravitational acceleration is ms-2 Gravitational acceleratio is also denoted by the symbol "g". Weight The weight of an object is defined as the gravitational force acting on the object. When considering objects at rest. The unit of gravitational field strength is N/kg. the g is the gravitational acceleration. Gravity Gravitational Field A gravitational field as a region in which an object experiences a force due to gravitational attraction. Gravitational Field Strength vs. The gravitational field strength is denoted by the symbol "g". rigid stell cage. g and the same value (10ms-2) on the surface of the earth.The body of the car is made from strong. Symbol: g Important notes: • Gravitational acceleration does not depend on the mass of the moving object. Gravitational Field Strength Formula Gravitational Acceleration The gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. When considering a body falling freely. Gravitational Field Strength The gravitational field strength at a point in the gravitational field is the gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at that point. Gravitational Acceleration • • • Both the gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration have the symbol. • The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms-2. This may prevent the car from collapsing on the passengers during a car crash. The SI unit of weight is Newton (N) . g is the Earth’s gravitational field strength acting on it.

Differences between Weight and Mass Weight Depends on the gravitational field strength Vector quantity Unit Newton (N) Mass Independent from the gravitational field strength Scalar Quantity Unit: Kilogram (kg) .

Free falling is a motion under force of gravity as the only force acting on the moving object. which taken to be 10ms-2 in SPM. Gravitational acceleration does not depend on the mass of the moving object. The gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force. 3. Gravitational Acceleration 1. g is the Earth’s gravitational field strength acting on it. 2. . 2. Practically. the g is the gravitational acceleration. When considering a body falling freely.Falling from High Place When an object is released from a high place. It has the unit of ms-2 2. Gravitational Acceleration 1. its initial velocity. The symbol of gravitational acceleration is " g ". u = 0. Case of Free Falling 1 . Gravitational Field Strength vs.FREE FALLING Free Falling 1. Both the gravitational field strength and gravitational acceleration have the symbol. 3. its acceleration is equal to the gravitational acceleration. When considering objects at rest. 1. 4. free falling can only take place in vacuum. g. The magnitude of gravitational acceleration is taken to be 10ms-2. 2. g and the same value (10ms-2) on the surface of the earth.

the acceleration = -g (-10ms-2) 2. Case of Free Falling 2 . 3. the time taken for the object to move to the maximum height = the time taken for the object to fall from the maximum point to its initial position. 1. . the displacement is the of the object when it reaches the ground is equal to the initial height of the object. h.Launching Object Upward If an object is launched up vertically. the displacement of the object at highest point is equal to the vertical height of object.3. the velocity become zero when the object reaches the highest point. h 4.

A vector quantity is a quantity which is fully described by both magnitude and direction. Equal Vector Two vectors A and B may be defined to be equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the same direction. . Vector Diagram The arrow shows the direction of the vector. The length representing the magnitude of the vector.VECTOR QUANTITIES Vector and Scalar Quantity A scalar quantity is a quantity which can be fully described by magnitude only.

Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow.Parallelogram Method Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the tail of the 1st vector. Normally the resultant vector is marked with double arrow. Vector Addition .Triangle Method Join the tail of the 2nd vector to the head of the 1st vector.VECTOR ADDITION Vector Addition . Addition of 2 Perpendicular Vectors .

What is the magnitude of the resultant force if P and Q are acting on an object? Answer: Magnitude of the resultant force \[ |F| = \sqrt {10^2 + 12^2 } = \sqrt {244} = 15. the magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined by the following equation. Example 1 Two forces. 5N and 8N are acting on .If 2 vectors (a and b) are perpendicular to each others. P and Q of magnitude 10N and 12N are perpendicular to each others.62N \hfill \\ \] Example 2 Diagram above shows that four forces of magnitude 2N. 4N.

2 = 3N to the right The resultant force of the vertical component = 8 . \[|F| = \sqrt {3^2 + 4^2 } = \sqrt {25} = 5 \] .4 = 4N acting downward. All the forces are perpendicular to each others. What is the magnitude of the resulatant force that acts on point O? Answer: The resultant force of the horizntal component = 5 . Therefore.point O. the magtitude of these 2 force components.

VECTOR RESOLUTION Vector Resolution A vector can be resolve into 2 component which is perpendicular to each others. find the horizontal force that acting on the log. Answer: Horizontal component of the tension = 3000 cos30o =2598N Friction = 500N Resultant horizontal force = 2598N . Example 1 Diagram above shows a lorry pulling a log with an iron cable. If the tension of the cable is 3000N and the friction between the log and the ground is 500N.500N =2098N Example 2 .

Find the acceleration of object P.36N Vertical component of the forces = 25sin45o .68 ms-2 Inclined Plane Weight component along the plane = Wsinθ.36) = (2)a a = 17.25sin45o = 0N The acceleration of the object can be determined by the equation F = ma (35. Weight component perpendicular to the plane = Wcosθ. Answer: Horizontal component of the forces = 25cos45o + 25cos45o = 35. in ms-2. Example 3 .Diagram above shows two forces of magnitude 25N are acting on an object of mass 2kg.

The force pulling the block.10 = 8N . let's examine all the forces or component of forces acting along the plane. Given that the fiction between block and the plane is 2N.2 . Answer: First of all. F = 20N The frictional force Ffric = 2N The weight component along the plane = 20sin30o = 10N The resultant force along the plane = 20 .A block of mass 2 kg is pulling along a plane by a 20N force as shown in diagram above. find the magnitude of the resultant force parallel to the plane.

the head of the last vector will join to the tail of the first vector.VECTORS IN EOUILIBRIUM Vectors in Equilibrium When 3 vectors are in equilibrium. they cancel each other out. After joining all the vectors tail to head. the resultant vector = 0. When the forces acting on an object are balanced. Forces in equilibrium Forces are in equilibrium means the resultant force in all directions are zero. Effect : • an object at rest is continuely at rest [ velocity = 0] • a moving object will move at constant velocity [ a = 0] Example 1 . The net force is zero.

Diagram above shows a load of mass 500g is hung on a string C. Find the tension of string A. Answer: Tension of string C. hence Vertical component of tension A (TA) = TC TAcos60o = TC TA = TC/cos60o TA = 5/cos60o = 10N . which is tied to 2 other strings A and B. TC = weight of the load = 5N All forces in the system are in equilibrium.

9J Example 2 . therefore cosθ = 1 Work done. Work is a scalar quantity. Work done by a constant force is given by the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force. Equation of Work When the direction of force and motion are same. The block moves a horizontal distance of 3. 2. 3. W = F × s × cos θ W = 50 × 3. Calculate the work being done by the force.0 m.0 × cos30o = 129. The unit of Nm(Newton metre) or J(Joule). Answer: Work done. θ = 0o. W=F×s Example 1 A force of 50 N acts on the block at the angle shown in the diagram.WORK Work 1.

If the distance travelled by the metal block is 2m. Ranjit does work to overcome the gravity. Answer: In this case. g = 10 ms-2 Work done. Each steps is 15cm in height. h = 35 × 0. W = ? W = mgh = (45)(10)(35 × 0. Given that Ranjit's mass is 45kg. work done by the frictional force W = F × s × cos180o= (5)(2)(-1) = -10J Work Done Against the Force of Gravity Example 3 Ranjit runs up a staircase of 35 steps. the work done by the pulling force b.15 Gravitational field strength.15) = 2362. Ranjit's mass = 45kg Vertical height of the motion.Diagram above shows a 10N force is pulling a metal. Work done by the pulling force. W = F × s = (10)(2) = 20J (b) The force is not in the same direction of motion. find the work done by Ranjit to reach the top of the staircase. find a. The friction between the block and the floor is 5N.5J Finding Work from Force-Displacement Graph . the work done by the frictional force Asnwer: (a) The force is in the same direction of the motion.

Example 4 The graph above shows the force acting on a trolley of 5 kg mass over a distance of 10 m. Therefore. Find the work done by the force to move the trolley. Answer: In a Force-Displacement graph. work done . work done is equal to the area in between the graph and the horizontal axis.In a Force-Displacement graph. work done is equal to the area below the graph.

e. height). What is the maximum kinetic energy possessed by the ball before it reached the ground? Answer According to the principle of conservation of energy. Formula: Example 1 A ball of 1kg mass is droppped from a height of 4m. the amount of potential energy losses is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gain. Work is done when energy is converted from one form to another. Formula: . Maximum kinetic energy = Maximum potentila energy losses = mgh = (1)(10)(4) = 40J Elastic Potential Energy Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in elastic materials as the result of their stretching or compressing. Nm or Joule(J) Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored in an object as the result of its vertical position (i.PONTENTIAL ENERGY Energy Energy is defined as the capacity to do work..

Answer: The energy stored in the spring is the elestic potential energy.06) = 0.5kg.15J \hfill \\ \] . \[ E_P = \frac{1}{2}Fx \hfill \\ \] \[ E_P = \frac{1}{2}(5)(0. find the energy stored in the spring. The extention of the spring is 6cm.Example 2 Diagram above shows a spring with a load of mass 0.

Equation of Kinetic Energy Example 1 Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000-kg bus that is moving with a speed of 35. \[ E_K = \frac{1} {2}mv^2 \hfill \\ \] \[ E_K = \frac{1} {2}(2000)(35)^2 \hfill \\ \] \[ E_K = 1225000J \hfill \\ \] .KENETIC ENERGY Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Answer: Kinetic Energy.0 m/s.

The work done to overcome the friction is equal to the amount of kinetic energy converted into heat energy.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY AND WORK DONE During a conversing of energy. Amount of Work Done = Amount of Energy Converted Example A trolley of 5 kg mass moving against friction of 5 N. Its velocity at A is 4ms-1 and it stops at B after 4 seconds. What is the work done to overcome the friction? Answer: In this case. kinetic energy is converted into heat energy due to the friction. hence \[\begin{array}{l}{\rm{Work Done}} \\{\rm{ = Kinetic Energy Loss}} \\= \frac{1} {2}mv_1^2 .\frac{1}{2}mv_2^2 \\{\rm{ = }}\frac{{\rm{1}}}{{\rm{2}}}(5)(4)^2 \frac{1}{2}(5)(0)^2 \\= 40J \\\end{array}\] .

\[ P = \frac{W}{t} = \frac{{300}}{{20}} = 15J\] .5) = 300J Power. W = mgh = (20)(10)(1. Answer: Work done.5 m. Find the amount of work done by the machine and hence find the power of the electric motor. Formula: Example 1 An electric motor takes 20 s to lift a box of mass 20kg to a height of 1.POWER Power Power is the rate at which work is done. which means how fast a work is done.

the remaining power is lost as undisire output. Always keep the cooling coil clean. Choose the refrigerator with capacity suitable for the family size. Refrigerator Always remember to close the door of refrigerator. Close all the doors and windows of the room to avoid the cool air in the room from flowing out. Switch off the air conditioner when not in use. Use a lamp with reflector so that more light is directed towards thr desirable place. Open the refrigerator only when necessarily. Defrost the refrigerator regularly. Use fluorecent bulb rather than incandescent bulb. 5. Fluorescent bulbs are much more efficient than incandescent bulbs. 4. . 2. 2. Lamp or Light Bulb 1. the efficiency of this machine is 75/100 x 100% = 75% Air Conditioner 1. 6. Use front-loading washing machine rather than top-loading wahing machine because it uses less water and electricity. Example In the example above. 1. the desire output power (useful energy) is only 75J/s. 2. Use washing machine only when you have sufficient clothes to be washed. 3. Buy the air conditioner with suitable capacity according to the room size. Refrigerator of large capacity is more efficient compare with refirgerator of small capacity. 2.EFFICIENCY Efficiency The efficiency of a device is defined as the percentage of the energy input that is transformed into useful energy. Therefore. Washing Machine 1. the input power is 100J/s. Try to avoid washing small amount of clothes. 3.

the attractive force will dominate. Graph of Forces Between 2 atoms . produces a net attractive force between the atoms.ELASTICITY Elasticity Elasticity is the ability of a sub-stance to recover its original shape and size after distortion. the repulsive force will dominate. the attractive force equal to the repulsive force. produces a net repulsive force between the atoms. • If the 2 atoms are brought closer. • At the equilibrium distance d. Forces Between Atoms The intermolecular forces consist of an attractive force and a repulsive force. • If the 2 atoms are brought furhter.

the attractive force between the particles increases. Equation derived from Hooke's Law From Hook's Law. we can derived that Spring Constant Spring constant is defined as the ratio of the force applied on a spring to the extension of the spring. the force that acts on it is directly proportional to the extension of the spring. x < x0. HOOKE’S LAW Hooke's Law Hooke's Law states that if a spring is not stretched beyond its elastic limit. If the distance x exceeds the elastic limit. .x0 = Equilibrium Distance When the particles are compressed. Elastic Limit The elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed. the attractive force will decreases.

Graph of Streching Force . the greater the spring constant and the harder (stiffer) spring.Extension Gradient = Spring constant Area below the graph = Work done F-x graph and spring constant The higher the gradient. the stiffness of spring A is greater than spring B. For example.It is a measure of the stiffness of a spring or elastic object. .

SPRING Arrangement in series: Extension = x × number of spring Stiffness decreases Spring constant = k/number of spring Factors Affecting the Stiffness of Spring Arrangement in parallel: Extension = x ÷ number of spring Stiffness increases Spring constant = k × number of spring Stiffer Less stiff Material type of spring (A steel spring is stiffer than a copper spring) Diameter of wire of spring (The greater the diameter of the wire. the stiffer the spring) .

the stiffer the spring) Length of the string (Shorter spring is stiffer) .Diameter of the spring (The smaller the diameter of spring.

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