Baha'i Glossary, Dictionary & Biographical Notes

Explanation of Some Words & Biographical Notes in Baha'i Literature

'Aba: Outer cloak or mantle. A loose, sleeveless, cloak-like outer garment
worn by men.

'Aba-Basir: Son of a Zanjan martyr and himself decapitated for his
faith in that city.

Abha Pen: The Pen of the Most Glorious; that is, the power of the
Holy Spirit manifested through the Prophet's writings.

'Abdu'llah: The name of the father of Prophet Muhammad. He
belonged to the family of Hashim, the noblest tribe of the Quraish section of the Arabian race, directly descended from Ishmael.

'Abdu'l-Aziz: The Ottoman Sultan who decreed each of
Baha‟u'llah‟s three banishments.

'Abdu’l-Aziz son of 'Abdu’l-Salam: A famous
Muslim ecclesiastic of the Sunni sect.

‘Abdul-Baha: (Arabic), means: „Servant of Baha‟: the title
assumed by 'Abbas Effendi (1844-1921), eldest surviving son and appointed successor of Baha‟u‟llah, the Founder of Baha‟i Faith, the Center of His Covenant, and authorized interpreter of His Writings. Named 'Abbas after His grandfather, 'Abdu'l-Baha was known to the general public as 'Abbas Effendi. „Abdu'l-Baha accompanied His father on His exiles, spending more than 40 years as a prisoner. After Baha‟u‟llah‟s death in 1892, „Abdu‟l-Baha became head of the Baha'i Faith and worked to maintain the unity of its followers. Freed by the Young Turks' Rebellion in 1908, „Abdu‟l-Baha began to travel outside the Holy Land, making His first visit to Europe in 1911. Baha‟u‟llah gave Him such titles as “the Most Great Branch,” “the Mystery of God,” and “the Master.” He chose the name „Abdu‟l-Baha, meaning “Servant of Baha‟u‟llah.” „Abdu‟l-Baha is also known as the Perfect Exemplar of Baha‟u‟llah‟s teachings.

'Abdu'l-Hamid II: (1842-1918) Sultan of the Ottoman Turkish
Empire from 1876 to 1909, known as „the Great Assassin‟. As the result of the plotting of Mirza Muhammad-„Ali, in 1901 he restricted „Abdu'l-Baha's freedom, confining Him and His family within the city walls of Akka. He later sent two commissions of inquiry to investigate false charges made against „Abdu'l-Baha by the Covenant-breakers. Public discontent with his despotic rule and resentment against European intervention in the Balkans led to the military revolution of the Young Turks in 1908. 'Abdu'l Hamid was subsequently deposed in 1909.

Abi-Abdi’llah: Arabic term used in reference to Imam Jaafar
Sadiq, the sixth Shi'ih Imam, (83-148 A. H.)

Abu-‘Ali-Sina: (980-1037 A. D.) or Avicenna. An Arab physician
and philosopher born in Persia, known in the West as the Hippocrates and the

Aristotle of the Arabs.

Abu-Dhar: Abu Dhar Ghefan, an illiterate shepherd who became an
esteemed disciple of Muhammad.

Abu-Ja’far-i-Tusi And Jabir: Two Muslims who like
Mufaddal handed down traditions from Imam Sadiq.

Abu’l-Fadl Gulpaygani, Mirza: (1844-1914)
Preeminent Persian Baha‟i scholar and author; noted for his learned treatises on the Baha'i Faith, who was sent to the United States by „Abdu‟l-Baha in 1901 to deepen the American Baha‟is and to counter the attempts of Kheiralla to create a division within the American Baha‟i community. He was named an Apostle of Baha'u'llah by Shoghi Effendi.

Abu’l-Qasim-i-Kashi: A learned Babi from Kashan, Persia,
who was murdered in Baghdad by the followers of Mirza Yahya.

Abu’l-Qbsim-i-Hamadani, Aqa: (d. 1856) Sole
companion of Baha'u'llah during His retirement to Sulaymaniyyih. He was set upon by highwaymen or frontier patrols and was mortally wounded. When found near death, he gave his name and bequeathed all his possessions to Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani, the name Baha'u'llah had assumed.

‘Abdu’l-Vahhab: A shopkeeper from Shiraz who embraced the
Babi Cause and was imprisoned with Baha‟u‟llah in the Black Pit of Tehran. Baha‟u‟llah gave him His own shoes to wear on the way to his execution.

'Abdu'llah-i-Ubayy: A prominent opponent of Prophet
Muhammad ; called "the prince of hypocrites."

Abu-Nasr: Abu-Nasr Farabi, Persian philosopher and writer who lived
about the 4th Century, A. H.

Abha: Baha means “glory". Abha is its superlative. Both are titles of
Baha‟u‟llah and of His Kingdom.

Ablutions: The washing of one's hands and face before prayer. Abraham: Considered by Baha‟is to be a Prophet, or Messenger of
God. Scholars give 2100 B.C – 2000 B.C. as his dates. Regarded by Jews, Christians, and Muslims as the Friend of God and the Father of the Faithful. He is also recognized as the founder of monotheism and the father of the Jewish and Arab peoples. Muhammad, the Bab, and Baha‟u‟llah are among His descendants.

Abu-'Abdi'llah: Designation of the sixth Imam, Ja'far-i- Sadiq,
great-grandson of Imam Husayn. He was poisoned by Mansur, the Abbaside Caliph. He died in 765 A.D.

Abu'Amir: An opponent of Prophet Muhammad; a monk.

Abu Jahl: Literally, "the Father of Folly"; so styled by the Muslims. An
implacable enemy of the Prophet.

Acre or Akka: Also called Akko. A four-thousand-year-old seaport
located on the northern coast of what is now Israel. It is surrounded by fortress-like walls facing the sea. In the mid-1800s it was a penal colony to which the worst criminals of the Ottoman Empire were sent. In 1868 Baha‟u‟llah and His family and companions were banished to Acre by Sultan „Abdu'l-„Aziz. Because of the privations suffered within its walls Baha‟u‟llah named Acre "the Most Great Prison."

'AD: A powerful Arabian tribe, destroyed, like Thamud, for its idolatry. Administrative Order: The system of administration as
conceived by Baha'u'llah, formally established by 'Abdu'l-Baha, and realized during the Guardianship of Shoghi Effendi. It embodies the international system for administering the affairs of the Baha‟i community. It is unique in religious history in that clear instructions concerning succession of authority and the form of organization are set out in writing by Baha‟u‟llah, the Founder of the Faith. The principal institutions of the Baha‟i Administrative Order are the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice. It also consists, on the one hand, of a series of elected councils, universal, national, and local, in which are invested legislative, executive, and judicial powers over the Baha'i community, and on the other hand, of eminent and devoted Baha'is appointed for the specific purposes of' propagation and protection of the Faith under the guidance of the Head of that Faith, the Universal House of Justice. The democratically elected local and national councils known as Local and National Spiritual Assemblies, direct the affairs of the Baha‟i community, uphold Baha‟i laws and standards, and take responsibility for the education, guidance, and protection of the community. The appointed institutions, include the Hands of the Cause of God, the International Teaching Center, the Continental Board of Counselors and their Auxiliary Boards and assistants. The appointed members of these institutions perform a counseling and advisory function and have particular responsibility for the protection and expansion of the Baha‟i Faith.

Adrianople: Present-day Edirne, a city in European Turkey;
designated by Baha‟u‟llah as the ''remote prison" when He was exiled there in 1863 and where they resided for five years. It was the furthest point from His homeland that He reached and the first time in known history that a Messenger of God lived on the European continent.

Afnan: Lit. “twigs". Denotes relatives of the Bab. Afnan-i-Yazdi: (1830-1911) Also known as Haji MuhammadTaqi, the Afnan, a cousin of the Bab and the chief builder of the first Baha‟i House of Worship in „Ishqabad, in Russian Turkistan, which had been initiated by „Abdu'l-Baha in or about 1902. Taqi's state title was Vakil‟ud-Dawlih. He

was named an Apostle of Baha'u'llah by Shoghi Effendi.

Ages: The Baha'i Dispensation is divided into three Ages: the Heroic Age,
the Formative Age, and the Golden Age-which correspond to stages in the development and growth of the Baha‟i Faith. The Heroic Age or Apostolic Age began in 1844 with the Declaration of the Bab and spanned the ministries of the Bab (1844-53), Baha‟u‟llah (1853-92), and 'Abdu'l-Baha (1892-1321). The Formative Age began in 1921 when Shoghi Effendi became the Guardian of the Baha‟i Faith. This second and current age is identified with the rise and establishment of the Baha‟i Administrative Order. It is to be followed by the third and final age, the Golden Age, which is destined to witness the establishment of the Baha‟i World Commonwealth.

AH: Abbreviation for Anno Hegirae, Latin for "in the year of the Hegira,"
used to indicate a date reckoned according to the Muslim calendar, which began in 622 A.D. with Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Medina. The Muslim calendar is a lunar calendar with twelve months of twenty-nine or thirty days.

Akhtar: 'The Star': A Persian reformist newspaper published in
Constantinople and influenced by the Azalis.

‘Akka: The prison city in Palestine where Baha‟u‟llah was finally exiled.
He arrived there on August 31, 1868.

Alexander II, Czar: Emperor of Russia from 1855 to 1881.
He instigated a number of reforms in his country, including the emancipation of the serfs. He was assassinated after a period of repression that instigated a surge of revolutionary terrorism.

'Ali: The son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad, the first of the twelve Imams.
He was the cousin and first disciple of Muhammad and married to His daughter Fatimih.

‘Ali Muhammad: Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad, born in Shiraz, Persia,
on October 20, 1819; the "Point of the Bayan" and the "Bab" and precursor of Baha'u'llah.

Alif, Lam, Mim: These and other disconnected letters appear at
the head of twenty-nine surihs of the Qur'an.

Al-Medina: Literally, "the city", so called as giving shelter to
Muhammad: formerly Yathrib. The burial place of Muhammad; second only to Mecca in sanctity.

'Ama: Allegorical reference to Heaven. Amalekites: The people mentioned a number of times in the
Hebrew Bible. They are considered to be descended from an Amalek ancestry. They were expelled in early times from Babylonia. They spread through

Arabia to Palestine and Syria and as far as Egypt, to which they gave several of its Pharaohs.

'Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khaum: (1910-2000)
Mary Sutherland Maxwell, an eminent North American Baha‟i who became the wife of Shoghi Effendi Rabbani, Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, in 1937, after which she became known as Ruhiyyih Khanum Rabbani. ('Amatu'l-Baha is a title meaning "Handmaiden of Baha‟u‟llah.") She served as the Guardian's secretary during his lifetime and was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God in 1952. Afrer Shoghi Effendi's passing in 1957, she traveled extensively to teach the Baha'i Faith, consolidate Baha'i communities, and serve as a representative of the Universal House of Justice at major events.

Amir-Nizam: One of the titles of the Prime Minister, Mirza Taqi
Khan.

Amru'llah: Literally „the Cause of God‟; also „the Command of God‟.
Name given to the house in which Baha‟u‟llah lived in Adrianople.

Andarun: Private inner rooms where the women of a household
resided according to Persian custom.

Ancient of Days: A title of God, peculiar in the Bible to the
Book of Daniel.

Anis: Literally „Close Companion‟: Surname of Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Zunuzi,
the youth who was martyred with the Bab in 1850.

Annas: High Priest of the Jews at the time of Christ and father-in-law to
Caiaphas (John 18. V.13.).

Aqa: Master; an honorific title roughly equivalent to the English "Sir or
"Mister."

Aqdas: The greatest of Baha‟u‟llah‟s works containing His laws and
ordinances (1873).

Aqay-i-Kalim: Also known as Mirza Musa, the faithful younger
brother of Baha‟u‟1lah (d. 1887) who recognized the station of the Bab and of Baha‟u‟llah and faithfully served Baha‟u‟llah throughout His exiles. He often met with government officials and religious leaders on Baha‟u‟llah‟s behalf until 'Abdu'l-Baha assumed that function.

Arc, the: A curved path laid out by Shoghi Effendi on Mount Carmel,
stretching across the Baha‟i properties near the Shrine of the Bab and centered on the graves of distinguished members of Baha‟u‟llah‟s family. The seats of the major international administrative institutions of the Baha‟i Faith are constructed along this arc.

Archbreaker of the Covenant: Mirza Muhammad'Ali, a son of Baha‟u‟llah and younger half-brother of 'Abdu'l-Baha who

attempted to subvert the provisions of Baha‟u‟llah‟s written will and to seize leadership of the Baha‟i community after the passing of Baha‟u‟llah.

Ashraf: Aqa Mirza Ashraf of the town of Abadih in Persia, martyred in
Isfahan, October, 1888.

Ashraf: Siyyid Ashraf, born in the Fort of Zanjan during the siege. Ashraf, Qudsiyyih: First Persian woman to travel to the
United States. She represented Baha‟i women of the Orient at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wilmette Mashriqu'l-Adkar.

‘Asiyih Khanum: Wife of Baha‟u‟llah and mother of 'Abdu'lBaha, Bahiyyih-Khaum, and Mirza Mihdi. She married Baha‟u‟llah in 1835, accompanied Him throughout all of His exiles, and died in 1886. Baha‟u‟llah addressed her as Navvab (an honorific implying "Grace or "Highness") and designated her as the "Most Exalted Leaf" and His "perpetual consort in all the wor1d.s of God."

Askelton: A coast town in Southern Palestine. (Judges 14, 19) Athim: Arabic, means Sinner. Auxiliary Boards: An institution created by Shoghi Effendi in
1954 to assist the Hands of the Cause of God. When the institution of the Continental Boards of Counsellors was established in 1968 by the Universal House of Justice, the Auxiliary Boards were placed under its direction.

'Avalim: A compilation of Shi‟ih traditions. 'Aynu’l-Baghar: An ancient spring in 'Akka. Azali: Follower of Subh-i-Azal, or Mirza Yahya ‘Azim: Literally „Great One‟; a title given by the Bab to one of His
disciples to whom He revealed the name and the advent of Baha'u'llah. (God Posses By p. 28). Later, he was instrumental in the plot against the shah. He refused to implicate Baha‟u‟llah falsely in the crime, although he knew that his refusal would result in his own death.

Bab, the: The title meaning “Gate”, assumed by Siyyid 'AliMuhammad (1819-1850), Who was the Prophet-Founder of the Babi Faith, and the Herald and Forerunner of Baha'u'llah. The Bab proclaimed Himself to be the Promised One of Islam – the Qa‟im and the Mihdi -- and announced that His mission was to alert the people to the imminent advent of "Him Whom God shall make manifest," namely, Baha‟u‟llah. Because of these claims, the Bab was executed in Persia by the order of Nasiri‟d-Din Shah on 9 July 1850

Babi: Follower of the Bab.

Badasht: A conference of Babis in a village on the borders of
Mazindaran in 1848, convened and guided by Baha'u'llah, which established the independent nature of the Faith of the Bab.

Badi: Literally „Unique, wonderful‟: title given by Baha'u'llah to Aqa
Bozurg of Khurasan, the seventeen-year-old youth who delivered Baha‟u‟llah's tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah. Baha‟u‟llah praised his heroism and gave him the title "Pride of Martyrs." (see God Passes By, p.199)

Baghdad: Founded by the Caliph Al-Mansur in 762 A.D. on the site of
a Christian village on the western bank of the Tigris. It remained for 500 years the seat of the Abbasid Government.

Bagdadi, Dr Zia: (d. 1937) Medical doctor from Iraq who settled
in the United States in 1909 and was a prominent member of the Chicago Baha‟i community. He represented the Arab Baha‟is at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wilmette Mashriqu‟l-Adkar.

Baha: Literally, "Glory", "Splendor", a title given to Baha‟u‟llah (Mirza
Husayn-'Ali) by the Bab. This was the name by which He was known before He declared Himself as the Promised One of the Bab.

Baha'i Era (BE): The period of the Baha'i calendar beginning
with the Declaration of the Bab on 23 May 1844, and expected to last until the next appearance of a Manifestation (Prophet) of God after the expiration of at leas 1,000 years.

Baha’i World Center: The spiritual and administrative
center of the Baha‟i Faith, comprising the holy places in the Haifa-Acre area and the Arc of administrative buildings on Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel.

Baha'i: A follower of Baha'u'llah. Baha'i International Community: A name used
generally in reference to the worldwide Baha‟i community and officially in that country‟s external relations. In the latter context, the Baha'i International Community is an association of the National Spiritual Assemblies throughout the world and functions as an international nongovernmental organization. Its offices include its Secretariat at the Baha'i World Centre, a United Nations Office in New York with a branch in Geneva, an Office of Public Information, an Office of the Environment, and an Office for the Advancement of Women

Baha’i World Commonwealth: The future
commonwealth of the nations of the world envisaged in the Baha‟i writings. It will include a federal system of governance, to which all national governments will be accountable, a system of international communication; an international auxiliary language; a world script and literature; a uniform and universal system of currency, weights, and measures; and an integrated economic system with coordinated markets and regulated channels of

distribution

Baha’u’lllah: Title, meaning “Glory of God,” assumed by Mirza
Husayn-„Ali Founder of the Baha‟I Faith. Born on 12 November 1817, He declared His Mission as the Promised One of All Ages in April 1863 and passed away in Acre, Palestine on 29 May 1892 after 40 years of imprisonment, banishment, and house arrest. Baha'u'llah‟s writings are considered by Baha‟is to be direct revelation from God. Baha‟u‟llah‟s title is recorded in the Persian Bayan of the Bab. Baha‟is refer to Him with a variety of titles, including the Blessed Beauty, the Blessed Perfection, the Ancient Beauty..

Bahiyyih Khanum: (1846-1932) The saintly daughter of
Baha‟u'llah and Asiyih Khanum who beseeched her father to allow her to remain unmarried in order to devote herself to the service of His Faith. Baha‟u'llah gave her the title of "the Greatest Holy Leaf," and she was designated as the outstanding heroine of the Baha‟i Dispensation.

Bahji: Arabic for “delight. The name of the property north-east of the
city of Acre where Baha‟u‟llah lived from 1880 until His ascension in 1892, and where His shrine is now situated. It is a place of pilgrimage for Baha‟is which comprise the Shrine of Baha‟u‟llah, the mansion which was His last residence, and the surrounding gardens that serve to beautify the site. Baha‟u‟llah‟s shrine is the point to which Baha'is turn in prayer.

Balal: An Ethiopian slave in Mecca, illiterate and despised, but
transformed by his recognition of Muhammad. The Prophet gave him the task of calling the Faithful to prayer, and he became the first Mu‟adhdhin of Islam. As he stammered and mispronounced the Arabic letter 'Shin' as 'Sin', he could not give the call correctly, but the perfection of his heart atoned for the fault of his tongue.

Bani-Hashim: The family to which Prophet Muhammad belonged. Bastinado: A form of corporal punishment in which the soles of the
feet are exposed and beaten with a stick.

Batha: Mecca Bayan: Literally, “Explanation, exposition, utterance”. The Persian
Bayan, revealed by the Bab in the fortress of Mah-Ku is His chief doctrinal work. It is described in God Passes By (pp. 24-25) as a "monumental repository of the laws and precepts of the new Dispensation and the treasury enshrining most of the Bab's references and tributes to, as well as His warning regarding, „Him Whom God will make manifest‟” (Baha‟u‟llah) …this Book of about eight thousand verses, occupying a pivotal position in Babi literature, should be regarded primarily as a eulogy of the Promised One rather than a code of laws and ordinances designed to be a permanent guide to future generations." The Bab also wrote "the smaller and less weighty Arabic Bayan."

Bell, Alexander Graham: (1847-1922) „Scottish inventor
and teacher of elocution and speech correction. He went to live in Canada in 1870. He developed a method of teaching speech to the deaf and in 1873 became professor of vocal physiology at Boston University. In 1876 he obtained a patent for the telephone, which he developed during long evening sessions with the mechanic Thomas Watson. His other inventions included the photophone, a device that transmitted sound on a beam of light, and the graphophone, which recorded sound on wax discs.‟ At the time of „Abdu‟lBaha‟s visit he lived in Washington DC.

Beloved of Martyrs, the: Title given to Mirza
Muhammad-Husayn, who was martyred along with his brother Mirza Muhammad-Hasan-known as the King of the Martyrs -- at the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir of Isfahan.

Bifarma’id: Persian version of Bismillah, meaning “Please”. It is
used when inviting those present to participate in an activity

Bihar: Reference to Shi‟ih tradition. Biharu’l-Anvar: A compilation of Shi‟ih traditions Biruni: Outer quarters, or men's quarters, in a Persian home Bismillah: (Arabic). Literally means: In the name of God. In the 19th
century Middle East, it was often used as 'Please'. It is used when inviting those present to participate in an activity.

Black Elk: (1863-1950) An Oglala Lakota Sioux Indian who was a
holy man among the Lakota. He had a prophetic vision about the destiny of his people.

Black Pit: (Siyah-Chal): The subterranean dungeon of Tehran which
Baha‟u‟llah was imprisoned August-December 1852 and in which He received the first intimations of His divine mission

Black Standard: According to Islamic tradition, the flag alluded
to by Muhammad that would one day signify the advent of the promised Mihdi.

Book of the Covenant: A translation of Kitab-i-„Ahd or
Kitab-i-„Ahdi, meaning "the Book of the, or My, Covenant": Baha‟u‟llah‟s last will and testament, written in His own hand, it designates 'Abdu'l-Baha as His successor and the Center of His Covenant and provides for the continuation of divine authority over the affairs of the Baha‟i Faith in the future.

Book of Fatimih: The book revealed by Gabriel far Fatimih, the
daughter of Prophet Muhammad, as consolation after her Father's death. It is believed by Shi'ih Islam that this book would be in the possession of the Qa‟im, their Promised One,. This book is identified in the Baha‟i Faith with the

Hidden Words, revealed by Baha‟u‟llah.

Bosch, John: (1855-1946) California vintner who became a Baha‟i
in 1905 and subsequently changed his profession. His property at Geyserville, California, was used as a permanent Baha'i summer school from 1927 and was deeded to the American National Spiritual Assembly in 1936.

Bourgeois, Louis: (d. 1930) French-Canadian architect who
became a Baha‟i in the winter of 1906-7 and moved to West Englewood, New Jersey, to assist in the development of the Baha‟i community. His design was chosen for the Mahriqu‟l-Adhkar in Wilmette.

Branch or branches: A description referring to the male
members of Baha‟u‟llah‟s family.

Breed, Alice Ives: (b. 1851) Well-known society and club
woman of Boston and one of the early Baha‟is in the United States. She was the wife of Francis W. Breed and the mother of Florence Breed, who married Ali Kuli Khan.

British mandate: Authorization given to Great Britain by the
League of Nations to govern parts of the former territories of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. These territories included Iraq and Palestine.

Brown, Professor Edward Granville: (18621926) Distinguished British orientalist from Cambridge who studied and published many books and articles on the Babi and Baha‟i religions and who had four interviews with Baha‟u‟llah in 'Akka in 1890. He is best known to Bahi'is for his pen-portrait of Baha'u'llah.

Bryan, William Jennings: American politician who
became Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson. He had tried to visit „Abdu‟l-Baha while on his travels near „Akka but had been unable to do so. 'Although he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan was for many years a leader of the Democratic Party and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Woodrow Wilson in 1912. He . . . negotiated treaties with 30 countries, representing three-fourths of the world's population, for investigation of disputes before resorting to war. He published a paper called The Commoner and gave lectures advancing the cause of prohibition, of religion and of morality. Because of his opposition to war, he resigned from offce in 1915 in protest against the sinking of the Lusitania. After the war he moved to Florida and worked to advance moral and religious causes.' Compton‟s Encyclopidia, America Online edition, January 1, 1993.

Buddha: Literally Enlightened One: title given to Siddhartha Guatama
(c. 6th- c. 4th century B.C.), Whom Baha‟is consider to be a Prophet, or Messenger of God. He is recognized as the founder of Buddhism.

Burning Bush: See Exod. 3.V.2. Symbolic of God's presence in

the heart of Moses.

Caiaphas: The Jewish high priest who presided at the court which
tried and condemned Jesus.

Cain and Abel: The two sons of Adam and Eve. See Genesis 4
and Qur'an, Surih 5.

Calendar, Baha'i: Year consisting of 19 months of 19 days
each, with the addition of certain "intercalary days” (four in ordinary and five in leap years) between the 18th and l9th months in order to adjust the calendar to the solar year. Naw-Ruz, the Baha'i new year, is astronomically fixed, commencing at the vernal equinox (21 March). The Baha‟i era (BE) begins with the year of the Bab‟s declaration (1844 CE).

Caliphs: Also known in the west as Caliphate: Literally, "successors" or
"vicegerents” to the Prophet Muhammad in the Sunni branch of Islam." The Shi‟ih branch of Islam holds that the successors of the Prophet must be the members of His own family, but they do not use the title Khalifih or "Caliph." The Sultan of Turkey assumed this title early in the 16th century.

Caravansary: A Middle Eastern inn surrounding a court in which
caravans can rest at night.

Carmel, Mount: One of the sacred spots in Baha'i history, where
are the shrines of the Bab and of 'Abdu‟l-Baha and memorials to other members of 'Abdu‟l-Baha‟s family.

Center of the Covenant: A title of 'Abdu‟l-Baha referring
to His appointment by Baha‟u‟llah as the successor to whom all must turn after Baha‟u‟llah‟s passing.

Central Figures: Term used to refer collectively to Baha‟u‟llah,
the Bab, and „Abdu'l-Baha.

Chase, Thomton: (1847-1912) Called by „Abdu'l-Baha 'the first
American believer', Chase became a Baha‟i in 1894 in Chicago and was the principal organizer of the Chicago Baha‟i community. He founded the Behais Supply and Publishing Board in 1900, which was incorporated as the Baha‟i Publishing Society in 1902. He wrote a number of pamphlets about the Baha‟i Faith, an introductory book, The Baha‟i Revelation, and an account of his pilgrimage in 1907, In Galilee. He was given the name Thabit (Steadfast) by „Abdu'l-Baha and was named a Disciple of „Abdu‟l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi. His grave site in Inglewood, California, is visited annually by the Baha‟is.

Cherubim: In the Bible the Cherubim appear as distinct from the
angels who are Jehovah's messengers, while the Cherubim are found where God is personally present: e.g. "And he [God] rode upon a cherub." (Psalms 18:10). Figures of Cherubim were wrought into the hangings of the Holy of Holies and were represented above the Mercy Seat within. In later tradition,

the Cherubim were included among the nine orders of angels.

Christ: (c. 6-4 B.C.-A.D. 30) Recognized by Baha‟is as a Prophet, or
Messenger of God, and the founder of Christianity. The Baha‟i writings often refer to Christ as "the Spirit of God" and "the Son."

Circumambulation: Literally to circle on foot, especially
ritualistically. A Muslim custom by which one expresses devotion for the Prophets of God or other holy souls.

City of Certitude: A condition of high spiritual attainment. Constantinople: Present-day Istanbul, the former capital of the
Ottoman Empire to which Baha‟u‟llah was banished in 1863.

Consultation: A form of discussion between individuals and within
groups which requires the subjugation of egotism so that all ideas can be shared and evaluated with frankness, courtesy, and openness of mind, and decisions arrived at can be wholeheartedly supported. Its guiding principles were elaborated by 'Abdu'l-Baha.

Continental Boards of Counselors: An
institution of the Baha‟i Administrative Order established by the Universal House of Justice in 1968 to extend into the future the work of the institution of the Hands of the Cause of God, particularly its appointed functions of protection and propagation. With the passing of Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, there was no way for additional Hands of the Cause to be appointed.. Its members are appointed to five-year terms by the Universal House of Justice and serve in five zones - Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. The duties of the Counsellors include directing the Auxiliary Boards in their respective areas, advising and collaborating with National Spiritual Assemblies, and keeping the Universal House of justice informed concerning the conditions of the Faith in their areas.

Convention: A gathering called at a regional, national, or
international level for consultation on matters affecting the welfare of the Baha'i community and for the purpose, respectively, of electing delegates to a National Convention, electing members of a National Spiritual Assembly, or electing members of the Universal House of Justice.

Cooper, Ella: (1870-1951) Prominent American Baha'i teacher who
accepted the Faith in 1898 and, with her mother Helen Goodall, helped establish the first Baha‟i community on the American West coast, in Oakland. She was among the third group of Western pilgrims to visit 'Akka, in March 1899. After her second pilgrimage in 1908 she and her mother published a small book, Daily Lessons Received at Acca.

Copt: The Copts were descendants of the ancient Egyptian stock. They
were unbelievers in the time of Moses. The Septs were the tribes of Israel.

Covenant: A pact that involves obligations by both parties. According
to Baha‟u‟llah, God has always guided and instructed humanity through a succession of Divine Messengers, Whom humanity has the obligation to accept and obey. This is called the Greater Covenant. The Lesser Covenant is that made between a Messenger and His followers. A reference to the provisions made in the Baha‟i writings concerning the succession of authority in the Baha‟i Faith after the passing of Baha‟u‟llah and the structure of the Baha‟i Administrative Order. Baha‟u‟llah‟s Covenant with His followers designates „Abdu'l-Baha as the perfect exemplar, and the Center of the Covenant and confers upon him the authority to interpret Baha‟u‟llah‟s writings. The Covenant also formally established the institutions of the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice as the twin successors of Baha‟u‟llah and „Abdu'l-Baha.

Covenant-breaker: A Baha‟i term used to describe a Baha‟i
who attempts to disrupt the unity of the Baha‟i Faith by publicly denying the line of succession (i.e., Baha‟u‟llah, 'Abdu'l-Baha & Shoghi Effendi, and the Universal House of Justice), or who rebels against the head of the Faith and actively works to undermine the Covenant. Baha‟is who persist in these activities may be removed from membership in the Baha‟i Faith. This is a very rate occurrence.

Crimson Ark: Each of the past Dispensations was referred to as an
"Ark." This refers to the Cause of Baha'u'llah.

Crimson Book: Baha'u'llah's Book of the Covenant. See God
Passes By, p. 238.

Crimson Pillar: An allusion to the Religion of Baha‟u‟llah,
crimsoned with the blood of martyrs.

Day Star of Muhammad: Symbol of the Prophet as
enlightening the world.

Dayyan, Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Khuy: A Babi on
whom the Bab conferred the designation 'Dayyan' (lit. 'conqueror' or 'judge'). After the martyrdom of the Bab, a number of His followers turned to Dayyan for guidance. He claimed to be 'He Whom God shall make manifest' but after meeting Baha‟u‟llah in Iraq he retracted the claim. Mirza Yahya instigated the murder of Dayyan in Baghdad, 'whom he feared and envied'. Dayyan was the third to recognize Baha'u'llah's true station before His Declaration.

D'Evelyn, Dr Frederick: Learned and staunch San
Francisco Baha‟i, elected chairman of the local community in 1911. He was encouraged by „Abdu‟l-Baha to plan the first International Baha‟i conference, in 1915.

Dervish: Literally beggar, poor one: the name given to one of many
orders of religious mendicants and Islamic mystics.

Dhabih: Means “sacrifice”, title given by Baha‟u‟llah to the famous
Baha‟i and brother of Mirz Jani of Kashan (see The Dawn-Breakers).

Dhi’l-Jawshan: An Arabian term meaning "clad in armor",
applied to Mulla 'Abdu'llah the arch-killer of Imam Husayn.

Divine Elixir: Symbolic reference to the elixir of the alchemists,
that was supposed to transform base metals into gold. It also symbolically represents the power of faith to confer eternal life upon man; from "elixir", an imaginary liquor supposed to prolong human life indefinitely.

Divine Lote-Tree: A reference to the tree beyond which there
is no passing-in ancient times, the tree that Arabs planted to mark the end of a road. In Islam, the term symbolizes the point in the heavens beyond which neither humans nor angels can pass in their approach to God, thus delimiting the bounds of divine knowledge as revealed to humankind. In Baha‟i usage it is a reference to the Messenger of God -i.e., Baha‟u‟llah

Divine Messenger: Prophet of God. The Great Saul, the AllPerfect One through whom such a Revelation is given.

Divine Messiah: The Divine King and Deliverer expected by the
Hebrews.

Diya Pasha, Yusuf: Turkish Ambassador to the United States
at the time of „Abdu‟l-Baha‟s visit.

Douglass, Frederick: (1817- 95) An African-American
political leader who was at the forefront of the abolition movement and the women's rights movement.

Dispensation: The period of time during which the laws and
teachings of a Prophet or Manifestation of God have spiritual authority. A dispensation begins with the Manifestation's declaration of His mission and ends with the advent of the next Manifestation of God.

Diyar-Bakr: A commercial city on the banks of the Tigris River in
Turkey.

Dodge, Arthur Pillsbury: (1849- 1915) Lawyer,
publisher, inventor and self-made man who became a Baha‟i in 1897. He was named a Disciple of „Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Dreyfus, Hippolyte: (1873-1928) Prominent French lawyer
and the first Frenchman to become a Baha‟i, in 1901. He wrote a number of works on the Baha‟i Faith and translated several of Baha‟u‟llah‟s writings into French. In 1911 he married Laura Clifford Barney with whom he had worked on a French translation of Some Answered Questions. He was named a Disciple of „Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Dreyfus-Barney, Laura: (1879-1974) Prominent
American Baha‟i who accepted the Faith in Paris around 1900. She made a number of extended visits to „Akka, asking- questions of „Abdu'l-Baha, the answers to which she later compiled as Some Answered Questions. She was twice decorated by the French government for her services to humanity.

Elijah: Hebrew prophet who taught that there is only one God. Fand (Fareed), Dr Aminu'llAh: Nephew of „Abdu'lBaha‟s wife and a member of „Abdu'l-Baha's entourage, serving as translator for many of His talks. He began to solicit funds clandestinely from the American Baha‟is, using a seal of „Abdu'l-Baha's which he had stolen. He was later declared a Covenant-breaker for his disobedience to „Abdu'l-Baha.

Farman: An order, command, or royal decree. Farman-Farma: Title of Prince Husayn 'Ali Mirzia grandson of
Fath- 'Ali-Shah of Persia.

Farmer, Sarah Jane: (1847-1916) American philanthropist
who became a Baha‟i upon meeting „Abdu‟l-Baha in 'Akka in 1900. She gave Green Acre, her property at Eliot, Maine, to the Faith for use as a permanent Baha‟i summer school. She was named a Disciple of „Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Fath’u’llah: One of three Babis who together attempted but failed
to assassinate the shah in 1852, leading to a wave of persecution against the Babis and resulting in Baha‟u‟llah‟s arrest and imprisonment in Tehran.

Fath-‘Ali Shah: A shah of Persia during the Qajar dynasty whose
reign lasted from 1798to 1834. He gave the title "Buzurg, "meaning "Great," to Baha‟u‟llah‟s father.

Fatimih: The daughter of Prophet Muhammad and Khadijh. She
married 'Ali, the cousin of Muhammad, and had three sons. One died in infancy and from the other two, Hassan and Husayn, are descended the posterity of the Prophet known as Siyyids.

Fi Aman'u'llah: (Arabic) 'May God protect you.' Used in
dismissing a visitor.

First Leaf of Paradise: Quotation is from Baha'u'llah's
Tablet "Words of Paradise" which has eleven numbered sections each called a "leaf."

Fujita, Saichiro: (1886-1976) Young Japanese man who
became a Baha‟i in Oakland, California, in 1905, the second Japanese in the world to accept the Faith. He was invited by „Abdu'l-Baha to travel with His entourage to California from Chicago. For a time he lived with the family of Corinne True and in 1919 was invited to serve „Abdu‟l-Baha in the Holy Land.

He served the Master and afterwards Shoghi Effendi until 1938, when he went to Japan for the duration of the second world war. In 1955 he returned to the Holy Land where he served Shoghi Effendi and then the Hands of the Cause and the Universal House of Justice.

Gabriel: Said to be the highest of the angels, and to hover aver the
throne of God and shelter it with his wings. It represents the Holy Spirit. It is his duty to write down the decrees of God; through him the Qur‟an was revealed to Muhammad.

Galilee: A hilly region in northern Israel, the site of Jesus' ministry. Garden of Ridvan (Paradise): Name given by
Baha‟u‟llah to the Garden of Najibiyyih in Baghdad, where He publicly declared His mission in April 1863. He later gave the same name to the Na‟mayn Garden near Acre.

Getsinger, Dr Edward: (1866-1935) Early American
believer who had become a Baha‟i by 1897. He and his wife Lua were the first American-born Baha'is to visit 'Abdu'l-Baha, remaining in the Holy Land from November 1898 to March 1899.

Getsinger, Lua: (1871-1916) Born Louisa A. Moore; an
outstanding early American Baha‟i traveling teacher who accepted the Faith in Chicago in April 1897 and traveled widely in the United States, Europe, and India. She and her husband, Edward, played a central role in opposing Kheiralla when he began to question the authority of „Abdu'l-Baha. She was among the first Western pilgrims to visit 'Abdu'l-Baha in Acre in 1898. Lua devoted nearly all her time to teaching the Faith, spending much time away from home. In 1914-15 „Abdu'l-Baha sent the Getsingers on a teaching trip to India. Lua went on to 'Akka and then Egypt, where she died of an illness she had contracted in India. She was given the title 'Herald of the Covenant' by „Abdu'l-Baha and was named a Disciple of „Abdu'l-Baha and 'Mother Teacher of the West' by Shoghi Effendi.

Goodale, Mr and Mrs Henry L: Baha‟is from
Kenosha, Wisconsin in whose home 'Abdu'l-Baha stayed for one night on September 15, 1912.

Goodall, Helen: (1847-1922) Prominent American Baha‟i
teacher who accepted the Faith in 1898 and, with her daughter Ella Cooper, helped establish the first Baha‟i community on the American West coast, in Oakland. After her first pilgrimage in 1908 she and her daughter published a small book, Daily Lessons Received at Acca. She was named a Disciple of „Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Grand Vizier: Prime minister. Greatest Branch: A title given by Baha‟u‟llah to „Abdu'l-Baha
emphasizing „Abdu‟l-Baha‟s station in relation to Baha‟u‟llah.

Greatest Holy Leaf: A title given by Baha‟u‟llah to Bahiyyih
Khanum, the saintly daughter of Baha‟u'llah and Asiyih Khanum who beseeched her father to allow her to remain unmarried in order to devote herself to the service of His Faith. She was designated as the outstanding heroine of the Baha‟i Dispensation.

Gregory, Louis: (1874-1951) Prominent American Baha'i
traveling teacher and advocate of racial unity. The son of Georgia slaves, Gregory was admitted to the bar in 1907 and became a Baha'i in June 1909. His marriage to Louisa Mathew, a white English Baha‟i, in September 1912 was the first Baha‟i interracial marriage in America. Gregory traveled extensively throughout the American states teaching the Baha'i Faith, particularly among blacks in the South. He was elected to the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity in 1912 and to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States in 1922. He was the only black to serve on either body until 1946. He was posthumously appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi.

Gallipoli: A seaport that lies west-southwest of present-day Istanbul. Ghusn-i-A'zam: 'The Most Great Branch' A title of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Guardian of the Cause of God and Guardianship: The institution, anticipated by Baha‟u‟llah in the
Kitab-i-Aqdas and created by „Abdu‟l-Baha in his Will and Testament, to which Shoghi Effendi was appointed. He held this office from 1921 until his death in 1957. The Guardian's chief functions were to interpret the writings of Baha‟u‟llah, the Bab, and „Abdu‟l-Baha, to guide the development of the Baha‟i world community, and to be the permanent head of the Universal House of Justice.

Ha: The letter H, the number of which is 5 in Abjad numerical system
where each letter of Arabic alphabet has a number. It is sometimes used as a symbol of Baha‟u‟llah.

Hadith: Arabic means 'Tradition'. A sacred tradition of Islam. Haifa: Seaport located in present-day Israel where the Baha‟i World
Center is located

Haji Mirza Aqasi: (d. 1849) Prime minister of Persia under
Muhammad Shah, he prevented the meeting of Muhammad Shah and the Bab, ordered the successive imprisonments of the Bab in Mah-Ku and Chihriq, and saw to the arrest of Baha‟u‟llah. He fell from power after the death of Muhammad Shah and died poor and abandoned.

Haji Mirza Karim Khan: A pretender to knowledge, author
of a book "Guidance to the Ignorant" ("Irshadu'l-'Avam"), whose works

perished with him.

Haji Nasir: (of Kazim) One of the martyrs of Shaykh Tabarsi. (See
Travellers Narrative, p. 307.)

Haji Shaykh Muhammad-‘Ali: A Baha'i merchant
from Qazvin, Persia, who resided in Istanbul at the time of Baha'u'llah's sojourn there.

Haji Sulayman Khan: A courageous Babi sent by
Baha‟u‟llah to Tabriz to recover the body of the Bab. He was himself martyred in Tehran two years after the Bab.

Hajj: Pilgrimage taken by Muslims to Mecca at least once in a lifetime, as
instituted in the Koran.

Hall, Albert Heath: (1958-1920) Lawyer, the son of a
minister, who became a Baha‟i between 1900 and 1903. While he was handling the case for the defense of Fred Mortensen, he taught the young man the Faith. Hall was president of the Executive Board of the Baha‟i Temple Unity from 1911 to 1914.

Haman: Chief Minister of Pharaoh. Hamzih: The "Prince of Martyrs," the title given to Prophet
Muhammad's uncle.

Handmaid or Handmaiden: A poetic term used in the
Baha‟i writings to refer to a female member of the Baha‟i community

Hands of the Cause of God: Eminent Baha‟is
appointed by Baha‟u‟llah, and later by Shoghi Effendi, who were charged with the specific duties of protecting and propagating the Faith. (Four individuals were recognized posthumously as Hands of the Cause by 'Abdu'l-Baha) With the passing of Shoghi Effendi, there was no further possibility for appointing Hands of the Cause; hence, in order to extend into the future the important functions of propagation and protection, the Universal House of Justicein 1968 created Continental Boards of Counsellors and in I973 established the International Teaching Centre, which coordinates their work.

Hannen, Joseph: (1872-1920) Leading Washington Baha‟i and
active teacher of the Faith who became a Baha'i shortly after his wife, Pauline. Along with his wife, he pioneered teaching the Faith to blacks in the United States. Among those they taught was Louis Gregory. In 1916 'Abdu'lBaha sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He was named a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi.

Hannen, Pauline: (1874-1939) American Baha‟i teacher and
advocate of racial unity who accepted the Faith in Washington DC in November 1902. She taught several members of her family the Faith,

including her husband Joseph and her sisters Fanny Knobloch and Alma Knobloch. Overcoming her own racial prejudice, she began to teach blacks in Washington, opening her home for Baha‟i meetings. She also organized the Baha‟i children's classes in the city.

Haram: Means 'sanctuary'. It refers to an area near the Kaba in which
blood revenge was forbidden, and also to four months in the Arabic Calendar to which the same prohibition applied.

Harmon, W.W: Boston metaphysician and Theosophist who
revered „Abdu‟l-Baha, supported the Baha‟i teachings and associated with the Baha‟i community. His controversial explanation of the Baha‟i writings caused a rift in the American Baha‟i community.

Harris, Hooper: (1866-1934) American lawyer who became a
Baha‟i in New York City in 1899. He answered the call of 'Abdu‟l-Baha in 1906 for an American to go to India to teach the Cause, leaving New York that year with Harlan Ober. They first went to 'Akka to receive instructions from the Master. 'Abdu'l-Baha sent with them two Iranian teachers, neither of whom could speak English: the elderly Hand of the Cause lbn-i-Abhar and Mirza Mahmud.

Haydar 'Ali, Haji Mirza: (c. 1830-1920) Prominent
Persian Baha'i known by Western Baha‟is as the 'Angel of Carmel'. He became a Babi and later met Baha‟u‟llah in Adrianople. He suffered many years of persecution and imprisonment in Egypt and the Sudan because of his fidelity to the Cause of Baha‟u‟llah. In his later years He served the Master in Haifa. He is the author of the interesting narrative called Bahjatus Sudour.

Haziratu'l-Quds: Arabic, means „The Sacred Fold': Official title
designating headquarters-of Baha‟i administrative activity.

He (or Him) Whom God Will Make Manifest: Title that the Bab used to refer to the Promised One Whose
advent was imminent- i.e., Baha‟u‟llah.

Hearst, Phoebe Apperson: (1842-1919) American
philanthropist and mother of the newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst. She was a supporter of Green Acre and met Sarah Farmer in 1897. In 1898 the Getsingers called on her and she became interested in the Faith. She organized and financed the first pilgrimage of western Baha‟is to 'Akka in 1898-9. She financed a number of Baha'i teachers and some Baha‟i publications, including the first English translation of the Arabic Hidden Words. She began to distance herself from the Faith after some adverse newspaper publicity.

Herod: Herod I ("The Great"). An Idumaean by race, but brought up a
Jew. He was appointed by the Roman Senate in 40 B.C. as King of Judea. He rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem.

Hijaz: A region in southwestern Arabia which may be considered the
holy land of the Muslims since it contains the sacred cities of Medina and Mecca and many other places connected with the history of Muhammad. The "language of Hijaz" is Arabic.

Hisamu’s-Saltanih: Title of Prince Murad Mirza, grandson of
Fath-'Ali Shah of Persia.

Hoar, William H.: (1856-1922) Early American Baha'i, named
a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Baha by Shoghi Effendi. Hoar heard of the Faith at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893 and became a Baha‟i in January 1896. He was instrumental in forming the first Baha‟i consultative body in New York, the New York Baha'i Board of Counsel, elected on December 7, 1900. He was elected to the Executive Board of the Baha‟i Temple Unity in 1909, serving for three years.

Holy Days: Eleven days commemorating significant Baha'i
anniversaries, on nine of which work is suspended.

House of ‘Abbud: A house in Acre that once belonged to Ilyas
'Abbud and stands adjacent to the house of „udi Khammar (the two connected houses are known today as the House of „Abbud). It was occupied by Baha‟u‟llah and His family from late 1873 until June 1877, when He left Acre for Mazra„ih.

Howdah: A seat or covered pavilion on the back of a mule or camel. Hud: A prophet sent to the tribe of „Ad. He was descended from Noah and
Shem and is referred to in the Qur'an in surih 7:63-70; surih 11:5263; and in surih 26:123-139. He summoned the people to the worship of One God, but was rejected.

Huququ’llah: Arabic for "the Right of God." As instituted n the
Kitab-i-Aqdas, Baha‟u‟llah‟s Book of Laws, payment to "the Authority in the Cause to whom all must turn" (at present, the Universal House of Justice) of 19 percent of what remains of one's personal income after one's essential expenses have been covered. Funds generated by the payment of Huququ‟llah are used for the promotion of the Faith and for the welfare of society.

Husayn Khan, Mirza (Mushiru'dDawlih): Persian ambassador to Constantinople in the time of
Baha‟u‟llah. Although involved in the banishment of Baha‟u‟llah from Baghdad, he testified at the court of Nasiri'd-Din Shah to the dignity, majesty and high-mindedness of Baha‟u‟llah.

Ibn-i-Anas and Asbahi: Two Arab zealots who directly
took part in the murder of Imam Husayn.

Ibn-i-Mas’ud: 'Abdullah Ibn-i-Mas‟ud, one of the early Arab
Muslims at the time of Muhammad.

Ibn-i-Suriya: A learned Jewish Rabbi at the time of Muhammad. Imam 'Ali: The first Imam of Shi‟ah Islam. He was the cousin and
first disciple of Prophet Muhammad; husband of Muhammad's daughter, Fatimih, and through his son Husayn, ancestor of Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad, the Bab.

Imam Husayn: In Shi'ih Islam, the third Imam, son of „Ali and
Fatimih and grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. He was martyred at Karbala, Iraq, in 680 AD., making Karbala a point of pilgrimage for Shiite Muslims.

Imam-Jum’ih: Chief of the mullas; the Muslim leader who recites
the Friday prayers in the mosque.

Imam-Jum’ih of Isfahan: Mir Muhammad Husayn, "the
She-Serpent" (successor in this post to his brother Mir Siyyid Muhammad who befriended the Bab-see Dawn-Breakers). He, with "the Wolf," Shaykh Muhammad Baqir persecuted theBaha‟is and brought about the death of Mirza Muhammad Hasan and Mirza Muhammad Husayn (The King and the Beloved of Martyrs), who were decapitated together.

Imams: Title of the twelve Shi'ih successors of Prophet Muhammad. 'Imran: The father of Moses and Aaron; See Qur'an, surih 3: 30 and
the Bible, Exodus 6:20.

Insh‘allah: Arabic meaning 'God willing'. International Teaching Center: An institution
established by the Universal House of Justice in 1973 to bring to fruition the work of the Hands of the Cause of God in the Holy Land and to provide for its extension into the future. The duties of the International Teaching Center include coordinating and stimulating the activities of the Continental Boards of Counselors, serving as the liaison between them and the Universal House of Justice, keeping fully informed of the condition of the Baha‟i Faith throughout the world, and stimulating the development of social and economic life both within and outside the Baha‟i community. The membership of the International Teaching Centre comprises the surviving Hands of the Cause and also nine Counsellors appointed by the Universal House of Justice. The scat of the International Teaching Centre is located at the Baha‟i 'World Centre in Haifa, Israel. Its Counselor members are appointed to a five-year term.

‘Iraq: Part of the Turkish Empire in 1862. Now an Arab Kingdom with
Baghdad as its capital.

Isaiah: A Hebrew Prophet of the eighth century B.C.; also a book of the
Bible.

Isfahan: An important city in central Persia. Isfandiyar: Loyal servant of the household of Baha'u'llah, a member
of the family entrusted with marketing and other family affairs. Despite the great danger to his own life when Baha‟u‟llah was imprisoned in the SiyahChal, he remained in the household to serve the holy family. Baha‟u‟llah‟s wife sent Isfandiyar to Mazandaran in northern Iran to be safe but he returned one week later to Tehran to personally pay the household's debts.

Ishqabad: (also Ashkhabad) Capital of present-day Turkmenistan,
site of the first Baha‟i Mashriqu'l-Adhkar.

Islam: Literally „Submission to the Will of God‟: The name given to the
religion of Prophet Muhammad, upheld by Baha‟is as divine in origin.

Ives, Rev Howard Colby: (c. 1876-1941) Unitarian
minister, pastor of the Brotherhood Church, Jersey City, New Jersey who became a Baha'i after meeting 'Abdu'l-Baha. His autobiography, Portals to Freedom, is an account of his conversion to the Baha‟i Faith. (Please see Baha‟i Heroes and Heroines).

Jani, Haji Mirza: Merchant who was the first to become a Babi
in Kashan. He was an early historian of the Babi Cause and was later martyred.

Javad: Haji Siyyid Javad, one of the earliest Babis, extolled by both the
Bab and later by Baha'u'llah whom he met in Baghdad.

Joseph: The son of Jacob, and in the Qur'an an inspired prophet. Kaaba or Ka'bih: Literally Cube: The cube-shaped building in
the center of the courtyard of the great Mosque at Mecca which contains the Black Stone. It is considered as a Shrine by Muslim world. It is the goal of Islamic pilgrimage and the point toward which Muslims turn in prayer.

Ka'b-Ibn-i-Ashraf: He was an implacable foe of Prophet
Muhammad. He conspired with the Prophet's arch-enemy, Abu Sufyan, to compass the Prophet's death.

Kamal, Haji Mirza: a famous Babi of high education who met
and recognized the station of Baha'u'llah in Baghdad before His declaration. He wished to tell the News to everyone and was sent back to Persia.

Kamal Pasha: One of the Turkish dignitaries at the Court of
Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz.

Karbila: A city about 55 miles southwest of Baghdad on the Euphrates.

It is viewed as a Holy city by Shi‟ih Muslims since Imam Husayn was martyred and buried there. It is considered in Islam as one of the two “supreme shrines”, the other being Najaf.

Karim: Arabic, means Honorable. Kawthar: A river in Paradise from which all other rivers flow. Part of
its waters are led into a great lake on the shores of which the souls of the faithful rest when they have crossed the terrible bridge which is laid over the midst of Hell.

Kazim: Mulla Kazim martyred in Isfahan. (See Travelers Narrative, p.
400 note).

Khadijih Khanum: The mother of Baha‟u‟llah and the second
wife of Mirza Buzurg.

Khan, Ali Kuli: (1879-1966) Distinguished Baha‟i and diplomat
who came to the United States in 1901 as a translator for Mitza Abu'l-Fadl. His marriage to Florence Breed in 1904 was the first marriage between a Persian and an American Baha'i. He was an early translator of some of the most important works of Baha'u'llah into English.

Khanum: Literally lady, wife. When it appears after a woman's given
name, it is an honorific meaning "gentlewoman."

Khaybar: A mountainous district on the northwest border of India. Kheiralla, Ibrahim George: (1849-1929) Syrian
Christian who became a Baha‟i around 1888. He migrated to the United States in 1892 and began to teach the Faith in New York. In 1894 the Faith began to establish itself in North America through his classes. He began to question the authority of 'Abddu‟l-Baha after February 1900 and eventually broke with the Baha‟i Faith, creating a crisis in the Baha‟i community.

Khidr: Name of a legendary immortal saint in Qura‟n. Khutbiy-i-Tutujiyyih: Title of an epistle in theology written
by Imam 'Ali.

Killius, Mr and Mrs Albert C.: Baha'is who
represented Spokane, Washington at the Fourth Annual Convention of the Baha'i Temple Unity in Chicago, April 27 to May 1, 1912.

King of Martyrs, the: A title referring to Mirza MuhammadHasan, an honored and wealthy citizen of Isfahan who was killed along with his brother at the instigation of the imam-jum‟ih of that city. Baha‟u‟llah gave him the title of the Beloved of Martyrs.

Kinney, Edward: (1863-1950) and Carrie: (1878-1959)
Wealthy New York Baha‟is. Edward, a musician, was introduced to the Baha'i

Faith by Howard MacNutt in the winter of 1895 and wrote to 'Abdu'l-Baha confirming his belief the same night. Carrie became a Baha‟i shortly afterwards. In 1907 'Abdu‟l-Baha asked the Kinneys to go to Egypt to help Zia Bagdadi establish the first tuberculosis hospital in Alexandria. On their return to New York their large home at 780 West End Avenue became a meeting place for Baha‟is. 'Abdu'l-Baha gave His first talk in America here on April 11, 1912. 'Abdu'l-Baha named Edward 'Saffa' (serenity) and Carrie 'Vaffa' (certitude).

Kitab-i-‘Ahd: Means, „The Book of the (or My) Covenant‟,
Baha‟u‟llah‟s will and testament, written in His own hand. It designates „Abdu'l-Baha as His successor and the one to whom all should turn for guidance after Baha‟u‟llah‟s death.

Kitab-i-Aqdas: Means, „The Most Holy Book‟, (Kitab, Arabic
means "book"; Aqda, Arabic means "Most Holy"), revealed in Acre in 1873, it is the chief repository of Baha‟u‟llah‟s laws and is considered by Baha‟is to be the charter of a future world civilization

Kitab-i-Iqan: Means: The Book of Certitude. Revealed by
Baha‟u‟llah in Baghdad in 1862 in response to questions from one of the Bab's uncles about the validity of his nephew's claim to be the Qa‟im (Literally He Who Arises: a reference to the Twelve Imam in Shia Islam)

Knight of Baha'u'llah: Title initially given by Shoghi Effendi
to those Baha'is who arose to open specified new territories to the Faith during the first year of the Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963) and subsequently applied to those who first reached the remaining unopened territories on the list at a later date.

Knobloch, Fanny: (1859-1949) One of three sisters (the
others are Alma Knobloch and Pauline Hannen) born in Germany who migrated to the United States. She became a Baha'i in Washington DC in 1904. She was the guest of 'Abdu'l-Baha while He was in Dublin, New Hampshire, and was invited to Paris as His guest in 1913. In 1923 she pioneered to South Africa.

Koran(Qur’an): Arabic, means literally „the reading; that which
ought to be read‟, the holy book of Islam, revealed in Arabic to Mohammad. It is comprised of 114suras, or chapters.

Krishna: Considered in Hinduism to be the eighth or ninth avatar, or
incarnation, of the God Vishnu. Baha‟is believe that Baha‟u‟llah is the return of the spirit of Krishna.

Krug, Dr Florian: (b. 1859) New York surgeon who was initially
opposed to the Faith but became a Baha‟i after meeting 'Abdu'l-Baha in 1912. It was he who closed the lids of the Master's eyes after He passed away.

Krug, Grace: (d. 1939) American Baha‟i teacher who heard of the

Faith around 1904, accepting it a few years later, despite initial opposition from her husband. She was in Haifa with her husband when 'Abdu'l-Baha passed away in November 1921.

Kufih: A city on the west hank of the Euphrates, which has now entirely
disappeared.

Lamp of God, The: The spiritual light shed by God's prophet. Land of Ta: Phrase used in the writings of Baha‟u‟llah to refer to
Tehran, Persia.

Lavassan: A rural district lying to the east of Tihran. Lawh-i-Fu’ad: Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha, Turkish Minister for Foreign
Affairs.

Lawh-i-Ra’is: Baha'u'llah's Tablet to the Grand Vizir 'Ali Pasha. Leaf or Leaves: a poetic term used in the Baha‟i writings to refer
to female members of the Baha'i community

Lesser Peace: A political peace to he established by the nations of
the world in order to bring about an end to war. Its establishment will prepare the way for the Most Great Peace, a condition of permanent peace and world unity to be founded on the spiritual principles and institutions of the World Order of Baha‟u‟llah and signalizing humanity's coming of age.

Letters of the Living: Refers collectively to the first
eighteen individuals who independently recognized and believed in the Bab. The first Letter of the Living was Mulla Husayn; the last was Quddus. Tahirih was the only female Letter.

Letters of Unity: Apostles of the Prophet Muhammad. Leviathan: An unidentified aquatic monster; whale or serpent. Local Spiritual Assembly: The local administrative body
of the Baha‟i community ordained in the writings of Baha‟u‟llah. Its nine members are elected annually from among the adult membership of the community and serve for one year. The Assembly oversees the affairs of the community. Its decisions are made after consultation.

Lunt, Alfred E.: (d. 1937) Prominent Boston Baha‟i lawyer who
became a Baha‟i shortly after hearing a lecture by Ali Kuli Khan in the winter of 1905. He was engaged by Sarah Farmer as her lawyer in her struggle to keep Green Acre in the hands of the Baha‟is. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Baha‟i Temple Unity and later of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States.

Luqman: A famous Islamic legendary figure noted for his wisdom.

(See Qur'an, Shrih 31.)

Ma’ani: A reference to the Imams as the repositories of the inner
meanings of the Word of God.

MacNutt, Howard: (d. 1926) Lawyer, company executive and
early New York Baha‟i. Howard learned of the Faith from Kheiralla in January 1898 and he and his wife, Mary, became Baha‟is shortly afterwards. They moved to Brooklyn in 1902 and became the nucleus of Baha‟i activity there. After observing a Nineteen Day Feast in' Akka in 1905, he and his wife helped to establish the Feast in North America, hosting what was perhaps the first Feast to be held in the country in May 1905. His ideas about the station of 'Abdu'l-Baha differed from those held by other Baha‟is and he fell out with some, particularly Arthur Dodge. He also failed to break off his relationship with Covenant-breakers when 'Abdu'l-Baha requested him to do so. He publicly repented of this in November 1912. He collected and edited 'Abdu'lBaha's talks given in America, publishing them as The Promulgation of Universal Peace.

Magi: A caste of priests and sages among the ancient Persians. Maiden: Term used in the Baha‟i writings to refer to the Spirit of God
which descended upon Baha‟u‟llah while He was in the Black Pit.

Maidservant or maidservants: A designation
applied to a female Baha‟i signifying recognition of her commitment to conform her life to the precepts of the religion

Maitreye: The Buddha of universal fellowship; One Whose
appearance is prophesied in Buddhism. Baha‟is believe Baha‟u‟llah to be the fulfillment of this prophecy.

Manifestation: The nature of a prophet or the Manifestation of
God is thus described in Gleanings from the Writings of Baha‟u‟llah (pp. 6667) : ". . . since there can be no tie of direct intercourse to bind the one true God with His creation, and no resemblance whatever can exist between the transient and the Eternal, the contingent and the Absolute, He hath ordained that in every age and dispensation a pure and stainless Soul be made manifest in the kingdoms of earth and heaven. . . . These Essences of Detachment, these resplendent Realities are the channels of God's allpervasive grace. Led by the light of unfailing guidance, and invested with supreme sovereignty, they are commissioned to use the inspiration of Their words, the effusions of Their infallible grace and the sanctifying breezes of Their Revelation for the cleansing of every longing heart and receptive spirit from the dross and dust of earthly cares and limitations.”

Manifestation of God: One who is the "expressimage" of
the perfections and attributes of God. The term used to describe a Prophet or Messenger of God Who is the Founder of a religious dispensation. The

Manifestations are not God descended to earth, but They reflect God's attributes, just as a mirror reflects the sun but is not the sun itself.

Marhaba: Arabic means 'Bravo', 'Well done', also 'Welcome'. Maryam: A cousin of Baha‟u‟llah who embraced the Babi Faith in its
early days. She helped take care of Baha‟u‟llah after His release from prison and remained a devoted and loyal follower throughout her life.

Mashriqu’l-Adhkar: Arabic means „The Dawning-place of the
Praise of God‟: title designating a Baha‟i House of Worship or Temple. Open to the public for devotional meetings, Baha‟i Houses of Worship have been constructed in Wilmette, near Chicago, Illinois; Kampala, Uganda; Ingleside, near Sydney, Australia; Langenhain, near Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Panama City, Panama; Apia, Western Samoa; and New Delhi, India. Plans for construction of one in Santiago, Chile, are underway. The first Bahi'i House of Worship, built in 1902 in 'Ishqabad, Turkmenistan, was damaged by an earthquake in 1948 and, following heavy rains, had to be razed in 1963.

Masjid-i-Shah: A great Mosque in Tihran built by Fath-'Ali Shah. Master, the: A title of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Mathew, Louisa: (1866-1956) British Baha'i who accepted the
Faith in Paris. She traveled with 'Abdu'l-Baha on the S.S. Cedric. 'Abdu‟l-Baha intimated to her that He would be pleased if she would marry Louis Gregory, whom she had met on pilgrimage. Their marriage in September 1912 was the first marriage between a black and a white Baha'i. From the 1920s Louisa spent most of the year teaching the Faith in Eastern Europe, returning to the United States in the summers to be with her husband.

Maxwell, Mary: (1910-2000) Hand of the Cause of God and
prominent Baha‟i lecturer and traveler. The daughter of Sutherland and May Maxwell, she married Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Baha‟i Faith, in 1937. Shoghi Effendi gave her the title Amatu‟l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum. Amatu'l-Bahá means "Handmaiden of Glory". She was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1952.

Maxwell, May Ellis Bolles: (1870-1940) Prominent
early American Baha'i and teacher of the Faith. She learned of the Faith in Paris when Phoebe Hearst brought her group of pilgrims through on the way to 'Akka. May joined the party, arriving in the Holy Land in February 1899. This marked her acceptance of the Faith. When she returned to Paris she formed the first Baha'i group in Europe. In 1902 she married William Sutherland Maxwell and moved with him to Montreal, where their home became a focus of teaching. Their daughter, Mary, was born in 1910. May traveled widely For the Faith and was named a martyr by Shoghi Effendi when she passed away in Buenos Aires.

Maxwell, William Sutherland: (1875-1952) Hand of

the Cause of God and outstanding Canadian architect. In 1902 he married May Ellis Bolles and their home in Montreal became a center of Baha'i activity. He became a Baha‟i after meeting 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka in 1909. After the passing of his wife in 1940, he moved to the Holy Land at the suggestion of Shoghi Effendi, who had married Sutherland's daughter Mary in 1937. He designed the superstructure for the Shrine of the Bab and supervised its construction. He was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1951.

Mazindaran: A northern province of Iran bordering the Caspian
Sea. Baha‟u‟llah's ancestral home was located there.

Mazra‘ih: A mansion situated just north of Acre that 'Abdu‟l-Baha
rented for Baha‟u‟llah. Baha‟u‟llah took up residence there in June 1877and stayed for two years before moving to the mansion of Bahji.

Mecca: The birthplace of Prophet Muhammad, the site of the Ka'bih,
and the most sacred city of Islam. Muhammad declared His Mission as a Manifestation of God in Mecca.

Medina: The city which sheltered Muhammad and where He is buried;
esteemed as second only to Mecca in sanctity.

Messenger: Term used in the Baha‟i writings to refer to a Prophet,
or Manifestation of God. Baha‟u‟llah likens the Messenger of God to a perfect mirror reflecting the sun; that is, His life and teachings are a pure reflection of the spiritual light, or attributes, of God, Who is the Source of life. The capacities of a Messenger of God are distinct from those of other humans, according to Baha‟i writings, although the human soul is also created to reflect the attributes of God and is capable of “limitless perfections”.

Mihdi: Literally „One Who Is Guided‟; term used by Muslims in reference
to One Whose appearance they await.

Midian: A city and district on the Red Sea, southeast of Mt. Sinai,
occupied by the descendants of Midian, son of Abraham and Keturah. See Qur'an, surih 7:83.

Mills, Mountfort: (d. 1949) Eminent lawyer who became a
Baha'i in 1906. He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada and prepared the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws of the National Spiritual Assernbly in 1927. He successfully appealed the case of the House of Baha‟u‟llah in Baghdad to the League of Nations.

"Mi'raj": The night journey of Prophet Muhammad with Gabriel. Mirza: A contraction of Amir-Zadih, meaning son of an Amir. When it
follows a name, it signifies "prince"; when it precedes, it means simply "Mister."

Mirza ‘Abbas Buzurg: (d. 1839) Also known as Mid „Abbs,
he was the father of Baha‟u‟llah. A vizier to a son of Fath-„Ali Shah and a governor under Muhammad Shah, he was respected for his artistic and intellectual abilities as well as his integrity and personal charm.

Mirza Abu'l-Qasim-i-Farahani: Entitled Qá'imMaqam, he was a contemporary of Bahá'u'lláh's father and a faithful friend of his, highly acclaimed at the court of Fath-'Ali Shah[Reigned 1797-1834] for his wisdom, uprightness, benevolence, courage and dignity as well as his learning and knowledge. He became Prime Minister in 1821 and continued to hold this position until the reign of Muhammad Shah (1834-48). He was a highly gifted writer whose compositions are considered to be among the best in the literary field. As a statesman he was very capable; 'Abdu'l-Bahá has described him as foremost in the whole of Persia. In a country where injustice and corruption were rife he upheld standards of justice and honesty. As a result his enemies conspired against him, poisoned the mind of the monarch and made him believe that his Prime Minister was about to overthrow him. These falsehoods gained credibility and Muhammad Shah became filled with fear. In 1835 Qá'im-Maqam was executed in Tihran by his orders. In the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh one can hardly find a word of praise directed at any of the authorities in Persia. However, He has paid a tribute to Qá'im-Maqam in the Words of Paradise (Kalimat-i-Firdawsiyyih). This is very unique, and indicative of the greatness of this man. He is not named, but is referred to in this Tablet as 'Prince of the City of Statesmanship and Literary Accomplishment'. Bahá'u'lláh finds that no actions on the part of Muhammad Shah were more heinous than the banishment of the Báb to the fortress of Mahku and the murder of Qá'im-Maqam. (Adapted from „The Revelation of
Baha'u'llah v 4, p. 221, by Adib Taherzadeh)

Mirza Ahmad: Alias, Mulla 'Abdu'l-Karim of Qazvin, a devoted
follower of the Bab and of Baha'u'llah and amanuensis of the Bab, who before His death sent through him His gifts and effects to Baha'u'llah.

Mirza ‘Ali-Akbar: A paternal cousin of the Bab and intimate
friend of Dayyan. He was murdered by the followers of Mirza Yahya.

Mirza Aqa Jan: (1837-1901) Secretary of Baha‟u‟llah who
accompanied Him throughout much of His exiles.

Mirza Aqa Khan: The prime minister of Persia from 1851 to
1858 under Nasiri‟d-Din Shah. He was related to Baha‟u‟llah through the marriage of his niece and made futile efforts to protect Baha‟u‟llah‟s relatives.

Mirza Buzurg Khan: The Persian consul-general in Baghdad
who, from his arrival there in 1860, allied himself with Shaykh „Abdu'lHusayn in an effort to destroy Baha‟u‟llah. After many futile attempts to discredit Baha‟u‟llah and take His life, they eventually succeeded in precipitating His transfer from Baghdad to Constantinople.

Mirza Hadi Dawlat-Abadi: A noted divine from Isfahan
who became a prominent follower of Mirza Yahya, later identified as his successor.

Mirza Husayn Khan, Mushiru’d-Dawlih: The
Persian Ambassador at thc Sublime Porte through whose influence Baha'u'llah was transferred from Baghdad to Constantinople. (see God Passes By, pp. 146 and 159).

Mirza Mihdi: (1848-70) Son of Baha‟u‟llah and brother of „Abdu‟lBaha who died at age twenty-two from injuries received in a tragic accident at the prison- barracks in Acre. He served as his Father's amanuensis. After his death Baha‟u‟llah bestowed on him the title of „The Purest Branch‟.

Mirza Musa: (d. 1887) Also known Aqay-i-Kalim. A younger brother
of Baha‟u‟llah who recognized the station of the Bab and of Baha‟u‟llah and faithfully served Baha‟u‟llah throughout His exiles. He often met with government officials and religious leaders on Baha‟u‟llah‟s behalf until „Abdu'lBaha assumed that function.

Mirza Mustafa: One of the Bab's followers who was executed at
Tabriz soon after the Bab's martyrdom.

Mirza Rida-Quli: One of Baha'u'llah's brothers who could not
recognize His station.

Mirza Safa: Haji Mirza Hasan-i-Safa, , an accomplice of Mirza
Husnyn Khan, in active hostility towards Baha'u'llah in Constantinople.

Mirza Taqi Khan: Prime minister of Persia under Nasiri‟d-Din
Shah who was involved in persecuting Babis at the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi, at Nayriz, and at Zanjan. He was also involved in the execution of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran and ordered the execution of the Bib. He later fell out of favor with the royal court and was killed by royal decree.

Mirza Vahhab-i-Khurasani: Also known as Mirza
Javad, a prominent early believer who lived during the ministry of the Bab and Baha'u'llah.

Monument Gardens: Beautifully landscaped gardens at the
heart of the Arc on Mount Carmel where befitting monuments have been erected over the graves of the daughter and the wife of Baha'u'llah, His son who died in prison in Acre, and the wife of 'Abdu'l-Baha.

Moody, Dr Susan I.: (1851-1934) American physician who
became a Baha‟i in 1903 in Chicago. At 'Abdu'l-Baha's invitation she went to Persia in 1909 to provide medical care for the Baha‟i women. She founded the Tarbiyat School for Girls in Tehran in 1910. She lived in Persia for 15 years.

Mortensen, Fred: (1887-1946) Juvenile delinquent who

became a Baha‟i through his lawyer, Albet Hall, and who 'rode the rods' to see 'Abdu'l-Baha in Green Acre. He spent many years teaching the Faith across the United States and was a member of the Chicago community for 21 years.

Moses: One of the six great Prophets, according to Islam. See Exodus
4:16, where God says to Moses: "thou shalt be to him instead of God"; and Exodus 7:l: "I have made thee a god to Pharaoh." Moses led the exodus from Egypt, which is now dated about 1440 B.C.

Mosque of Aqsa, The: The name by which the Temple of
Solomon in Jerusalem is referred to in the Qur'an.

Mosque of Sultan Salim: The site in Adrianople Mirza
Yahya chose for a public debate with and Baha‟u‟llah. The debate, which was suggested and organized by Mir Muhammad, never took place because Mirza Yahya did not attend.

Most Great Branch: A title of „ Abdu‟l-Baha. Most Great Idol: Title Baha‟u‟llah gave to Mirza Yahya referring
to Mirza Yahya‟s pretense in claiming to be a Messenger of God.

Most Great Name, The: A title of Baha‟u‟llah Most Great Peace: A condition of permanent peace and world
unity founded on spiritual principles and the second of two major stages in which Baha‟is believe peace will be established. The first stage, the Lesser Peace, refers to political peace established by the nations of the world. The Most Great Peace will then develop in gradual stages.

Most Great Separation: Phrase Baha‟u‟llah used to refer
to a period of two months, starting 10 March 1866, during which He lived in seclusion from the Babi community in Adrianople. This period allowed the Babis, both faithful and unfaithful, to decide where their allegiances lay.

Mott, Lucretia: (1793-1880) A Quaker minister who was active
in the movements for peace, women's rights, and the abolition of slavery. She was a primary organizer of the first women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, in June 1848.

Mount Carmel: The mountain spoken of by Isaiah as the
"mountain of the Lord." Today, the site of the Baha'i World Centre including several Baha'i holy places, the most important of which are the Shrine of the Bab and the Monument Gardens.

Muezzin: A Muslim crier who calls the hour of daily prayers. Mufaddal: A devoted follower of Imam Sadiq, who has handed down
many Muslim Shi‟ih traditions from the Amma.

Mufti: A professional jurist responsible for the interpretation of Islamic
law.

Muhammad: Lit. “The Praised One”. The Prophet and Founder of
Islam and Revealer of the Qur'an. Born August A.D. 570. Declared His Mission A.D. 613. He was the son of „Abdu‟llah of the family of Hashim. Fled to Medina A.D. 622, (See Some Answered Questions, pp. 22-29). Foretold by Moses, Deut. 18:I5; by St. John the Divine, Rev. 11 (see Some Answered Questions, p. 53 ff.). Baha‟is regard Muhammad as a Manifestation of God and His book, the Qur'an, as holy scripture.

Muhammad 'Ali, Mirza: (1853-1937) 'Abdu'l-Baha's halfbrother, the arch-breaker of Baha‟u‟llah‟s Covenant.

Muhammad 'Ali Mirza: Shah of Iran following the death of
Muzaffaru‟d-Din Shah in 1907. He abdicated in 1909.

Muhammad-Quli: A faithful half-brother of Baha‟u‟llah who
accompanied Him in His exiles.

Muhammad-Taqi Manshadi, Siyyid: Persian
Baha'i living in Haifa, and later Port Said, through whom Tablets and letters were sent and received. The Covenant-breakers attempted to win him to their cause but he remained loyal to 'Abdu'l-Baha.

Muharram: First month of the Muslim year, the first-ten days of
which are observed by Shi'ihs to commemorate the martyrdom of the Imam Husayn in Karbila

Mujtahid: A Muslim Doctor of Law. The highest rank of divine within
Shia Islam. One who has the power to make authoritative decisions on points of law in the name of the Hidden Imam.

Mulla: An Islamic cleric, theologian, or judge. Mulla 'Abdu'l-Khaliq-i-Yazdi: At first a Jewish priest,
he accepted Islam, joined the Shaykhi School and was converted by Mulla Husayn to the Babi Faith.

Mulla ‘Ali Jan: A believer of Mazindaran, martyred in Tihran. (see
God Passer By, p. 201)

Mulla 'Aliy-i-Baraqani: Uncle of Tahirih, one of the most
learned and famous members of the Shaykhi community. Being converted to the Babi Faith, he became in Tihran one of its most earnest and able expositors.

Mulla 'Aliy-i-Bastami: One of the Letters of the Living.
Sent on a special mission by the Bab from Shiraz in 1844, he became the first to suffer and to lay down his life in the path of this new Faith.

Mulla Baqir: A native of Tabriz and a man of great learning,
became a Letter of the Living. He was with Baha'u'llah in Ntur, Mazindaran and Badasht. Outlived all other Letters of the Living.

Mulla Husayn: (d. 1849) A leading follower of Siyyid Kazim, he
was the first to recognize the Bab as the Promised One, thereby earning the title Babu'l-Bab (Gate of the Gate) and becoming the first of the Bab's eighteen Letters of the Living. He was born in 1813. He was a student of Siyyid Kazim for nine years and a follower of the Bab for five years. He was a leader of the Babis during the siege at the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi, in which he was martyred on February 2, 1849.

Mulla Mihdiy-i-Khu'i: A close companion of Baha‟u‟llah and
tutor to the children of His household. Martyred at Tabarsi.

Mulla Muhammad-'Aliy-i-Zanjani: Surnamed
Hujjat. "One of the ablest and most formidable champions of the Faith" (Cod Passes By, p. 44), the leader of the Babis in what Lord Curzon called "the terrific siege and slaughter" they suffered at Zanjan where he with 1800 fellow disciples was martyred.

Mulla Ni'matu'llah-i-Mazindarani: A Babi
martyred at Shaykh Tabarsi.

Mulla Yusuf-i-Ardibili: A "Letter of the Living," martyred
at Shaykh Tabarsi.

Munirih Khanum: (d. 1938) Literally “Illumined”: the name
bestowed on Fatimih Khanum, who came to Acre at Baha‟u‟llah‟s invitation to marry „Abdu'l-Baha in 1873. She is also known as the Holy Mother.

Mustaghath: Literally, "He who is invoked." Referring to the
appearance of Baha'u'llah at the time announced by the Bab. By reference to the numerical value of this word, the Bab reveals the ninth year of this Era (A.D. 1853) as date of Baha‟u‟llah‟s manifestation.

Mutasarrif: Governor. Mystery of God: A title given by Baha‟u‟llah to „Abdu'l-Baha
alluding to the unique blend of human nature with a knowledge and perfection beyond the scope of ordinary men that was evident in „Abdu'lBaha.

Nabat: A Persian rock candy. Nabil: Literally noble, learned: surname of Mulla Muhammad-i-Zarandi,
who wrote the detailed history of the Babi Faith titled The Dawn-Breakers

Nabil-i-Zarandi, Nabil-i-A‘zam: (d. 1892) Nabil
literally means “noble, learned”. Title of Muhammad-i- Zarandi, the author of

The Dawn-Breakers. He learned about the Babi Faith at the age of 16 and met Baha‟u‟llah in 1851. He made several journeys on behalr of Baha‟u‟llah, was imprisoned in Egypt and is the only person known to have made the two pilgrimages to the House of the Bab in Shiraz and the House of Baha‟u‟llah in Baghdad in accordance with the rites set out by Baha‟u‟llah. After the passing of Baha‟u‟llah, and at the request of 'Abdu'l-Baha, he arranged a Tablet of Visitation from Baha‟u‟llah‟s writings which is now used in the Holy Shrines. Shortly afterwards, overcome with grief, he walked into the sea and drowned.

Nadr-Ibn-i-Harith: An opponent of Prophet Muhammad. Najaf: A city in south central Iraq that was the site of the martyrdom of
the Imam 'Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad whom Shia Muslims believe to be the Prophet's rightful successor. The shrine of the Imam „Ali is a place of pilgrimage for Shiites, and the city itself is considered holy.

Najaf-‘Ali: One of the 44 survivors of Zanjan who were brought to
Tihran and all of them executed save Najaf-'Ali, on whom an officer took pity. But some years later he was arrested again and beheaded. (See God Passes By, p. 178).

Nakhjavani, Mirza 'Ali-Akbar: Member of 'Abdu'lBaha‟s entourage. His son 'Ali Nakhjavani was elected to the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

Napoleon III: Emperor of France from 1852 until 1870. He
enjoyed two decades of prosperity until he led his country to defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71).

Nasiri’d-Din Shah: Shah of Iran, 1848-96. Under his reign the
Bab was executed and Baha‟u‟llah was imprisoned and exiled. Baha‟u‟llah addressed him in a tablet delivered by Badi', whose torture and death were consequently ordered by the shah. Called the "Prince of Oppressors” by Baha‟u‟llah, Nasiri'd-Din Shah was assassinated in 1896.

National Spiritual Assembly: The national
administrative body in the Baha'i Faith, ordained in the Baha'i sacred writings, with authority over all activities and affairs of the Baha'i Faith throughout its area. Among its duties are to stimulate, unify, and coordinate the manifold activities of Local Spiritual Assemblies and of individual Baha'is within its jurisdiction. The members of National Spiritual Assemblies throughout the world constitute the electoral college for the Universal House of Justice. At Ridvan 2002, there were 182 National or Regional Spiritual Assemblies.

Navvab:

Literally „Grace‟, „Highness‟: A title of great courtesy and

respect used by Persian noblemen for their wives. The title that Baha‟u‟llah addressed „Asiyih Khanum, His wife and mother of 'Abdu'l-Baha, BahiyyihKhaum, and Mirza Mihdi. Baha‟u‟llah designated her as the "Most Exalted

Leaf" and His "perpetual consort in all the wor1d.s of God."

Naw-Ruz: Literally New Day: the Babi, Baha‟i, Persian, and
Zoroastrian New Year's Day. It occurs on the date of the vernal equinox, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, normally falls on 21 March but sometimes on 20 or 22 March.

Nayriz: A town in southern Iran, near Shiraz. Two episodes occurring in
Nayriz in the province of Fars in 1850 and 1853, in which a number of Babis were forced to take up defensive positions against much superior Government forces. In both cases they were defeated by betrayal, followed by torture and massacres and cruel treatment of their women and children.

Nebuchadnezzar: King of Babylon. In 599 B.C. he captured
Jerusalem, and in 588 B.C. he destroyed the city and removed most of the inhabitants to Chaldaea.

Nimrod: In Muhammadan commentaries represented as the
persecutor of Abraham.

Nineteen Day Feast: A Baha‟i institution inaugurated by the
Bab and confirmed by Baha‟u‟llah in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. It is held on the first day of every Baha‟i month, each consisting of nineteen days and bearing the name of one of the attributes of God. The Nineteen Day Feast is the heart of Baha‟i community life at the local level and consists of devotional, consultative, and social elements. It is the principal gathering in each local Baha'i community, every Baha'i month, for the threefold purpose of worship, consultation, and fellowship.

Niyavaran: A village north of Tehran, in which there is a royal
residence.

Noah: A prophet to whom Muhammadans give the title of the "Prophet
of God," see Gen. 6:10 and Qur'an, surihs 11, 71, for an account of his life and of the Flood.

Nudbih, Prayer of: A "Lamentation" of the Imam 'Ali. Nur: Literally „light‟: A district of the province of Mazindaran in which
Baha‟u‟llah‟s ancestral home was located.

Nutt, Dr William Frederick: Early American Baha'i
active in Chicago who later broke the Covenant.

Ober, Harlan: (1881-1962) Early American Baha'i traveling
teacher. He learned of the Faith in 1905 and became a Baha'i in 1906. Shortly afterwards he traveled to India with Hooper Harris in answer to 'Abdu'l-Baha's call for American Baha‟is to visit the country. He served on the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity for a number of years. In 1912, at the suggestion of 'Ahdu'l-Baha, he married Grace Robarts; 'Abdu'l-Baha Himself

presided at the ceremony. His friendship with Louis Gregory took him on many teaching trips to the Southern states and he was much in demand as a public speaker. After the passing of his wife in 1938 he remarried and, in 1956, pioneered in Pretoria, South Africa. In 1957 he was appointed a member of the Auxiliary Board for Protection in Africa.

Ottoman Empire: The Turkish dynasty based in Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul) that ruled over regions including Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, and Arabia during the time of Baha‟u‟llah. The empire lasted from the decline of the Byzantine Empire in the fourteenth century until the establishment of Turkey as a republic in 1922. Two of its leaders, Sultan „Abdu‟l-„Aziz and Sultan „Abdu‟l-Hamid II, were responsible for the imprisonment and banishment of Baha‟u‟llah and „Abdu'l-Baha in Constantinople, Adrianople, and Acre. Both leaders were eventually deposed.

Paradise: A heavenly garden; a state of bliss. The Manifestation is
"The Nightingale of Paradise"; His Revelation, "the rustling of the leaves of Paradise"; "the love of God" is itself Paradise.

Paran: Paran is a mountain range north of Sinai and south of Seir; all
are sacred as places of revelation. Teman lies in northwest Edam, not far from Paran. See Habakuk 3:3. Moses himself uses "Paran" with special reference to Muhammad and "Seir" to Jesus Christ: "And he said, The Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousands of saints: from His right hand went a fiery law for them." (Deut. 33:2). Here Moses foretells the coming of three revelations and three prophets after himself, the last being Baha'u'llah. Ishmael (Gen. 21:21) founded the Arabian peoples in Paran.

Parsons, Agnes: (1861-1934) Washington DC society matron
and early Baha‟i. She heard about the Baha‟i Faith in 1908 and became a confirmed believer during her pilgrimage to 'Akka in 1910. She was 'Abdu'lBaha's hostess during His stay in Washington and arranged for Him to visit Dublin, New Hampshire, her summer residence. On her second pilgrimage, in 1920, 'Abdu'l- Baha instructed her to organize the first race amity conference, which she did in 1921, working closely with Louis Gregory.

Parsons, Arthur Jeffrey: (1856-1915) Husband of Agnes
Parsons and a librarian at the Library of Congress.

Peary, Admiral Robert Edwin: (1856-1920)
American Polar explorer. At his seventh attempt he became the first person to reach the North Pole, on April 6. 1909. He accomplished this by sailing to Cape Sheridan in the Roosevelt then traveling by sled to the Pole.

Pentateuch: Literally, "the fivefold volume," referring to the first
five books of the Bible attributed to Moses.

People of Baha: Followers of Baha‟u‟llah

Pharaoh: The common title of the kings of Egypt. The Pharaoh of the
oppression is usually held to be Ramesis II (about 1340 B.C.), and his son and successor Merenptah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus, but this is highly uncertain and the birth of Moses is dated as early as 1520 B.C.

Philosopher's Stone: An imaginary substance which the
alchemists formerly sought as a means of converting baser metals into gold.

Phoenix: A bird fabled to exist single, to be consumed by fire by its
own act, and to rise again from its ashes.

Pioneer: Any Baha'i who arises and leaves his or her home to journey
to another country for the purpose of teaching the Baha'i Faith. "Home-front pioneer" describes those who move to areas within their own country that have yet to be exposed to the Baha‟i Faith or where the Baha‟i community needs strengthening.

Pope Pius IX: The pope whose reign from 1846 to 1878 was
distinguished for his promulgation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.

Pride of Martyrs: A title bestowed by Baha‟u‟llah on the
seventeen-year-old youth heroically who delivered His tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah of Persia.

Primal Will: "The first thing which emanated from God is that
universal reality . . . which the people of Baha call the 'First Will.'" („Abdu‟lBaha, Some Answered Questions, p. 237)

Prime mover of sedition: A reference to Mirza
Muhammad-'Ali, a son of Baha‟u‟llah and younger half-brother of 'Abdu'l-Baha who attempted to subvert the provisions of Baha‟u‟llah‟s written will and to seize leadership of the Baha‟i community after the passing of Baha‟u‟llah

Prince Shuja’u’d-Dawlih: A Persian Prince attached to
the Embassy in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz

Promised Husayn: The prophesied return of the Imam
Husayn anticipated in Shia Islam. Baha‟is believe Baha‟u‟llah to be the fulfillment of that prophecy.

Promised One(s): A term used to refer to the Messenger(s) of
God. Baha‟is believe the Bab to be the Promised One of Islam (the Qa'im) and Baha‟u‟llah to be the Promised One of the Bayan and of all religions.

Prophet: The Baha'i writings allude to two distinct types of prophets,
the Greater Prophets and the Lesser prophets. The Greater Prophets, also called Messengers or Manifestations of God, are the lawgivers and founders of a new religious cycle. The Lesser prophets are followers and promoters of the Greater Prophets and include such Old Testament prophets as Solomon, David, and Isaiah.

Purest Branch: A reference to Mrza Mihd, a son of Baha‟u‟llah.
He served his Father as an amanuensis. He died in 1870 at the age of twentytwo after falling to his death in the Most Great Prison in „Akka.

Qaba: An ankle-length gown or caftan, open in front, and worn only by
men.

Qa'im: Literally „He Who Arises‟: The Promised One of Shi‟ih Islam. A
reference to the Twelfth Imam, the Mihdi, who was to return in the fullness of time and bring a reign of righteousness to the world. The Bab declared Himself to be the Qa‟im and the Gate to a greater Messenger, "Him Whom God shall make manifest"- Baha‟u‟llah.

Qarun: A cousin of Moses, who having believed in Moses, turned
against Him and with his fellow-rebels was destroyed by the wrath of God. (See Numbers Ch. 16).

Qasim: One of three Babis who together attempted but failed to
assassinate the shah of Persia in 1852, leading to a wave of persecution against the Babis and resulting in Baha‟u‟llah's arrest and imprisonment in Tehran.

Qayyum: Literally „Self-Subsisting, Self-existent, All-Compelling‟: A
term used in certain Islamic traditions in reference to the One who would come after the appearance of the Qa‟im. Baha'is believe Baha‟u‟llah to be the Qayyum.

Qayyumu’l-Asma: One of the chief works of the Bab. A
commentary on the Surih of Jospeh in the Qur'an, written by the Bab in 1844, and regarded by the Babis as in effect their Qur'an. (For an outline of its contents, see God Passes By, p. 23). It is the first work written by the Bab.

Qiblih: Arabic means „That which one faces; prayer-direction; point of
adoration‟; the direction in which the face must be turned in prayer; the focus to which the faithful turn in prayer. Qur'an, surih 2:136-145, establishes Mecca as the Qiblih for Muslims. The Qiblih for Baha‟is is the Most Holy Tomb of Baha‟u‟llah at Bahji.

Quddus: (d. 1849) Literally „Most Holy‟: title bestowed by the Bab on
Haji Muhammad-„Aliy-i-Barfuruhi, the last Letter of the Living, who was second only to the Bab in rank. He accompanied the Bab on a pilgrimage to Mecca and attended the Conference of Badasht. He joined the Babis in the fort at Shaykh Tabarsi and afterward was taken to his native town of Barfurush, where he was killed by a mob.

Queen Marie of Romania: (1875-1938) Queen of
Romania from 1914 to 1927 and the first monarch to embrace the teachings of the Baha‟i Faith. She learned of the Baha‟i Faith from Martha Root. Her association with the Baha‟i Faith is described in Della A. Marcus, Her Eternal

Crown, Queen Marie of Romania and the Baha‟i Faith (Oxford: George Ronald, 2000).

Quintessence: An imagined fifth "essence of heaven" in addition
to the four elements of earth: hence, the last or highest essence of anything.

Qur'an: The Qur'an, Arabic, meaning "reading". It is the holy scriptures
of the Muhammadan faith, revealed by Muhammad in Arabic language. The verses are built up into chapters called surihs. It contains 77,974 words and is slightly longer than the New Testament; it was composed over a period of 21 years. The whole book was not arranged until after the Prophet's death, but He is believed to have Himself divided the surihs and given most of them their present titles. Translation into English by G. Sale (1734) is the most authoritative. but that by J. M. Rodwell (Everyman's Series) is recommended as the best. See also A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted.

Ralston, Wiiam and Georgia: Early California
Baha‟is. Georgia was a childhood friend of Ella Goodall Cooper and learned of the Faith from her and Helen Goodall around 1910. She traveled with Helen and Ella to New York to see 'Abdu'l-Baha.

Ransom-Kehler, Keith: (d. 1933) A distinguished
American Baha‟i who traveled to Persia to represent the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha‟is of the United States and Canada with a petition requesting the removal of a ban on the entry and circulation of Baha‟i literature. She died in Isfahan in Iran on 23 October 1933. (see Baha‟i Heroes and Heroines)

Rasht: A city in the Province of Gilan in northerm Iran. Rayy: An ancient city near which Tihran was built. Regional Baha'i Council: An element of Baha'i
administration between the local and national levels, established at the discretion of the Universal House of Justice in countries where the condition and size of the Baha'i community warrant. A means of decentralizing the work of the National Spiritual Assembly, a Regional Council may be formed either by election or by appointment, depending on local requirements and the condition of the Baha'i community. It provides for a level of autonomous decision making on both teaching and administrative matters. In some countries, State Baha'i Councils perform these tasks within specific civic jurisdictions.

Regional Spiritual Assembly: An institution identical
in function to the National Spiritual Assembly but including a number of countries or regions in its jurisdiction, often established as a precursor to the formation of a National Spiritual Assembly in each of the countries it encompasses.

Remey, Charles Mason: (1874- 1974) Prominent early

Baha'i and traveling teacher, appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1951 but declared a Covenant-breaker in 1960. Remey became a Baha‟i in Paris in December 1899 and served the Faith devotedly for many years in various capacities. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity. In 1909 he and Howard Struven set out on the first round the world Baha‟i teaching trip, one of his many journeys to teach the Faith. He was appointed president of the International Baha'i Council in 1951. After the passing of Shoghi Effendi in 1957, he broke the Covenant.

Revelation: The Unveiling by God to men of something which
hitherto He had hidden from them. It generally include the laws, teachings and message of God transmitted through His Manifestations to humanity.

Rida: The Turk hired by Mirza Buzurg to seek out and kill Baha‟u‟llah.
More than once Rida approached Baha‟u‟llah with the intention of taking His life, but each time he found himself overcome with fear and unable to carry out the task.

Riday-i-Shirazi, Aqa: Believer exiled with Baha‟u‟llah to
'Akka. Between Baghdad and Constantinople he and Mirza Mahmud traveled ahead of the party to prepare the food and make arrangements for the comfort of the believers.

Ridvan: Arabic for “Paradise.” The annual Ridvan Festival, the holiest
and most significant of all Baha'i festivals, commemorates Baha‟u‟llah‟s declaration of His mission to His companions in the Garden of Ridvan in Baghdad in 1863. It is a twelve-day period celebrated from 21 April to 2 May. During this time, Local and National Spiritual Assemblies are elected and, once every five years, the Universal House of Justice is elected.

Rik'ats: Prostrations Root, Martha: (1872-1939) An American Baha‟i known for her
unique exertions in the field of international teaching, which carried her around the globe four times over a period of some twenty years. She spoke of the Baha‟i Faith to kings, queens, high-ranking government and religious officials, professors, leaders of thought, and other prominent people. An account of her life is presented in M.R Garis, Martha Root, Lioness at the Threshold (Wilmette: Baha‟i Publishing Trust, 1983).

Robarts, Grace: (d. 1938) Early American Baha'i teacher whose
marriage to Harlan Ober in 1912 was at the suggestion of- 'Abdu'l-Baha. She secured and made ready the various apartments in which 'Abdu'l-Baha stayed during His journey in America. Her nephew, John Robarts, was appointed a Hand of the Cause.

Roosevelt, President Theodore: (1858-19 19)
26th President of the United States, 1901-9.

Ruha Khanum: Third of 'Abdu'l-Baha's four surviving daughters.

She married Mirza Jalal, the son of the King of Martyrs. She broke the Covenant in the 1940s.

Ruhiyyih Khanum: (1910-2000) Born Mary Maxwell, also
called Ruhiyyih Rabbani; daughter of May Bolles Maxwell and Sutherland Maxwell of Montreal, and wife of Shoghi Effendi Rabbani, the Guardian of the Baha‟i Faith. „Ruhiyyih‟ (meaning "spiritual") is a name given to her by Shoghi Effendi on their marriage. „Khaum‟ is a Persian title meaning "Lady," "Madame," or "Mrs."

Ruz-bih: A Persian who embraced Christianity and being told a
Prophet was about to arise in Arabia journeyed thither and meeting Muhammad at Koba in His flight to Medina recognized His station and became a Muslim.

Sadiq: The sixth of the Shi‟ih Imams Sad-i-Isfahani: Refers to Sadru‟l-Ulama of Isfahan , a follower
of Mirza Yahya.

Sadratu'l-Muntaha: The name of a tree planted by the Arabs
in ancient times at the end of a road, to serve as a guide. As a symbol, it denotes the Manifestation of God in His Day.

Sadrih: Literally, Branch. It is also a reference to Sadratu‟l-Muntaha or
the Burning Bush and to „Him Who taught it‟ (i.e. God Himself)

Salih: An ancient Arabian prophet of later date than Hud Who gave
similar summons. He is mentioned in the Qur'an, surih 7:71-77. Some commentators identify him with the Salih of Genesis 11:13.

Salman, or Shaykh Salman: Born in southern Persia,
an illiterate, he became one of the most beloved and most devoted disciples of Baha'u'llah who entrusted him with many dangerous and important missions. He carried many Tablets from Baha‟u‟llah for distribution among the friends in Persia. He also conducted Munirih Khanum to 'Akka before her marriage to „Abdu'l-Baha.

Salsabil: Literally “softly flowing”. A fountain of Paradise Salvan (Siloam): A spring in Mecca. Sam Khan: The colonel of the Armenian regiment that was ordered
to execute the Bab in 1850. Sam Khan reluctantly carried out his orders and, upon witnessing the miraculous event of his regiment's failed attempt, refused to take any further part in the execution. At the risk of his own life, he ordered his men to leave the barracks.

Samiri: A magician employed by Pharaoh as a rival to Moses. According
to Muslims, it was he, not Aaron, who made the golden calf.

Sardar ‘Aziz Khan: He was present with the Shah‟s troops
attacking Babis at Zanjan. (see Traveller's Narrative, p. 181 note)

Sardari: A kind of redingote or long coat, pleated around the waist,
closely buttoned up and having a straight collar.

Sarih: Older sister of Baha'u'llah; she remained faithful to His Cause
throughout her life and was highly regarded by Him.

Sassanian kings: The kings of the Persian Sassanid dynasty
during the third to seventh centuries from whom Baha‟u‟llah was descended through His father.

Seal of the Prophets: One of the titles of Prophet
Muhammad, referring to the approaching close of the Prophetic Cycle.

Servant: A designation usually applied to a male Baha‟i signifying
recognition of his commitment to conform his life to the precepts of the religion.

Seven Martyrs of Tehran: Seven prominent and
distinguished Babis in Tehran, including one of the Bab's uncles, Siyyid „Ali, who were arrested in 1850 and executed for their beliefs.

Seven Martyrs of Yazd: Seven Baha‟is of the city of Yazd
in southern Persia, who were brutally executed at the hands of a mob on May 19, 1891. Baha‟u‟llah described their unflinching faith as a victory celebrated by the inmates of the highest paradise.

Shah: Literally “king”, especially of Persia. Shah Bahram: Title of the world savior foretold in Zoroastrian
prophecy Who will triumph over evil and bring peace to the earth. Baha‟is believe this prophecy was fulfilled with the coming of Baha‟u‟llah.

Shaykh: Title of respect given to old men, men of authority, elders,
chiefs, professors, or superiors of a dervish order.

Shaykh ‘Abdu'l-Husayn: A mujtahid who became
inflamed by the prestige and devotion commanded by Baha‟u‟llah in Baghdad and allied himself with Mirza Buzurg Khan, the Persian consul-general in Baghdad, to destroy Him. Eventually the two succeeded in having Baha‟u‟llah transferred from Iraq to Constantinople by the Ottoman government.

Shaykh Ahmad: Also known as Shaykh-i-Ahsa‟i, he was the first
of the two forerunners of the Bab, born A.D. 1753, founder of the Shaykhi School and author of 96 books. He was a respected interpreter of Islamic doctrine and attracted many followers in the Shi‟ih holy cities of Najaf and Karbala. His teachings, which emphasized the near advent of the Promised One of Islam, and the metaphorical rather than literal interpretation of certain

scriptures, prepared the way for the Bab. He chose one of his disciples, Siyyid Kazim, to carry on his work after his death. He Died in 1831.

Shaykh Effendi: Name by which Baha‟u‟llah became known
outside of the Baha‟i community.

Shaykh Hassan: Served as a scribe for the Bab during His
imprisonment in Mah-Ku and Chihriq. Later in life he traveled to Karbala at the request of the Bab, where he attained the presence of Baha‟u‟llah.

Shaykh Tabarsi: An episode in which 313 Babis defended
themselves for some seven months in a hastily constructed fortress near a shrine about fourteen miles south-east of Barfush, October 1848 -May 1849. Vastly superior Government forces were unable to defeat them except by betrayal. Nine of the nineteen Letters of the Living (the first disciples of the Bib) were among the defenders; most lost their-lives, including -Mulla Husayn and Quddus, foremost of the Letters. The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith has characterized the episode as a 'rare phenomenon in the history of modern times'. (God Passes By, p.42)

Sheba: A town in southern Arabia, referred to in Genesis 10:28; I Kings
10; II Chronicles 9. Symbolically it stands for a dwelling, a home.

She-Serpent: Designation Baha‟u‟llah gave to Mir MuhammadHusayn, the imam-jum‟ih of Isfahan, who instigated the deaths of the two brothers known as the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs.

Shi’ih, Shi’ah or Shia: One of the two main sects of Islam,
distinguished by its spiritual doctrine of the Imamate. It is very dominant in Iran. The problem of succession divides Islam generally into two schools of opinion. According to one view, represented chiefly by the Shi‟ihs, the regency is a spiritual matter determined by the Prophet and by those who so succeed Him. According to the other view, that of the Sunnites, the succession goes by popular choice. The Caliph of the Sunnites is the outward and visible Defender of the Faith. According to Shiites, the Shi‟ih Imam is divinely ordained and gifted with more than human wisdom and authority. The Shi‟ih followers view the descendants of 'Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, as the only rightful successors to Muhammad, and many await the return of the twelfth Imam.

Shiite: A Muslim of the Shia branch of Islam. Shimran: A district in the northern section of Tihran. Shiraz: The city in Iran where the Bib declared His mission in 1844. Shoeb: Priest of Midian (Exodus 2:16-21). Moses married his daughter;
Exodus 18 gives his name as Jethro.

Shogh'i Effendi: (1897-1957) The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith

after the passing of „Abdu‟l-Baha in 1921, designated in His Will and Testament as His successor in interpreting the Baha'i writings and as Head of the Faith. He was the eldest grandson of 'Abdu'l-Baha and was brought up in „Abdu‟l-Baha‟s household in 'Akka. In his youth he became his grandfather's secretary for a time before leaving the Holy Land to study at the University of Oxford. When „Abdu‟l-Baha passed away Shoghi Effendi became head of the Baha'i Faith. Under his guidance the Baha‟i administration was developed and the Faith taken to virtually every country in the world. In 1937 he married Mary Maxwell. He passed away in London, where he is buried.

Shiraz: The capital of the Province of Fars in Persia: the place of the
Bab's birth and the scene of His Declaration in 1844.

Shrine of Baha'u'llah: The resting place of Baha‟u‟llah‟s
mortal remains, located near the city of Acre, Israel. The Shrine is the holiest spot on earth to Baha‟is and a place of pilgrimage.

Shrine of the Bab: The resting place of the Bab‟s mortal
remains, located on Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel, a sacred site to Baha‟is, and a place of pilgrimage.

Shu'a'u'llah, Mirza: Son of Mirza Muhammad-„Ali, „Abdu‟lBaha‟s half-brother, and the arch-breaker of the Covenant. He arrived in the United States in 1905 and remained until the 1930s or 1940s. He attempted to win converts to his father's cause from among the Baha‟is but was unsuccessful.

Sinai: The mountain where God gave the Law to Moses (Qur'an, surih
7:I39 and Exodus 19). Sometimes it is viewed as an emblem of the human heart which is the place of God's descent.

Sirat: Literally, bridge or support; denotes the religion of God. Siyah-Chal: Persian means “Black Pit”: The underground dungeon
in Tihran, Iran where Baha‟u‟llah was chained and incarcerated for four months in 1852 (August through December), together with fellow Babis and 150 criminals. Here, in indescribable conditions, He received the first intimation of His world Mission.

Siyyid: Literally „lord, chief, prince‟: an honorific title denoting a
descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

Siyyid ‘Ali: The maternal uncle of the Bab who, after the passing of
the Bab's father, was responsible for the Bab's upbringing. He recognized his nephew's station and became an ardent follower.

Siyyid Ashraf-i-Zanjani: Martyred with 'Aba Nazir (See
God Passes By, p. 199 and Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah, p. 135)

Siyyid Husayn-i-Turshizi: A mujtahid, one of the Seven

Martyrs of Tihran.

Siyyid Ibrahim: Surnamed 'Khalil' by the Bab; a deeply trusted
disciple of the Bab from the earliest days. Later in Baghdad recognized the true station of Baha'u'llah, Who protected him against Yahya's designs.

Siyyid Isma’il: A believer from the time of the Bab, who
sacrificed his life for love of Baha'u'llah, and was given the title of 'Zabih'.

Siyyid Javad: known as Karbila‟I, was brought up in Karbila. He
was a disciple of Siyyid Kazim Rashti, and a friend of the Bab's great uncle, he met the Bab as a child and later through Mulla 'Ali Bastammi became a Babi. He recognized Baha'u'llah before His Declaration, in Baghdad, and was known because of his sanctity as 'Siyyih-i-Nur'. He passed away in Kirman, Persia.

Siyyiid Kazim: The Chief disciple of Shaykh Ahmad and his
successor who carried on his work and message, preaching the imminent advent of the Qa‟im. Mulla Husayn and other distinguished Babis were among his students. He died on December 31, 1843.

Siyyid Muhammad: A Babi of unsavory character who
became a companion of Mirza Yahya, inducing him to oppose Baha‟u‟llah and to claim prophethood for himself. Baha‟u‟llah refers to him in the Kitab-iAqdas as the one who led Mirza Yahya astray. Shoghi Effendi referred to him as “the Antichrist of the Baha‟i Revelation”.

Siyyid of Findirisk: A noted Persian poet and thinker better
known as Mir „Abdu‟l-Qasim Findiriski, who lived in the 16th Century, A.D.

Siyyid Yahya, surnamed Vahid: A distinguished
divine of great learning who became a Babi and was martyred after the siege of Nayriz on June 29, 1850, ten days before the death of the Bab.

Sohrab, Mirza Ahmad: (d. 1958) Persian Baha'i and a
major translator of Abdu'l-Baha‟s Tablets into English. He had been sent by 'Abdu'l-Baha to the United States in 1903 to translate for Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. He settled in Washington DC and became well-known in the American Baha'i community. After the passing of „Abdu'l-Baha he opposed the establishment of the Baha'i administrative order decreed in the Will and Testament of „Abdu'l-Baha and was declared a Covenant-breaker.

Son of Wolf: Shaykh Muhammad Taqi, known as Aqa Najafi, a
priest of Isfahan (a city in central Iran) whose father had caused the death of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of the Martyrs.

Spirit of God: A tide used in the Qur‟an and in the Baha‟i writings
to refer to Jesus Christ.

Spiritual Assemblies: The name of elected Baha‟i

administrative institutions that operate at the local and national levels of society and are elected according to Baha‟i principles. They are responsible for coordinating and directing the affairs of the Baha‟i community in their areas of jurisdiction.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady: (1815-1902) A leader of the
American women's rights movement who was a primary organizer of the first women's rights convention (1848) in Seneca Falls, New York. She wrote the Declaration of Sentiments - a women's bill of rights with demands for social equality, including the right to vote.

Star of the West: The first Western Baha‟i magazine, published
in North America from 1910 to April 1324.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher: (1811-1896) New England
author best known today for her novel tided „Uncle Tom‟s Cabin (1852)‟ whose human portrayal of slaves galvanized the abolitionist cause just before the American Civil War.

Struven, Howard and Hebe: Early Baltimore Baha‟is.
Howard's brother, Edward, learned of the Baha‟i Faith from Lua Getsinser and became a Baha‟i immediately. Howard became a Baha‟i in 1899. In 1909 'Abdu'l-Baha asked him to travel around the world with Mason Remey, the first round the world Baha‟i teaching trip. He married Hebe (Ruby) Moore, Lua Getsinger's sister, in 1912.

Sufis: An order of Muhammadan mystics. Subh-i-Azal: Arabic means the Morn of Eternity: A younger halfbrother of Baha‟u‟llah who broke away from Baha‟u‟llah, claiming to be the Bab's successor. His spurious challenge was unsuccessful, and he was exiled to Cyprus by the Ottoman authorities at the time Baha‟u‟llah and His companions were sent to Acre. He died in Cyprus in 1912

Sunni: The larger and more powerful of the two major branches of
Islam, which accepts the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad and rejects the notion of hereditary successorship to authority over the Muslim community. Before the fall of the Ottoman empire it was represented by the Sultan as the outward and visible Defender of the Faith.

Suratu’l-Haykal: A Tablet of Baha'u'llah, at the end of which
followed the Tablets to the Kings, the whole being written in the shape of a five-pointed star, the symbol of man.

Surih of Tawhid: The name of the first surih of the Qur'an; in
which the oneness of God is explained.

Surih: A row or course, as of bricks in a wall. A term used exclusively for
the chapters of the Qur'an of which there are one hundred and fourteen.

Suriy-i-Muluk: Literally „Surih of Kings‟: tablet revealed by
Baha‟u‟llah in Adrianople to the kings of the world. In it He boldly proclaims His station as Messenger of God.

Suriy-i-Ra’is: Tablet of Baha‟u‟llah revealed in Adrianople. Ta, Land of: Meaning Tihran, being the initial letter of the name. Tabarsi: A shrine lying 14 miles southeast of Barfurush, where
Quddus, Mulla Husayn and many leading Babis suffered martyrdom.

Tablet: Divinely revealed scripture. The giving of the Law to Moses on
tables, or tablets, is mentioned in Koran 7:142: "We wrote for him (Moses) upon tables (alwah, pl. of luh) a monition concerning every matter." In Baha‟i scripture the term refers to denote writings revealed by Baha'u'llah, the Bab, and 'Abdu‟l-Baha.

Tablet of Carmel: The charter for the world spiritual and
administrative centers of the Baha‟i Faith on Mount Carmel. The tablet was revealed by Baha‟u‟llah in 1890 during one of His visits to Mount Carmel.

Tablet of Ra’is: Epistle of Baha‟u‟llah to 'Ali Pasha, the Ottoman
Grand Vizir.

Tabriz: City in resent-day Iran where the Bab was martyred. Taff (land of): The plain of Karbila in which vicinity Imam Husayn
was martyred.

Tahirih: (1817-1852) Literally „the Pure One‟: title given by the Bab to
Fitimih Umm-Salamih, also known by the titles Qurratu‟l-Ayn (Solace of the Eyes) and Zarrin-Taj (Crown of Gold) – the outstanding heroine of the Babi Dispensation. Born in the same year as Baha‟u‟llah (1817), she was a woman of learning and the only female Letter of the Living. She was executed in Tehran for her beliefs.

Taj: Persian means 'crown'. A tall felt head-dress. Plural: Tajha. Takur: Village where Baha‟u‟llah‟s ancestral home was located. Takur is
situated in the district of Nur, in the province of Mazindaran, Iran.

Talisman: Lit. a charm which drew down the power of heaven to
protect its wearer. A symbol of man protected by the power of God.

Tehran or Tihran: Capital of present-day Iran and birthplace
of Baha‟u‟llah. Also the site of Baha‟u‟llah‟s revelation in the underground dungeon known as the Black Pit, where He was falsely imprisoned after the attempted assassination of the shah in 1852.

Templers: Members of the Society of the Temple, founded in the

mid-1800s in Germany. They believed that Christ's return was imminent and settled in the Holy Land in anticipation of the event. The first and largest of their settlements was in Haifa at the foot of Mount Carmel, where they built their homes.

Ten Year Crusade: (1953-1963) Ten Year Plan initiated by
Shoghi Effendi for teaching the Baha'i Faith, which culminated with the election of the Universal House of Justice during the centenary of the declaration of Baha‟u‟llah. The objectives of the Crusade were the development of the institutions at the World Centre, the consolidation of the communities of the participating National Spiritual Assemblies, and the spread of the Faith to new regions.

Tenth Avatar: The tenth appearance of the God Vishnu, as
anticipated in Hinduism.

Thamud: An idolatrous tribe of ancient Hamitic people, inhabiting the
borders of Edom and living in caves. They were nearly exterminated by Chedorlaomer, the Elomite conqueror. The survivors fled to Mt. Seir where they dwelt in the time of Isaac and Jacob. (see Qur‟an 7:71 and 9:71)

Tihran, or Tehran: The capital of Iran and the birthplace of
Baha‟u‟llah.

Thompson, Juliet: (1873-1956) Prominent early American
Baha‟i and artist. She learned about the Faith from May Bolles in Paris and became a Baha'i in 1901. After a few years she settled in New York. In 1909 she went to 'Akka on pilgrimage and met 'Abdu'l-Baha, to whom she became devoted. When He arrived in New York in 1912, she followed Him everywhere and He agreed to allow her to paint His portrait. Juliet wrote a moving story about Mary Magdalen which was published in 1940.

Torah: The Pentateuch of Moses. Towa: A holy vale in Sinai. (Qur'an 20: 10, 11, Exod. 3; 1 Kgs. 198.) Traditions: The authoritative record of inspired sayings and acts of
the Prophet, in addition to the revelation contained in the Qur'an.

Truth, Sojourner: (c. 179 9-1883) Name taken by IsabeIla
Baumfree, black abolitionist and women's rights advocate from Ulster County, New York, who became the first black woman to speak out publicly against slavery.

Tripolitania: A former Ottoman colony that is now part of presentday Libya.

True, Corinne: (1861-1961) Prominent early Chicago Baha'i
teacher and Hand of the Cause of God. Corinne learned of the Baha'i Faith in 1899. The deaths of five of her eight children between 1899 and 1909 drew

her closer to the Faith. 'Abdu'l-Baha asked her to spearhead the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar (Baha‟i temple) in Wilmette, a task she undertook energetically over a number of years and for which she was known as the 'Mother of the Temple'. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in 1922. She was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1952. Her services are described in Nathan Rutstein, Corinne True, Faithful Handmaid of „Abdu'l-Baha (Oxford: George Ronald, 1987).

Tubman, Harriet: (c. 1820-1913) A leading abolitionist during
the American Civil War. She escaped from slavery and led more than three hundred slaves to freedom in the North with the aid of the Underground Railroad.

Tuman: Unit of Iranian currency. Universal House of Justice: Head of the Baha‟i Faith
after the passing of Shoghi Effendi and the supreme administrative and legislative body ordained by Baha‟u‟llah in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, His book of laws. Established in 1963, the Universal House of Justice is elected every five years by members of all National Spiritual Assemblies who assemble at an International Baha‟i Convention. The Universal House of Justice directs and guides the administrative activities of the worldwide Baha‟i community. It is the institution ordained by Baha‟u‟llah as the agency invested with authority to legislate on matters not covered in His writings. In his will and testament „Abdu‟l-Baha elaborates on its functions and affirms that it is infallibly guided.

'Urvatu'l-Vuthga: Literally, "the strongest handle," meaning
the Faith of God.

Vahid: Literally „Peerless'. Title given by the Bab to a leading Muslim
clergyman, Siyyid Yahya (d.1850), an erudite, eloquent, and influential emissary of Muhammad Shah. He was sent by the Shah to interrogate the Bab but was instead converted and became one of the most learned and influential of His followers. He died in the upheaval at Nayriz.

Valiyu'llah Khan-i-Varqa, Mirza: (1884-1955)
Prominent Persian Baha'i and Hand of the Cause of God. The son of the martyr-poet Mirza 'Ali-Muhmmad-i-Varqa, Va1iyu'llah Khan-i-Varqa joined „Abdu'l-Baha's entourage in America. He was appointed Trustee of the Huququ‟llah in 1940 and a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951.

Varqa, Mirza 'Ali-Muhammad: Persian Baha'i
martyred, together his twelve-year-old son, Ruhu'llah, by the brutal Hajibu'dDawlih.

Vizier: A high executive officer in various Muslim countries and
especially of the Ottoman Empire.

Waite, Louise R.: (d. 1939) Poet-composer who became a
Baha'i sometime before 1902 in Chicago. She was given the Persian name

Shahnaz Khanum by the Master.

Wilhelm, Roy C.: (1875-195 1) Prominent New Jersey Baha'i
and wealthy entrepreneur posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God. Roy learned of the Baha'i Faith through his mother but did not become a Baha'i himself until he accompanied his mother on her pilgrimage to 'Akka in 1907. In 1908 he met Martha Root and introduced her to the Faith. In 1909 he was elected to the Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity, serving on this and its successor, the American National Spiritual Assembly, almost continuously until 1946. At 'Abdu'l-Baha's behest, a unity Feast was held in the grounds of his home in West Englewood, New Jersey, in June 1912, an event which is commemorated every year. He was posthumously appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi on December 23, 1951.

Will and Testament of ‘Abdu'l-Baha: A
document, in the handwriting of „Abdu'l-Baha, that establishes the institution of the Guardianship and appoints Shoghi Effendi as Guardian. It provides for the election of the Universal House of Justice and for the appointment of the Hands of the Cause of God, and it prescribes the functions of these two institutions. It also creates the institution of the National Spiritual Assembly.

Wilson, President Woodrow: (1856-1924) 28th
President of the United States (1913-21). His '14 points', upholding democracy and self-determination of states, was intended to form the basis for a peace treaty after World War I. He was largely responsible for the establishment of the League of Nations. His presidency ended in failure when the Versailles treaty was not ratified by the American Senate.

Windust, Albert R.: (1874-1956) Early Chicago Baha'i and
publisher. He became a Baha'i in 1897 and was a member of the first Spiritual Assembly of Chicago. He became the first publisher of Baha'i literature in the West, including the Hidden Words. In 1910 he founded and printed the Baha'i magazine Star of the West and later collected and published three volumes of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Tablets to American believers. He also helped Howard MacNutt to publish The Promulgation of Universal Peace.

Wolf, the: Name given by Baha‟u‟llah to Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, a
divine of Isfahan who in 1879 ordered the death of the two brothers known as the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs.

World Order of Baha’u’llah: A critical element of the
Baha‟i teachings is the concept of a new World Order, which, in coming centuries, is destined to embrace the whole of mankind, to be a force for peace and justice, and to provide the basis for the emergence of a world civilization. Its details are set out in the writings of Baha‟u‟llah and „Abdu'lBaha and the letters of Shoghi Effendi, and its current Baha‟i Administrative Order is viewed as the nucleus and pattern of the evolving world order.

Yahya: John, the forerunner of Jesus Christ. He was beheaded by

Herod.

Yahya, Mirza: (c. 1831/2-1912) A younger half-brother of
Baha‟u‟llah who turned against Him and caused division and enmity among the Babis. He was known by the title Subh-i-Azal (Morn of Eternity) given to by the Bab, Who appointed him temporary leader of the Babi community until the appearance of the One foretold by the Bab. He later claimed to be the Bab's successor but was unsuccessful in his spurious challenge and was eventually exiled to Cyprus by the Ottoman authorities at the time Baha‟u‟llah and His companions were sent to Acre. He died in Cyprus in 1912.

Yamamoto, Kanichi: (1879-1961) First Japanese Baha‟i.
Kanichi learned of the Faith in Hawaii after leaving Japan. He became a Baha'i in 1902. In 1903 he left Hawaii to become a butler to Helen Goodall's family in Oakland, California. He arranged the meeting at the Japanese YMCA at which 'Abdu'l-Baha spoke on Octobel-7, 1912.

Yanbu: A compilation of Shi‟ih traditions. Yathrib: The ancient name of the city which was changed to Medinat
un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, or shortly Medina, the city par excellence.

Year Sixty: Meaning 1260 A.H., A.D. 1844, the year of the Bab's
Declaration.

Young Turk Revolution: A revolutionary movement
against the authoritarian regime of Ottoman Sultan „Abdu‟1-Hamid II, which resulted in the establishment of a constitutional government in 1908 and the subsequent release of all political and religious prisoners-including „Abdu'lBaha. In 1909 Sultan „Abdu‟l-Hamid was deposed.

Za, Land of: Meaning Zanjan, being the initial letter of the name. Zagros Mountains: A mountain range in southern and
southwestern Iran bordering Iraq, Turkey, and the Persian Gulf.

Zamzam (well of): A well in Mecca regarded by the Muslims
as sacred.

Zanjan: A town in western Iran and the capital of the district of
Khamsih and the scene of the martyrdom of 1800 Babis led by Mulla Muhammad „Ali, surnamed Hujjat.

Zaqqum: A tree in the Infernal Regions. Zarqani, Mirza Mahmud-i-: (c.1875-1924) Persian
Baha‟i travel teacher and chronicler of „Abdu'l-Baha's travels in the Wrest. In his youth Mahmud made travel teaching trips around Iran. From 1903 he began to go to India, where he traveled for several years and learned Urdu. During this period he went on pilgrimage to Haifa, where he was responsible for transcribing Tablets, and from there he accompanied 'Abdu'l-Baha on His

journey to Europe and America.

Zion: A hill in Jerusalem, the site of the royal residence of David and his
successors.

Zoroaster: (c.628 B.C. – c. 551 B.C.) Regarded by Baha‟is as a
Messenger of God and founder of the Zoroastrian religion. He predicted the coming of a World Redeemer, the Shah-Bahram, Who would create an era of world peace. Baha‟is believe the figure referred to in this prophecy is Baha‟u‟llah, Who is also a descendant of Zoroaster.

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