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Unidentified flying object
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ufo) Jump to: navigation, search "UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation).

Photograph of alleged UFO, New Jersey, July 31, 1952 A term originally coined by the military, an unidentified flying object (usually abbreviated to UFO or U.F.O.) is an unusual apparent anomaly in the sky that is not readily identifiable to the observer as any known object. While a small percentage remain unexplained, the majority of UFO sightings are often later identified as any number of various natural phenomenon or manmade objects.[citation needed]

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1 Extraterrestrial hypothesis 2 Official White House Position 3 Studies 4 Terminology 5 Early history o 5.1 The Kenneth Arnold sightings 6 Investigations o 6.1 Project Sign o 6.2 Project Magnet o 6.3 Project Grudge o 6.4 USAF Regulation 200-2 o 6.5 Project Bluebook o 6.6 No scientific consensus o 6.7 United States  6.7.1 After 1947 sightings  6.7.2 Project Sign  6.7.3 Condon Committee  6.7.4 Notable cases o 6.8 Canada o 6.9 France o 6.10 United Kingdom  6.10.1 Notable cases o 6.11 Uruguay o 6.12 Astronomer reports 7 Identification of UFOs o 7.1 UFO hypotheses 8 Associated claims o 8.1 Reverse engineering 9 Ufology o 9.1 Researchers o 9.2 Sightings o 9.3 Organizations o 9.4 Categorization o 9.5 Scientific skepticism 10 Conspiracy theories o 10.1 Allegations of evidence suppression 11 Famous hoaxes 12 In popular culture 13 See also o 13.1 General o 13.2 Skepticism o 13.3 Psychology

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13.4 Histories 13.5 Technology 14 External links 15 References

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Extraterrestrial hypothesis
Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft. Proponents argue that because these objects appear to be technological and not natural phenomenon, and are alleged to display flight characteristics or have shapes seemingly unknown to conventional technology, the conclusion is then that they must not be from Earth.[1][2][3][4] Though UFO sightings have occurred throughout recorded history, modern interest in them dates from World War II (see foo fighter), further fueled in the late 1940s by Kenneth Arnold's coining of the term flying saucer and the Roswell UFO Incident. Since then governments have investigated UFO reports, often from a military perspective- and UFO researchers have investigated, written about, and created organizations devoted to the subject. One such investigation, The UK's Project Condign report, notes that Russian, Former Soviet Republics, and Chinese authorities have made a co-ordinated effort to understand the UFO topic and that State military organizations, particularly in Russia, have done "considerably more work (than is evident from open sources)" on military applications which have stemmed from their UFO research. The report also noted that "several aircraft have been destroyed and at least four pilots have been killed 'chasing UFOs'."[5]

Official White House Position
In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited Earth and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[6][7] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[6][7] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI, the Kepler space telescope and the NASA Mars rover, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."[6][7]

Studies
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomenon— most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even

though various other hypotheses have been proposed. . which were commonly seen and described as such during the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th. and the military. most notably MUFON (Mutual UFO Network) [18] and CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies). The Air Force initially defined UFOs as those objects that remain unidentified after scrutiny by expert investigators. which now average around 500 reported sightings per month. Many reports have been made by trained observers such as pilots.O.S.[22] The term foo fighters was used by American fighter pilots during World War II to refer to UFOs. Ruppelt. According to MUFON.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] The void left by the lack of institutional scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and groups. however.[8] After excluding incorrect reports. some involve radar traces. and some scientists support the extraterrestrial hypothesis. His term was quickly adopted by the United States Air Force. it is acknowledged that between 5% and 20% of reported sightings remain unexplained.F.[9] Proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis believe that these unidentified reports are of alien spacecraft. so not all reports are visual. which only served to further fuel public interest in the topic. reported by private pilot Kenneth Arnold in June 1947.[21] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. the infamous Roswell UFO Incident occurred at about the same time. sighting. Edward J.[23] though today the term UFO is often used for any unexplained sighting regardless of whether it has been investigated. gave rise to the popular terms "flying saucer" and "flying disc". Ruppelt felt that "flying saucer" did not reflect the diversity of the sightings.[20] UFOs have become a relevant theme in modern culture. However it is now usually pronounced by forming each letter: U. even though Arnold said the most of the objects he saw were not totally circular and one was crescent-shaped (see Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting for details). He suggested that UFO should be pronounced as a word – you-foe. The term "UFO" was first suggested in 1952 by Cpt.being hoaxes.[19] The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. and as such can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. police. which also briefly used "UFOB". The first widely publicized U. who headed Project Blue Book. While UFOs have been the subject of extensive investigation by various governments.[10] Terminology The first publicized sightings were usually referred to using the term mystery airships. as of 2011 the number of UFO reports to their worldwide offices has increased by 67% from the previous 3 years. In addition. of which the former is still sometimes used. few scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.[10] There has been some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted.

a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita. wingless cylindrical object. In late September 1926. later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. an airmail pilot over Nevada was forced to land by a huge. 1878. who stated that a flying object with opening doors would shine a blinding light from its interior (from an object shaped like a pearl) that would cast shadows from trees for ten miles in radius. a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights. bright meteors.[24] The equivalent acronym for UFO in Spanish. The largest had an apparent size of about six suns. or other religious omens. one or more of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye. a term that is pronounced as one word (ov-nee). Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets. Portuguese. departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. then changed course and "soared" above the clouds. He recorded the testimony of eyewitnesses in 11thcentury Anhui and Jiangsu (especially in the city of Yangzhou). In January 1926. wrote a vivid passage in his Dream Pool Essays (1088) about an unidentified flying object. while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region. like lighted windows on a railway carriage. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[25] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images. Such sightings throughout history were often treated as supernatural portents. Nicholas Roerich reported that members of his expedition saw "something big .C. and Italian is OVNI (Objeto Volador No Identificado. or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds.Because the term UFO is ambiguous – referring either to any unidentified sighting. circular flying object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed. angels.[30] On August 5. of 1305 cataloged by NARCAP. 1926. An example is Halley's Comet. Frank Schofield.C.[29] 1916 and 1926: The three oldest known pilot UFO sightings. Schofield wrote of three bright red eggshaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer. the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO. Objeto Voador Não Identificado. Kansas and Colorado Springs. Colorado. French. that rose and disappeared. or in popular usage to alien spacecraft – and the public and media ridicule sometimes associated with the topic. 1916.[26]      Shen Kuo (1031–1095). a Song Chinese government scholar-official and prolific polymath inventor and scholar. and was able to take off at tremendous speeds. Early history Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Objet volant non identifié or Oggetto Volante Non Identificato). there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles west of San Francisco. and possibly as early as 467 B. planetary conjunctions." Martin also said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer. dark.[28] On February 28. The Denison Daily News wrote that local farmer John Martin had reported seeing a large. On January 31.[27] On January 25. reported by Lt. some investigators now prefer to use other terms such as unidentified aerial phenomenon (or UAP). which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 B. 1904.

because it was thought that these mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets. The Kenneth Arnold sightings Main article: Kenneth Arnold Unidentified Flying Object Sighting . over 200 were tracked on radar and deemed to be "real physical objects" by the Swedish military. Army observers reported unidentified aircraft both visually and on radar over the Los Angeles. Although most were thought to be natural phenomena like meteors. However. and later as "ghost rockets".[33][34] On February 25.”[31] Another description by Roerich was. of unidentified aerial objects in the Scandinavian nations. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface. Army Chief of Staff Gen. like a huge oval moving at great speed. the planet Venus. It is a huge body.. Portugal. 1942. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. The incident later became known as the Battle of Los Angeles. Elmo's Fire. Italy and Greece. balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. No readily apparent explanation was offered. In a 1948 top secret document. California region. then referred to as "Russian hail". In 1946. the Swedish military told the USAF Europe in 1948 that some of their investigators believed them to be extraterrestrial in origin. there were over 2000 reports. along with isolated reports from France. "Foo-fighters" (metallic spheres. or the West coast air raid. George C. Field glasses are at hand. "."[32] In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest. It is oval in shape. Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson insisted real aircraft were involved. one side of which was brilliant from the sun.A shiny body flying from north to south. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St.. collected primarily by the Swedish military. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest.S. hallucinations from oxygen deprivation. though some officials dismissed the reports of aircraft as being triggered by anxieties over expected Japanese air attacks on California. Antiaircraft artillery was fired at what was presumed to be Japanese planes. U.   and shiny reflecting the sun. One side glows in the sun. or German secret weapons.

Arnold described what he saw as being "flat like a pie pan". In one instance a United Airlines crew sighting of nine more disc-like objects over Idaho on the evening of July 4. Washington. found a sudden surge upwards in sightings on July 4. He reported seeing nine brilliantly bright objects flying across the face of Rainier. however. Speculation as to what the flying saucers were was rampant in the newspapers. At the time. "shaped like saucers and were so thin I could barely see them… ". The post World War II UFO phase in the United States began with a famous sighting by American businessman Kenneth Arnold on June 24. peaking on July 6–8. optical illusions.[35] Arnold’s sighting was followed in the next few weeks by hundreds of other reported sightings. but in other countries as well. mass hysteria. other cases began to be reported in increasing numbers.) Arnold’s descriptions were widely reported and within a few days gave rise to the terms flying saucer and flying disk. 1947 while flying his private plane near Mount Rainier. to even more esoteric interdimensional or interplanetary visitors. this sighting was even more widely reported than Arnold’s and lent considerable credence to Arnold’s report..S. mostly in the U. it was Arnold's sighting that first received significant media attention and captured the public's imagination./Russian secret weapons. he would describe later as crescent-shaped.[37] when officials began issuing press statements on the Roswell UFO incident. in his comprehensive review of newspaper reports (including cases that preceded Arnold's). unusual atmospheric conditions. hoaxes. oval in front and convex in the rear. Although there were other 1947 U. Bloecher noted that for the next few days most American newspapers were filled with front-page stories of the new "flying saucers" or "flying discs".S.[38] . in which they explained debris found on the ground by a rancher as being that of a weather balloon. (One of the objects. "half-moon shaped. as shown in illustration at left. and flew "like a saucer would if you skipped it across the water".[36] American UFO researcher Ted Bloecher. … they looked like a big flat disk" (see Arnold's drawing at right). Reports began to rapidly tail off after July 8. and weather balloons to byproducts of atomic testing or U. After reports of the Arnold sighting hit the media. reflections off airplanes.S. Theories ranged from hallucinations.This shows the report Kenneth Arnold filed in 1947 about his UFO sighting. sightings of similar objects that preceded this.

the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951. as has Uruguay since 1989. as did the private but high-level French COMETA study of 1999. Belgium. In 1954. and not. the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report #14[40] by the Battelle Memorial Institute. using the Condon Commission's negative conclusion as a rationale. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951). These official reports refer to the UFO of military term. Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947). nor later Canadian defense studies. Blue Book closed down in 1970. plus later . Peru.C. France. but this study was never made public. Chile. ending the official Air Force UFO investigations. Washington D. placing Ruppelt in charge. Project Magnet Classified. Bloecher (aided by physicist James E. Governments or independent academics in the United States. and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. Publicly. Brazil. Mexico. however. Project Blue Book. (see Ghost rockets for document). previously Project Sign and Project Grudge.S. Sweden.Over several years in the 1960s. However. Japan. It dose not mean that the above-mentioned governments recognized supposed human contact with alien civilization. ever stated such a conclusion. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. the United Kingdom.[39] Investigations UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that vary widely in scope and scientific rigor. Project Magnet. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969. France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency CNES since 1977. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge. which he headed. Spain. internal reports by the Canadian Project Magnet in 1952 and 1953 also assigned high probability to extraterrestrial origins. Canada. state except Montana. Uruguay. known as the Bolender memo. Project Sign Project Sign in 1948 wrote a highly classified opinion (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. McDonald) discovered 853 flying disc sightings that year from 140 newspapers from Canada. a 1969 USAF document. and Brazilian Air Force Operation Saucer (1977). Project Grudge Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. and every U.S. that arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion. German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed an internal West German government investigation. the secret U. to the supposed alien crafts.

Air Force Academy in their Space Sciences course. the first semi-public USAF study. Through his founding of the Center for UFO Studies and participation at CUFOs he spent the rest of his life researching and documenting UFOs. but without opinion as to origins. Another group studying UFOs is Mutual UFO Network."[44][45] Project Bluebook Allen Hynek was a trained astronomer who participated in Project Bluebook after doing research as a federal government employee.S. When word of the curriculum became public. giving serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. which first defined UFOs and how information was to be collected. (See American investigations immediately below) These early studies led to the creation of the USAF's Project Sign at the end of 1947.) The first two known classified USAF studies in 1947 also concluded real physical aircraft were involved. but gave no opinion as to origins." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved."[41] In addition. The memo then added. implying physical reality and concern about national defense. "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object. or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object. first issued in 1953 after the Robertson Panel. The movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind had a character loosely based on Hynek. a scientist and prominent UFO researcher. "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose. in the late 1960s. there was a chapter on UFOs at the U. the Air Force in 1970 put out a statement the book was outdated and that cadets were now being informed of Condon's negative conclusion instead. Jacques Vallée." As to what the public was to be told.[42] USAF Regulation 200-2 The initially classified USAF Regulation 200-2.government documents revealed that nonpublic U. defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance. This handbook went into great detail on how to document alleged UFO sightings.S. The Bollender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security… are not part of the Blue Book system. stated explicitly that the two reasons for studying the unexplained cases were for national security reasons and for possible technical aspects involved. MUFON is a grass roots based organization known for publishing one of the first UFO investigators handbooks. and that . government UFO investigations continued after 1970. such information would also be considered important if UFOs had a foreign or domestic origin. (For example." but "For those objects which are not explainable. aerodynamic characteristics. He formed the opinion that some UFO reports could not be scientifically explained. has argued that most UFO research is scientifically deficient." indicating that more serious UFO incidents were already handled outside of the public Blue Book investigation. does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type.[43] issued in 1953 and 1954. including many government studies such as Project Blue Book. only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release. Air Force Regulation 200-2. due to many unknowns involved. or unusual features.

subsequent to the statement by Edward Condon that the study of UFOs probably could not be justified in the expectation that science would be advanced.[13] The Condon report and these conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists. "… the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished . Examples are the Sturrock Panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. Project Condign. in which it was stated. In 1987. It has been claimed that all UFO cases are anecdotal[46] and that all can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. what he terms the "invisible college".[21] No scientific consensus There has been little mainstream scientific study of UFOs. Some public government conclusions have indicated physical reality but stopped short of concluding extraterrestrial origins. Official studies ended in the U. noting that at least 30% of the cases studied remained unexplained. and the topic has received little serious attention or support in mainstream scientific literature. He also argues that much could be learned from rigorous scientific study. in December 1969. British UFO researcher Timothy Good received a letter confirming the existence of the IPU from the Army Director of Counterintelligence. and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study. but that little such work has been done. Vallée states that selfstyled scientists often fill the vacuum left by the lack of attention paid to the UFO phenomenon by official science. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the recent 2009 Uruguay Air Force study conclusion (see below). though not dismissing the possibility. such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party. On the other hand. extraterrestrial in origin. but argued the inexplicable core cases called for continued scientific study. it has been argued that there is limited awareness among scientists of observational data. a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the AIAA disagreed with Condon's conclusion. of which Condon was a member. and about which little is known. the US military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951. the US CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel. Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions.[21][47] No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real. other than what is reported in the popular press.S. United States US investigations into UFOs include:  The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU). These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years. established by the US Army sometime in the 1940s. or of concern to national defense. However. and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report #14). but also notes that several hundred professional scientists continue to study UFOs in private.mythology and cultism are frequently associated with the phenomenon. physical objects.

" or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969 The secret U. Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO. that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious. The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon. in fact. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947. metallic in appearance.S. on July 9. 1947. occur". and Greek militaries (1946– 1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No.." general lack of noise. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948– 1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish.[48] Project Blue Book. the air force investigation decided that. active 1956– 1980). internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[49] The private Sturrock Panel (1998) Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. who in the U. and as big as man-made aircraft. U. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK."[51] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate.S. Something is really flying around. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability. "This ‘flying saucer’ situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. and .[50] The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians." The IPU records have never been released. in cooperation with the FBI. Mutual UFO Network (MUFON.. absence of trail.          during the late 1950s and never reactivated. Army Air Force (AAF) intelligence. CIA. began a formal investigation into selected best sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized. including the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). After 1947 sightings Following the large U. National Security Agency (NSA).K. commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private. which included Kenneth Arnold’s and that of the United Airlines crew. in addition to the Air Force. U. and Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS. FBI. 1952–1988). 1969–).S. previously Project Sign and Project Grudge."[52] A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960). All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U." that there were objects in the shape of a disc. as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and Navy.S formed research groups such as National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP. occasional formation flying.S. 1973–). The AAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether or not "such a phenomenon could.

. both before and after it was released. to further analyze the matter."[12] J. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it.[54] Another highly classified U. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions[57] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court.[55] Condon Committee A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF. Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect. such as astronomer and USAF consultant J..[56] Controversy has surrounded the Condon report. In August 1948."evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar. which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968. now known as the Robertson Panel.[53] Project Sign This led to the creation of the Air Force’s Project Sign at the end of 1947. one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion.S. Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.. They concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. criticizing the Condon report and prior studies by the US Air Force for being scientifically deficient.the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles. sharply criticized the . It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation. James E.S. Allen Hynek. marked the end of the US government's official investigation of UFOs. the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book. It was thus recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. an astronomer whose position as USAF consultant from 1948 made him perhaps the most knowledgeable scientist connected with the subject. Ruppelt. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem. They also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists to study the problem of UFOs. The Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. particularly at the powerful AIAA … [who] recommended moderate. ". The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953. It has been claimed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists.. Edward J." suggesting a controlled craft. Allen Hynek and Capt. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read. but continuous scientific work on UFOs". study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 after being directed to do so by the National Security Council (NSC).[13] In an address made to the AAAS. that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community." The matter was considered so urgent. though documents indicate various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.

and possibly military personnel. the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports. where unidentified flying objects were sequently thought to be part of a Japanese airstrike. The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky was based on this event. The Mantell UFO Incident January 7. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and many local residents also witnessed a light floating on the water immediately afterward. Police officers. 1948 The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. local law enforcement officers. The Roswell Incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents. were sent to investigate.[58] Notable cases  The Battle of Los Angeles in 1942. In the Kecksburg Incident. and a large patch of unusual yellow foam when a water search was initiated. supported by the Defence Research Board. 1997       Canada In Canada. residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel. but embellished greatly the original account. a large object sequentially flashing lights was seen and heard to dive into the water by multiple witnesses.report of the Condon Committee and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for investigating seemingly baffling UFO reports. In official documents. it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour incident in Nova Scotia. and the US military.[59] Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Story (1952– 1954). the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. Smith. Pennsylvania (1965). In the Shag Harbour incident. who later publicly supported extraterrestrial origins. sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. Multiple government agencies were eventually involved in trying to identify the crashed object and searching for it. Canadian naval divers later purportedly found no wreckage. These studies were headed by Canadian Department of Transport radio engineer Wilbert B. Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book in his memoir. The "Phoenix Lights" March 13. the object was called a "UFO" . Alberta. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1956).

both the Canadian and US military were involved in another UFO-related search at Shelburne. The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral or negative. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. but the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one. optical illusions. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. or hoaxes. within the French space agency CNES.[60] French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–). About 14% of some 6000 cases studied remained unexplained. France On March 2007. most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. The COMETA panel likewise concluded the best explanation for the inexplicable cases was the extraterrestrial hypothesis and went further in accusing the United States government of a massive cover-up. which remained secret for over 50 years. to the UK National Archives by the Ministry of Defence. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[62] United Kingdom The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in 1951. the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. 2008 more UFO files were released.[66] . unless and until some material evidence becomes available. psychological misperceptions/aberrations. Nova Scotia.[63] Although kept secret from the public for many years. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. were first released on May 14. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken.because no conventional explanation for the crashed object was discovered. dating from 1978 to 1987. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena.[61] The French COMETA panel (1996–1999) was a private study undertaken mostly by aerospace scientists and engineers affiliated with CNES and high-level French Air Force military intelligence analysts.[65] On October 20. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[64] These files include." Eight file collections on UFO sightings. 2008. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials. but are not limited to. UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London. Around the same time. with ultimate distribution of their study intended for high government officials. approximately 30 miles from Shag Harbour. the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online.

in over fifty years. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through the National Archives. stating ".000 a year. Furthermore. are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin.A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the UK’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region".  According to records released on August 5." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to Ball Lightning are responsible for "the majority. The resulting report. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities.000 pages of declassified records. but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified.[68] The records include information on the Rendlesham Forest incident. which . crop circles. British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic.[67] In August 2009 The Black Vault internet archive announced the release by the British government of more than 4. There are no SIGINT. 2009.. or that they represent any hostile intent." The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. was publicly released in 2006.. ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT. if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. especially reports of Black Triangle UFOs.[70] Notable cases This section requires expansion. 2010. responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence. seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region]. Reports given to Churchill claimed the incident allegedly involved an RAF reconnaissance plane returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of the Second World War. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the Ministry of Defense on that date. the British Ministry of Defense (MoD) quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. despite thousands of UAP reports. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly suddenly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release. The plane's crew were reported to have photographed the object.[69] On December 1. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. a UFO attack on a cemetery and even reports of alien abduction claims.

[71] According to the documents. Suffolk. as well as questions raised by MPs in Parliament. summarized its findings as follows: "The commission managed to determine modifications to the chemical composition of the soil where landings are reported.  they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft. All files have recently been declassified. astronomer J. Colonel Ariel Sanchez.000 pages of UFO reports and letters and drawings from members of the public. Col. before moving off. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980. and even gone up to and touched it.S. US military personnel witnessed UFOs in the forest near the air base at Woodbridge. The unexplained cases include military jet interceptions. and physical landing trace evidence. and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. I must stress that the Air Force does not dismiss an extraterrestrial hypothesis based on our scientific analysis."[75] Astronomer reports The United States Air Force's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1 %[76] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). of which they regard only 40 (about 2%) as definitely lacking any conventional explanation. abductions. was present when Churchill and U. over a period of three nights.[74] In April 1957 the West Freugh Incident (named after RAF West Freugh in Scotland. Other base personnel claim to have observed one of the UFOs which had landed in the forest from close quarters for a long time. On one night the deputy base commander. Uruguay The Uruguayan Air Force has been conducting an ongoing UFO investigation since 1989 and analyzed 2100 cases. Two unidentified objects flying very high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. cattle mutilations. the principal military base involved) occurred. Also significant is their alleged size which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft. the landing of aircraft from a foreign air force. then a consultant to . Allen Hynek. General Dwight Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter. He described how his grandfather. After his retirement he said that he deliberately downplayed the importance of the event at the time (which was headed 'Unexplained Lights' in the memorandum) to avoid damaging his career. The UFO phenomenon exists in the country. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform manuveres beyond the capability of any known craft. details of the coverup emerged when the man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident. Charles Halt. The phenomenon exists. much in the same way that we send probes to explore distant worlds. up to the extraterrestrial hypothesis. who currently heads the investigation. He made an audio recording while this was happening. In 1952. and other personnel followed one or more UFOs which were moving in and above the forest for several hours. It could be a monitoring probe from outer space. who had served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World War.[72][73] The files come from more than 5. It could be a phenomenon that occurs in the lower sectors of the atmosphere. They are available to download for free for a month from The National Archives website.

The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are:   Astronomical objects (bright stars.Blue Book. conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. re-entering man-made spacecraft. planets. About 5 % of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. artificial satellites. In the 1970s. who admitted to six UFO sightings. including three green fireballs.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft. one of a green fireball. meteors. a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky. the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena (see Identification studies of UFOs). astrophysicist Peter A. the other of an anomalous disc-like object. missile launches) . a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) found that 24 % responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[78] Identification of UFOs Main article: Identification studies of UFOs Fata Morgana. In 1980. supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific".[79] Studies show that after careful investigation. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey. may be responsible for some UFO sightings. Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh. Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz. and the moon) Aircraft (Aerial advertising and other aircraft.[77] Even later UFO debunker Donald Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949. Fata Morgana can also magnify the appearance of distant objects or distort them to be unrecognizable. LaPaz reported two personal sightings. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and American Astronomical Society. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%).

38 % were deemed definitely explained while 31 % were thought to be "questionable. that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. moon dogs. run within the French space agency CNES between 1977 and 2004. Hendry's figure for unidentified cases was considerably lower than many other UFO studies such as Project Blue Book or the Condon Report that have found rates of unidentified cases ranging from 6 % to 30 %. double the number of the worst cases. Hendry found that 88. Fata Morgana. or length of this list. However. leaving only the very best 1. large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds. The remaining 8. etc." About 9 % of the cases were considered to have insufficient information to make a determination. although he felt that a further 7. and he discarded a further 2. while 41 % lacked sufficient information for classification. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception. An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found.    Balloons (weather balloons.5 % defied any rational explanation. flares) Light phenomena (mirages. UFO hypotheses The inclusion or exclusion of items from this list.[80] However. prank balloons.) Hoaxes Lenticular clouds have been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape.6 % of the cases he studied had a clear prosaic explanation. unusual clouds. A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the US Air Force included these categories as well as a "psychological" one. as did other investigations. Of the 69 % identifieds. (See full statistical breakdown in Identification studies of UFOs).5 % of the 3200 cases they examined and 33 % of what were considered the best cases remained unexplained.8 % due to unreliable or contradictory witnesses or insufficient information. scientifically investigated about 6000 cases and found that 13. The official French government UFO investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN).6 % of reports could not definitively be explained by prosaic phenomena. the scientific analysts were unable to come up with prosaic explanations for 21.5 % without plausible explanation. is disputed. searchlights and other ground lights. Please discuss this issue on the talk page.1 % could possibly be explained. . kites. 46 % were deemed definitely or likely identifiable.

are hostile. This is probably the most popular theory among Ufologists. A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock UFO panel. and aircraft intercepts. The hypothesis comes because of the Cattle Mutilations and the observations made by Wilhelm Reich amd Jerome Eden during their experiments with the Cloudbuster. which can also supposedly induce hallucinations. simultaneous visual sightings. and Uruguay's current Air Force study). such as ball lightning or sprites.[81] though the idea clearly predated Keyhoe. popularly proposed by Jacques Vallée.[90] though also predating him. Condon in the 1968 Condon Report as "The idea that some UFOs may be spacecraft sent to Earth from another civilization. further attributing the popularity of the idea to Donald Keyhoe's UFO book from 1950.         The extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is defined by Edward U. with specific examples of many of the categories listed below. or most of them. and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence). some secret. have concluded in favor of the ETH. One such recent example were the mass sightings of large.To account for unsolved UFO cases. It says that the extraterrestrial beings that travel in the UFOs. the French GEPAN/SEPRA. reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence. the Condon Committee. These have included military personnel and control tower operators. or on a planet associated with a more distant star". That UFOs represent poorly understood or still unknown natural phenomena. tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors. several hypotheses have been proposed. The paranormal/occult hypothesis is a variant of the interdimensional hypothesis. or have had members who disagreed with official conclusions against the conclusion by committees and agencies to which they belonged. top secret or experimental aircraft unfamiliar to most people. low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium.[94] . including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book.[91] The earthquake lights/tectonic strain hypothesis: UFOs are caused by strains in Earth's crust near earthquake faults.[92] Associated claims Besides anecdotal visual sightings.[89] The interdimensional hypothesis (IDH or IH) says that UFOs are objects crossing over from other dimensions or parallel universe. The psychosocial hypothesis.[82][83][84][85][86][87][88] The UFO Hostility Hypothesis is inside the extraterrestrial hypothesis. silent.[93]  Radar contact and tracking. Some private or governmental studies. that what people report as UFO experiences is the result of psychological misperception mechanisms and is strongly influenced by popular culture. sometimes from multiple sites. That UFOs are military flying saucers. appearing in newspapers and various government documents (see immediately below). invoked to explain so-called paranormal aspects sometimes associated with UFO reports.

[95] Apparent remote radiation detection. Hill. A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest Incident in England. including still photos. Among subjects tackled by McCampbell. magnetic anomalies[specify]. Animal/cattle mutilation cases. McCampbell's proposed solution is microwave plasma parting the air in front of the craft. and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning. burned and/or desiccated soil. and Oberth was the question of how UFOs can fly at supersonic speeds without creating a sonic boom. New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases). such as 1957. on the assumption that they are powered vehicles. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth. Reverse engineering Attempts have been made to reverse engineer the possible physics behind UFOs through analysis of both eyewitness reports and the physical evidence. Hill in his book Unconventional Flying Objects. and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. corneal burns. NACA/NASA engineer Paul R. Hill and Oberth believed UFOs utilize an as yet unknown anti-gravity field to . Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN. magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. e. In contrast. and video. Angel hair and angel grass. Height 611 UFO Incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro. increased radiation levels. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff. g. movie film. burned and broken foliage. Ubatuba. was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs. germination effects on seeds. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs. then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. and German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth. also reported by Project Blue Book director Ed Ruppelt in his book.         Another famous case from 1986 was the JAL 1628 case over Alaska investigated by the FAA. including ground impressions. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Photographic evidence.[96] A more recent example involves "the Bob White object" a tear drop shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in the TV show UFO Hunters. skin burns and rashes. and metallic traces. Brazil. recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran. some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950. such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves. analyzed by NASA. that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis. See. Examples are former NASA and nuclear engineer James McCampbell in his book Ufology. The 1964 Socorro/Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces.

created by Jacques Vallée. but are very different phenomena). or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (equilateral) triangles. boomerangs. crescent. domes. Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (Meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way. Researchers Main article: List of Ufologists Sightings Main article: List of sightings of unidentified flying objects Organizations Main article: UFO organizations Categorization This section does not cite any references or sources. glowing at night). . toy-top. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Allen Hynek. pyramids and cylinders. shapeless black masses. usually reported at night. diamonds. (March 2009) Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded.accomplish the same thing as well as provide propulsion and protection of occupants from the effects of high acceleration. (day and night) Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern. eggs. Other: chevrons. and the Vallée system.[97] Ufology Main article: Ufology Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. Typical categories include:     Saucer. Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system. classic "lights". spheres (usually reported to be shining. created by J.

See also ancient astronauts. Responding to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia.S. each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type.Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance. some are exclusive. Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types. new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN). an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80 % of Americans believed the U. There are many versions of this story."[98] Conspiracy theories Main article: UFO conspiracy theory UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens or sometimes collaborating with them. Vice Admiral Roscoe H. "Close Encounters of the Third Kind"). research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Lapan stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. government was withholding such information. .[101] It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact.S. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell. Thomas Djamaluddin. Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head). A professor at the Indonesian National Aeronautics and Space Agency put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience. the 1999 high-level French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts. There are claims that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments. Men in Black. and Brookings Report There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades. Senator Barry Goldwater. while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director). subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his UFO movie.. Allegations of evidence suppression See also: Disclosure Project.[99][100] Various notables have also expressed such views. In the U. and Yves Sillard (former director of the French space agency CNES. the government and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan) described them as "man-made". Scientific skepticism A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI).

and many others. in 1990. the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. after the Walters family had moved.[106][107][108] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction. and most[who?] consider there to be little reason to challenge his claims. These sightings became famous and were called Gulf Breeze UFO incident. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House. but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft.Famous hoaxes Main article: List of UFO-related hoaxes      The Maury Island incident The Ummo affair. a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs. Florida. Warren William "Billy" Smith is a popular writer and confessed hoaxster.[105] A 1996 Gallup poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the government was covering up information regarding UFOs. whereas only 92 percent had heard of U. In that latest poll. A 2002 Roper poll for the Sci Fi Channel found similar results. Three years later. the Jupiter Two in Lost in Space. and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek. In 1973. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the moon taken by a Soviet orbital probe in 1959 were fake.S. about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft.[104] In popular culture Main article: UFOs in fiction UFOs constitute a widespread international cultural phenomenon of the last 60 years. Again. a decades-long series of detailed letters and documents allegedly from extraterrestrials. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the moon. for example the Earth spacecraft Starship C-57D in Forbidden Planet. and that there were cities. a building contractor.[102] George Adamski over the space of two decades made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze. A José Luis Jordan Pena came forward in the early nineties claiming responsibility for the phenomenon. See also . The total length of the documents is at least 1000 pages. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. Ed Walters. Most investigators like the forensic photo expert William G. and some estimate that further undiscovered documents may total nearly 4000 pages. Hyzer[103] now consider the sightings to be a hoax. Gallup polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition.

1998. editor. and the Early Cold War Era". J. Barnes & Noble Books. Hall. exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. Well-organized. editor.. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail. (January 2010)      Thomas E. University Press of Kansas. Deardorff. pages 82–121 in "UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge" David M. Maccabee. highly documented. Curran. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. 2004. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. Puthoff (2005). Visible Ink Press. Jacobs. The UFO Evidence: Volume 1. B. NICAP. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N." forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales. ISBN 0-7006-1032-4 Jerome Clark. 2000. Harold E. The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. http://www. Abbeville Press. Haisch.org/JBIS.         List of UFO sightings List of alleged aircraft-UFO incidents and near misses Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) Extraterrestrial life Project Blue Book Roswell incident Ufology Declassification of UFO documents General This article includes a list of references. the Military. America. (revised edition). B. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations." The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. reissued 1997. Bullard.ufoskeptic. "UFOs: Lost in the Myths". "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation". 2001.Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka. pages 141–191 in "UFOs. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. including the so-called "contactee cults. .pdf. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 58: 43–50. 1964. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. Douglas. Richard H.

Sagan.          Hall. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax".) Ian Ridpath "Astronomical Causes of UFOs"[109] Michael A. 1981. Princeton University Press. Horizons: Exploring the Universe. . Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed. 1997. editors. John Wiley & Sons. Jung. 48. Leicester.F. Robert UFO Sightings: The Evidence. Armando Simon "UFOs: Testing for the Existence of Air Force Censorship. 1986. Pro and con articles by scientists. Create Space. Thornton. 775–785. (Appendix A) Robert Sheaffer (2011). ISBN 0-471-40976-6. Allen. ISBN 0-446-52565-0 Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. Hull). Wadsworth Publishing. Henry Regnery Co. ISBN 0-534-24889-6 and ISBN 0-534-24890-X. Hynek. 1996. ISBN 0-7607-0192-2.A Nonreactive. Alan. (Chapter 20: Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye. (1999). UK: Midland Publishing. Richard H. The UFO Evidence: A Thirty-Year Report. Peter A. Allen. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. 2006. ISBN 157392-213-7 (revised edition of The UFO Verdict) Sturrock. 3–5. 1984. Rose. New York: Warner Books. 13. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. The UFO Experience: A scientific inquiry. 1972. Tony." The Skeptical Inquirer. Hendry. The Hynek UFO Report. Prometheus Books ISBN 0-87975-338-2 Sheaffer. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating. J. Another exhaustive case study. J. 355–367. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-691-01822-7 Armando Simon. "Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies" (translated by R.. UFOs: A Scientific Debate.[110] Psychology      Carl G. Seeds. Robert The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence. ISBN 1463601573. 1979. Hynek. Richard Haines"UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. \Cornell University Press." Psychology. Prometheus Books. Bill and Buttler. The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. (1995). 2001. more recent UFO reports.C. a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada Skepticism     Philip Plait (2002). 1979. 1998. Sheaffer.. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Evaluating." Psychological Reports. Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst. and Reporting UFO Sightings. 8. Carl & Page. mostly to the skeptical side. 1979. Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer. 1976." Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. New York: Doubleday & Co. Armando Simon "Psychology and the UFOs.

2005. Physical Review D 67 (10): 104013. Roman (1996). Jonathan Rising of the Moon. Doubleday & Co. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer.67.67j4013K. Unconventional Flying Objects: a scientific analysis. and Intelligence. online. PEA RESEARCH.5496. Volume One: 1941–1973. ISBN 1-56924746-3 Edward J. Celestial Arts. H. The Inside Story of Real-life Sightings. Timothy Good. A. Need to Know: UFOs. ISBN 0-688-09202-0.. Hill. Downes.53. doi:10. Many UFO documents. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071. Government Involvement in the UFO Coverup. 1995. Ford and T. 2000. Reports from the UK government files Richard M. Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects. Rullán. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Marlowe & Company. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. 2005 (Authorhouse) S. The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects. 1986. Pea. Above Top Secret.[111] Technology        Paul R..Histories           Dr David Clarke. Many UFO documents. 1992. Bangor: Xiphos. Bibcode 1996PhRvD. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD. Ruppelt. 1997. preliminary paper. ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data. 1976. Another analysis by former NASA and nuclear engineer. Dolan. ISBN 1-57174-027-9. Physical Review D 53 (10): 5496. 1956. the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book LeRoy F. or earlier title History of UFO Crash/Retrievals". UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History. 2007. James M. L. 2000. paper. William Morrow & Co. Antonio F.104013. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Bruce Maccabee. 1973. Kew. Project Blue Book Exposed. Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster). the Military. Keyhole Publishing. 2nd ed. Bibcode 2003PhRvD. Lawrence Fawcett & Barry J.. Greenwood. McCampbell. The National Archives..5496F. "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". "Super Cosmos". The UFO Cover-Up (Originally Clear Intent). arXiv:gr-qc/0207057. "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". 1988. Llewellyn Publications. McCampbell. Physical effects of UFOs upon people. ISBN 0-89087-144-2 full-text online. ISBN 1-56718493-6 Kevin Randle. Hampton Roads Publishing Co. UFO FBI Connection. Jack Sarfatti.53. Pegasus Books. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt. Dolan is a professional historian. Timothy Good. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3.1103/PhysRevD. James M. 1988. The UFO Files. 2009. 2000. External links . Krasnikov (2003).

7. "The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers". ^ "http://www. the USAF's Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were "psychological" or hoaxes.html" ^ UAP In the UK Air Defence Region: Volume 3 Executive Summary. 8. But No Evidence Yet".com/FAQs. Anne (March.gov/petitions#!/response/searching-et-no-evidence-yet. "Searching for ET. ^ a b c Atkinson. 1947–90 Ministry of Defence Reports in the UK from 1997 – 2007 Newly released UFO files from the UK government References 1.Find more about UFO on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks     Government Reports on UFOs from UCB Libraries GovPubs CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs. 10.41. White House. Retrieved 2011-11-06. Qualitative Sociology 27 (1): 3–34.universetoday.0000015542. "No Alien Visits or UFO Coverups. 2004).28438. ^ a b Cross. Allen Hendry's study for CUFOS had less than 1 % 9. . Page 3 6. ISBN 978076070916. ^ Sagan.html#Q1" ^ "http://www. White House Says". Pan Books. p. https://wwws.com/90717/no-alien-visits-orufo-coverups-white-house-says/. ^ a b c Larson. 310. 11. ^ For example. UFOs: A Scientific Debate. Barnes & Noble.net/ufo/overview.html ^ "http://www. ^ Good. Retrieved 2011-11-06. Thornton (1995). Timothy (1997).1023/B:QUAS. http://www.hyper.org/" ^ "http://www. 3. Phil (5 November 2011). Nancy (5 November 2011).com/trianglescharacteristics. UniverseToday.ufoevidence. Beyond Top Secret.whitehouse.ufocasebook. 2. 4. doi:10. Defence Intelligence Staff (2000). 5.mufon. Carl and Page.

Shaba. November 13.org/org. ISBN 0-8351-2676-5. or unusual features. ^ Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. Inc. ISBN 1-933665-30-0 22. (1968). ^ [3] NARCAP.co. H. Alien Contact by Human Deception. "Do UFOs Exist in the History of Arts?" from American Chronicle. aerodynamic characteristics. initially defined a UFO as "any airborne object that by performance. ^ NAVY OFFICER SEES METEORS. with original log entries of sighting.com/2011/08/26/ufos-pilots-historychannel_n_935847. in Skeptic Magazine Vol. (1990). or that cannot be positively identified as a familiar object. Daniela.org/topics/Cometa.cufos. does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type. (1977). 1904. Maccabee summary of sighting with log quotes 30. ^ a b c Vallée.. ^ a b c COMETA Report: http://www. 28.com/shg/mccarthy/shgintro. J. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects. New York Times. 2004. "Catalog of Military. pages 11-13.12. Airliner. 2006. They Were Red Ones. ^ Before the Wright Brothers… There Were UFOs 29. ^ a b McDonald. 2007 26. China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic.html.huffingtonpost. Private Pilots’ Sightings from 1916 to 2000".com/" 19. D. or unusual features. These unexplained sightings are carried statistically as unidentifieds.D. ^ Cuoghi. . E.html" 21.mufon. the Largest About Six Suns Big. retrieved July 27. Garden City (NY.htm 14.. airborne objects or objects that are unknown or appear out of the ordinary to the observer because of performance.ufoevidence. http://www.html" 20. McDonald and the UFO Case Study http://www. Rayburn Bldg. 13. Analysis thus far has explained all but a few of the sightings reported. ^ Reece (2007).html 18. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals. Pages 69–71.1. 'Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: 80 Years of Pilot Sightings'.11.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/7584331/UFOstudies-should-be-legitimate-university-subject-claims-American-professor. Bruce Maccabee analysis. James. (2000). ^ "http://www. Weinstein. Paul. 2003.html 15. ^ Dong." 24. ^ "http://www.. ^ UFO study causes media sensation: 7/1/98 16. Washington. Dominque F.skeptic. ^ "http://www. E." New York: Anomalist Books. ^ Giordano. The UFO enigma.telegraph.com/the_magazine/archives/vol11n01. USA): Doubleday 17. 1968. ^ Air Force Regulation 200-2 text versionpdf of document." The Air Force added that "Technical Analysis thus far has failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for a number of sightings reported. 23. Taves. [2] 25. Statement on Unidentified Flying Objects submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics at July 29. March 9. No." and added "Air Force activities must reduce the percentage of unidentifieds to a minimum. ^ A good example is the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena or NARCAP.project1947. 27. aerodynamic characteristics. "The Art of Imagining UFOs". D. H. ^ Menzel." A later version [1] altered the definition to "Any aerial phenomena. ^ "http://www.

unidentified aircraft.af. Sarah Connors and Michael Hall. Additionally. VE: Inner Traditions. 1998. current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206.foia. 1947.M. Garrett. UFOs: What to Do". S.wikisource. 64) lists sightings of "unidentified flying objects" and "aircraft of unconventional design" as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional. surface vessels. NJ: New Page Books ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7 48.7.org/wiki/Transwiki:Air _Force_Regulation_200-2.htm. DIA. ^ On July 9.project1947. 'Altai-Himalaya: A travel diary'. Fitch to D. 2001 (1929). 'Shambhala: In search of the new era'. ^ http://www. UFO historical review. are covered by Rule 5E (p.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004.foia. ^ Nicholas Roerich. http://www. 61 36. ^ For example. review of hypotheses. pp. 46.ufoevidence. IL: Adventures Unlimited Press.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004. http://www.nicap. government UFO-related documents from the USAF. Kempton. Rochester. Chapter 4: The Onslaught This quotes and summarized the interim report of Lieutenant Colonel George D. Report on the UFO Wave of 1947.htm 37. online 33. ^ internal FBI memo from E. ^ http://www. 51. 484 49. 1968.pdf 44. ^ "Wikisource article about Air Force Regulation 200-2". creating a potential risk of nuclear war. 244.31. ^ [4] Hitler's Flying Saucers: Henry Stevens 35. "unidentified objects" detected by missile warning systems. or submarines. ^ Good (1988). and NSA. Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. ^ Friedman. United Press stories on the Roswell incident noted that "Reports of flying saucers whizzing through the sky fell off sharply today as the Army and Navy began a concentrated campaign to stop the rumors. 2007. 361–2 32. RAND Corporation. 52. Retrieved November 12. G. 1990 (1930). as well as private websites such as "The Black Vault". 2008. ^ Ted Bloecher's bar chart of June/July 1947 UFO sightings 38. http://www. Albuquerque. Ladd concerning a request by General Schulgen of USAAF intelligence corps Office of Intelligence Requirements for the FBI to help with their investigation of UFO reports. ^ Foo-Fighter – TIME 34.S.org/cases/case723. which has an archive[dead link] of several thousand U.com/fig/ual105. ^ Ted Bloecher & James McDonald. recommendations 50.archive. 45.org/470704e.35) 42.org/web/20080505013115/http://en. Archived from the original on May 5. ^ Project Blue Book Special Report #14 41. Section 5. Retrieved November 12. ^ George Kocher. 1967 40. ^ Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the FBI FOIA site. DOD. missiles. CIA. Army. ^ The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark 47. ^ Air Force Academy UFO material 43.htm. 6–7. 2007. ^ Clark (1998). White Rose Press. ^ Alfred Loedding and the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947. pp.af. (2008)." UP story 39. http://web. . ^ "Official US Air Force document in pdf format"..3 (p. ^ Nicholas Roerich. Franklin Lakes. case studies.pdf.

^ Hynek's photos in Hynek..cia. COMETA Report. August 2009 69. UFO's. 2006. g. COMETA Report summary by Gildas Bourdais. James E. 14–16 79. part1. Secretary of State.co. Atomic Energy Commission. http://www.net/ufo/Science_in_Default. August 2009 70. Navy. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. 52 78. 58. Ithaca. DIA. ^ AFP Article: Britons 'spotted' UFOs.bbc. National Archives show 74.53. "The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects". Retrieved March 30. e.nicap. 2011. August 2000 68. 1978 GEPAN report by director Claude Poher. 59. National Security Agency (NSA). specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army. pp. ISBN 978-0-393-00739-8. Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA. p. Thornton Page. and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ^ BBC: Churchill ordered UFO cover-up. http://dewoody. the Defense Department's Joint Research and Development Board. director of CUFOS 63. (1972). 2. ^ Ruppelt. ^ Catalog of Project Blue Book unknowns 77. and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online. The UFO Experience. ^ news. a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada 60. ^ Site du GEIPAN 61.Uruguay. ^ https://www. 1972. ^ Fox News: Churchill Ordered UFO Coverup. Francis L. "Science in Default". English translation by Scott Corrales 76. ^ McDonald.co. ^ COMETA Report (English). ^ Interview with GEIPAN director Yves Sillard. ^ AFP: Churchill 'banned UFO report to avoid mass panic' 72. ESHLEMAN . ^ Electromagnetic-Wave Ducting [dead link] BY V. ^ "Cost-cutting causes British gov't to shut down UFO investigations" 71. 23. ^ Ridge. ^ See. 62. records say 66.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csistudies/studies/97unclass/ufo. Documents Suggest 73. R. and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project. ^ Herb/Hynek amateur astronomer poll results reprinted in International UFO Reporter (CUFOS). ^ Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown.html CIA history of their involvement in UFOs 56. Summary by Mark Rodeghier. Project RAND. May 2006. In Carl Sagan. by future USAF Chief of Staff. ^ UK National Archives 64. ^ The National Archives website 75.uk/Rufo. P. ^ 'The Black Vault'. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. New York: Cornell University Press. Chapt. American Association for the Advancement of Science. the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House. Retrieved August 19. NSA. 2009. Montevideo. ^ BBC News Airliner had near miss with UFO 67. Gen. 3 55. Nathan Twining. ^ 'El Pais'.htm. ^ 'UAP In the UK Air Defense Region' Volume 3 Executive Summary. Joint Chiefs of Staff. June 6.uk Files released on UFO sightings 65. 1947. part2. 54. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).html. ^ The so-called Twining memo of Sept.[5] 57. A Scientific Debate.. public statements of SEPRA director Jean-Jacques Velasco. 134th Meeting.dabsol. ^ 'The Black Vault'.

November 4. Good.).. Washington Post and Times Herald. ^ Peter F. and his book Great balls of Fire–a unified theory of ball lightning. Ballantine Books. 371–373. 497–502 96. CNN/TIME.80. National Archives.. Jacques Vallée.. 93. ^ PARANOIA – People Are Strange: Unusual UFO Cults 103. http://www. g. ^ Investigation and explanations of Belgium case 95. ^ David Saunders.. 23 83. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating. Retrieved June 15. The Star. ^ Velasco quoted in La Dépêche du Midi. pg. ^ Schuessler. pp215–238. ^ bNet (CBS Interactive Inc. February 6. 16 86. Toulouse. TT 1524. 81–89. ^ Poll: U. ^ ibid. ISBN 0-385-14348-6 81. AW4 85.htm. Evaluating. 189. Socorro 'Saucer' in a Pentagon Pantry. Good." [6] Last accessed February 2. ^ The Gulf Breeze "UFOs" 104. 106–107. (Top Secret). ^ Ika Krismantari. 20. natural gas) inside an atmospheric vortex. April 18. Section II Summary of the Study. hiding knowledge of aliens. Ruppelt. 2011 99. An Alien History of Planet Earth. g. 2006. Nick (Narrator and Writer) (2006). Edward U. Other links to Sturrock Panel 94. 347 87. 1976. Vol. p. 1993. Oberth's UFO antigravity opinion as to propulsion and atmospheric air flow control also quoted by Donald Keyhoe in his 1955 book Flying Saucer Conspiracy 98. ^ Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. Jerome: Scavengers From Space 90. ^ Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact. USAFE Item 14. ^ Good (1988). ^ Allan Hendry. 2008. UFOs. Sturrock Panel report on physical evidence. e. 84. History Channel.S. ^ Document quoted and published in Timothy Good (2007). Doubleday & Co. 287. 1989. ^ Groupe d'Etudes et d'Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non identifiés 102. See Weather. ISBN 0-345-36002-8 91. June 15. declassified in 1997. ^ Sturrock Panel abstract & summary. 112–154 97. Condon.middlecoastpublishing. Coleman has advanced a theory that some UFOs may be instances of visible combustion of a fuel (e. Ray Stanford. ^ Fawcett & Greenwood. 1997 101. Washington D. ^ Good (1988). Chapt. Crop circles provide food for thought. "Statements About Flying Saucers And Extraterrestrial Life Made By Prof. ^ Dolan. New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So. 31. Tunguska and other anomalous lights. . and Reporting UFO Sightings. ^ Cook. ^ Eden. 2008 100. John L. ^ "Warren Smith: UFO Investigator". 1979. Oberth's American Weekly article appeared in a number of newspaper Sunday supplements.C. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 337. 2004 89. University of Colorado 82. "Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?. France.com/ufo/warrenbillysmith. 318–322. ^ Good. 1948. Hermann Oberth. Fireshine Press 92. 115. UFOs? Yes 88. German Rocket Scientist" 2002.

SciFi.com/ufo/roper/. ^ Bullard. 107. (1968) · Juscelino Kubitschek (1976) · Pope John Paul I (1978) · John Lennon (1980) · Olof Palme (1986) · Zia-ul-Haq (1988) · Kurt Cobain (1994) · Yitzhak Rabin (1995) · Diana. 141 106. September 2002. Kennedy (1968) · Martin Assassination Luther King Jr. ^ [https://www. Kennedy (1963) · Malcolm X (1965) · Robert F. ^ "The Roper Poll". ^ Mutual UFO Network 109. Retrieved August 19. 2006.50megs. ^ Astronomical Causes of UFOs 110.com/articles/UFO %20COVERUP.htm [show]v · d · eUFOs and ufology [show]v · d · eConspiracy theories Eric V of Denmark (1286) · Geoffrey Chaucer (1400) · Princes in the Tower (1483) · Abraham Lincoln (1865) · Franz Ferdinand (1914) · Phar Lap (1932) · Sergey Kirov (1934) · Joseph Stalin (1953) · Dag Hammarskjöld (1961) · Patrice Lumumba (1961) · Marilyn Monroe (1962) · John F. http://web.com.105. ^ CFI – Evidence Page 108.createspace. ^ http://pea-research. Princess of Wales (1997) · David Kelly (2003) · Alexander Litvinenko (2006) · Benazir Bhutto (2007) · Michael Jackson (2009) · Osama bin Laden (2011) Sinking of the USS Maine (1898) · Sinking of the RMS Lusitania (1915) · Reichstag fire (1933) · Pearl Harbor · Operation Gladio · USS Liberty incident (1967) · KAL 007 (1983) · Mozambican presidential jet (1986) · Pan Am Flight 103 (1988) · Oklahoma City bombing (1995) · Port Arthur massacre (1996) · TWA Flight 800 (1996) · Russian apartment bombings (1999) · 9/11 attacks (Advance knowledge · WTC collapse) · Madrid train bombing (2004) · London bombings (2005) Titanic alternative theories (1912) · Cairo Fire (1952) · Jonestown (1978) · Satanic ritual abuse (Blood libel) · Sinking of MS Estonia (1994) · Columbine High School massacre (1999) False flag Other . Ufology Resource Center.scifi. Archived from the original on July 13.org/web/20060713204836/http://www.archive. 2006.com/3630764 Psychic Vibrations 111.

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