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Unidentified flying object
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ufo) Jump to: navigation, search "UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation).

Photograph of alleged UFO, New Jersey, July 31, 1952 A term originally coined by the military, an unidentified flying object (usually abbreviated to UFO or U.F.O.) is an unusual apparent anomaly in the sky that is not readily identifiable to the observer as any known object. While a small percentage remain unexplained, the majority of UFO sightings are often later identified as any number of various natural phenomenon or manmade objects.[citation needed]

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1 Extraterrestrial hypothesis 2 Official White House Position 3 Studies 4 Terminology 5 Early history o 5.1 The Kenneth Arnold sightings 6 Investigations o 6.1 Project Sign o 6.2 Project Magnet o 6.3 Project Grudge o 6.4 USAF Regulation 200-2 o 6.5 Project Bluebook o 6.6 No scientific consensus o 6.7 United States  6.7.1 After 1947 sightings  6.7.2 Project Sign  6.7.3 Condon Committee  6.7.4 Notable cases o 6.8 Canada o 6.9 France o 6.10 United Kingdom  6.10.1 Notable cases o 6.11 Uruguay o 6.12 Astronomer reports 7 Identification of UFOs o 7.1 UFO hypotheses 8 Associated claims o 8.1 Reverse engineering 9 Ufology o 9.1 Researchers o 9.2 Sightings o 9.3 Organizations o 9.4 Categorization o 9.5 Scientific skepticism 10 Conspiracy theories o 10.1 Allegations of evidence suppression 11 Famous hoaxes 12 In popular culture 13 See also o 13.1 General o 13.2 Skepticism o 13.3 Psychology

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13.4 Histories 13.5 Technology 14 External links 15 References

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Extraterrestrial hypothesis
Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft. Proponents argue that because these objects appear to be technological and not natural phenomenon, and are alleged to display flight characteristics or have shapes seemingly unknown to conventional technology, the conclusion is then that they must not be from Earth.[1][2][3][4] Though UFO sightings have occurred throughout recorded history, modern interest in them dates from World War II (see foo fighter), further fueled in the late 1940s by Kenneth Arnold's coining of the term flying saucer and the Roswell UFO Incident. Since then governments have investigated UFO reports, often from a military perspective- and UFO researchers have investigated, written about, and created organizations devoted to the subject. One such investigation, The UK's Project Condign report, notes that Russian, Former Soviet Republics, and Chinese authorities have made a co-ordinated effort to understand the UFO topic and that State military organizations, particularly in Russia, have done "considerably more work (than is evident from open sources)" on military applications which have stemmed from their UFO research. The report also noted that "several aircraft have been destroyed and at least four pilots have been killed 'chasing UFOs'."[5]

Official White House Position
In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited Earth and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race."[6][7] Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye."[6][7] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI, the Kepler space telescope and the NASA Mars rover, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."[6][7]

Studies
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomenon— most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even

[9] Proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis believe that these unidentified reports are of alien spacecraft. reported by private pilot Kenneth Arnold in June 1947. sighting. He suggested that UFO should be pronounced as a word – you-foe. The term "UFO" was first suggested in 1952 by Cpt.S. who headed Project Blue Book. Edward J. .F. and the military. it is acknowledged that between 5% and 20% of reported sightings remain unexplained. However it is now usually pronounced by forming each letter: U. which now average around 500 reported sightings per month.[10] There has been some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted. Ruppelt. In addition.[20] UFOs have become a relevant theme in modern culture. Ruppelt felt that "flying saucer" did not reflect the diversity of the sightings.[19] The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. His term was quickly adopted by the United States Air Force. which also briefly used "UFOB". The first widely publicized U. police. however.[22] The term foo fighters was used by American fighter pilots during World War II to refer to UFOs. While UFOs have been the subject of extensive investigation by various governments. and as such can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. few scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. gave rise to the popular terms "flying saucer" and "flying disc". which were commonly seen and described as such during the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th.being hoaxes.[10] Terminology The first publicized sightings were usually referred to using the term mystery airships. as of 2011 the number of UFO reports to their worldwide offices has increased by 67% from the previous 3 years.[21] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Many reports have been made by trained observers such as pilots.[8] After excluding incorrect reports. The Air Force initially defined UFOs as those objects that remain unidentified after scrutiny by expert investigators.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] The void left by the lack of institutional scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and groups. so not all reports are visual. According to MUFON. even though Arnold said the most of the objects he saw were not totally circular and one was crescent-shaped (see Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting for details). then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. of which the former is still sometimes used. and some scientists support the extraterrestrial hypothesis. which only served to further fuel public interest in the topic. though various other hypotheses have been proposed. some involve radar traces.O. most notably MUFON (Mutual UFO Network) [18] and CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies).[23] though today the term UFO is often used for any unexplained sighting regardless of whether it has been investigated. the infamous Roswell UFO Incident occurred at about the same time.

a term that is pronounced as one word (ov-nee). circular flying object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed. wrote a vivid passage in his Dream Pool Essays (1088) about an unidentified flying object. while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region. that rose and disappeared. In late September 1926. Objet volant non identifié or Oggetto Volante Non Identificato). who stated that a flying object with opening doors would shine a blinding light from its interior (from an object shaped like a pearl) that would cast shadows from trees for ten miles in radius. or other religious omens. an airmail pilot over Nevada was forced to land by a huge. wingless cylindrical object. departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. or in popular usage to alien spacecraft – and the public and media ridicule sometimes associated with the topic. like lighted windows on a railway carriage.[26]      Shen Kuo (1031–1095). An example is Halley's Comet.C. Such sightings throughout history were often treated as supernatural portents. and was able to take off at tremendous speeds. 1904. 1926. In January 1926. Frank Schofield. dark. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets. The largest had an apparent size of about six suns. and possibly as early as 467 B. and Italian is OVNI (Objeto Volador No Identificado. a Song Chinese government scholar-official and prolific polymath inventor and scholar. Objeto Voador Não Identificado. one or more of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye. or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. bright meteors. there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles west of San Francisco. planetary conjunctions. Early history Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 B. Kansas and Colorado Springs.[24] The equivalent acronym for UFO in Spanish. some investigators now prefer to use other terms such as unidentified aerial phenomenon (or UAP). French. angels.[30] On August 5. Schofield wrote of three bright red eggshaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer.[27] On January 25. Colorado. reported by Lt. 1878. Portuguese." Martin also said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer. He recorded the testimony of eyewitnesses in 11thcentury Anhui and Jiangsu (especially in the city of Yangzhou). Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[25] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images. then changed course and "soared" above the clouds. of 1305 cataloged by NARCAP.Because the term UFO is ambiguous – referring either to any unidentified sighting. Nicholas Roerich reported that members of his expedition saw "something big . later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. 1916. a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights.C. On January 31. the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO.[29] 1916 and 1926: The three oldest known pilot UFO sightings.[28] On February 28. The Denison Daily News wrote that local farmer John Martin had reported seeing a large. a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita.

S.”[31] Another description by Roerich was. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest. or German secret weapons.[33][34] On February 25. or the West coast air raid. In a 1948 top secret document. ". because it was thought that these mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets."[32] In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. hallucinations from oxygen deprivation. No readily apparent explanation was offered. In 1946. then referred to as "Russian hail". Italy and Greece. balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. one side of which was brilliant from the sun. and later as "ghost rockets". We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface. California region. Elmo's Fire. Army Chief of Staff Gen. of unidentified aerial objects in the Scandinavian nations. It is a huge body. Antiaircraft artillery was fired at what was presumed to be Japanese planes. the Swedish military told the USAF Europe in 1948 that some of their investigators believed them to be extraterrestrial in origin.. Field glasses are at hand. Army observers reported unidentified aircraft both visually and on radar over the Los Angeles. The incident later became known as the Battle of Los Angeles. though some officials dismissed the reports of aircraft as being triggered by anxieties over expected Japanese air attacks on California. It is oval in shape. U. Portugal. "Foo-fighters" (metallic spheres. One side glows in the sun. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest.   and shiny reflecting the sun. the planet Venus. collected primarily by the Swedish military. Although most were thought to be natural phenomena like meteors. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky.A shiny body flying from north to south.. However. there were over 2000 reports. like a huge oval moving at great speed. over 200 were tracked on radar and deemed to be "real physical objects" by the Swedish military. George C. Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson insisted real aircraft were involved. The Kenneth Arnold sightings Main article: Kenneth Arnold Unidentified Flying Object Sighting . 1942. along with isolated reports from France.

oval in front and convex in the rear. in his comprehensive review of newspaper reports (including cases that preceded Arnold's). He reported seeing nine brilliantly bright objects flying across the face of Rainier. Reports began to rapidly tail off after July 8. however. peaking on July 6–8. hoaxes. mass hysteria. In one instance a United Airlines crew sighting of nine more disc-like objects over Idaho on the evening of July 4.[35] Arnold’s sighting was followed in the next few weeks by hundreds of other reported sightings. "shaped like saucers and were so thin I could barely see them… ". it was Arnold's sighting that first received significant media attention and captured the public's imagination. he would describe later as crescent-shaped. Speculation as to what the flying saucers were was rampant in the newspapers. found a sudden surge upwards in sightings on July 4. and weather balloons to byproducts of atomic testing or U. Bloecher noted that for the next few days most American newspapers were filled with front-page stories of the new "flying saucers" or "flying discs". (One of the objects. Theories ranged from hallucinations.[38] . At the time. After reports of the Arnold sighting hit the media. Washington. and flew "like a saucer would if you skipped it across the water". other cases began to be reported in increasing numbers. mostly in the U. this sighting was even more widely reported than Arnold’s and lent considerable credence to Arnold’s report. 1947 while flying his private plane near Mount Rainier. The post World War II UFO phase in the United States began with a famous sighting by American businessman Kenneth Arnold on June 24. sightings of similar objects that preceded this.This shows the report Kenneth Arnold filed in 1947 about his UFO sighting.S. but in other countries as well. "half-moon shaped.S. Although there were other 1947 U. Arnold described what he saw as being "flat like a pie pan". reflections off airplanes./Russian secret weapons. unusual atmospheric conditions. in which they explained debris found on the ground by a rancher as being that of a weather balloon. optical illusions.S.. … they looked like a big flat disk" (see Arnold's drawing at right). as shown in illustration at left. to even more esoteric interdimensional or interplanetary visitors.[37] when officials began issuing press statements on the Roswell UFO incident.[36] American UFO researcher Ted Bloecher.) Arnold’s descriptions were widely reported and within a few days gave rise to the terms flying saucer and flying disk.

Bloecher (aided by physicist James E. previously Project Sign and Project Grudge. ending the official Air Force UFO investigations.Over several years in the 1960s. France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency CNES since 1977. Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947). as has Uruguay since 1989. Spain. ever stated such a conclusion. that arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion. Peru. as did the private but high-level French COMETA study of 1999. (see Ghost rockets for document). Uruguay. These official reports refer to the UFO of military term. a 1969 USAF document. McDonald) discovered 853 flying disc sightings that year from 140 newspapers from Canada. using the Condon Commission's negative conclusion as a rationale. Project Blue Book. German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed an internal West German government investigation. plus later . A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. Brazil. It dose not mean that the above-mentioned governments recognized supposed human contact with alien civilization. Project Grudge Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. state except Montana. to the supposed alien crafts. However. France. placing Ruppelt in charge. Publicly. and Brazilian Air Force Operation Saucer (1977). but this study was never made public. the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951. internal reports by the Canadian Project Magnet in 1952 and 1953 also assigned high probability to extraterrestrial origins.S.C. Chile. Governments or independent academics in the United States. Project Magnet Classified. the secret U. which he headed. Mexico. and not. Project Sign Project Sign in 1948 wrote a highly classified opinion (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. the United Kingdom. Belgium. In 1954. Blue Book closed down in 1970. Washington D.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951). known as the Bolender memo. and every U. Canada. Project Magnet. Japan. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge. Sweden. however. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969. the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report #14[40] by the Battelle Memorial Institute. nor later Canadian defense studies.[39] Investigations UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that vary widely in scope and scientific rigor.

such information would also be considered important if UFOs had a foreign or domestic origin. stated explicitly that the two reasons for studying the unexplained cases were for national security reasons and for possible technical aspects involved. "it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object. The Bollender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security… are not part of the Blue Book system. Jacques Vallée.S. implying physical reality and concern about national defense. but gave no opinion as to origins. This handbook went into great detail on how to document alleged UFO sightings. there was a chapter on UFOs at the U.[42] USAF Regulation 200-2 The initially classified USAF Regulation 200-2. He formed the opinion that some UFO reports could not be scientifically explained. due to many unknowns involved. and that . (See American investigations immediately below) These early studies led to the creation of the USAF's Project Sign at the end of 1947. defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance." indicating that more serious UFO incidents were already handled outside of the public Blue Book investigation. (For example. MUFON is a grass roots based organization known for publishing one of the first UFO investigators handbooks."[44][45] Project Bluebook Allen Hynek was a trained astronomer who participated in Project Bluebook after doing research as a federal government employee."[41] In addition. first issued in 1953 after the Robertson Panel. or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object. which first defined UFOs and how information was to be collected. Another group studying UFOs is Mutual UFO Network.[43] issued in 1953 and 1954. When word of the curriculum became public. giving serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins." but "For those objects which are not explainable. "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. the Air Force in 1970 put out a statement the book was outdated and that cadets were now being informed of Condon's negative conclusion instead. in the late 1960s. does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type.government documents revealed that nonpublic U. a scientist and prominent UFO researcher. The movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind had a character loosely based on Hynek. The memo then added. Air Force Regulation 200-2. only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release.) The first two known classified USAF studies in 1947 also concluded real physical aircraft were involved. Air Force Academy in their Space Sciences course." As to what the public was to be told. but without opinion as to origins. the first semi-public USAF study. or unusual features. has argued that most UFO research is scientifically deficient." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved. Through his founding of the Center for UFO Studies and participation at CUFOs he spent the rest of his life researching and documenting UFOs.S. aerodynamic characteristics. including many government studies such as Project Blue Book.

Vallée states that selfstyled scientists often fill the vacuum left by the lack of attention paid to the UFO phenomenon by official science. and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study. and the topic has received little serious attention or support in mainstream scientific literature. In 1987. United States US investigations into UFOs include:  The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU). Examples are the Sturrock Panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report #14). Official studies ended in the U. but argued the inexplicable core cases called for continued scientific study. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years. of which Condon was a member. it has been argued that there is limited awareness among scientists of observational data. He also argues that much could be learned from rigorous scientific study.[21] No scientific consensus There has been little mainstream scientific study of UFOs. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the recent 2009 Uruguay Air Force study conclusion (see below). the US CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel. physical objects. but that little such work has been done. established by the US Army sometime in the 1940s. the US military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951. extraterrestrial in origin. other than what is reported in the popular press. On the other hand. or of concern to national defense. Project Condign. in December 1969. a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the AIAA disagreed with Condon's conclusion. in which it was stated. such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party. Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions. subsequent to the statement by Edward Condon that the study of UFOs probably could not be justified in the expectation that science would be advanced. British UFO researcher Timothy Good received a letter confirming the existence of the IPU from the Army Director of Counterintelligence. Some public government conclusions have indicated physical reality but stopped short of concluding extraterrestrial origins.[21][47] No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real.mythology and cultism are frequently associated with the phenomenon.S. "… the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished . but also notes that several hundred professional scientists continue to study UFOs in private. However. It has been claimed that all UFO cases are anecdotal[46] and that all can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. though not dismissing the possibility. what he terms the "invisible college".[13] The Condon report and these conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists. and about which little is known. noting that at least 30% of the cases studied remained unexplained.

K. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs. Something is really flying around. FBI. Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO.          during the late 1950s and never reactivated. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969 The secret U. absence of trail. 1973–).S. "This ‘flying saucer’ situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private. 1969–).[48] Project Blue Book. and Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS.S. CIA. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability. The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon. in cooperation with the FBI. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U. previously Project Sign and Project Grudge. the air force investigation decided that. began a formal investigation into selected best sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960). Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948– 1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish.[50] The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians.S. The AAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether or not "such a phenomenon could.S formed research groups such as National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP.. 1952–1988). as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and Navy. and Greek militaries (1946– 1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. including the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). and . which included Kenneth Arnold’s and that of the United Airlines crew. on July 9."[52] A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion." that there were objects in the shape of a disc." The IPU records have never been released. occasional formation flying. who in the U. U. metallic in appearance. internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[49] The private Sturrock Panel (1998) Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U." general lack of noise. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK.S. After 1947 sightings Following the large U. in addition to the Air Force. Army Air Force (AAF) intelligence." or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947. National Security Agency (NSA). that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious..S. U. occur". active 1956– 1980). Mutual UFO Network (MUFON."[51] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate. in fact. 1947. and as big as man-made aircraft.

criticizing the Condon report and prior studies by the US Air Force for being scientifically deficient. Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U. James E."evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar." The matter was considered so urgent. The Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. It has been claimed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists. but continuous scientific work on UFOs". The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it. now known as the Robertson Panel. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read. Allen Hynek. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions[57] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court. Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect.S." suggesting a controlled craft. to further analyze the matter. that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community.. Edward J. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953. such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Ruppelt. It was thus recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. though documents indicate various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation. ". both before and after it was released.[13] In an address made to the AAAS. In August 1948. particularly at the powerful AIAA … [who] recommended moderate.[54] Another highly classified U.S.[53] Project Sign This led to the creation of the Air Force’s Project Sign at the end of 1947.. They concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security.[55] Condon Committee A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF. They also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists to study the problem of UFOs. sharply criticized the . Allen Hynek and Capt. one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. an astronomer whose position as USAF consultant from 1948 made him perhaps the most knowledgeable scientist connected with the subject. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation..the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles. the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 after being directed to do so by the National Security Council (NSC)..[56] Controversy has surrounded the Condon report."[12] J. which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968. marked the end of the US government's official investigation of UFOs.

The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1956). Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book in his memoir. In the Shag Harbour incident. In official documents. In the Kecksburg Incident. The "Phoenix Lights" March 13. The Mantell UFO Incident January 7. the object was called a "UFO" . The Roswell Incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents. 1997       Canada In Canada. the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. where unidentified flying objects were sequently thought to be part of a Japanese airstrike.[59] Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Story (1952– 1954). The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and many local residents also witnessed a light floating on the water immediately afterward.report of the Condon Committee and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for investigating seemingly baffling UFO reports. but embellished greatly the original account.[58] Notable cases  The Battle of Los Angeles in 1942. a large object sequentially flashing lights was seen and heard to dive into the water by multiple witnesses. and the US military. who later publicly supported extraterrestrial origins. it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour incident in Nova Scotia. Canadian naval divers later purportedly found no wreckage. These studies were headed by Canadian Department of Transport radio engineer Wilbert B. the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports. Alberta. Police officers. Pennsylvania (1965). local law enforcement officers. and a large patch of unusual yellow foam when a water search was initiated. 1948 The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. were sent to investigate. residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. Smith. The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky was based on this event. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel. and possibly military personnel. Multiple government agencies were eventually involved in trying to identify the crashed object and searching for it. supported by the Defence Research Board.

both the Canadian and US military were involved in another UFO-related search at Shelburne. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012.[65] On October 20. but are not limited to. Around the same time.[66] . dating from 1978 to 1987. which remained secret for over 50 years." Eight file collections on UFO sightings. About 14% of some 6000 cases studied remained unexplained. with ultimate distribution of their study intended for high government officials.[61] The French COMETA panel (1996–1999) was a private study undertaken mostly by aerospace scientists and engineers affiliated with CNES and high-level French Air Force military intelligence analysts. within the French space agency CNES. or hoaxes. France On March 2007.[62] United Kingdom The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in 1951. but the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one. 2008 more UFO files were released. optical illusions. to the UK National Archives by the Ministry of Defence.because no conventional explanation for the crashed object was discovered. the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. psychological misperceptions/aberrations. 2008. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. unless and until some material evidence becomes available. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[60] French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–). The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials.[64] These files include. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[63] Although kept secret from the public for many years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena. most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral or negative. Nova Scotia. the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online. The COMETA panel likewise concluded the best explanation for the inexplicable cases was the extraterrestrial hypothesis and went further in accusing the United States government of a massive cover-up. were first released on May 14. approximately 30 miles from Shag Harbour. UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London.

The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities.000 a year." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP.[68] The records include information on the Rendlesham Forest incident. which .000 pages of declassified records. seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region]." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to Ball Lightning are responsible for "the majority." The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50. a UFO attack on a cemetery and even reports of alien abduction claims. especially reports of Black Triangle UFOs. There are no SIGINT. responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence. despite thousands of UAP reports.. British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release. The plane's crew were reported to have photographed the object.A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the UK’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. stating ". 2009. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT. 2010.  According to records released on August 5. or that they represent any hostile intent. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through the National Archives. Reports given to Churchill claimed the incident allegedly involved an RAF reconnaissance plane returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of the Second World War. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the Ministry of Defense on that date. titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region".[70] Notable cases This section requires expansion. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. was publicly released in 2006. no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly suddenly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing.. the British Ministry of Defense (MoD) quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. Furthermore. crop circles. The resulting report. if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings. are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin.[67] In August 2009 The Black Vault internet archive announced the release by the British government of more than 4. in over fifty years. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified.[69] On December 1.

After his retirement he said that he deliberately downplayed the importance of the event at the time (which was headed 'Unexplained Lights' in the memorandum) to avoid damaging his career.[72][73] The files come from more than 5. It could be a phenomenon that occurs in the lower sectors of the atmosphere. and physical landing trace evidence."[75] Astronomer reports The United States Air Force's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1 %[76] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). who currently heads the investigation. Other base personnel claim to have observed one of the UFOs which had landed in the forest from close quarters for a long time. The UFO phenomenon exists in the country. astronomer J. up to the extraterrestrial hypothesis. Colonel Ariel Sanchez. summarized its findings as follows: "The commission managed to determine modifications to the chemical composition of the soil where landings are reported. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980. and other personnel followed one or more UFOs which were moving in and above the forest for several hours. Uruguay The Uruguayan Air Force has been conducting an ongoing UFO investigation since 1989 and analyzed 2100 cases. was present when Churchill and U. Col. Suffolk. the landing of aircraft from a foreign air force. The phenomenon exists. I must stress that the Air Force does not dismiss an extraterrestrial hypothesis based on our scientific analysis. The unexplained cases include military jet interceptions. Two unidentified objects flying very high over the UK were tracked by radar operators.[74] In April 1957 the West Freugh Incident (named after RAF West Freugh in Scotland. It could be a monitoring probe from outer space. the principal military base involved) occurred. details of the coverup emerged when the man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident. and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident.  they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft. They are available to download for free for a month from The National Archives website. On one night the deputy base commander. Also significant is their alleged size which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft.000 pages of UFO reports and letters and drawings from members of the public. before moving off. abductions. of which they regard only 40 (about 2%) as definitely lacking any conventional explanation. as well as questions raised by MPs in Parliament. then a consultant to . In 1952. General Dwight Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.S. Charles Halt. cattle mutilations. He made an audio recording while this was happening. Allen Hynek.[71] According to the documents. All files have recently been declassified. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform manuveres beyond the capability of any known craft. and even gone up to and touched it. much in the same way that we send probes to explore distant worlds. who had served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World War. over a period of three nights. He described how his grandfather. US military personnel witnessed UFOs in the forest near the air base at Woodbridge.

re-entering man-made spacecraft. In the 1970s. Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh. In 1980. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). missile launches) .Blue Book. a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky. supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific".[77] Even later UFO debunker Donald Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and American Astronomical Society.[79] Studies show that after careful investigation. LaPaz reported two personal sightings. the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena (see Identification studies of UFOs). who admitted to six UFO sightings. About 5 % of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey. Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz. the other of an anomalous disc-like object. including three green fireballs. conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. and the moon) Aircraft (Aerial advertising and other aircraft. who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft. The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are:   Astronomical objects (bright stars. astrophysicist Peter A. planets. may be responsible for some UFO sightings. meteors. Fata Morgana can also magnify the appearance of distant objects or distort them to be unrecognizable. artificial satellites. a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) found that 24 % responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?"[78] Identification of UFOs Main article: Identification studies of UFOs Fata Morgana. one of a green fireball.

However. or length of this list.) Hoaxes Lenticular clouds have been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape. large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception. run within the French space agency CNES between 1977 and 2004. etc.    Balloons (weather balloons. Fata Morgana. although he felt that a further 7. moon dogs.1 % could possibly be explained. The official French government UFO investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN). Hendry found that 88. Please discuss this issue on the talk page. prank balloons. Hendry's figure for unidentified cases was considerably lower than many other UFO studies such as Project Blue Book or the Condon Report that have found rates of unidentified cases ranging from 6 % to 30 %. (See full statistical breakdown in Identification studies of UFOs).6 % of the cases he studied had a clear prosaic explanation. . Of the 69 % identifieds. the scientific analysts were unable to come up with prosaic explanations for 21. searchlights and other ground lights. that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. flares) Light phenomena (mirages.[80] However.5 % defied any rational explanation. 46 % were deemed definitely or likely identifiable.8 % due to unreliable or contradictory witnesses or insufficient information. leaving only the very best 1. An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found. 38 % were deemed definitely explained while 31 % were thought to be "questionable. as did other investigations. while 41 % lacked sufficient information for classification. double the number of the worst cases. UFO hypotheses The inclusion or exclusion of items from this list.5 % of the 3200 cases they examined and 33 % of what were considered the best cases remained unexplained. is disputed. A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the US Air Force included these categories as well as a "psychological" one." About 9 % of the cases were considered to have insufficient information to make a determination. The remaining 8. scientifically investigated about 6000 cases and found that 13. unusual clouds. and he discarded a further 2.6 % of reports could not definitively be explained by prosaic phenomena.5 % without plausible explanation. kites.

and Uruguay's current Air Force study). Some private or governmental studies. top secret or experimental aircraft unfamiliar to most people. the Condon Committee. simultaneous visual sightings. tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors.[94] . some secret. and aircraft intercepts. are hostile. That UFOs are military flying saucers. This is probably the most popular theory among Ufologists. The psychosocial hypothesis.[82][83][84][85][86][87][88] The UFO Hostility Hypothesis is inside the extraterrestrial hypothesis. silent. and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence). Condon in the 1968 Condon Report as "The idea that some UFOs may be spacecraft sent to Earth from another civilization. have concluded in favor of the ETH. One such recent example were the mass sightings of large. the French GEPAN/SEPRA. The hypothesis comes because of the Cattle Mutilations and the observations made by Wilhelm Reich amd Jerome Eden during their experiments with the Cloudbuster. It says that the extraterrestrial beings that travel in the UFOs. That UFOs represent poorly understood or still unknown natural phenomena. or on a planet associated with a more distant star". invoked to explain so-called paranormal aspects sometimes associated with UFO reports. The paranormal/occult hypothesis is a variant of the interdimensional hypothesis.[90] though also predating him. reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence.[91] The earthquake lights/tectonic strain hypothesis: UFOs are caused by strains in Earth's crust near earthquake faults. or most of them. or have had members who disagreed with official conclusions against the conclusion by committees and agencies to which they belonged. appearing in newspapers and various government documents (see immediately below). low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium. further attributing the popularity of the idea to Donald Keyhoe's UFO book from 1950. such as ball lightning or sprites.[81] though the idea clearly predated Keyhoe. These have included military personnel and control tower operators. several hypotheses have been proposed.         The extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is defined by Edward U.To account for unsolved UFO cases. including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book. sometimes from multiple sites. popularly proposed by Jacques Vallée. A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock UFO panel.[89] The interdimensional hypothesis (IDH or IH) says that UFOs are objects crossing over from other dimensions or parallel universe.[93]  Radar contact and tracking.[92] Associated claims Besides anecdotal visual sightings. which can also supposedly induce hallucinations. with specific examples of many of the categories listed below. that what people report as UFO experiences is the result of psychological misperception mechanisms and is strongly influenced by popular culture.

Project Blue Book head Edward J. and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning. also reported by Project Blue Book director Ed Ruppelt in his book. that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Hill in his book Unconventional Flying Objects. on the assumption that they are powered vehicles. Animal/cattle mutilation cases. Hill and Oberth believed UFOs utilize an as yet unknown anti-gravity field to . g. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis. including still photos. and German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth. such as 1957.[95] Apparent remote radiation detection. then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves. skin burns and rashes. New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases). magnetic anomalies[specify]. Height 611 UFO Incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro. NACA/NASA engineer Paul R. Among subjects tackled by McCampbell. Hill. some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950. and video. and metallic traces. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran. movie film. Angel hair and angel grass. McCampbell's proposed solution is microwave plasma parting the air in front of the craft. Reverse engineering Attempts have been made to reverse engineer the possible physics behind UFOs through analysis of both eyewitness reports and the physical evidence. increased radiation levels. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN. burned and/or desiccated soil. was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs. In contrast. possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff. such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. See. recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents. and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. and Oberth was the question of how UFOs can fly at supersonic speeds without creating a sonic boom.[96] A more recent example involves "the Bob White object" a tear drop shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in the TV show UFO Hunters. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth. including ground impressions. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs. corneal burns. burned and broken foliage. Brazil. A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest Incident in England. germination effects on seeds. The 1964 Socorro/Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces. Ubatuba. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. analyzed by NASA. Examples are former NASA and nuclear engineer James McCampbell in his book Ufology. e.         Another famous case from 1986 was the JAL 1628 case over Alaska investigated by the FAA. Photographic evidence.

boomerangs. pyramids and cylinders. created by Jacques Vallée. diamonds. (equilateral) triangles.accomplish the same thing as well as provide propulsion and protection of occupants from the effects of high acceleration. shapeless black masses. classic "lights". or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. (March 2009) Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. usually reported at night. (day and night) Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern. Allen Hynek. crescent. Other: chevrons. Researchers Main article: List of Ufologists Sightings Main article: List of sightings of unidentified flying objects Organizations Main article: UFO organizations Categorization This section does not cite any references or sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.[97] Ufology Main article: Ufology Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. . Typical categories include:     Saucer. glowing at night). spheres (usually reported to be shining. and the Vallée system. Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system. toy-top. eggs. Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (Meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way. created by J. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. domes. but are very different phenomena).

subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his UFO movie. Allegations of evidence suppression See also: Disclosure Project. while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. "Close Encounters of the Third Kind").Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance. research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Lapan stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN). the 1999 high-level French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts.S. Vice Admiral Roscoe H. There are many versions of this story. A professor at the Indonesian National Aeronautics and Space Agency put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience. Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head). There are claims that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments. government was withholding such information. Men in Black."[98] Conspiracy theories Main article: UFO conspiracy theory UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens or sometimes collaborating with them.S. Scientific skepticism A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). and Brookings Report There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades.[101] It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director). In the U. each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type. . an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80 % of Americans believed the U. Thomas Djamaluddin. See also ancient astronauts. some are exclusive. and Yves Sillard (former director of the French space agency CNES. Responding to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia. Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types. Senator Barry Goldwater.[99][100] Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell.. the government and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan) described them as "man-made".

Hyzer[103] now consider the sightings to be a hoax.[106][107][108] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction. in 1990. Florida. In that latest poll. a decades-long series of detailed letters and documents allegedly from extraterrestrials. a building contractor. A José Luis Jordan Pena came forward in the early nineties claiming responsibility for the phenomenon. and many others. These sightings became famous and were called Gulf Breeze UFO incident. Most investigators like the forensic photo expert William G. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the moon taken by a Soviet orbital probe in 1959 were fake. Three years later. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House. after the Walters family had moved.[104] In popular culture Main article: UFOs in fiction UFOs constitute a widespread international cultural phenomenon of the last 60 years. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. See also . In 1973. a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs. Ed Walters. but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth.Famous hoaxes Main article: List of UFO-related hoaxes      The Maury Island incident The Ummo affair. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. Gallup polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life. and that there were cities. trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the moon. whereas only 92 percent had heard of U. The total length of the documents is at least 1000 pages. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze. for example the Earth spacecraft Starship C-57D in Forbidden Planet. and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek.[102] George Adamski over the space of two decades made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets.[105] A 1996 Gallup poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper poll for the Sci Fi Channel found similar results. and some estimate that further undiscovered documents may total nearly 4000 pages. the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Warren William "Billy" Smith is a popular writer and confessed hoaxster. the Jupiter Two in Lost in Space.S. Again. and most[who?] consider there to be little reason to challenge his claims.

University Press of Kansas. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. ." The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. (revised edition). "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation". Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. Harold E. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. Deardorff. pages 141–191 in "UFOs. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. 1998. B.org/JBIS. 2004.Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka. Bullard.pdf. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail. exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. http://www. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 58: 43–50. Visible Ink Press. Curran.         List of UFO sightings List of alleged aircraft-UFO incidents and near misses Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) Extraterrestrial life Project Blue Book Roswell incident Ufology Declassification of UFO documents General This article includes a list of references. The UFO Evidence: Volume 1. Jacobs. Maccabee. Haisch. 1964. (January 2010)      Thomas E. and the Early Cold War Era". Richard H. the Military. 2000. B. editor. "UFOs: Lost in the Myths". NICAP.. reissued 1997. Puthoff (2005). ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. Abbeville Press. J. editor. Well-organized. America.ufoskeptic. ISBN 0-7006-1032-4 Jerome Clark. including the so-called "contactee cults. 2001. Hall. pages 82–121 in "UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge" David M. highly documented. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial." forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Douglas.

1996. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. Prometheus Books. 1979.[110] Psychology      Carl G. 355–367. Horizons: Exploring the Universe. Sheaffer. Robert The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence.. 775–785." The Skeptical Inquirer. (1995). Hynek.A Nonreactive. Evaluating. Seeds. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. Armando Simon "UFOs: Testing for the Existence of Air Force Censorship. 1997. ISBN 157392-213-7 (revised edition of The UFO Verdict) Sturrock.          Hall. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. editors. Allen. The Hynek UFO Report. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). 1998. Tony. 48. more recent UFO reports. mostly to the skeptical side. Hull). UFOs: A Scientific Debate. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. Create Space. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. Hendry. ISBN 1463601573." Psychological Reports. 2006. 1979. a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada Skepticism     Philip Plait (2002)." Psychology. 1979. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. New York: Warner Books. The UFO Experience: A scientific inquiry. and Reporting UFO Sightings. Thornton. (Appendix A) Robert Sheaffer (2011). 8. ISBN 0-446-52565-0 Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown. Robert UFO Sightings: The Evidence. Allen. (Chapter 20: Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye. Carl & Page. 1986. Rose. Sagan. Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst. (1999). Armando Simon "Psychology and the UFOs. The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. \Cornell University Press. New York: Doubleday & Co. UK: Midland Publishing. 2001. ISBN 0-7607-0192-2. . J. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. Alan. John Wiley & Sons. 1981.) Ian Ridpath "Astronomical Causes of UFOs"[109] Michael A. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating. Princeton University Press. from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax". Pro and con articles by scientists. Wadsworth Publishing.C. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. 1972.F. Henry Regnery Co.. Richard Haines"UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist. J. Prometheus Books ISBN 0-87975-338-2 Sheaffer. Jung. Richard H. 3–5. ISBN 0-534-24889-6 and ISBN 0-534-24890-X." Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed. Another exhaustive case study. 13. Hynek. Scarecrow Press. Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer. Bill and Buttler. 1984. Peter A. Leicester. "Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies" (translated by R. 1976. ISBN 0-691-01822-7 Armando Simon. The UFO Evidence: A Thirty-Year Report.

ISBN 0-688-09202-0. UFO FBI Connection. Jack Sarfatti. and Intelligence. 1988. Bibcode 2003PhRvD. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer. UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History. preliminary paper. Hampton Roads Publishing Co. Llewellyn Publications. doi:10. McCampbell. External links . Ford and T. doi:10. 2005. Government Involvement in the UFO Coverup. Timothy Good. 1988.. or earlier title History of UFO Crash/Retrievals". paper. 1976. The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects. Bibcode 1996PhRvD. 1992. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. ISBN 0-671-76555-8.[111] Technology        Paul R. 1995. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071. Dolan is a professional historian. Doubleday & Co. Marlowe & Company.. 2000. The UFO Cover-Up (Originally Clear Intent). Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data. Need to Know: UFOs. Lawrence Fawcett & Barry J. Krasnikov (2003). 1956. Jonathan Rising of the Moon. ISBN 1-56718493-6 Kevin Randle. Celestial Arts. Project Blue Book Exposed. H. the Military.. Antonio F. Physical Review D 53 (10): 5496. Bangor: Xiphos. ISBN 0-89087-144-2 full-text online.1103/PhysRevD.. "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". James M. Above Top Secret. Pea. Greenwood. Reports from the UK government files Richard M. "Super Cosmos". 2009. James M. arXiv:gr-qc/0207057. Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects. online.67j4013K. 2000. ISBN 1-56924746-3 Edward J. Kew. Another analysis by former NASA and nuclear engineer. 1986. Downes. Hill. Timothy Good. Unconventional Flying Objects: a scientific analysis. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Bruce Maccabee.104013. 1973. Physical effects of UFOs upon people. ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. The Inside Story of Real-life Sightings. Dolan. A. the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book LeRoy F.53.5496F.53. Pegasus Books. Volume One: 1941–1973.5496. Ruppelt. ISBN 1-57174-027-9.Histories           Dr David Clarke. Keyhole Publishing. 1997. William Morrow & Co. Many UFO documents. Roman (1996). The UFO Files. McCampbell. Physical Review D 67 (10): 104013. Rullán. 2005 (Authorhouse) S.67.1103/PhysRevD. 2007. Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster). Many UFO documents. PEA RESEARCH. The National Archives. "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". 2000. L.

Anne (March.28438.0000015542. ^ a b c Larson. ^ For example.ufocasebook. Barnes & Noble.41. . ISBN 978076070916. Retrieved 2011-11-06. Allen Hendry's study for CUFOS had less than 1 % 9. 2. https://wwws. 5. ^ a b Cross.ufoevidence. White House. Pan Books.hyper.whitehouse. 4. Nancy (5 November 2011). http://www.com/FAQs. the USAF's Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were "psychological" or hoaxes.mufon. p. Beyond Top Secret. ^ "http://www.com/90717/no-alien-visits-orufo-coverups-white-house-says/. ^ Good. "No Alien Visits or UFO Coverups. 2004). Defence Intelligence Staff (2000). 10. ^ Sagan. Qualitative Sociology 27 (1): 3–34. 310. UniverseToday. "The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers".1023/B:QUAS.html" ^ UAP In the UK Air Defence Region: Volume 3 Executive Summary. 1947–90 Ministry of Defence Reports in the UK from 1997 – 2007 Newly released UFO files from the UK government References 1.html ^ "http://www.universetoday. Thornton (1995).org/" ^ "http://www. ^ a b c Atkinson. Page 3 6. 11.net/ufo/overview. White House Says". 7. 8. But No Evidence Yet". Carl and Page. doi:10. "Searching for ET. Phil (5 November 2011).com/trianglescharacteristics.html#Q1" ^ "http://www. UFOs: A Scientific Debate.gov/petitions#!/response/searching-et-no-evidence-yet. 3. Timothy (1997). Retrieved 2011-11-06.Find more about UFO on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks     Government Reports on UFOs from UCB Libraries GovPubs CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs.

Taves. Analysis thus far has explained all but a few of the sightings reported. "Do UFOs Exist in the History of Arts?" from American Chronicle.D. ^ Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. the Largest About Six Suns Big. Garden City (NY. retrieved July 27.com/2011/08/26/ufos-pilots-historychannel_n_935847. [2] 25. aerodynamic characteristics. New York Times. ^ "http://www. 2007 26.huffingtonpost. Pages 69–71. ^ a b c Vallée.ufoevidence.com/" 19. aerodynamic characteristics. "Catalog of Military. 27. 13. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects. Statement on Unidentified Flying Objects submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics at July 29. (2000).. ^ Before the Wright Brothers… There Were UFOs 29. Airliner. or unusual features. "The Art of Imagining UFOs". November 13. H.com/shg/mccarthy/shgintro.html 18." 24. 'Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: 80 Years of Pilot Sightings'.. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals. D. Washington.mufon." A later version [1] altered the definition to "Any aerial phenomena. ^ Cuoghi.cufos. initially defined a UFO as "any airborne object that by performance. Shaba.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/7584331/UFOstudies-should-be-legitimate-university-subject-claims-American-professor. E.project1947. http://www. ^ NAVY OFFICER SEES METEORS. ^ "http://www. Maccabee summary of sighting with log quotes 30.htm 14. ^ a b c COMETA Report: http://www. ^ "http://www." The Air Force added that "Technical Analysis thus far has failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for a number of sightings reported. Inc. James. (1968). Paul. No.com/the_magazine/archives/vol11n01." and added "Air Force activities must reduce the percentage of unidentifieds to a minimum. in Skeptic Magazine Vol. 28. Weinstein. ^ Air Force Regulation 200-2 text versionpdf of document. 2003.html. These unexplained sightings are carried statistically as unidentifieds. ^ a b McDonald. Alien Contact by Human Deception. ^ Menzel.html" 20. . ^ UFO study causes media sensation: 7/1/98 16. USA): Doubleday 17. 2004. 1968.co. Dominque F. China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic.html 15. with original log entries of sighting. or that cannot be positively identified as a familiar object. ^ Dong. or unusual features.html" 21. pages 11-13. Bruce Maccabee analysis. ISBN 1-933665-30-0 22. ^ Giordano. They Were Red Ones. (1977).. D. ISBN 0-8351-2676-5.1. 23.12.skeptic. H. does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type.org/org. (1990). J.org/topics/Cometa. ^ Reece (2007). Rayburn Bldg. ^ "http://www. Daniela. ^ [3] NARCAP. March 9. Private Pilots’ Sightings from 1916 to 2000". 1904. 2006.telegraph. McDonald and the UFO Case Study http://www. ^ A good example is the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena or NARCAP. airborne objects or objects that are unknown or appear out of the ordinary to the observer because of performance. The UFO enigma." New York: Anomalist Books.11. E.

2008. ^ The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark 47. ^ Good (1988). 51. DOD. 6–7.pdf 44.ufoevidence. ^ internal FBI memo from E. "unidentified objects" detected by missile warning systems. 1998. ^ Clark (1998).mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004. 46.M. Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. 1967 40. http://www.S.com/fig/ual105.af. 1968. ^ http://www. unidentified aircraft. (2008). Kempton. government UFO-related documents from the USAF. ^ Friedman. 'Altai-Himalaya: A travel diary'. pp. Report on the UFO Wave of 1947. case studies. Garrett. ^ Nicholas Roerich. Archived from the original on May 5. Ladd concerning a request by General Schulgen of USAAF intelligence corps Office of Intelligence Requirements for the FBI to help with their investigation of UFO reports. online 33. NJ: New Page Books ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7 48. Army. 1990 (1930). or submarines. ^ Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the FBI FOIA site. Chapter 4: The Onslaught This quotes and summarized the interim report of Lieutenant Colonel George D..project1947. 361–2 32. 2001 (1929). CIA. 45.pdf. Section 5.foia. Sarah Connors and Michael Hall.org/web/20080505013115/http://en. White Rose Press. missiles. http://web. .foia. RAND Corporation. 484 49. pp. creating a potential risk of nuclear war.wikisource.htm.org/wiki/Transwiki:Air _Force_Regulation_200-2. surface vessels. ^ Nicholas Roerich. 64) lists sightings of "unidentified flying objects" and "aircraft of unconventional design" as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional. ^ Alfred Loedding and the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947.org/470704e. S. ^ http://www. ^ [4] Hitler's Flying Saucers: Henry Stevens 35. UFOs: What to Do". current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206. ^ On July 9. which has an archive[dead link] of several thousand U. IL: Adventures Unlimited Press. United Press stories on the Roswell incident noted that "Reports of flying saucers whizzing through the sky fell off sharply today as the Army and Navy began a concentrated campaign to stop the rumors.7. 2007. Rochester. 'Shambhala: In search of the new era'.31. 61 36. UFO historical review. as well as private websites such as "The Black Vault". Fitch to D. ^ Air Force Academy UFO material 43.htm 37. review of hypotheses.3 (p. G. Additionally. ^ Project Blue Book Special Report #14 41. ^ Ted Bloecher's bar chart of June/July 1947 UFO sightings 38. http://www. Albuquerque.af. recommendations 50. 2007.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004.archive. ^ "Official US Air Force document in pdf format". Retrieved November 12.org/cases/case723. http://www. Retrieved November 12. ^ Foo-Fighter – TIME 34. are covered by Rule 5E (p. ^ George Kocher." UP story 39. ^ "Wikisource article about Air Force Regulation 200-2".35) 42. 244. and NSA. DIA. 52. ^ For example. VE: Inner Traditions. Franklin Lakes. 1947.htm. ^ Ted Bloecher & James McDonald.nicap.

^ Ridge.. and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csistudies/studies/97unclass/ufo. pp. 14–16 79.co. ^ COMETA Report (English). Retrieved March 30. National Archives show 74.htm. Navy. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. Atomic Energy Commission. specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army. ^ 'The Black Vault'. public statements of SEPRA director Jean-Jacques Velasco. ISBN 978-0-393-00739-8. 52 78. August 2009 69. The UFO Experience. ^ McDonald.html. ^ Herb/Hynek amateur astronomer poll results reprinted in International UFO Reporter (CUFOS). director of CUFOS 63. American Association for the Advancement of Science. COMETA Report. ^ AFP Article: Britons 'spotted' UFOs. ESHLEMAN . ^ "Cost-cutting causes British gov't to shut down UFO investigations" 71. ^ Site du GEIPAN 61.nicap.dabsol.uk Files released on UFO sightings 65. Summary by Mark Rodeghier. English translation by Scott Corrales 76. ^ https://www. (1972). 2. ^ The so-called Twining memo of Sept. part1. ^ Catalog of Project Blue Book unknowns 77. DIA. Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA. ^ news. 1972. ^ Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). UFO's. 23. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. P.[5] 57. 2006. Nathan Twining. 58. ^ BBC News Airliner had near miss with UFO 67. and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). part2. ^ See. g. 1947..uk/Rufo. ^ Hynek's photos in Hynek. and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online. http://dewoody. COMETA Report summary by Gildas Bourdais.bbc. ^ UK National Archives 64. a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada 60. ^ Electromagnetic-Wave Ducting [dead link] BY V. "The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects".Uruguay. National Security Agency (NSA). 62. Joint Chiefs of Staff. 3 55.co. ^ Interview with GEIPAN director Yves Sillard. 1978 GEPAN report by director Claude Poher. ^ The National Archives website 75. Documents Suggest 73. 134th Meeting. August 2000 68.53. New York: Cornell University Press.html CIA history of their involvement in UFOs 56.net/ufo/Science_in_Default. Montevideo. the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House. R. Retrieved August 19. records say 66. James E. Francis L. 2009. 2011. NSA. In Carl Sagan. e. Project RAND. 59. Gen. ^ Ruppelt. ^ AFP: Churchill 'banned UFO report to avoid mass panic' 72. 54. http://www.cia. ^ 'The Black Vault'. Thornton Page. A Scientific Debate. "Science in Default". August 2009 70. ^ BBC: Churchill ordered UFO cover-up. ^ 'El Pais'. May 2006. Ithaca. June 6. Chapt. ^ 'UAP In the UK Air Defense Region' Volume 3 Executive Summary. ^ Fox News: Churchill Ordered UFO Coverup. by future USAF Chief of Staff. the Defense Department's Joint Research and Development Board. Secretary of State. p.

TT 1524. ^ The Gulf Breeze "UFOs" 104. 2011 99. ^ Cook. pp215–238. ^ Good (1988). Ruppelt. p. Condon. June 15. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating. Good. Ballantine Books. ^ Allan Hendry. and Reporting UFO Sightings. 81–89. 347 87. 31. Oberth's UFO antigravity opinion as to propulsion and atmospheric air flow control also quoted by Donald Keyhoe in his 1955 book Flying Saucer Conspiracy 98. ^ David Saunders.middlecoastpublishing.. 84. ^ Eden. The Star. ^ Schuessler. Ray Stanford. Good. 115. February 6. g. http://www. Socorro 'Saucer' in a Pentagon Pantry. ^ Poll: U.C. UFOs. Chapt. 1997 101. Vol. Washington D. November 4. John L. 16 86. "Statements About Flying Saucers And Extraterrestrial Life Made By Prof. 287. ISBN 0-385-14348-6 81. Oberth's American Weekly article appeared in a number of newspaper Sunday supplements. ^ Peter F. Hermann Oberth. 23 83. AW4 85. declassified in 1997.80. France. ^ Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. 1948. (Top Secret).. Doubleday & Co. April 18. 189. ^ "Warren Smith: UFO Investigator". Edward U. pg.com/ufo/warrenbillysmith. ^ bNet (CBS Interactive Inc.S. ^ Dolan. 106–107. History Channel. 497–502 96.htm. hiding knowledge of aliens. New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So. Washington Post and Times Herald. 1989. 2008. ISBN 0-345-36002-8 91. ^ ibid. UFOs? Yes 88. ^ Document quoted and published in Timothy Good (2007). National Archives. ^ Groupe d'Etudes et d'Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non identifiés 102. ^ Velasco quoted in La Dépêche du Midi. Retrieved June 15. 1976. Toulouse. 2008 100. 1993. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 93. CNN/TIME. Jerome: Scavengers From Space 90. ^ PARANOIA – People Are Strange: Unusual UFO Cults 103. natural gas) inside an atmospheric vortex. e. ^ Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact. Section II Summary of the Study. An Alien History of Planet Earth. . Tunguska and other anomalous lights. Coleman has advanced a theory that some UFOs may be instances of visible combustion of a fuel (e. ^ Fawcett & Greenwood. g. 20. 2006. University of Colorado 82. ^ Investigation and explanations of Belgium case 95. 371–373. ^ Sturrock Panel abstract & summary. 1979. Nick (Narrator and Writer) (2006). 112–154 97. 318–322. Other links to Sturrock Panel 94.).. See Weather.. USAFE Item 14. ^ Good (1988). Jacques Vallée. German Rocket Scientist" 2002. Fireshine Press 92. "Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?. ^ Ika Krismantari." [6] Last accessed February 2. Crop circles provide food for thought. ^ Good. Evaluating. Sturrock Panel report on physical evidence. and his book Great balls of Fire–a unified theory of ball lightning. 2004 89. 337.

Retrieved August 19. ^ [https://www. Kennedy (1968) · Martin Assassination Luther King Jr.htm [show]v · d · eUFOs and ufology [show]v · d · eConspiracy theories Eric V of Denmark (1286) · Geoffrey Chaucer (1400) · Princes in the Tower (1483) · Abraham Lincoln (1865) · Franz Ferdinand (1914) · Phar Lap (1932) · Sergey Kirov (1934) · Joseph Stalin (1953) · Dag Hammarskjöld (1961) · Patrice Lumumba (1961) · Marilyn Monroe (1962) · John F. ^ Mutual UFO Network 109. Kennedy (1963) · Malcolm X (1965) · Robert F. September 2002. ^ CFI – Evidence Page 108. http://web.com/articles/UFO %20COVERUP. (1968) · Juscelino Kubitschek (1976) · Pope John Paul I (1978) · John Lennon (1980) · Olof Palme (1986) · Zia-ul-Haq (1988) · Kurt Cobain (1994) · Yitzhak Rabin (1995) · Diana.50megs.scifi.createspace. ^ Bullard.com/3630764 Psychic Vibrations 111. 2006. 107. SciFi. Archived from the original on July 13. ^ http://pea-research. 2006.com/ufo/roper/. ^ Astronomical Causes of UFOs 110.105. ^ "The Roper Poll". Princess of Wales (1997) · David Kelly (2003) · Alexander Litvinenko (2006) · Benazir Bhutto (2007) · Michael Jackson (2009) · Osama bin Laden (2011) Sinking of the USS Maine (1898) · Sinking of the RMS Lusitania (1915) · Reichstag fire (1933) · Pearl Harbor · Operation Gladio · USS Liberty incident (1967) · KAL 007 (1983) · Mozambican presidential jet (1986) · Pan Am Flight 103 (1988) · Oklahoma City bombing (1995) · Port Arthur massacre (1996) · TWA Flight 800 (1996) · Russian apartment bombings (1999) · 9/11 attacks (Advance knowledge · WTC collapse) · Madrid train bombing (2004) · London bombings (2005) Titanic alternative theories (1912) · Cairo Fire (1952) · Jonestown (1978) · Satanic ritual abuse (Blood libel) · Sinking of MS Estonia (1994) · Columbine High School massacre (1999) False flag Other . 141 106.archive.com. Ufology Resource Center.org/web/20060713204836/http://www.

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