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Unidentified flying object
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ufo) Jump to: navigation, search "UFO" redirects here. For other uses, see UFO (disambiguation).
Photograph of alleged UFO, New Jersey, July 31, 1952 A term originally coined by the military, an unidentified flying object (usually abbreviated to UFO or U.F.O.) is an unusual apparent anomaly in the sky that is not readily identifiable to the observer as any known object. While a small percentage remain unexplained, the majority of UFO sightings are often later identified as any number of various natural phenomenon or manmade objects.
1 Extraterrestrial hypothesis 2 Official White House Position 3 Studies 4 Terminology 5 Early history o 5.1 The Kenneth Arnold sightings 6 Investigations o 6.1 Project Sign o 6.2 Project Magnet o 6.3 Project Grudge o 6.4 USAF Regulation 200-2 o 6.5 Project Bluebook o 6.6 No scientific consensus o 6.7 United States 6.7.1 After 1947 sightings 6.7.2 Project Sign 6.7.3 Condon Committee 6.7.4 Notable cases o 6.8 Canada o 6.9 France o 6.10 United Kingdom 6.10.1 Notable cases o 6.11 Uruguay o 6.12 Astronomer reports 7 Identification of UFOs o 7.1 UFO hypotheses 8 Associated claims o 8.1 Reverse engineering 9 Ufology o 9.1 Researchers o 9.2 Sightings o 9.3 Organizations o 9.4 Categorization o 9.5 Scientific skepticism 10 Conspiracy theories o 10.1 Allegations of evidence suppression 11 Famous hoaxes 12 In popular culture 13 See also o 13.1 General o 13.2 Skepticism o 13.3 Psychology
13.4 Histories 13.5 Technology 14 External links 15 References
Main article: Extraterrestrial hypothesis While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft. Proponents argue that because these objects appear to be technological and not natural phenomenon, and are alleged to display flight characteristics or have shapes seemingly unknown to conventional technology, the conclusion is then that they must not be from Earth. Though UFO sightings have occurred throughout recorded history, modern interest in them dates from World War II (see foo fighter), further fueled in the late 1940s by Kenneth Arnold's coining of the term flying saucer and the Roswell UFO Incident. Since then governments have investigated UFO reports, often from a military perspective- and UFO researchers have investigated, written about, and created organizations devoted to the subject. One such investigation, The UK's Project Condign report, notes that Russian, Former Soviet Republics, and Chinese authorities have made a co-ordinated effort to understand the UFO topic and that State military organizations, particularly in Russia, have done "considerably more work (than is evident from open sources)" on military applications which have stemmed from their UFO research. The report also noted that "several aircraft have been destroyed and at least four pilots have been killed 'chasing UFOs'."
Official White House Position
In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited Earth and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, "The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race." Also, according to the response, there is "no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public's eye." The response further noted that efforts, like SETI, the Kepler space telescope and the NASA Mars rover, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted "odds are pretty high" that there may be life on other planets but "the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved."
Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomenon— most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even
even though Arnold said the most of the objects he saw were not totally circular and one was crescent-shaped (see Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting for details). Ruppelt. the infamous Roswell UFO Incident occurred at about the same time. The term foo fighters was used by American fighter pilots during World War II to refer to UFOs. though today the term UFO is often used for any unexplained sighting regardless of whether it has been investigated. Terminology The first publicized sightings were usually referred to using the term mystery airships. The term "UFO" was first suggested in 1952 by Cpt. Many reports have been made by trained observers such as pilots. The void left by the lack of institutional scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and groups. which now average around 500 reported sightings per month. UFOs have become a relevant theme in modern culture. and some scientists support the extraterrestrial hypothesis. then the USAF's official investigation of UFOs. police. as of 2011 the number of UFO reports to their worldwide offices has increased by 67% from the previous 3 years. . which were commonly seen and described as such during the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th. Edward J.O. so not all reports are visual. However it is now usually pronounced by forming each letter: U. though various other hypotheses have been proposed. sighting. In addition. of which the former is still sometimes used. and the military. which only served to further fuel public interest in the topic. He suggested that UFO should be pronounced as a word – you-foe. and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology. Ruppelt felt that "flying saucer" did not reflect the diversity of the sightings. There has been some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted. reported by private pilot Kenneth Arnold in June 1947. which also briefly used "UFOB". While UFOs have been the subject of extensive investigation by various governments. gave rise to the popular terms "flying saucer" and "flying disc". The term "Ufology" is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects.S. however. After excluding incorrect reports. His term was quickly adopted by the United States Air Force. it is acknowledged that between 5% and 20% of reported sightings remain unexplained. some involve radar traces. Proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis believe that these unidentified reports are of alien spacecraft. The first widely publicized U. who headed Project Blue Book.being hoaxes.F. The Air Force initially defined UFOs as those objects that remain unidentified after scrutiny by expert investigators. few scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals. According to MUFON. most notably MUFON (Mutual UFO Network)  and CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies). and as such can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense.
later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Kansas and Colorado Springs. French. and possibly as early as 467 B. a pilot reported six "flying manhole covers" between Wichita. Nicholas Roerich reported that members of his expedition saw "something big . one or more of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye. or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. On January 31. angels." Martin also said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer. In late September 1926. 1916 and 1926: The three oldest known pilot UFO sightings. like lighted windows on a railway carriage. wingless cylindrical object. An example is Halley's Comet. Portuguese. In January 1926.Because the term UFO is ambiguous – referring either to any unidentified sighting.C. then changed course and "soared" above the clouds. On August 5. Schofield wrote of three bright red eggshaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer. The equivalent acronym for UFO in Spanish. a Song Chinese government scholar-official and prolific polymath inventor and scholar. The largest had an apparent size of about six suns. and was able to take off at tremendous speeds. planetary conjunctions. Early history Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. 1904. or other religious omens. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets. On February 28. an airmail pilot over Nevada was forced to land by a huge. bright meteors. On January 25. wrote a vivid passage in his Dream Pool Essays (1088) about an unidentified flying object. Objet volant non identifié or Oggetto Volante Non Identificato). a term that is pronounced as one word (ov-nee).C. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images. of 1305 cataloged by NARCAP. a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights. circular flying object resembling a balloon flying "at wonderful speed. Such sightings throughout history were often treated as supernatural portents. which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 B. some investigators now prefer to use other terms such as unidentified aerial phenomenon (or UAP). He recorded the testimony of eyewitnesses in 11thcentury Anhui and Jiangsu (especially in the city of Yangzhou). 1916. there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles west of San Francisco. who stated that a flying object with opening doors would shine a blinding light from its interior (from an object shaped like a pearl) that would cast shadows from trees for ten miles in radius. Frank Schofield. Objeto Voador Não Identificado. reported by Lt. Shen Kuo (1031–1095). The Denison Daily News wrote that local farmer John Martin had reported seeing a large. Colorado. 1926. 1878. and Italian is OVNI (Objeto Volador No Identificado. or in popular usage to alien spacecraft – and the public and media ridicule sometimes associated with the topic. that rose and disappeared. while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet's Kokonor region. dark. the first known use of the word "saucer" in association with a UFO.
the planet Venus. collected primarily by the Swedish military. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. U. In 1946. It is oval in shape. because it was thought that these mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets. The incident later became known as the Battle of Los Angeles. though some officials dismissed the reports of aircraft as being triggered by anxieties over expected Japanese air attacks on California.. 1942. like a huge oval moving at great speed.” Another description by Roerich was." In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II.S. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest. California region. George C. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. and later as "ghost rockets". hallucinations from oxygen deprivation. In a 1948 top secret document. Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson insisted real aircraft were involved. over 200 were tracked on radar and deemed to be "real physical objects" by the Swedish military. Army Chief of Staff Gen. then referred to as "Russian hail". "Foo-fighters" (metallic spheres. Elmo's Fire. along with isolated reports from France. Antiaircraft artillery was fired at what was presumed to be Japanese planes. Although most were thought to be natural phenomena like meteors. Army observers reported unidentified aircraft both visually and on radar over the Los Angeles.. Field glasses are at hand. One side glows in the sun. ". No readily apparent explanation was offered. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface. or German secret weapons. the Swedish military told the USAF Europe in 1948 that some of their investigators believed them to be extraterrestrial in origin. of unidentified aerial objects in the Scandinavian nations. or the West coast air raid. and shiny reflecting the sun. It is a huge body. On February 25. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. one side of which was brilliant from the sun. Portugal.A shiny body flying from north to south. The Kenneth Arnold sightings Main article: Kenneth Arnold Unidentified Flying Object Sighting . However. Italy and Greece. there were over 2000 reports.
found a sudden surge upwards in sightings on July 4. … they looked like a big flat disk" (see Arnold's drawing at right). American UFO researcher Ted Bloecher. sightings of similar objects that preceded this. Theories ranged from hallucinations. to even more esoteric interdimensional or interplanetary visitors. "shaped like saucers and were so thin I could barely see them… ". In one instance a United Airlines crew sighting of nine more disc-like objects over Idaho on the evening of July 4. reflections off airplanes. in his comprehensive review of newspaper reports (including cases that preceded Arnold's). mostly in the U. other cases began to be reported in increasing numbers. oval in front and convex in the rear.This shows the report Kenneth Arnold filed in 1947 about his UFO sighting. "half-moon shaped./Russian secret weapons. and weather balloons to byproducts of atomic testing or U. Washington. and flew "like a saucer would if you skipped it across the water". At the time. in which they explained debris found on the ground by a rancher as being that of a weather balloon. it was Arnold's sighting that first received significant media attention and captured the public's imagination. mass hysteria. when officials began issuing press statements on the Roswell UFO incident.S.. (One of the objects. 1947 while flying his private plane near Mount Rainier. peaking on July 6–8. Bloecher noted that for the next few days most American newspapers were filled with front-page stories of the new "flying saucers" or "flying discs".) Arnold’s descriptions were widely reported and within a few days gave rise to the terms flying saucer and flying disk. unusual atmospheric conditions. optical illusions. He reported seeing nine brilliantly bright objects flying across the face of Rainier.S. however. The post World War II UFO phase in the United States began with a famous sighting by American businessman Kenneth Arnold on June 24. but in other countries as well. hoaxes.S. as shown in illustration at left. he would describe later as crescent-shaped. . Reports began to rapidly tail off after July 8. Speculation as to what the flying saucers were was rampant in the newspapers. After reports of the Arnold sighting hit the media. Although there were other 1947 U. this sighting was even more widely reported than Arnold’s and lent considerable credence to Arnold’s report. Arnold described what he saw as being "flat like a pie pan". Arnold’s sighting was followed in the next few weeks by hundreds of other reported sightings.
 Investigations UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that vary widely in scope and scientific rigor. Mexico. Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947). Peru. France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency CNES since 1977.S. and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. ending the official Air Force UFO investigations. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge. Project Magnet Classified. Washington D. as did the private but high-level French COMETA study of 1999. These official reports refer to the UFO of military term. Project Blue Book. internal reports by the Canadian Project Magnet in 1952 and 1953 also assigned high probability to extraterrestrial origins. previously Project Sign and Project Grudge.C. Blue Book closed down in 1970.S. nor later Canadian defense studies. Bloecher (aided by physicist James E. ever stated such a conclusion. Sweden. but this study was never made public. Project Sign Project Sign in 1948 wrote a highly classified opinion (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation. and every U. Governments or independent academics in the United States. German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed an internal West German government investigation. It dose not mean that the above-mentioned governments recognized supposed human contact with alien civilization. a 1969 USAF document. Spain. Project Magnet. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951). Chile. the United Kingdom. plus later . and not. which he headed. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969. (see Ghost rockets for document). and Brazilian Air Force Operation Saucer (1977). However. Japan. McDonald) discovered 853 flying disc sightings that year from 140 newspapers from Canada. Canada. Brazil. as has Uruguay since 1989. that arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion. the secret U.Over several years in the 1960s. the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951. state except Montana. known as the Bolender memo. Publicly. placing Ruppelt in charge. In 1954. Uruguay. using the Condon Commission's negative conclusion as a rationale. however. the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report #14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute. to the supposed alien crafts. Belgium. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. France. Project Grudge Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948.
"it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB's when the object is positively identified as a familiar object. only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release." The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a "possible threat to the security of the United States" and "to determine technical aspects involved. which first defined UFOs and how information was to be collected. He formed the opinion that some UFO reports could not be scientifically explained. USAF Regulation 200-2 The initially classified USAF Regulation 200-2.government documents revealed that nonpublic U. or unusual features. "reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose." In addition. MUFON is a grass roots based organization known for publishing one of the first UFO investigators handbooks. (See American investigations immediately below) These early studies led to the creation of the USAF's Project Sign at the end of 1947. The Bollender memo first stated that "reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security… are not part of the Blue Book system.) The first two known classified USAF studies in 1947 also concluded real physical aircraft were involved. government UFO investigations continued after 1970." but "For those objects which are not explainable. first issued in 1953 after the Robertson Panel.S. such information would also be considered important if UFOs had a foreign or domestic origin. The memo then added. including many government studies such as Project Blue Book. This handbook went into great detail on how to document alleged UFO sightings. When word of the curriculum became public. giving serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. Air Force Regulation 200-2. has argued that most UFO research is scientifically deficient. defined an Unidentified Flying Object ("UFOB") as "any airborne object which by performance. due to many unknowns involved." indicating that more serious UFO incidents were already handled outside of the public Blue Book investigation. and that . Another group studying UFOs is Mutual UFO Network. Jacques Vallée. the Air Force in 1970 put out a statement the book was outdated and that cadets were now being informed of Condon's negative conclusion instead. Air Force Academy in their Space Sciences course. The movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind had a character loosely based on Hynek. stated explicitly that the two reasons for studying the unexplained cases were for national security reasons and for possible technical aspects involved. does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type. (For example. aerodynamic characteristics. but gave no opinion as to origins. but without opinion as to origins. Through his founding of the Center for UFO Studies and participation at CUFOs he spent the rest of his life researching and documenting UFOs. in the late 1960s." As to what the public was to be told. issued in 1953 and 1954. implying physical reality and concern about national defense.S. or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object." Project Bluebook Allen Hynek was a trained astronomer who participated in Project Bluebook after doing research as a federal government employee. the first semi-public USAF study. a scientist and prominent UFO researcher. there was a chapter on UFOs at the U.
 No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real. It has been claimed that all UFO cases are anecdotal and that all can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. the US military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951. other than what is reported in the popular press. Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions. in which it was stated. Project Condign. established by the US Army sometime in the 1940s. and the topic has received little serious attention or support in mainstream scientific literature.S. He also argues that much could be learned from rigorous scientific study.mythology and cultism are frequently associated with the phenomenon. of which Condon was a member. Vallée states that selfstyled scientists often fill the vacuum left by the lack of attention paid to the UFO phenomenon by official science. but argued the inexplicable core cases called for continued scientific study. it has been argued that there is limited awareness among scientists of observational data. Examples are the Sturrock Panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report. United States US investigations into UFOs include: The Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU). Official studies ended in the U. However. though not dismissing the possibility. such as the UK's Flying Saucer Working Party. The Condon report and these conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists. No scientific consensus There has been little mainstream scientific study of UFOs. but also notes that several hundred professional scientists continue to study UFOs in private. in December 1969. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years. noting that at least 30% of the cases studied remained unexplained. and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study. and about which little is known. physical objects. or of concern to national defense. but that little such work has been done. "… the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished . Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the recent 2009 Uruguay Air Force study conclusion (see below). the US CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel. Some public government conclusions have indicated physical reality but stopped short of concluding extraterrestrial origins. extraterrestrial in origin. and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report #14). On the other hand. subsequent to the statement by Edward Condon that the study of UFOs probably could not be justified in the expectation that science would be advanced. In 1987. what he terms the "invisible college". British UFO researcher Timothy Good received a letter confirming the existence of the IPU from the Army Director of Counterintelligence. a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the AIAA disagreed with Condon's conclusion.
U. "This ‘flying saucer’ situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. began a formal investigation into selected best sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized. and Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS. during the late 1950s and never reactivated.S. who in the U. Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO.S. which included Kenneth Arnold’s and that of the United Airlines crew. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs." A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion. previously Project Sign and Project Grudge. FBI. 1969–). surge in sightings in June and early July 1947.. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948– 1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish.S. National Security Agency (NSA). in fact. occur". Project Blue Book.K." Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate. 1952–1988). Army Air Force (AAF) intelligence. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK. After 1947 sightings Following the large U. in addition to the Air Force." general lack of noise. metallic in appearance. Something is really flying around. including the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). and Greek militaries (1946– 1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. CIA. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U. The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians. occasional formation flying. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960). on July 9. The research was "being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon. as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and Navy..S formed research groups such as National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP. They were characterized by "extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability. and . and as big as man-made aircraft." or that "they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled. absence of trail. 1973–). Mutual UFO Network (MUFON.S. internal RAND Corporation study (1968) The private Sturrock Panel (1998) Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U. that "the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious. commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private. in cooperation with the FBI." that there were objects in the shape of a disc. 1947.S." The IPU records have never been released. active 1956– 1980). the air force investigation decided that. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969 The secret U. U. The AAF used "all of its top scientists" to determine whether or not "such a phenomenon could.
They also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists to study the problem of UFOs. study was conducted by the CIA's Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 after being directed to do so by the National Security Council (NSC). It has been claimed that the report was "harshly criticized by numerous scientists. They concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation. He also questioned the basis for Condon's conclusions and argued that the reports of UFOs have been "laughed out of scientific court. Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U. Allen Hynek and Capt. but continuous scientific work on UFOs".S. criticizing the Condon report and prior studies by the US Air Force for being scientifically deficient." J. that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. the first head of the USAF's Project Blue Book." suggesting a controlled craft. particularly at the powerful AIAA … [who] recommended moderate. which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968. marked the end of the US government's official investigation of UFOs. In August 1948. The Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed.. It was thus recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. ". now known as the Robertson Panel. to further analyze the matter.the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention. both before and after it was released. an astronomer whose position as USAF consultant from 1948 made him perhaps the most knowledgeable scientist connected with the subject. Another highly classified U. Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect. sharply criticized the .."evasive" behavior "when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel's negative conclusions in January 1953. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem. Controversy has surrounded the Condon report. Condon Committee A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF. James E..S. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it. Project Sign This led to the creation of the Air Force’s Project Sign at the end of 1947. In an address made to the AAAS. though documents indicate various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles. Edward J." The matter was considered so urgent. one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. Allen Hynek. Ruppelt.
In the Kecksburg Incident. local law enforcement officers. The Mantell UFO Incident January 7. Smith. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and many local residents also witnessed a light floating on the water immediately afterward. where unidentified flying objects were sequently thought to be part of a Japanese airstrike. Notable cases The Battle of Los Angeles in 1942. residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area.report of the Condon Committee and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for investigating seemingly baffling UFO reports. Multiple government agencies were eventually involved in trying to identify the crashed object and searching for it. Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Story (1952– 1954). Police officers. but embellished greatly the original account. a large object sequentially flashing lights was seen and heard to dive into the water by multiple witnesses. Canadian naval divers later purportedly found no wreckage. 1997 Canada In Canada. The "Phoenix Lights" March 13. In the Shag Harbour incident. Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book in his memoir. the object was called a "UFO" . were sent to investigate. These studies were headed by Canadian Department of Transport radio engineer Wilbert B. and possibly military personnel. who later publicly supported extraterrestrial origins. supported by the Defence Research Board. sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. and a large patch of unusual yellow foam when a water search was initiated. the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. it still considers "unsolved" the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour incident in Nova Scotia. Alberta. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1956). Pennsylvania (1965). The Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky was based on this event. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel. In official documents. and the US military. 1948 The Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports. The Roswell Incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents.
The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena. optical illusions. or hoaxes. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials. which remained secret for over 50 years. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. with ultimate distribution of their study intended for high government officials. dating from 1978 to 1987. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across. . The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers. but are not limited to. were first released on May 14. Around the same time. 2008 more UFO files were released. French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–). to the UK National Archives by the Ministry of Defence. Although kept secret from the public for many years. Nova Scotia. such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The French COMETA panel (1996–1999) was a private study undertaken mostly by aerospace scientists and engineers affiliated with CNES and high-level French Air Force military intelligence analysts. both the Canadian and US military were involved in another UFO-related search at Shelburne. approximately 30 miles from Shag Harbour. France On March 2007. within the French space agency CNES. On October 20. The COMETA panel likewise concluded the best explanation for the inexplicable cases was the extraterrestrial hypothesis and went further in accusing the United States government of a massive cover-up. 2008. the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The report stated: "We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken. but the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one. unless and until some material evidence becomes available. the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online. The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral or negative. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a "cruise missile" fly extremely close to the cockpit.because no conventional explanation for the crashed object was discovered. psychological misperceptions/aberrations. most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. About 14% of some 6000 cases studied remained unexplained. These files include." Eight file collections on UFO sightings. United Kingdom The UK's Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in 1951.
a UFO attack on a cemetery and even reports of alien abduction claims. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through the National Archives." It concluded: "There is no evidence that any UAP. According to records released on August 5. responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence. but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. or that they represent any hostile intent. was publicly released in 2006. despite thousands of UAP reports. titled "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region". Reports given to Churchill claimed the incident allegedly involved an RAF reconnaissance plane returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of the Second World War.. crop circles. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release. The plane's crew were reported to have photographed the object. On December 1.. The resulting report. Furthermore. The report noted: "No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities. are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin.000 a year. if not all" of otherwise inexplicable sightings.A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the UK’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. 2009. In August 2009 The Black Vault internet archive announced the release by the British government of more than 4. especially reports of Black Triangle UFOs. There are no SIGINT. seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region]. ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT. the British Ministry of Defense (MoD) quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. Notable cases This section requires expansion. which . no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The unit's hotline and email address were suspended by the Ministry of Defense on that date. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings.000 pages of declassified records. in over fifty years." The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50. The records include information on the Rendlesham Forest incident. British wartime prime minister Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. 2010. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly suddenly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft's course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. stating "." A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to Ball Lightning are responsible for "the majority.
After his retirement he said that he deliberately downplayed the importance of the event at the time (which was headed 'Unexplained Lights' in the memorandum) to avoid damaging his career. and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. Col. who currently heads the investigation." Astronomer reports The United States Air Force's Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1 % of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). the landing of aircraft from a foreign air force. Also significant is their alleged size which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft. before moving off. and other personnel followed one or more UFOs which were moving in and above the forest for several hours. they said had "hovered noiselessly" near the aircraft. Allen Hynek. and physical landing trace evidence. Suffolk. abductions.000 pages of UFO reports and letters and drawings from members of the public. The files come from more than 5. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform manuveres beyond the capability of any known craft. The phenomenon exists. was present when Churchill and U. He described how his grandfather. Charles Halt. It could be a phenomenon that occurs in the lower sectors of the atmosphere. and even gone up to and touched it. On one night the deputy base commander. Uruguay The Uruguayan Air Force has been conducting an ongoing UFO investigation since 1989 and analyzed 2100 cases. much in the same way that we send probes to explore distant worlds. It could be a monitoring probe from outer space. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980. General Dwight Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter. According to the documents. He made an audio recording while this was happening. who had served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World War. Colonel Ariel Sanchez. summarized its findings as follows: "The commission managed to determine modifications to the chemical composition of the soil where landings are reported. In April 1957 the West Freugh Incident (named after RAF West Freugh in Scotland.S. as well as questions raised by MPs in Parliament. cattle mutilations. In 1952. the principal military base involved) occurred. Other base personnel claim to have observed one of the UFOs which had landed in the forest from close quarters for a long time. All files have recently been declassified. over a period of three nights. up to the extraterrestrial hypothesis. I must stress that the Air Force does not dismiss an extraterrestrial hypothesis based on our scientific analysis. US military personnel witnessed UFOs in the forest near the air base at Woodbridge. of which they regard only 40 (about 2%) as definitely lacking any conventional explanation. then a consultant to . The UFO phenomenon exists in the country. astronomer J. Two unidentified objects flying very high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. details of the coverup emerged when the man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident. They are available to download for free for a month from The National Archives website. The unexplained cases include military jet interceptions.
(Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek's 1952 survey. Even later UFO debunker Donald Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949.Blue Book. Studies show that after careful investigation. may be responsible for some UFO sightings. the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena (see Identification studies of UFOs). artificial satellites. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are: Astronomical objects (bright stars. conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. the other of an anomalous disc-like object. including three green fireballs. supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being "unscientific". a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky. About 5 % of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings. planets. re-entering man-made spacecraft. a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) found that 24 % responded "yes" to the question "Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?" Identification of UFOs Main article: Identification studies of UFOs Fata Morgana. Fata Morgana can also magnify the appearance of distant objects or distort them to be unrecognizable. astrophysicist Peter A. one of a green fireball. In the 1970s. Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz. In 1980. missile launches) . LaPaz reported two personal sightings. and the moon) Aircraft (Aerial advertising and other aircraft. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and American Astronomical Society. Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh. who admitted to six UFO sightings.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft. meteors. who had headed the Air Force's investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico.
etc.5 % without plausible explanation. (See full statistical breakdown in Identification studies of UFOs). flares) Light phenomena (mirages. Of the 69 % identifieds. However. prank balloons. leaving only the very best 1. run within the French space agency CNES between 1977 and 2004. as did other investigations. and he discarded a further 2. Please discuss this issue on the talk page. kites. An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found. 38 % were deemed definitely explained while 31 % were thought to be "questionable.) Hoaxes Lenticular clouds have been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape. 46 % were deemed definitely or likely identifiable. although he felt that a further 7. double the number of the worst cases. while 41 % lacked sufficient information for classification. or length of this list. However. searchlights and other ground lights. moon dogs. large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds. A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the US Air Force included these categories as well as a "psychological" one. Balloons (weather balloons." About 9 % of the cases were considered to have insufficient information to make a determination. unusual clouds.6 % of the cases he studied had a clear prosaic explanation. Hendry's figure for unidentified cases was considerably lower than many other UFO studies such as Project Blue Book or the Condon Report that have found rates of unidentified cases ranging from 6 % to 30 %.1 % could possibly be explained. . Hendry found that 88. Fata Morgana.5 % defied any rational explanation. The remaining 8. is disputed. scientifically investigated about 6000 cases and found that 13. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception. that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. UFO hypotheses The inclusion or exclusion of items from this list.5 % of the 3200 cases they examined and 33 % of what were considered the best cases remained unexplained.8 % due to unreliable or contradictory witnesses or insufficient information.6 % of reports could not definitively be explained by prosaic phenomena. the scientific analysts were unable to come up with prosaic explanations for 21. The official French government UFO investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN).
such as ball lightning or sprites. Condon in the 1968 Condon Report as "The idea that some UFOs may be spacecraft sent to Earth from another civilization. further attributing the popularity of the idea to Donald Keyhoe's UFO book from 1950. This is probably the most popular theory among Ufologists. The earthquake lights/tectonic strain hypothesis: UFOs are caused by strains in Earth's crust near earthquake faults. The interdimensional hypothesis (IDH or IH) says that UFOs are objects crossing over from other dimensions or parallel universe. the Condon Committee. popularly proposed by Jacques Vallée. low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium. some secret. Associated claims Besides anecdotal visual sightings. that what people report as UFO experiences is the result of psychological misperception mechanisms and is strongly influenced by popular culture. the French GEPAN/SEPRA. That UFOs represent poorly understood or still unknown natural phenomena. A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock UFO panel. top secret or experimental aircraft unfamiliar to most people. The UFO Hostility Hypothesis is inside the extraterrestrial hypothesis. though also predating him. several hypotheses have been proposed. simultaneous visual sightings. including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book. with specific examples of many of the categories listed below. tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors. or on a planet associated with a more distant star". and investigated by Belgium's military (included photographic evidence). and aircraft intercepts. The paranormal/occult hypothesis is a variant of the interdimensional hypothesis. have concluded in favor of the ETH. That UFOs are military flying saucers. The extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is defined by Edward U. It says that the extraterrestrial beings that travel in the UFOs. or most of them. silent. and Uruguay's current Air Force study). are hostile. .To account for unsolved UFO cases. The hypothesis comes because of the Cattle Mutilations and the observations made by Wilhelm Reich amd Jerome Eden during their experiments with the Cloudbuster. Some private or governmental studies. appearing in newspapers and various government documents (see immediately below). reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence. Radar contact and tracking. These have included military personnel and control tower operators. invoked to explain so-called paranormal aspects sometimes associated with UFO reports. which can also supposedly induce hallucinations. One such recent example were the mass sightings of large. The psychosocial hypothesis. or have had members who disagreed with official conclusions against the conclusion by committees and agencies to which they belonged. sometimes from multiple sites. though the idea clearly predated Keyhoe.
Project Blue Book head Edward J. skin burns and rashes. Ubatuba. magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. NACA/NASA engineer Paul R. and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest Incident in England. Animal/cattle mutilation cases. Reverse engineering Attempts have been made to reverse engineer the possible physics behind UFOs through analysis of both eyewitness reports and the physical evidence. and German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth. was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs. Among subjects tackled by McCampbell. on the assumption that they are powered vehicles. such as 1957. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis. e. including ground impressions. recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN. increased radiation levels. Another famous case from 1986 was the JAL 1628 case over Alaska investigated by the FAA. g. analyzed by NASA. that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. then France's official government UFO-investigation agency. corneal burns. Photographic evidence. See. A more recent example involves "the Bob White object" a tear drop shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in the TV show UFO Hunters. Height 611 UFO Incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora's Socorro. movie film. burned and broken foliage. Hill and Oberth believed UFOs utilize an as yet unknown anti-gravity field to . also reported by Project Blue Book director Ed Ruppelt in his book. New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases). some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950. In contrast. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth. The 1964 Socorro/Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces. including still photos. Hill in his book Unconventional Flying Objects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran. and video. burned and/or desiccated soil. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs. Apparent remote radiation detection. and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning. and Oberth was the question of how UFOs can fly at supersonic speeds without creating a sonic boom. Hill. McCampbell's proposed solution is microwave plasma parting the air in front of the craft. Examples are former NASA and nuclear engineer James McCampbell in his book Ufology. magnetic anomalies[specify]. and metallic traces. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves. Angel hair and angel grass. germination effects on seeds. such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. Brazil.
 Ufology Main article: Ufology Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence. Other: chevrons. spheres (usually reported to be shining. eggs. pyramids and cylinders. diamonds. created by J. boomerangs. (equilateral) triangles. toy-top. glowing at night). created by Jacques Vallée.accomplish the same thing as well as provide propulsion and protection of occupants from the effects of high acceleration. crescent. Allen Hynek. (March 2009) Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. . (day and night) Large triangular "craft" or triangular light pattern. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. shapeless black masses. Researchers Main article: List of Ufologists Sightings Main article: List of sightings of unidentified flying objects Organizations Main article: UFO organizations Categorization This section does not cite any references or sources. classic "lights". or disk-shaped "craft" without visible or audible propulsion. usually reported at night. Typical categories include: Saucer. Cigar-shaped "craft" with lighted windows (Meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way. and the Vallée system. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. domes. but are very different phenomena). Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system.
new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN). Senator Barry Goldwater. Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Thomas Djamaluddin.. There are many versions of this story. See also ancient astronauts. and Brookings Report There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades. government was withholding such information." Conspiracy theories Main article: UFO conspiracy theory UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally "covering up" the existence of aliens or sometimes collaborating with them. the government and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan) described them as "man-made".S. some are exclusive. A professor at the Indonesian National Aeronautics and Space Agency put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience.Hynek's system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance. the 1999 high-level French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts. and Yves Sillard (former director of the French space agency CNES. . There are claims that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments. Men in Black.S. It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact. while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories. subdivided further into the type of "close encounter" (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his UFO movie. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director). Jacques Vallée's system classifies UFOs into five broad types. an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80 % of Americans believed the U. research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Lapan stated: "We have come to agree that this 'thing' cannot be scientifically proven. "Close Encounters of the Third Kind"). each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type. Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head). In the U. Scientific skepticism A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell. Allegations of evidence suppression See also: Disclosure Project. Responding to local beliefs that "extraterrestrial beings" in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia.
In 1973. Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction. a building contractor.Famous hoaxes Main article: List of UFO-related hoaxes The Maury Island incident The Ummo affair. Warren William "Billy" Smith is a popular writer and confessed hoaxster. about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life. and that there were cities. the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters' photographs. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. for example the Earth spacecraft Starship C-57D in Forbidden Planet. the Jupiter Two in Lost in Space. and many others. a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House. Most investigators like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer now consider the sightings to be a hoax. The total length of the documents is at least 1000 pages. A José Luis Jordan Pena came forward in the early nineties claiming responsibility for the phenomenon. but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. after the Walters family had moved. in 1990. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek. A 1996 Gallup poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the government was covering up information regarding UFOs. Three years later.S. In that latest poll. 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again. Florida. George Adamski over the space of two decades made various claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. and some estimate that further undiscovered documents may total nearly 4000 pages. These sightings became famous and were called Gulf Breeze UFO incident. In popular culture Main article: UFOs in fiction UFOs constitute a widespread international cultural phenomenon of the last 60 years. Ed Walters. Gallup polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. and most[who?] consider there to be little reason to challenge his claims. See also . a decades-long series of detailed letters and documents allegedly from extraterrestrials. trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the moon. A 2002 Roper poll for the Sci Fi Channel found similar results. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the moon taken by a Soviet orbital probe in 1959 were fake. whereas only 92 percent had heard of U. in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze.
Photograph of "an unusual atmospheric occurrence observed over Sri Lanka. Abbeville Press. http://www. The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial.org/JBIS.pdf. (revised edition). exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. Well-organized. pages 141–191 in "UFOs. Douglas. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Curran. Hall. America. Harold E. Deardorff. Haisch. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 58: 43–50.. pages 82–121 in "UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge" David M. 2001. Puthoff (2005). Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. 2004. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.ufoskeptic. B. Bullard. editor. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. 1964. NICAP. Visible Ink Press. "UFOs: Lost in the Myths". highly documented. Richard H. Maccabee. editor. The UFO Evidence: Volume 1. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. . J." forwarded to the UK Ministry of Defence by RAF Fylingdales. University Press of Kansas. 1998. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail. including the so-called "contactee cults. "Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation". Jacobs. (January 2010) Thomas E. B. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. ISBN 0-7006-1032-4 Jerome Clark. reissued 1997." The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. and the Early Cold War Era". 2000. List of UFO sightings List of alleged aircraft-UFO incidents and near misses Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) Extraterrestrial life Project Blue Book Roswell incident Ufology Declassification of UFO documents General This article includes a list of references. the Military.
Horizons: Exploring the Universe. Jung. Create Space. Robert The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence. J. Thornton.. more recent UFO reports. Bill and Buttler. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. Henry Regnery Co. Prometheus Books.A Nonreactive. Princeton University Press. 13. 8. Allen. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. Peter A.. 1979. Armando Simon "Psychology and the UFOs. Evaluating. 48. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. 1979. (1995). Allen. (Chapter 20: Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye. 1998. ISBN 0-7607-0192-2. The UFO Evidence: A Thirty-Year Report. Psychology Carl G. Leicester. 2001. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. ISBN 0-446-52565-0 Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown.C. \Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-691-01822-7 Armando Simon. ISBN 0-534-24889-6 and ISBN 0-534-24890-X. mostly to the skeptical side. Prometheus Books ISBN 0-87975-338-2 Sheaffer. The Hynek UFO Report. 1976. 1972. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. UK: Midland Publishing." Psychological Reports. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. 3–5. Tony. Alan. Seeds. The UFO Experience: A scientific inquiry. Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer. Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst. 2006. Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Hendry. 1984. Hynek. 1986. 775–785. The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. Sagan. Pro and con articles by scientists. Hall. editors. New York: Doubleday & Co. ISBN 1463601573. 1979. Hynek." The Skeptical Inquirer.F. Another exhaustive case study. 1997. Hull). (1999)." Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. Rose. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Carl & Page. . John Wiley & Sons.) Ian Ridpath "Astronomical Causes of UFOs" Michael A. Sheaffer. J." Psychology. (Appendix A) Robert Sheaffer (2011). Richard H. 1981. Robert UFO Sightings: The Evidence. Wadsworth Publishing. UFOs: A Scientific Debate. 1996. Scarecrow Press. a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada Skepticism Philip Plait (2002). ISBN 157392-213-7 (revised edition of The UFO Verdict) Sturrock. "Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies" (translated by R. Richard Haines"UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist. 355–367. and Reporting UFO Sightings. from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax". Armando Simon "UFOs: Testing for the Existence of Air Force Censorship. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating.
The UFO Cover-Up (Originally Clear Intent).1103/PhysRevD. "Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries". 2nd ed. 2009. Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects. Above Top Secret. 1988..53. Project Blue Book Exposed. 2005. and Intelligence.Histories Dr David Clarke. ISBN 1-56924746-3 Edward J. 1976. Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster). The National Archives. Physical Review D 67 (10): 104013. Bibcode 1996PhRvD. The UFO Files. Rullán. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Unconventional Flying Objects: a scientific analysis. Greenwood.67j4013K. 1956. Kew. L. 1973. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt. ISBN 1-56718493-6 Kevin Randle. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer. Government Involvement in the UFO Coverup. Marlowe & Company. Pea. 1995. H. McCampbell. Need to Know: UFOs. 2005 (Authorhouse) S. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. PEA RESEARCH.67. Volume One: 1941–1973. or earlier title History of UFO Crash/Retrievals". Ford and T. Bibcode 2003PhRvD. The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects. Hill. William Morrow & Co. James M. Physical Review D 53 (10): 5496. Krasnikov (2003). James M. the Military. Doubleday & Co. UFO FBI Connection. Pegasus Books. Bangor: Xiphos. arXiv:gr-qc/0207057.104013.. Many UFO documents. Llewellyn Publications. online. 2000. Jonathan Rising of the Moon. ISBN 0-89087-144-2 full-text online. "Super Cosmos". Technology Paul R. External links . Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data. Timothy Good. Another analysis by former NASA and nuclear engineer. "The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts". Downes. Dolan is a professional historian. 1986. Dolan.53. Roman (1996). Antonio F.5496F. UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History. 1997.5496. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. ISBN 1-57174-027-9. 2007.. ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. 1992. the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book LeRoy F. Lawrence Fawcett & Barry J. Keyhole Publishing. 2000. paper. The Inside Story of Real-life Sightings. doi:10. preliminary paper. doi:10. Many UFO documents. 1988. Physical effects of UFOs upon people. Celestial Arts. Ruppelt.. Jack Sarfatti. A. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Bruce Maccabee.1103/PhysRevD. Reports from the UK government files Richard M. 2000. Hampton Roads Publishing Co. McCampbell. Timothy Good.
com/trianglescharacteristics. 8. Retrieved 2011-11-06. ^ For example.com/FAQs. 11. Barnes & Noble. White House.Find more about UFO on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Government Reports on UFOs from UCB Libraries GovPubs CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs. ISBN 978076070916. Allen Hendry's study for CUFOS had less than 1 % 9. 2. 1947–90 Ministry of Defence Reports in the UK from 1997 – 2007 Newly released UFO files from the UK government References 1. Nancy (5 November 2011).28438. http://www. 2004). 10. ^ a b c Larson. Qualitative Sociology 27 (1): 3–34. Thornton (1995).ufocasebook. ^ a b Cross. 4. ^ "http://www.net/ufo/overview. But No Evidence Yet".ufoevidence. UFOs: A Scientific Debate. Page 3 6. 310. 5. Retrieved 2011-11-06. Carl and Page.html" ^ UAP In the UK Air Defence Region: Volume 3 Executive Summary. p. ^ a b c Atkinson. White House Says".universetoday. Phil (5 November 2011).1023/B:QUAS. UniverseToday. Pan Books.com/90717/no-alien-visits-orufo-coverups-white-house-says/. Defence Intelligence Staff (2000). "No Alien Visits or UFO Coverups.mufon.html ^ "http://www. "The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers".org/" ^ "http://www.0000015542. . 7. "Searching for ET. doi:10. Beyond Top Secret. ^ Sagan.html#Q1" ^ "http://www.gov/petitions#!/response/searching-et-no-evidence-yet. ^ Good. https://wwws. Anne (March. Timothy (1997).41. the USAF's Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were "psychological" or hoaxes.whitehouse. 3.hyper.
huffingtonpost. ISBN 0-8351-2676-5. ^ Giordano.ufoevidence. ^ a b c COMETA Report: http://www. ^ a b McDonald. Rayburn Bldg.1.htm 14. http://www. 13. Paul. Airliner.11. New York Times.telegraph. ^ Air Force Regulation 200-2 text versionpdf of document." A later version  altered the definition to "Any aerial phenomena. (1977). Pages 69–71.  25. Inc.html" 20. 1968." and added "Air Force activities must reduce the percentage of unidentifieds to a minimum.D.com/2011/08/26/ufos-pilots-historychannel_n_935847.org/topics/Cometa. ^ A good example is the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena or NARCAP. Daniela. D. retrieved July 27. The UFO enigma. They Were Red Ones. E." The Air Force added that "Technical Analysis thus far has failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for a number of sightings reported.com/shg/mccarthy/shgintro. ^ "http://www. ^ UFO study causes media sensation: 7/1/98 16. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects. aerodynamic characteristics. McDonald and the UFO Case Study http://www.html. "Do UFOs Exist in the History of Arts?" from American Chronicle. D. Shaba. in Skeptic Magazine Vol. E. Garden City (NY. James. ^ NAVY OFFICER SEES METEORS. Weinstein. ^ Reece (2007).co.org/org. Washington. ^ Dong. China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic.com/" 19. ^  NARCAP. Maccabee summary of sighting with log quotes 30.project1947. USA): Doubleday 17.. Bruce Maccabee analysis." New York: Anomalist Books. or unusual features. Private Pilots’ Sightings from 1916 to 2000". (1990). ^ "http://www. or that cannot be positively identified as a familiar object. 'Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: 80 Years of Pilot Sightings'. airborne objects or objects that are unknown or appear out of the ordinary to the observer because of performance. (2000).skeptic. These unexplained sightings are carried statistically as unidentifieds. ^ Before the Wright Brothers… There Were UFOs 29.. 2007 26. 1904. H.cufos. ^ Menzel. ^ "http://www. the Largest About Six Suns Big. does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type. 28. pages 11-13. with original log entries of sighting. ^ a b c Vallée. No. aerodynamic characteristics.mufon. Dominque F. Analysis thus far has explained all but a few of the sightings reported. March 9. 23. "Catalog of Military. 2006. H." 24. ^ "http://www. Statement on Unidentified Flying Objects submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics at July 29. 2003.html 15. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals. (1968). Taves.html" 21. or unusual features.12. 27. Alien Contact by Human Deception. 2004. ^ Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. "The Art of Imagining UFOs". J. . ISBN 1-933665-30-0 22.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/7584331/UFOstudies-should-be-legitimate-university-subject-claims-American-professor. November 13. ^ Cuoghi..com/the_magazine/archives/vol11n01. initially defined a UFO as "any airborne object that by performance.html 18.
http://www.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004. 'Altai-Himalaya: A travel diary'. CIA. ^ http://www. 2007. Additionally. ^ Air Force Academy UFO material 43.foia. 1998. VE: Inner Traditions.af.wikisource. ^ Friedman. . 1947. 1990 (1930). 61 36. surface vessels. 46.nicap. G.org/cases/case723. S. 2007. Retrieved November 12. DOD. Kempton. current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206. ^ Clark (1998). DIA. ^ Alfred Loedding and the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947. http://web. as well as private websites such as "The Black Vault".mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004. ^ "Official US Air Force document in pdf format". ^ Ted Bloecher's bar chart of June/July 1947 UFO sightings 38.3 (p. ^ The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark 47. case studies. Fitch to D. United Press stories on the Roswell incident noted that "Reports of flying saucers whizzing through the sky fell off sharply today as the Army and Navy began a concentrated campaign to stop the rumors. Garrett. review of hypotheses. Rochester. 52.org/470704e. government UFO-related documents from the USAF. ^ Foo-Fighter – TIME 34. 2001 (1929).. ^ Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the FBI FOIA site. Army. unidentified aircraft. White Rose Press. ^ Nicholas Roerich. 1967 40. 64) lists sightings of "unidentified flying objects" and "aircraft of unconventional design" as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional.foia. 1968.M. ^ "Wikisource article about Air Force Regulation 200-2". pp. Ladd concerning a request by General Schulgen of USAAF intelligence corps Office of Intelligence Requirements for the FBI to help with their investigation of UFO reports. 45. 244.31." UP story 39. Chapter 4: The Onslaught This quotes and summarized the interim report of Lieutenant Colonel George D.org/web/20080505013115/http://en.af. 2008. (2008).S. or submarines.com/fig/ual105.archive. Archived from the original on May 5. ^ On July 9. 'Shambhala: In search of the new era'. ^ Good (1988). Retrieved November 12. "unidentified objects" detected by missile warning systems. ^ Project Blue Book Special Report #14 41.pdf. ^ Nicholas Roerich.htm. creating a potential risk of nuclear war. UFOs: What to Do". UFO historical review. and NSA.project1947. ^ For example. Section 5. 6–7. Sarah Connors and Michael Hall.35) 42. http://www. ^ Ted Bloecher & James McDonald. ^  Hitler's Flying Saucers: Henry Stevens 35.htm 37. online 33. http://www.htm.pdf 44. pp. ^ http://www. IL: Adventures Unlimited Press. are covered by Rule 5E (p. ^ internal FBI memo from E. 484 49. 361–2 32. Albuquerque. ^ George Kocher. NJ: New Page Books ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7 48.7. Franklin Lakes. 51.org/wiki/Transwiki:Air _Force_Regulation_200-2. which has an archive[dead link] of several thousand U. recommendations 50. RAND Corporation. missiles.ufoevidence. Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. Report on the UFO Wave of 1947.
Thornton Page. ^ BBC: Churchill ordered UFO cover-up. specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army. ^ Ruppelt. "The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects". 59. records say 66. Nathan Twining. ^ See. ^ AFP: Churchill 'banned UFO report to avoid mass panic' 72.html. by future USAF Chief of Staff. Project RAND. g. Atomic Energy Commission. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. ^ BBC News Airliner had near miss with UFO 67. 14–16 79. ^ news. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada 60.nicap. ^ 'El Pais'. public statements of SEPRA director Jean-Jacques Velasco. ^ 'UAP In the UK Air Defense Region' Volume 3 Executive Summary. Navy. "Science in Default". 2006. R. Montevideo. 2. ^ Ridge.bbc. August 2009 70.net/ufo/Science_in_Default. the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House. Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA. ^ "Cost-cutting causes British gov't to shut down UFO investigations" 71. Gen. DIA. 58.dabsol. COMETA Report summary by Gildas Bourdais. 1978 GEPAN report by director Claude Poher. ^ McDonald. ISBN 978-0-393-00739-8. June 6. P. ^ Catalog of Project Blue Book unknowns 77. Chapt. part1. Retrieved March 30.co. ^ UK National Archives 64. the Defense Department's Joint Research and Development Board. pp. ^ The National Archives website 75. p. ^ Canada's Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown. Retrieved August 19.. and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online. http://dewoody. ^ 'The Black Vault'. ^ https://www. NSA. 52 78. American Association for the Advancement of Science. part2. Secretary of State. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).53. August 2009 69. (1972). ^ Site du GEIPAN 61. Documents Suggest 73. and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project. ^ Fox News: Churchill Ordered UFO Coverup.. 57. May 2006. National Archives show 74. English translation by Scott Corrales 76.cia.html CIA history of their involvement in UFOs 56. ^ The so-called Twining memo of Sept. ^ COMETA Report (English). National Security Agency (NSA). James E. e. 1972. 2011.co. 2009. Ithaca.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csistudies/studies/97unclass/ufo. 134th Meeting.uk Files released on UFO sightings 65. 3 55. and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). A Scientific Debate. ^ 'The Black Vault'. ^ Interview with GEIPAN director Yves Sillard. 23. 62. http://www. UFO's. ^ Herb/Hynek amateur astronomer poll results reprinted in International UFO Reporter (CUFOS). 1947.htm.Uruguay.uk/Rufo. The UFO Experience. ESHLEMAN . In Carl Sagan. COMETA Report. director of CUFOS 63. ^ Electromagnetic-Wave Ducting [dead link] BY V. New York: Cornell University Press. Summary by Mark Rodeghier. ^ AFP Article: Britons 'spotted' UFOs. ^ Hynek's photos in Hynek. Francis L. 54. August 2000 68. Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Jacques Vallée. 2008 100. An Alien History of Planet Earth. 347 87. ISBN 0-345-36002-8 91. Jerome: Scavengers From Space 90. ISBN 0-385-14348-6 81. pp215–238. Other links to Sturrock Panel 94. ^ Dolan. pg.com/ufo/warrenbillysmith. See Weather. 23 83.. g. Condon. ^ Document quoted and published in Timothy Good (2007).middlecoastpublishing. Vol. Ruppelt. 1993. Edward U. ^ Ika Krismantari. 189. ^ Velasco quoted in La Dépêche du Midi. Oberth's American Weekly article appeared in a number of newspaper Sunday supplements. 1976.C. Crop circles provide food for thought. natural gas) inside an atmospheric vortex. 1989. and his book Great balls of Fire–a unified theory of ball lightning. ^ Schuessler. 31. ^ Good (1988). 93. Washington Post and Times Herald. German Rocket Scientist" 2002. 287. 2004 89. France. ^ Investigation and explanations of Belgium case 95. ^ Good. USAFE Item 14. ^ bNet (CBS Interactive Inc. April 18. 1979. National Archives. 84. 2008. Ray Stanford. 106–107. Socorro 'Saucer' in a Pentagon Pantry. g. ^ Groupe d'Etudes et d'Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non identifiés 102..80. ^ Allan Hendry. 318–322. John L. Tunguska and other anomalous lights. ^ Poll: U. 81–89. Good. hiding knowledge of aliens. TT 1524. 115. and Reporting UFO Sightings.. 2011 99. New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So. Doubleday & Co. Oberth's UFO antigravity opinion as to propulsion and atmospheric air flow control also quoted by Donald Keyhoe in his 1955 book Flying Saucer Conspiracy 98. AW4 85. Evaluating. CNN/TIME. 20. Sturrock Panel report on physical evidence. 1948. 1997 101. Toulouse. 371–373. ^ Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact. Coleman has advanced a theory that some UFOs may be instances of visible combustion of a fuel (e. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating. 2006. Chapt. UFOs. ^ Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. UFOs? Yes 88. Journal of Scientific Exploration. The Star. declassified in 1997. "Statements About Flying Saucers And Extraterrestrial Life Made By Prof.htm. http://www. e. 337. Ballantine Books. Good. ^ The Gulf Breeze "UFOs" 104. ^ ibid. "Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?. Hermann Oberth. ^ David Saunders."  Last accessed February 2. ^ Fawcett & Greenwood. ^ Cook. November 4. June 15. ^ Sturrock Panel abstract & summary. 16 86. Nick (Narrator and Writer) (2006). University of Colorado 82.S. . ^ PARANOIA – People Are Strange: Unusual UFO Cults 103. Retrieved June 15.).. Washington D. 112–154 97. (Top Secret). History Channel. Section II Summary of the Study. February 6. ^ Eden. 497–502 96. p. Fireshine Press 92. ^ Good (1988). ^ "Warren Smith: UFO Investigator". ^ Peter F.
September 2002. 141 106.com/ufo/roper/. (1968) · Juscelino Kubitschek (1976) · Pope John Paul I (1978) · John Lennon (1980) · Olof Palme (1986) · Zia-ul-Haq (1988) · Kurt Cobain (1994) · Yitzhak Rabin (1995) · Diana. Archived from the original on July 13.com/articles/UFO %20COVERUP. 2006. ^ Astronomical Causes of UFOs 110.com. Retrieved August 19.createspace. Princess of Wales (1997) · David Kelly (2003) · Alexander Litvinenko (2006) · Benazir Bhutto (2007) · Michael Jackson (2009) · Osama bin Laden (2011) Sinking of the USS Maine (1898) · Sinking of the RMS Lusitania (1915) · Reichstag fire (1933) · Pearl Harbor · Operation Gladio · USS Liberty incident (1967) · KAL 007 (1983) · Mozambican presidential jet (1986) · Pan Am Flight 103 (1988) · Oklahoma City bombing (1995) · Port Arthur massacre (1996) · TWA Flight 800 (1996) · Russian apartment bombings (1999) · 9/11 attacks (Advance knowledge · WTC collapse) · Madrid train bombing (2004) · London bombings (2005) Titanic alternative theories (1912) · Cairo Fire (1952) · Jonestown (1978) · Satanic ritual abuse (Blood libel) · Sinking of MS Estonia (1994) · Columbine High School massacre (1999) False flag Other . ^ [https://www. ^ "The Roper Poll".105. ^ CFI – Evidence Page 108.htm [show]v · d · eUFOs and ufology [show]v · d · eConspiracy theories Eric V of Denmark (1286) · Geoffrey Chaucer (1400) · Princes in the Tower (1483) · Abraham Lincoln (1865) · Franz Ferdinand (1914) · Phar Lap (1932) · Sergey Kirov (1934) · Joseph Stalin (1953) · Dag Hammarskjöld (1961) · Patrice Lumumba (1961) · Marilyn Monroe (1962) · John F.50megs.com/3630764 Psychic Vibrations 111. ^ http://pea-research.org/web/20060713204836/http://www. ^ Bullard. http://web. Kennedy (1968) · Martin Assassination Luther King Jr.scifi. Kennedy (1963) · Malcolm X (1965) · Robert F.archive. Ufology Resource Center. 2006. ^ Mutual UFO Network 109. SciFi. 107.
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