You are on page 1of 6

Matter is a general term for the substance of which all physical [1][2] objects consist.

Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles which have mass. A common way of defining matter is as anything that has mass and occupies volume.[3] Matter can be classified by its state. Solids have a set volume and shape. Liquids have a set volume, but change shape. Gases have neither definite volume nor shape. Matter can also be classified by its composition. An element is a pure substance made up of atoms with the same number of protons. The periodic table is a tabular representation of the known elements. A compound consists of two or more chemical elements that are chemically bonded together. Water (H2O) and table sugar (C12H22O11) are examples of chemical compounds. The ratio of the elements in a compound is always the same. For example in water, the number of H atoms is always twice the number of O atoms. A mixture consists of two or more substances (element or compound) mixed together without any chemical bond. Salad is a good example. A mixture can be separated into its individual components by mechanical means. Matter occurs in four states: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. Often the state of matter of a substance may be changed by adding or removing heat energy from it. For example, the addition of heat can melt ice into liquid water and turn water into steam. Solids A solid has a definite shape and volume. Examples of solids include ice (solid water), a bar of steel, and dry ice (solid carbon dioxide). Liquids A liquid has a definite volume, but takes the shape of its container. Examples of liquids include water and oil. Gases A gas has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. Examples of gases are air, oxygen, and helium. Some introductory chemistry texts name solids, liquids, and gases as the three states of matter, but higher level texts recognize plasma as a fourth state of matter. Plasma Plasma has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. Plasma often is seen in ionized gases. Plasma is distinct from a gas because it possesses unique properties. Free electrical charges (not bound to atoms or ions) cause plasma to be electrically conductive. Plasma may be formed by heating and ionizing a gas. Stars are made of plasma. Lightning is plasma. You can find plasma inside fluorescent lights and neon signs.

Types of Mixtures There are many kinds of mixtures. They are classified by the behavior of the phases, or substances that have been mixed. Homogeneous Mixtures Soda water is a homogeneous mixture. (The straw looks broken because of refraction.) A homogeneous mixture is uniform, which means that any given sample of the mixture will have the same composition. Air, sea water, and carbonation dissolved in soda are all examples of homogeneous mixtures, or solutions. No matter what sample you take from the mixture, it will always be composed of the same combination of phases. Chocolate chip ice cream is not homogeneousone spoonful taken might have two chips, and then another spoonful might have several chips. An example for a homogeneous mixture is a solution. The substance that gets dissolved is the solute. The substance that does the dissolving is the solvent. Together they make a solution. If you stir a spoonful of salt into a glass of water, salt is the solute that gets dissolved. Water is the solvent. The salty water is now a solution, or homogeneous mixture, of salt and water. When different gases are mixed, they always form a solution. The gas molecules quickly spread out into a uniform composition. Heterogeneous Mixtures A heterogeneous mixture is not uniform. Different samples may have different compositions, like the example of chocolate chip ice cream. Concrete, soil, blood, and salad are all examples of heterogeneous mixtures. suspensions When sand gets kicked up in a pond, it clouds the water. Soon the sand settles down, and is no longer mixed into the water. This is an example of a suspension. Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures that will eventually settle. They are usually, but not necessarily, composed of phases in different states of matter. Italian salad dressing has three phases: the water, the oil, and the small pieces of seasoning. The seasonings are solids that will sink to the bottom, and the oil and water are liquids that will separate. Colloids Toothpaste is a colloid, because it's part solid and part liquid. What exactly is toothpaste? We can't exactly classify it by its state of matter. It has a definite shape and volume, like a solid. But then you squeeze the tube, and it flows almost like a liquid. And then there's jelly, shaving cream, smoke, dough, and Silly Putty... These are examples of colloids. A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture of two substances of different phases. Shaving cream and other foams are gas dispersed in liquid. Jello, toothpaste, and other gels are liquid dispersed in solid. Dough is a solid dispersed in a liquid. Smoke is a solid dispersed in a gas.

Introduction to Matter Matter "Matter is the physical material of the universe; it is anything that occupies space and has mass" Matter can exist in three physical states: 1. gas or vapor 2. liquid 3. solid Gas No fixed volume or shape - it conforms to the volume and shape of its container. Gases can be compressed or expanded to occupy different volumes. Liquid A liquid has a distinct volume, independent of its container, but it has no specific shape. It assumes the shape of the container it is in. Liquids cannot be appreciably compressed. Solid A solid has a definite shape and volume; it is rigid. Solids cannot be appreciably compressed. Substances A pure substance has a fixed composition and distinct properties. Most matter we come in contact with in our daily lives is not a pure substance, but a mixture of substances. Physical and Chemical Properties Every pure substance has a unique set of properties - characteristics which allow us to distinguish it from other substances. These properties fall into two general categories: physical and chemical. Physical properties - properties we can measure without changing the basic identity of the substance. Chemical properties - describe the way a substance may change or "react" to form other substances. Physical and Chemical Changes Substances can undergo various changes in properties, these changes may be classified as either physical or chemical. Physical changes - a substance changes its physical appearance but not its basic identity. All changes of state (e.g. solid to liquid to gas) are physical changes. Chemical changes - also known as chemical reactions, a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance. Mixtures Mixtures refer to combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity and hence its own properties. Heterogenous mixtures are not uniform throughout the sample, and have regions of different appearance and properties Homogenous mixtures are uniform throughout the sample, however, the individual substances retain their individual chemical and physical nature. Homogenous mixtures

are also called solutions, however, the most common type of solution is described by a solid (the solute) dissolved in a liquid (the solvent). An important characteristic of mixtures is that the individual components retain their physical and chemical properties. Thus, it is possible to separate the components based on their different properties. For example, we can separate ethanol from water by making use of their different boiling temperatures, in a process known as distillation. What is Energy? Energy does things for us. It moves cars along the road and boats on the water. It bakes a cake in the oven and keeps ice frozen in the freezer. It plays our favorite songs and lights our homes at night so that we can read good books. Energy helps our bodies grow and our minds think. Energy is a changing, doing, moving, working thing. Energy is defined as the ability to produce change or do work, and that work can be divided into several main tasks we easily recognize: Energy produces light. Energy produces heat. Energy produces motion. Energy produces sound. Energy produces growth. Energy powers technology Forms of Energy There are many forms of energy, but they all fall into two categories potential or kinetic. POTENTIAL ENERGY Potential Energy is stored energy and the energy of position, or gravitational energy. There are several forms of potential energy, including: Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. It is the energy that holds these particles together. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are examples of stored chemical energy. During photosynthesis, sunlight gives plants the energy they need to build complex chemical compounds. When these compounds are later broken down, the stored chemical energy is released as heat, light, motion, and sound. Stored Mechanical Energy is energy stored in objects by the application of a force. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy. Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atomthe energy that holds the nucleus together. The energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms in a process called fusion. In both fission and fusion, mass is converted into energy, according to Einsteins Theory, E = mc Gravitational Energy is the energy of position or place. A rock resting at the top of a hill contains gravitational potential energy. Hydropower,

such as water in a reservoir behind a dam, is an example of gravitational potential energy. KINETIC ENERGY Kinetic Energy is motionthe motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects. Electrical Energy is the movement of electrons. Everything is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called electrons, protons, and neutrons. Applying a force can make some of the electrons move. Electrons moving through a wire are called electricity. Lightning is another example of electrical energy. Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays, and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Solar energy is an example of radiant energy. Thermal Energy, or heat, is the internal energy in substancesthe vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substances. The faster molecules and atoms vibrate and move within substances, the more energy they possess and the hotter they become. Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy. Motion Energy is the movement of objects and substances from one place to another. According to Newtons Laws of Motion, objects and substances move when a force is applied. Wind is an example of motion energy. Sound Energy is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate. The energy is transferred through the substance in a wav