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mZciyfSf;F khw;W : %b kiwf;fg;gl;l cz;ikfs;

- Nfhghy;;

$lq;Fs mZciyfs; njhlh;ghf 13>147 Nfhb &ghiaf; fl;Lkhdr; nryT nra;jgpd; ,af;ftpUf;fpd;w Neuj;jpy; %lr;nrhy;ypg; NghuhLfpwhh;fNs! mZciy fl;Lkhdk; Jtq;Fk; Kd;Ng jLj;J epWj;jpapUf;fyhNk! vd;w thjq;fs; nghJntspapy; Kd;itf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mZciy Ntz;lhk; vd;W nrhd;dhy; kpd;Njit ,Uf;fpwJ. mZciyNa mjw;Fj; jPHT. mZciyj; jpl;lj;ij kWf;fpwth;fs; khw;Wg; ; gw;wpf; $whjtiu Njr eyDf;F vjpuhdth;fs; vd;w ghh;itAk; epyTfpwJ. tpl; jw;NghJ Njrk; vDk; Fjpiuf;F Nrdk; g+l;lg;gl;L tpl;lJ. mZciy ghJfhg;ghdjh? ,y;iyah? vd;w xNu jpirapy; Njrj;ij KLf;fptpLfpd;wth;fshf cs;sdh; mZtpQ;Qhdpfs;. Mf> nghJ ntspapy; ,d;W tpthjg; nghUs; ghJfhg;ghdjh? ,y;iyah? vd;w jh;ffkhfr; RUf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ; mZciy

thW topnjhpah ,e;jg; Gjph;gghijapy; ,Ue;J ehk; vt;thW jg;GtJ? ek; ; tho;itAk;> tho;thjhuq;fisAk; ekf;Fg; gpe;ija jiyKiwapdhpd; eyidAk; vg;gbf; fhg;gJ vd;gJ r%f eyd; tpUk;gpfSf;F Kd;Ds;s tpopgpJq;fitf;Fk; rthyhf cs;sJ! mZciyfspd; %yk; jahhpf;fg;gLfpw kpd;rhuk; gpur;ridahfj; Jtq;fpdhYk;> Njhd;wpdhYk;> cz;ikapy; ,J gw;wpa Mw;wy;

(Energy) gw;wpa gpur;rid jhd;. Mw;wy; / vhprf;jpf;fhd Nghl;lhNghl;bapy; ) cyf muq;fpy;; ty;yuRfs;> gy;NtW ehLfspy; jq;fs; gilfis ,wf;fp> VNjNjh fhuzq;fisr; nrhy;yp> mq;F mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;Nshiu> kf;fis nfhd;W Ftpj;J Mw;wy; / vhprf;jpf;fhd jq;fspd; mlq;fhg; grpiaj; jPhjJf; nfhs;s Kaw;rpg;gJk; tuyhW. rpy Mz;LfSf;F Kd; <uhf;fpYk;> ; ; jw;NghJ ypgpahtpYk; ele;jitfis ehk; ed;fwpNthk;. gy yl;rk; Nfhb lhyh;fs; Goq;FtJ jhd; ,e;j Mw;wy; Jiw!

,e;jpa kpd; epytuk; kpd;rhuk; ekf;F ,d;wpaikahj Mw;wyhf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. ,Nj Nghd;W ekf;F ,d;wpaikahj Mw;wy;fshf ,Ue;J tUgit ngl;Nuhy;> Bry;> rikay; vhpthA Nghd;w vhpnghUl;fs;. njhopy;Jiw> tptrhak;> Nghf;Ftuj;J> tzpfk;> tPlL cgNahfk;> ; nghJg;gad;ghL vd vz;zw;w JiwfSf;F kpd;rhuk; cs;spl;l ,e;jg; gy;NtW Mw;wy;fs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. 17tJ ,e;jpa kpd;rf;jpj; fzf;flL mwpf;if, 2011-2012k; Mz;by; P ; kpd;rf;jp Njitg;gLk; JiwfisAk;> mtw;wpw;Fj; Njitg;glf;$ba kpd; Mw;wypd; (Electrical Energy) msitAk; gl;baypl;Ls;sJ. me;j mwpf;if, ,e;jpahtpy; njhopy;Jiwf;F 29.16%, 34.5%, tptrhaj;jpw;F 8.69%, 20.23%, tPlL ;

cgNahfj;jpw;F tpfpjj;jpy;

tzpfj;jpw;F

gpwtw;wpw;F

7.43% vd;w

nkhj;jk; 9>68>659 kpy;ypad; (kpy;ypad; = 10 yl;rk;) a+dpl;Lfs; gS (Electrical Load) nkfh thl; kpd;rf;jp gS 1>50>000 kPJ ,Uf;ifapy; 1>52>746

kpd; Mw;wy; Njitg;gLk;; cr;rgl;r kpd;rhjdg; kpd;epiyaq;fspd; nkfh thl;. ,e;jpahtpy; #hpa xsp> epWtg;gl;Ls;s

Njitg;gLk; vd;fpwJ. jw;Nghija cr;rgl;r kpd;rhjdg;

kpd;epiyaq;fspy;> 11.05%

epyf;fhp>

thA>

vz;nza; Nghd;wtw;iw cs;slf;fpa mdy;kpd; 65.09%, Gdy;kpd; 21.22%, fhw;whiy Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;J mZkpd; 2.62% vd epWTjpwd; tpfpjk; cs;sJ. nkhj;j epWTjpwd; 1>82>344.62 nkfh thl;lhf (nk. th.) cs;sJ. mjpfstpy; kpd;rhuk; Njitg;gLk; Jiwfshf njhopy;JiwAk; tptrhaKk; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wd. njhopy;Jiwapy; mjpfstpyhd Mw;wy; Njitg;gLk; njhopy;> njhopy;> fhuf; cuj; njhopy;fs; FNshhpd; jahhpg;G> (Energy intensive industries) vd (Chlor Alkali)> E}w;Gj; njhopy; ,Uk;Gj; Nghd;witfs; mYkpdpaj; rpnkz;l; fhykhf gy njhopy;>

mwpag;gl;L tUfpd;wd. jw;NghJ rhg;lNth; ; mjpfstpyhd kpd;rhuk; Njitg;gl;LtUfpwJ.

njhopYf;Fk;

jq;Fjilaw;w

tptrhaj;Jiwapy;> fzprkhd kpd; gad;ghL ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;jpahtpy; 200 yl;rk; gk;g; nrl;Lfs; ,aq;fptUfpd;wd. ,tw;wpy; ngUk;ghyhdit jpwk;gl kpd;rf;jpiag; gad;gLj;Jtjpy;iy. ,ijaLj;J kpd;epiyaq;fspy; ngUkstpy; ,Ue;J Mw;wiy chpQ;RtJ, kpd; cw;gj;jp ,lj;jpw;F

kpd;rf;jpiag;

gad;gLj;JNthhpd;

te;J Nrh;tjw;F ,ilapy;

kpd;flj;jy; kw;Wk; gfph;khdj;jpy; (Transmission

and distribution) elj;jg;gLfpw nrythFk;. ,ij xUq;fpize;j njhopy; El;g kw;Wk; tzpf kpd; ,og;Gfs; (Aggregate Transmission & Commercial losses) vd;w ngahpy; miof;fpd;wdh;. cyf ehLfspy; jahhpf;fg;gLk; kpd; Mw;wypy; ,J mjpfl;rkhf 15% vd;W cs;sJ. ek; ehl;by; ,J rpy khepyq;fspy; 50% - Ij; jhz;LfpwJ; ,e;jpa ruhrhpahf 2007-08 fzf;Fg;gb ,J 31.65%. mjhtJ> ek; ehl;by; ruhrhpahf jahhpf;fg;gLk; kpd;rhu Mw;wypy; 31% - f;F Nky; xUq;fpize;j njhopy;El;g> tzpf kpd; ,og;G. Mw;wy; Nrkpg;Gf;; fyhr;rhuk; ,e;jpa fyhr;rhuKk;> kuGk;> ve;j %yj;ijAk; (Resources) jpwk;gl gad;gLj;JtijAk; mjd; tpisthf Nrkpg;gijAk;> typAWj;JtjhFk;. mjd;gb ngUthhpahd ,e;jpa kf;fs; jpus; kpd; Nrkpg;G cs;spl;l midj;J Nrkpg;GfisAk; nra;J rpf;fdkhf ,Ue;J tUtJjhd; ek; fyhr;rhukhf ,d;wsTk; ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. jha;khh;fs; Njitapd;wp nray;gLfpd;w kpd; tpsf;Ffs;> kpd;tprpwpfis mizg;gij ehk; ed;fwpNthk;. jq;fs; mDgt mwptpd; mbg;gilapy; jz;zUf;fhd kpd;Nkhl;lh;fis mjpfhiyapNyNa ,af;FtJ> P tpsf;F itj;j Neuj;jpw;Fg; gpd; NghlhjpUg;gJ vd;gJ gof;ftof;fkhf ,Uf;fpwJ. cz;ikapy;> ,g;gb Nkhl;lh;fis ,af;Fk; tpjk; jpwk;gl Mw;wiy gad;gLj;Jfpw top. ,J ,ay;ghfNt ek; fyhr;rhuj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwJ. mNjNghy;> irf;fps; lah;fSf;F ed;F fhw;wbj;Jj; jhd;

irf;fpis

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nghpath;fs;

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nra;Nthk;; ehk; nrytpLk; Mw;wYk; jpwk;gl;ljhfg; gad;ghl;Lw;Fr; nry;Yk;. ek; Mw;wy; kpQ;Rk;. ,it vy;yhk; ek; mDgt cz;ikfs;. mNjNghy;, rikay; miwapYk; gy;NtW topfspy; (c.k;. mhprpia Ntf itf;Fk; NghNj cUisf; fpoq;F Nghd;wtw;iw Ff;fhpy; jdp mLf;fpy; itj;J Ntf itg;gJ) jpwk;gl vhpthAitg; gad;gLj;JtJ ek; tho;tpd; gFjp! ,t;thwhdJ ekJ Mw;wy; Nrkpg;G gw;wpa Gj;jprhypj;jdk;! vd;djhd; Nkw;fj;jpa NkhfKk;> ghzpAk; ek;ikj; njhw;wpapUe;jhYk; ,d;wsTk; ekJ kuG> fyhr;rhuj;jpd; vr;rq;fs; ek;kplkpUe;J tpilngw;Wr; nrd;Wtpltpy;iy! ,e;jpa jpl;lf;FOtpd; fzf;F ,e;jpa jpl;lf;FO (Planning Commission of India) ,e;jpahtpy; xU tUlj;jpw;F jdpegh; gad;gLj;Jk; kpd; Mw;wy; 717 fpNyh thl; `th; (ehk; a+dpl; vd;W nghJthf miog;gJ) vd;W $WfpwJ. jpl;lf;FOtpd; kjpg;gLfs; gw;wp ehk; rkPgj;jpy; ed;F mwpe;Njhk;. P ,e;jpa fpuhk thrp ehnshd;wpw;F 28 &ghAk;> efuthrp ehnshd;wpw;F 32 &ghAk; ngw;wpe;jhy; mth; tWikf; Nfhl;bw;Ff; fPo; tukhl;lhh; vd;W mJ $WfpwJ. jpl;lf;FOtpd; thf;Fg;gbNa ,e;jpahtpy; 120 Nfhbg; Nghpy; 60 Nfhbg;Ngh; kpd;rhuk; ,d;wp tho;eJ tUfpwhh;fs;. 40% ,e;jpa fpuhkq;fspy; ; kpd;rhu trjp fpilahJ. ,e;j fpuhkthrp xUthplk; jpl;lf;FOtpd; fzf;fhd egnuhUth; jq;fs; fpuhkj;jpy; 717 fpNyh thl; `th; gad;gLj;Jfpwhh; vd;W nrhd;dhy;, ty;Yeh;fspd; mwpT jiyRw;wpf; fpNyh thl; vt;tsT fPNo `th; cz;ikia ; xj;jpUf;fpwJ vd;gijf; fz;L tpOe;JtpLthh;! ,e;jpahtpy; xU egh; xU tUlj;jpw;F 717

gad;gLj;Jfpwhh; vd;w jpl;lf;FOtpd; (Planning Commission) fzf;F> 90%f;Fk; Nkyhd kf;fSf;F nghUe;jhJ vd;gij mWjpapl;L nrhy;yKbAk;.

re;Njfk; ,Ue;jhy; vspikahd fzf;nfhd;iw ePqfNs nra;J ghh;ffyhk;. ; ; cq;fsJ kpd; thhpaf; fzf;flL ml;ilia vLj;J> xU tUlj;jpw;F P ; cq;fs; tPlby; vt;tsT kpd; nryT nra;fpwPhfs; vd;gijf; fzf;fpl;L ; ; mij cq;fs; tPlby; trpf;Fk; egh;fspd; vz;zpf;ifahy; tFj;jhy; ; cq;fs; tPlby; cs;s xU egh; xU tUlj;jpw;F vj;jid a+dpl; kpd; ; Mw;wiyg; gad;gLj;Jfpwhh; vd;gJ njhpatUk;. mg;gbf; fzf;fpLk;NghJ ngUk;ghz;ikahd kf;fs; jpl;lf;FO nrhy;Yk; mstpy; gad;gLj;Jtjpy;iy vd;gJ njhpatUk;> mJ jpz;zk;. ,g;gb cz;ikf;F rw;Wk; nghUe;jhj fzf;Ffis ntspapl;L tUtJ jpl;lf; FOtpd; jdpr;rpwg;G! Mf> ehk; gad;gLj;Jfpw kpd; Mw;wy; vd;gJ ,d;wstpYk; $l kpfTk; FiwNt! kpd; gw;whf;Fiw jw;NghJ ekf;F kpd;jl;Lg;ghL ,Ue;J tUtJ cz;ikjhd;. ,jw;Fj; jPhT ; gw;wpr; rpe;jpf;Fk;NghJ> tof;fkhf #hpaxsp> fhw;whiy> Biomass Nghd;wtw;iw %yq;fs; vdf; fz;Lzh;eJ> mtw;wpypUe;J ngwf;$ba ; kpd;rf;jp gw;wpf; fzf;fpy; vLj;J tUfpNwhk;. ,it jw;Nghija kpd; Njitia epiwT nra;ag; NghJkhditah vd;w Nfs;tp vOk;NghJ rhpahd khw;W vd;d vd;gJ ek;Kd; ngUk; rthyhf epw;fpwJ! ,J gw;wp ek;%h; ghh;ffyhk;. mth;fs;> ; mZtpQ;Qhdpfs; vd;d $Wfpwhh;fs; vd;W

#hpa xspapypUe;J kpd;rhuk; jahhpf;f xU a+dpl;bw;F (KWhr) 20 &gha; jahhpg;Gr; nryT MFk;. fhw;whiyapypUe;J cw;gj;jpahFk; kpd;rhuk; fhw;wbg;gijg; nghWj;J ,Ug;gjhy;> ek;gj;jd;ik ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fpwJ. mZrf;jp xd;wpdhy; jhd; ek; Mw;wy; Njitia epiwT nra;aKbAk;! mJNt khRkWtw;wJ; Gtp ntg;gkilar; nra;Ak; thAf;fis (Green House gases) ntspaplhjJ; mijj; Fiwe;j tpiyapy; jahhpf;f KbAk;; mJNt ek; ; Mw;wy; Njitf;F tpbnts;sp> tug;gpurhjk; vd;W nghJ ntspapy; fUj;Jf;fis ntspapl;L tUfpd;wdh;. ,e;jpa mZtpQ;Qhdpfs; jw;NghJ

,aq;fj; Jbf;Fk; $lq;Fsj;J ,U mZ ciyfSk;> n[a;jhg;g+h; Nghd;w gpw ,lq;fspy; epWtj; Jbf;Fk; mZciyfs; %d;whk; jiyKiwf;Fk; Nkk;gl;l mZciyfs;; ; mit kpfTk; ghJfhg;ghdit; mZciyfs; ghJfhg;gw;wit vd;W $Wgth;fs; mZtpQ;Qhdk; gw;wp VJk; mwpahjth;fs; vd;nwy;yhk; $wp tUfpd;wdh;. tp~ak; ,e;jpahtpy; ,g;gb ,Uf;f> cyfehLfs; midj;jpYk; vd;d elf;fpwJ? cyfpd; tsh;rrpaile;j ehLfshff; fUjg;gLfpw mnkhpf;fh ; [g;ghd;> gpuhd;R vd midj;jpYk; ghJfhg;Gf; fhuzq;fshy; Gjpa mZciyfisj; Jtf;f kf;fs; vjph;gGj; njhptpj;J tUfpwhh;fs;. ; Vw;fdNt ,aq;fptUk; mZciyfisAk; ghJfhg;Gf; fhuzq;fSf;fhf %lr; nrhy;yp tUfpwhh;fs;. Mf> ,d;W ,e;jpah re;jpf;fpw mNj khjphpahd rpf;fiyj; jhNd me;ehLfSk; re;jpf;Fk;? mth;fs; Kw;Wk; Jwe;jth;fshff; fhl;bw;F VJk; nrd;Wtpltpy;iyNa! gy;NtW cyf ehl;bdhpd; juTfisg; ghh;fifapy; ; mth;fs; ek;ikf; fhl;bYk; mjpfstpy; kpd;rhuj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jgth;fs; Mapw;Nw! ekf;Fj; njhpe;j Mw;wy; %yq;fs; jhNd mth;fSf;Fk; njhpe;jpUf;Fk;! me;ehLfspy; fhw;W> #hpaxsp Nghd;w kpd; Mw;wy; %yq;fs; ek; ehl;ilf; fhl;bYk; FiwT vd;gJ jhNd cz;ik! ,th;fs; vg;gb Mw;wy; jd;dpiwit milaKbfpwJ? ekf;F njhpahj ufrpakhd Mw;wy; jpl;lq;fs; VJk; mth;fs; itj;jpUf;fpwhh;fsh? ,g;NghJ ek; ehl;bw;Fk; Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfSf;Fk; cs;s tpj;jpahrq;fisg; ghh;ffyhk;. ; mjpy; Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;Yk;gbahf mnkhpf;fhit vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. NjitNa Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfspd; jha; mnkhpf;fhtpy; 1970fspy; Mw;wy; gpur;ridapd; NghJ (Energy Crisis), gadPllhsh;fs; fl;Lf;flq;fhky; mjpfhpf;Fk; Mw;wy; tpiyfisr; rkhspf;f ; Ntz;b te;jJ. mg;NghJ mZ cs;spl;l gy;NtW Mw;wy; %yq;fs; (Energy Sources) Nrhjpj;Jg; ghh;ffg;gl;ld. 1979y; %d;W iky; jPtpy; mZ ; ciyg; NguopT epfo;ejJ. ; 1980fspy; Gjpa Mw;wy; Nrkpg;G (Energy Mw;wy;

Conservation) Kiw

Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ.

mJ

mjpfhpj;Jte;j

tpiyfis

gadPllhsh;fs; rkhspg;gjw;F cjtpaJ! ;

me;j

Kiw

jhd;

jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L Kiwfs; (Energy Efficiency). mnkhpf;f Mw;wy; tpQ;Qhdpfs;> jpwk;gl;l jpwk; 1970fspy; Mw;wy; Jtq;fp gad;ghl;Lr; mnkhpf;f

Kiwfs;

(Energy Efficiency Measures),

Mw;wy; Njitiaf; Fiwf;f topnra;J te;jpUf;fpwJ. xU lhyh; Gross Domestic Product adjusted for imports f;fhd Mw;wy; gad;ghL 1970fspy; cs;sijg; NghyNt ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;> mnkhpf;fh 2008y; gad;gLj;jpa 80% mjpfkhfr; nrytopf;f Ntz;b ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. Mw;wiyf; fhl;bYk; 80 NtWtpjj;jpy; nrhd;dhy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL jhd; Mw;wYf;fhd vq;fs; Kjd;ikahd %yk.; gioa njhopy;El;gKk;> re;ij epytuKk; khw;wkpy;yhJ ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;> mjpfhpj;jpUf;ff;$ba Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bd; 70 Jvd; tpOf;fhl;bw;F Nky; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL jhd; Fiwj;jJ vd;fpd;wdh;. ; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghLjhd; Mw;wYf;fhd vq;fs; Kjd;ikahd %yk; vd;fpwhh;fNs? mjhtJ mdy; kpd;> ePh; kpd;> #hparf;jp> fhw;whiy %ykhd kpd; %yq;fs; vd vy;yh tif kpd; %yq;fisf; fhl;bYk; ,e;j jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghLjhd; Mw;wYf;fhd Kjy; %yk; vd;W kpfg; ngUikahfg; giwrhw;Wfpwhh;fNs! mJ vd;d? jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL (Energy Efficiency) ,e;j tif Mw;wy; Nrkpg;gpd;gb, xNu Mw;wy; Nritf;F (cjhuzk;: xU ,lj;jpypUe;J ,d;ndhU ,lj;jpw;F tz;bapy; Nghtjw;F MFk; Mw;wiy) Mw;wy; tpiuaj;ijf; Fiwg;gjw;fhd rpy khw;wq;fisr; nra;tjd; %yk; Mw;wy; nryitf; Fiwf;f KbAk;. xU GhpjYf;fhf ,g;gbr; nrhy;y Muk;gpf;fyhk;. jhahh; jpdKk; rikj;J itj;j czit rhg;gpLk;NghJ tpiuak; nra;J te;jjjhy; ehy;th; kl;LNk rhg;gpl;L te;jdh;. mNj Neuj;jpy; jhahh; jpdKk; rikj;J itj;j czit rhg;gpLifapy; tpiuak; nra;ahj NghJ> kPjk; ,Ue;j rhg;ghL $Ljyhf xUtUf;F cztpLk; mstpw;F ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j ,U

epfo;TfspYk;, me;j ehy;tUk; rhg;gpl;l rhg;ghl;bd; msT Fiwatpy;iy. tpiuak; nra;tijj; jtph;jjjpdhy; xUth; $Ljyhfr; rhg;gpLk; mstpw;F ; rhg;ghL kpQ;RfpwJ. tpiuak; nra;J rhg;gpLtijf; fhl;bYk; tpiuak; nra;ahky; rhg;gpLk;NghJ fpilj;j xUtUf;fhd rhg;ghl;il jhahh; m&gkhf cUthf;fpajhf (Virutal Generation) epidj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;W nrhy;yp my;yth? ,ijNa jpwd; cUthf;fk; (Capacity Creation)

miof;fpd;wdh;. Mf xNu Mw;wy; Nritia Fiwe;j Mw;wiyf; nfhz;L nra;tNj ,k;Kiw. mjhtJ xU tz;bapy; Xhplj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhU ,lj;jpw;F

gadpg;gth;fSf;F v msT ngl;Nuhy; MfpwJ vd;W itj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. ,k;Kiwia Nkw;nfhz;lhy;> tz;bapy; rpy khw;wq;fisr; nra;J mNj ; egh;fs; mNj gazj;Jhuj;ij v msitf; fhl;bYk; Fiwthd ngl;Nuhy; nrytpy; flf;fKbAk;. ,q;F ,U ed;ikfs;. xd;W gazj;jpw;F MFk; ngl;Nuhy; nryit Fiwf;fpNwhk;. mNj Neuj;jpy; Kd;Ds;s epiyia xg;gpLk;NghJ ngl;Nuhy; mLj;j gazj;jpw;F nrytpLk; tifapy; kpr;rkhfpwJ. ,NjNghy; xU kpd;Nkhl;lhiuf; nfhz;L xU Fwpg;gpl;l Ntiyiar; nra;Ak;NghJ m msT kpd;rf;jp NjitahfpwJ vd;W itj;Jf;nfhs;Nthk;. ,e;j Nkhl;lhhpy; rpy khw;wq;fis nra;tjd; %yk; mNj Ntiyia nra;tjw;F m msT kpd;rf;jpiaf; fhl;bYk; Fiwthd kpd;rf;jp nrythFk;. Fiwfpd;w kpd;rf;jpia fpNyhthl; vd;w myfpYk;> vt;tsT Neuk; ehk; kpd;Nkhl;lhiur; nrYj;JfpNwhNkh mij kzpNeukhf khw;wp ,uz;ilAk; ngUf;fy; fzf;F nra;jhy; ehk; vt;tsT Fiwthf kpd; Mw;wiyr; nryT nra;jpUf;fpNwhk; vd;gJ njhpatUk;. me;jstpw;F jFe;jhw;Nghy; ek; kpd; fl;lzk; FiwAk;. ehk; ,g;NghJ NgrpaJ kpd; Mw;wiyg; (Electrical Energy my;yJ a+dpl; vd ehk; mwpNthk;) gw;wpaJ. ehk; Vw;nfdNt ekf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; kpd;rf;jp (Electrical Power my;yJ vj;jid thl; / vr;.gp. vd;W mwpNthk;) Fiwtjhff; $wpNdhNk mij

gf;fj;J gad;gLk;.

tPlLf;fhuh; ;

Gjpjhf

thq;fpa

Nkhl;lhUf;F

nfhLf;fg;

,k;Kiwiar; nray;gLj;Jtjw;Ff; Ntz;btUk;. $Ljyhf KjyPL nra;Ak; Mw;wy; kpd;rhur; nryT Fiwtjhy; ,k;Kiwapy; ekf;Fk; gad;> ,t;thW xU 2, 2

$Ljyhf gz KjyPL nra;a gzKk; 1Kjy; 3tUlq;fSf;Fs; jpUk;gg; ngw;W tpLth;. Mf a+dpl; kpd;rhuk; Nrkpg;gJ vd;gJ

a+dpl; kpd;rhuk; jahhpj;jjw;F <lhFk;. ,ij kpd;Jiw gw;wp

gupr;raKs;sth;fs; mwpth;. mNjNghy; jhd; ngl;Nuhy; nryTf; Fiwe;jhYk; ekf;Fk;> gpwUf;Fk;> Gtpf;Fk; ed;ik. mDgtk; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;by; gpw ehl;L mDgtk; ; 1980 fspNyNa mnkhpf;f Mw;wy; Mw;wy; gad;ghL Jiwapd; nghUshjhur; Kd;dzp nropg;ig>

Muha;rrpahsh;fs;, ;

jpwk;gl;l

Mw;wy; cj;jputhj;ij> Rw;Wr;#oy; ghJfhg;ig Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ; ,JNt Mw;wy; rpf;fypy; ,Ue;J kPstjw;fhd kpfr; rpwe;j top vd;W myrpg; ; ghh;jJf; $wpdh;. mjw;fhfj; jq;fis mh;ggzpj;Jf; nfhz;ldh;. ; ; me;j Mw;wy; tpQ;Qhdpfs; 1980 fspNyNa

gad;ghl;bd;

%yk;

nghUshjhur;

nropg;ig

jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; Vw;gLj;Jk; mnkhpf;f rig


yhgNehf;fw;w

(American Council for Energy Efficient Economy) vd;w mikg;ig Vw;gLj;jpdh;. ngaiur; rw;W Mokhfr; rpe;jpf;fTk;!

mnkhpf;f

murpd;

Mw;wy;

mikr;rfj;jpd;

fPo;

jpwk;gl;l

Mw;wy;

gad;ghL kw;Wk; kuGrhuh Mw;wy; Jiw vd;w mikg;G cs;sJ. ,jpYk;, ngahpy; cs;s thpirf; fpukk; kpf Kf;fpakhdJ. Mw;wy; rpf;fYf;fhd ; Kjd;ikahd %yk; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL jhd;; gpd;dh; jhd; kuGrhuh jpw Mwwy;fshd #hpaxsp> mnkhpf;f muR mwpAk;. fhw;W Nghd;wit. ,ijg; gy gj;jhz;Lfshf

2009-y; mnkhpf;f mjpgh; Njh;jYf;fhd gpur;rhuj;jpd; NghJ nrdl;luhf ,Ue;j xghkh, Mw;wy; gw;wp Ngrpa ,uz;L fUj;Jf;fs; Kf;fpakhdit: 1. mZkpd;rhuk; vLf;fg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l mZvhpnghUis (Spent Fuel) ghJfhg;ghf fopf;f (Dispose) topapy;iy. mjdhy; ekf;F mZciyfs; %ykhd kpd;rhuk; Ntz;lhk;! 2. ehk; ek;Kila jiutop tz;bfspd; lah;fspy; itf;fpw fhw;iw xOq;fhf itj;jhNy mnkhpf;f Njrpa mstpy; nrythFk; vhpnghUspy; xU rjtPjj;ij kpr;rg;gLj;j KbAk;.

jpwk;gl;l

Mw;wy;

gad;ghl;bd;

%yk;

nghUshjhur;

nropg;ig

Vw;gLj;Jk; mnkhpf;f rig (American Council for Energy Efficient Economy)


jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;ilg; gw;wp gpd;tUkhW $WfpwJ: ,J gadPllhsh; mikg;gpypUe;J cUthfpw %ykhf (Utility System ; Source) kjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J Gtp ntg;gk; milar; nra;Ak; thAf;fisf; (Green House Gases) Fiwg;gNjhL gadPllhsh;fspd; nryitAk; Fiwf;fpwJ. ; Gjpa njhopy;fs;> Ntiyf;F toptFf;fpwJ. nghUshjhuf; ftiyfs; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr; #oy; khw;wq;fspd; fhuzkhf rl;lkd;wq;fSk;> fl;Lghl;lhsh;fSk; (Regulators) jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L KiwfSf;F ,Ue;jpuhjtifapy; Jiz nra;fpd;wdh;. ,d;wsTk; mth;fs; jpl;lk; tFj;J 2020-y; jw;NghJ nrytopaf; $ba Mw;wypy; 20% tiu Nrkpf;f KbAk; vd;fpd;wdh;. Kd;ndg;NghJk;

tk; cyfpy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk (Energy Efficiency) ekf;F kpd;Nrkpg;G vd;why; Fz;L gy;g; khw;WtJ gw;wpj; njhpAk;. cyfpy; ngUthhpahd kpd;rhjdq;fs; Nkhl;lhh;fs;jhd;.

kpd;gStpy; (Electrical Load) kpd; Nkhl;lh;fs;jhd; Kf;fpakhd gq;F tfpg;git. njhopw;rhiyfspy; 70%-f;Fk; Nkyhd kpd;gS ,tw;wpdhy;jhd;. tptrhaj;jpy; fpl;lj;jl;l KOikahd kpd;gSTk; kpd;Nkhl;lh;fshy;jhd;. vg;gbg;gl;l kpd;Nkhl;lh;fis thq;FtJ> xU gad;ghl;bw;F mjd; rf;jp vd;dthf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> mij ve;Neuj;jpy; ,af;FtJ> mjpy; kpd;rhuj;ijj; jpwk;gl gad;gLj;j NtNwJk; topfs; cz;lh? vd;git Nghd;w gy topfis cs;slf;fpaJjhd; ,e;j jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L Kiwfs;. Nkhl;lhh;fspy; xU rpwpa msT Nrkpg;G nra;jhNy ngUkstpyhd kpd; rf;jpiar; Nrkpf;f KbAk;. ,ij ed;fwpe;J jhd; mnkhpf;fh, INuhg;gh Nghd;wit kpd; Nkhl;lhh;fSf;fhd juf;fl;Lg;ghLfis fLikahf;fp> ngUkstpy; Mw;wiy Nrkpj;J tUfpd;wd. ek; ehl;by; ,Uf;Fk; Nkhl;lhh;fs; gad;gLj;Jk; kpd;rf;jpiaf; fhl;bYk; kpff; Fiwe;j msNt kpd;rf;jpia vLf;fpw Nkhl;lhh;fs; me;ehLfspy; tbtikf;fg;gLfd;wd. 1980fspy; Jtq;fp mnkhpf;fh> INuhg;ghtpy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL

(Energy Efficiency) fl;lhakhf;fg;gl;L tUfpwJ. jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L Kiwfspy;


Energy), Compressor) jzpf;if vd Ez;ikahf gy kpd; Mw;wy; (Electrical

ntk;ik Mw;wy; (Thermal Energy), fhw;wOj;j Njitfspd; (Air Mw;wy; jzpf;iffisr;

nra;J jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bw;F toptFf;f KbAk;.

mnkhpf;fhtpy; State Policy, Federal Policy, Local Policy vd gy;NtW jpl;lq;fis tFj;J cs;@h; mstpypUe;J Njrpa msTtiu jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bw;fhd toptiffisj; Njb ,d;wsTk; eilKiwg;gLj;jp tUfpd;wdh;. mjpy; ngUk; ntw;wpailfpd;wdh;! tPLfs;> rpWnjhopy;> tptrhak;> njhopw;rhiyfs;> tzpfk; Nghf;Ftuj;J vd;W vy;yhj; JiwfSf;Fk; jpl;lk; tFj;J nray;gl;L tUfpwhh;fs;. mnkhpf;fh;fSila neLehisa mDgtj;ijj; jq;fs; ehl;bw;Fg;

gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s jpl;lk; tFj;J rPd muR gy;yhapuk; nkfhthl; kpd; rf;jpiar; Nrkpj;Js;sJ. ,g;gb ,J gw;wpf; $wpf; nfhz;Nl Nghfyhk;! cyf eltbf;iffs; ,t;thW ,Uf;f> ,e;jpahtpw;F jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL gw;wpj; njhpahjh? ,e;jpahtpy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL gw;wpa mwpT ,e;jpahtpy; Indian Institute of Science vd;w cah;fy;tp epWtdk;

cs;sJ. mjpy; Nguhrphpauhf ,Ue;j kiwe;j Kidth.; m%y;ah nul;b kw;Wk; gpNurpy; Nghd;w gy ehLfisr; Nrh;ej Nguhrphpah;fs; rh;tNjr ;

Mw;wy;

Njitf;fhd

Kd;Kaw;rp

(International Energy Initiative) vd;w

mikg;igj; Jtf;fpdh;. ,d;Wtiu me;j mikg;G nray;gl;L tUfpwJ. ,e;jpah> gpNurpy; Nghd;w ehLfspy; kpd;rhuj;ij / Mw;wiy vg;gbj; jpwk;gl gad;gLj;j KbAk; vd;gijg; gw;wpAk;> ,q;Fs;s Fwpg;ghd jd;ikfSf;F Vw;wthW Muha;rrpfSk; nra;J mtw;iw ntspapl;Lk; tUfpd;wdh;. ; Seminar vd;w xU khjj;jpw;F Mq;fpy ,jo; vLj;J cs;sJ. mwpT ,J gy Mz;Lfshf gy;NtW

ntsptUfpd;w ,jo;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpthjg; nghUs; / gpur;ridia (Crisis) chpajhf [Ptpfs; jq;fs; fUj;Jf;fis Kd;itg;gh;. me;j ,jo; 1994-y; rf;jp / Mw;wy; (Power) vd;w jiyg;gpl;l rpwg;gpjio ntspapl;lJ. me;j ,jopy; gy ehLfisr; Nrh;ej ; ty;Yeh;fs; ,e;jpahtpy; kpd; cw;gj;jp cs;spl;l gy Mw;wy; gpur;ridfisg; gw;wp jq;fs; MNyhridfis toq;fpAs;sdh;. ,e;jpahtpy; kpd; Njitf;F> jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bd; %yk; fpilf;fg;ngWk; kpd;Nrkpg;G ve;j mstpw;F ,d;wpaikahjJ; Njitia ve;j mstpw;F Gjpjhf gw;wp kpd;epiyaq;fis epWtNtz;ba vy;yhk; tpthjpj;Js;sdh;. ,e;jpahtpd; Fiwf;Fk;. vd;gijg;

Njrpa cw;gj;jpj;jpwd; fTd;rpy; (National Productivity ;

Council), mnkhpf;fhtpd; gphpd;rpld; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpd;; Mw;wy; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy; Jiwiar; rhh;ej ikak; (Center for Energy and Environmental ; studies of Princeton University, USA) ,uz;Lk; ,ize;J ,e;jpahit ikakhf

itj;J mjpfstpy; Mw;wy; nrytopAk;> Nkhl;lhh;fis xl;ba mikg;Gfspy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bw;fhd njhopy;El;g gl;bay; (Technology Menu for Efficient Energy use Motor Drive System) vd;w ngUk; mwpTg; nghf;fp~j;ij ntspapl;L cs;sdh;. mij ntspapl cjtp nra;j mikg;Gfs; GJjpy;ypiar; Nrh;ej ,e;jpa murpd; njhopy; El;gk;> jfty;> ;

tUq;fhy epiy kw;Wk; mij MuhAk; fTd;rpy; (Technology. Information,


Forecasting & Assessment council (TIFAC), New Delhi, India) kw;Wk; ehk; Kd;dh; nrhd;d rh;tNjr Mw;wYf;fhd Kd;Kaw;rp (International Energy Initiative, Bangalore, India) Mfpad. ,e;j njhopy;El;g gl;bay; 1994 Mk; Mz;bNyNa Fwpg;gplg;gLgit kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdit: kpd;rhuj;jpw;fhf mjpfhpj;j kpd; Njitia fzprkhf <Lnra;tjw;F, Gjpa

fhl;bYk; kpd;rhuj;ijj; jpwk;glr; ehLfs; gy;NtW ehLfs; fz;Lzh;eJs;sd. ; mnkhpf;fh> gpNurpy;> cs;spl;l gy;NtW ehLfspy; filepiyapy; (End Use) jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;il kpd;rhu gadPllhsh; ; ,lj;jpy; mjpfhpg;gjw;fhd Ez;zpa Ma;Tfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. mNef spy; Ma;Tfspy;> jw;Nghija kpd;rhu gad;ghL my;yJ gpd;dhl;fspy; epWt Ntz;btuf;$ba kpd;epiyj; jpwid Fiwe;jgl;rk; 25 rjtPjk; Fiwf;f KbAk; vd;fpd;wd. ,tw;wpy; Nkhl;lhh; rhh;ej mikg;Gfspy; kpd; ; Nrkpg;gpw;fhd rhj;jpag;ghL kpf mjpfsT ,Uf;fpwJ. pwJ ,e;jpahtpy; ,e; ,t;thwhd kpd;Nkhl;lhh; cs;spl;l midj;J

kpd;epiyaq;fis mikg;gijf; nrytopg;gNj rpwe;j top vd;W

kpd;rhjdq;fspd; kpd;gad;ghl;ilj; jpwk;gl cgNahfpg;gjw;fhd rhj;jpaj;ijf; fzf;fpl;l Kaw;rpfNs kpfkpff;FiwT. ,jw;fhd fhuzk; ehl;by; filepiyg; gadPllhsh;fis tifg;gLj;jpa juTfs; ,y;iy ; vd;gJ jhd; mth;fs; nrhd;dit ,d;wsTk; ,e;jpahtpw;Fg; nghUe;Jk;.

tutpUf;Fk; 18tJ ,e;jpa kpd;rf;jpf; fzf;flL mwpf;ifapYk; (Report on P ;

18th Electric Power Survey of India) ,jw;fhd juTfs; ,Uf;fhJ vd;gJ epr;rak;! mnkhpf;fhtpy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghLjhd; Kjd;ikahd Mw;wy; %yk; vd;W kjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. mjdhy; Md gad;fs;> mth;fs; gadile;j tptuq;fisg; ghh;jjhy; gpukpg;ghf cs;sJ! ,t;tsT mjpKf;fpakhd xU ; %yk; (Energy Source) ( vd;why; ek; Vd; ehl;bdhpd; Mw;wy; ghh;itf;F jl;Lg;glhky; Ngha; cs;sJ jw;nray;jhdh? ,J gw;wp ek; tpQ;QhdpfSf;Fj; njhpahjh? mg;gb njhpatpy;iy tpQ;Qhdpfshf (Energy Scientist) ( mspf; mZtpQ;Qhdpfs; fhl;rp mspf;f Kay;fpd;wdh;? jq;fsJ Mw;wy; %yk; dh? kl;LNk rpwe;jJ vd;W Vd; $Wfpd;wdh? ,t;tsT vg;gb mjpKf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;ej ; xd;iw ekf;Fj; fzf;fpy; Njit vLf;fhky; vd;fpd;wdh;

mZciyjhd;

rpwe;jJ: mJjhd; J

mZtpQ;Qhdpfs;? ,e; (Energy Source) gw;wp vy;yhk; nrhy;yg;gl;ljh? gpujkUf;F ,e;j %yk; ( muR ftpo;eJtpLk; epiyapy; $l ,e;jpa mnkhpf;f mZ xg;ge;jj;ij ; ifnaOj;jpl Kidg;ghf ,Ue;jdNu! plf; xd;iwg;gw;wp fzf;fplf; $l rhpahd juTfNs ,y;iy vd;w epiyapy; mjpy; m&gkhf (Virtual Energy Generation) Mw;wy; cUthf;fj;pw;fhd ( xd; ngUksT tha;gG cs;s xd;iw fzf;fpNyNa vLf;fhky;> nghJ ; VTfiz ntspf;Ff; fhl;lhky; ek; Kd;dhs; FbauRj; jiytUk;> VTfiz tpQ;QhdpAkhd mg;Jy;fyhKk;> ,e;ehs; gpujkUk; nghUshjhu epGzUkhd kd;Nkhfd;rpq;-Fk; mZrf;jp ,y;yhky; kpd;rf;jpia cUthf;f NtW topNa g+h;; ,y;iy vd;fpd;wdh;. ,Jth tpQ;Qhd g+htkhd tpthjk;? Mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,jw;nfd

Mw;wy;

jfty;fis

mspf;Fk;

eph;thfk;

(Energy Information Administration) vd;w ngUk; mikg;Ng cs;sJ. Mdhy; ek; ehl;bNyh Central Electricity AuthorityAk; Bureau of Energy EfficiencyAk; Kfj;jpy; vz;iz tba epd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Mf jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L Kiwfspd; %yk; rhpahf vt;tsT Nrkpf;f KbAk; vd;gijr;

nrhy;yf;$l Kbahj mstpy; cs;Nshk;. ,g;gb cs;s NghJ mZrf;jp kl;LNk khw;W vd;W nghUshjhu epGzuhd gpujkUk;> VTfid tpQ;QhdpAk; NkjF Kd;dhs; FbauRj; jiytuhd mg;Jy;fyhk; mth;fSk; vt;thW $Wfpd;wdh;?

%bkiwf;fg;gl;l cz;ikfs;
,e;jpahtpy; Mw;wy;Jiwapd; fPotUk; ;

jpwk;gl;l

Mw;wy;

gad;ghl;bw;fhd mikg;G (Bureau of Energy Efficiency) ,Uf;fpwJ. mjd;


tiyjsj;jpy;> ehl;by; Fiwe;jJ 25>000 nkfhthl; kpd;rf;jpiar; Nrkpf;f KbAk;; ehl;bd; xl;Lnkhj;j Mw;wypy; 23 % Nrkpf;f KbAk; vd;W $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; Nrkpg;gpw;fhd ,e;jf; fzf;fL kfpkpff; Fiwe;j P msNt mDkhdpf;fg;gl;L ,Ue;jhYk; ,J kpff; fzprkhd njhif. Kjd;ikahd Mw;wy; gy %yk; %yk vd;W mnkhpf;fh> [g;ghd;> gpuhd;R,

n[h;kdp, rPdh, Nghd;w

muRfs; fUJfpw, giurhw;Wfpd;w xd;wpy;>

1994ypUe;J fpl;lj;jl;l 20 tUlq;fshf tprak; njhpe;jpUe;Jk; ve;j jpwk;gl;l eltbf;ifAk; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. ntWkNd 2001y; rl;lk; Nghl;Nlhk;, ; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bd; %yk; Nrkpj;NjhUf;F jd;dhh;tkhfg;Nghl;b elj;jpNdhk;> fl;Liug; Nghl;b elj;jpNdhk; vd;fpwJ Mw;wy; Jiw! Kjypy; jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bw;fhd mjpKf;fpaj;Jtj;ijAk;;> mijr; nray;gLj;jpdhy; $Ljyhf epWt Ntz;ba kpd; epiyaq;fisj; jtph;ffyhk;; ; thpg;gzj;ij kpr;rg;gLj;jyhk; vd;gJ gw;wp vy;yhk; muR czh;ejjh? ,d;whtJ kj;jpa muR nrhy;yl;Lk;! ; mg;gb vd;why; ,j;jpirapy; mJ fle;j fhyq;spy; fhl;ba Kidg;G vd;d? mjw;fhf muR xJf;fpa> nryT nra;j> fld; toq;fpa njhif vd;d? ,j;Jiwapy; 1994 Kjy; muR gilj;j rhjidfs; vd;d? vt;thW jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL njhlh;ghd jpl;lq;fis muR jpwk;gl nray;gLj;jpw;W? khepy mstpYk; kpd;Nrkpg;G typAWj;jg;gLfpwJ; Mdhy; jpwk;gl;l

Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L

Kiwfs; rpW> eLj;juj; njhopy;rhiyfSf;F kj;jpa

muR nrhy;ypj; je;J, mij mth;fSf;F vl;lr; nra;ahjjjd; tpisthf> Fiwe;j msT fl;lzk; t#ypf;Fk; Mw;wy; jzpf;ifahsiuf; (Energy Auditor) gj;jpuk; nfhz;L mspj;J njhopw;rhiyfs; tUfpd;wd; Mf Nrkpg;G jzpf;if nra;Jtpl;ljhff; eltbf;if Rakhfg;

mth;fSf;Fk;>

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mr;rj;ijg; Nghf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w thjq;fis kj;jpa muR Kd; itf;fpwJ. mjpfhu mZtpQ;Qhdpfs;, mZ ciyia uhZtj;ijf; nfhz;NlDk; ,af;FNthk; vd;W Jbf;fpd;wdh;. mth;fs; kf;fspd;> cs;shl;rp kd;wq;fspd;> khepy muRfspd; eyd;fisAk;> czh;TfisAk; kjpahJ ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. $lq;Fs mZciyfis ,af;fp mtw;wpypUe;J fpilf;Fk; 925 nkfhthl; kpd; rf;jpia ehq;fs; jkpofj;Jf;F mspg;gjpy; cWjpahf cs;Nshk;; $lq;Fs mZciyfs; ,aq;fhtpl;lhy; jkpo;ehL Kd;NdwNt KbahJ vd;nwy;yhk; kpul;liy gpujkh; tpLtJk;, gpujkh; mYtyf mikr;rh; Kjw;nfhz;L jkpof Kjy;th; fkpl;b mikf;fhjjhy; jhd; ehq;fs; fkpl;b mikf;ftpy;iy vd;nwy;yhk; khepy muirAk;> Kjy;tiuAk; rPzbaJk;; ve;j tifapy; epahak;! ,e;jpa mZrf;jp fofj;jpd; jiyth; ; ghzh;[p, njhopy;El;g tp~aq;fis vy;yhk; nrhy;yp kpul;LfpwhNu! elg;git vy;yhtw;iwAk; ghh;fFk; NghJ, fy;tpawpT ngw;wth;fSf;Nf ; Ngur;rk; Vw;gLfpwNj! cz;ikapy; ,e;j mZciyj;jpl;lq;fs; ek; eyDf;Fk; ek; jiyKiwapd; eyDf;fhfj;jhdh? vd;w Ngur;rk; Vw;gLfpwNj! tpgj;J Vw;gl;lnjd;why; gd;dhl;Lf; fk;ngdpfs; ifia tphpf;fg; Nghfpd;wd. thpg;gzk; ek;KilaJ jhNd nryT! Mf> mZ Mw;wy; rhpah? ngUk; nryT ,y;yhj jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghL ey;yjh? tp~ak; ,g;gb cyfshtpa xd;whfTk;> ngUk; Nghh;fis Vw;gLj;Jfpd;w Mw;wy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l xd;whfTk;> ,Uf;f ,J VNjh mZ tpQ;Qhdpfs;> mZtpQ;Qhdk; mwpe;jth;fs;> muRfs; mikf;Fk; FOf;fs;

kl;LNk fliyAk;, mjd; Mw;wiyAk; rkhspj;J jq;fs; tho;thjhuj;ijj; Njbf;nfhs;Sk;> ngUksT Vl;Lf; fy;tp mwpahj $lq;Fs gFjpiar; Nrh;ej vspa kf;fSf;F njhopy;ty;Ydj;jd;ik epiwe;j nrhy;yhly;fis ; nfhz;L mth;fspd; tho;T> tho;thjhuk;> re;jjpfspd; eyd; gw;wp vOe;Js;s Ngur;rj;ijAk;> ek; midtUf;Fk; vOe;Js;s re;Njfq;fisAk;, mr;rj;ijAk; Nghf;fptpl KbAkh? ,e;j Mw;wy; gpur;rid ePzlfhyg; gpur;ridahFk;! mJ gw;wpa ; jfty;fs; midj;Jk; jpul;b mjw;fhd jPhffkhd jPh;T fhz Ntz;Lk;. ; ; epr;rakhf murhq;fj;jpd; xg;Gjy; thf;F%yj;jpd; gbNa Fiwe;jJ 2015y; 19>000 nkfhthl; kpd;rf;jpia njhopw;Jiwapy; kl;LNk Nrkpj;J tpl KbAk;. 2020y; 20>000 nk.th. #hpa xsp kpd;rhuj;ij jahhpf;f kj;jpa muR jpl;lkpl;Ls;sJ. mjw;fhd Ntiyfisj; jPtpukhf KLf;fptplhky; gbg;gbahf njhopw;Jiw jtph;jj kw;w Jiwfspy; kpd;rhuk; kw;Wk; gpw ; Mw;wy;fisr; Nrkpg;gjpy; ftdk; nrYj;jpdhy; epr;rak; ehk; Mw;wy; jd;dpiwit mile;Jtpl KbAk;. jtpu kw;w khw;W Mw;wy; %yq;fSk; ek; ,yf;fpid vl;lf; if nfhLf;Fk;! mijtplf; $Ljyhf> ntWk; mZtpQ;Qhd jsj;jpy; vLf;fg;gLfpd;w Kbty;y ,J! murpay;> nghUshjhuk;> ek; tho;T Kiw vd gyj;jsq;fisr; Nrh;eNjhh; gq;Nfw;W jPhT fhz Ntz;ba tp~ak;! ; ; MfNt ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s midj;J mZciyfisAk; jpl;lj;ij muR cldbahf mwptpf;f Ntz;Lk;! %Lk;

jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;bdhy; Vw;gLk; eyd;fs; 1. ,J fhyq;fhyj;jpw;Fk; gyd; mspg;gjhf> ,Uf;fpd;w vy;yh Mw;wYf;fhd %yq;fisf; fhl;bYk; Kjd;ikahd %ykhFk;. 2. 3. ,J mghaq;fs; VJk; cs;slf;fhjJ. ,J Neubahf kpd;epiyaq;fis epWTtij Njitaw;wjhf;fp> kpd;epiyaq;fis cUthf;Ftjw;Fr; rkkhdjhFk;. gjpyhf m&gkhf

,J kf;fs; thpg;gzj;ij tpiuak; nra;ahky; kpd;rf;jp jpwd; fpilf;f toptFf;Fk; ; Kiw. Vw;fdNt cs;s kpd;epiyaq;fis itj;Nj ek; Njitfis epiwTnra;a cjTk;. 4. ,k;Kiwapd; %yk; m&gkhf kpd;jpwid cUthf;fp> Gjpa epiyaq;fisj; jtph;ggNj ; kpff; Fiwe;j nrytpdk; nfhz;ljhFk;. 5. 6. ,J Rw;Wr;#oy; rPhNfl;il Fiwf;f cjTk;. ; ,k;Kiwia Nkw;nfhs;s rpy rPh; nra;Ak; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;btuyhk;. mt;thW me;eltbf;iffSf;Fr; nrytpLk; njhif 1 Kjy; 3 tUlq;fspy; jpUk;gf; fpilj;JtpLk;. Mjd; gpwF rPhnra;Ak; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ; tho;ehs; fhyk; KOf;f ekf;F fpilg;gJ yhgk; kl;LNk! 7. rhjdj;jpd;

,J mjpfhpj;J tUk; ek; kpd; nryT> ngl;Nuhy;> Bry;> rikay; vhpthA Nghd;wtw;wpd; nryTfis Fiwj;J mtw;wpw;fhd mjpfhpj;j nryTfspy; ,Ue;J ek;ikf; fhf;Fk;. xU A+dpl; kpd;rhuj;ij kpd; gadPllhsh; Nrkpj;jhy; cz;ikapy; 2 Kjy; 2 ; a+dpl;Lfs; kpr;rkhFk;.

8.

9.

tPLfs;> rpWnjhopy;fs;> tptrhak;> njhopw;rhiyfs;> tzpfk;> Nghf;Ftuj;J ngwKbAk;. vd;W gytw;wpYk; ,k;Kiwia Nkw;nfhz;L eyk;> njhopy;tsk;

10.

Ntiy vd;why; rhg;lNth; njhopy; vd;w epiy Ngha;> midj;Jj; JiwfspYk; ek; ; ehl;L ,isQh;fSf;F Ntiytha;gGfis Vw;gLj;Jk;. ;

12. 13.

,J cz;ikahfNt kf;fs; rhh;ghd nghUshjhuj;jpw;F toptif nra;Ak;. ,J Gjpa Ntiyfs; Vw;gLtjhy; ntspehL> ePzl njhiytpy; cs;s ,lq;fspy; ; nrd;W Ntiy ghh;f;Fk; epiyiaf; Fiwj;J cs;@h; mstpy; njhopy;fisg; ngUf;Fk;.

14.

,k;Kiwfis Nkw;nfhs;s toq;fg;gLk; fld; jhd; cj;juthjj;NjhL jpUk;gr; nrYj;jg;gLk; fldhf ,Uf;Fk;.

cz;ikf;F njhlh;gpy;yhj kpd; ,yf;F ,e;jpah ,g;NghJs;s 1>50>000 nk.th. kpd;rf;jp cw;gj;jpapy; ,Ue;J 2020y; 4>00>000 nk.th. vd;Wk; 2030y; 9>50>000 nk.th. cw;gj;jp nra;a Ntz;bapUg;gjhf cyfg; nghUshjhu ty;Yeh;fs; vjph;ghh;ffpd;wdh; ; vd;fpwhh; tpQ;Qhdp mg;Jy; fyhk;> mth;fs;. mg;NghJ $l ,e;jpahtpy; jdpkdpj Mw;wy; gad;ghL> jw;NghJs;s mnkhpf;f jdpkdpjg; gad;ghl;il tpl 4y; 1 gq;F Fiwthfj;jhd; ,Uf;Fk; vd;fpwhh;. ,q;F jhd; Nkiy ehLfis ml;ilf; fhg;gp (aping the west) mbj;J ,yf;F eph;zapf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. jdpkdpj Mw;wy; gad;ghLjhd;> Energy

consumption per GDP jhd; kf;fs; RgPlrk;> tho;fifj;juk; gw;wpa Fwp ; ; (Index) vd;W ghh;ffpd;w Nkw;F ehl;bdhpd; Nghf;F! ,e;j Kd;khjphp (Model) ; kf;fs; rhh;gw;wjy;y. ,e;j Kd;khjphp; mJ cUthd ,lj;jpNyNa Njhy;tp fz;LtUtij Wall Street Kw;Wifg; Nghuhl;lj;jpypUe;J ehk; mwpNthk;. mq;NfNa 1 tpOf;fhl;bdh; trjp gilj;Njhh;> 99 tpOf;fhl;bdh; Vio kf;fs; vd;w epiy. ,e;jpahtpYk; gzf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; ViofSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd gpsT $bf;nfhz;Nl NghfpwJ. jpUney;Ntyp cs;spl jkpofg; gFjpfspd; ,isQh;fs; Kk;ig Nghd;w ngU efuq;fspy; Kil ehw;wq;fspy; rpg;by; cwq;fp vOe;J fopf;ff; $l xJf;Fg;Gwk; ,y;yhky; uapy;Ntj; jz;lthsq;fspd; Xuj;jpy; fopj;J NftykhdnjhU tho;fif tho;eJ ; ; tUfpd;wdh;. mjpfhpj;J tUfpw tpiythrpia kf;fs; rkhspf;f Kbahky; cs;sdh;. kpd;fl;lzk;> vhpthAf;fl;lzk;> ngl;Nuhy; fl;lzk;> fha;fwpr; nryT vd tp~khf VWk; tpiythrpia rkhspf;f Kbahky; ngUk;ghd;ik kf;fs;. jpl;lf;FO nrhy;fpwJ khwptUk; tho;fif Kiw (Changing lifestyle) ; fhuzkhf mjpfstpy; kpd;rhuk; Njitg;gLk; vd;W. 120 Nfhb kf;fisf; nfhz;l ehl;by; 60 rjtPjj;jpw;Fk; NkyhNdhh; tUikf; Nfhl;bw;Ff; fPo;

cs;s epiyapy; Formula 1 mjptpiuTf; fhh; ge;jak; ele;J tUfpwJ; elj;jg;gl;L tUfpwJ Gjpa ,e;jpag; gzf;fhuh;fshy;. Life style khwp ,Ug;gnjd;dNth cz;ikjhd;! Njrpa Fw;wtpay; gjpT mikg;G> ,e;jpahtpy; tptrhaj;Jiwapy; tpgj;J kw;Wk; jw;nfhiyfspd; vz;zpf;if 15>964 vd;fpwJ. 1995,y; ,Ue;J Jtq;fp (tptrhaj; jw;nfhiyfs; gjpT nra;aj; Jtq;fpaNjh mJ Kjy;) ,d;W tiu jw;nfhiy kw;wk; rhT vz;zpf;if 2>56>913 vd;fpwJ. ,J kdpj tuyhw;wpNyNa ele;jpuhj mstpyhd jw;nfhiyfs;. nry;tr; nropg;ghd k`huh~;buhtpy; kl;Lk; 50>000 tptrhapfs; jw;nfhiy. gj;J tUlq;fshf ,k;khjphpahd Nkhrkhd rhTfSf;F me;j khepyNk Kd;Ndhb. fle;j vl;lhz;L fhyk;> mjw;F Ke;ija vl;lhz;L fhyj;ijf;

fhl;bYk; NkhrkhdJ. 2003 10y; 1>35>756 Ngh; kuzkile;Js;sdh;. 19952002y; 1>21>157 Ngh; kuzkile;Js;sdh;. mjhtJ Ke;ija 8 Mz;Lfisf; fhl;bYk; rkPgj;jpa 8 Mz;by; tptrhapfspd; jw;nfhiyr;rhT vz;zpf;if ruhrhpahf xU tUlj;jpw;F 1>825 klq;F mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. tptrhapfspd; vz;zpf;if Fiwe;J tUfpwJ. 2001 fzf;flbd;gb> 1991 fzf;flilf; fhl;bYk;> ,e;jpahtpy; P ; P ; tptrhak; nra;Ak; Kf;fpa njhopyhsh;fs; 70 yl;rk; Ngh; Fiwe;Js;sdh;. 2011d; fzf;flLj; juTfs; ntsptutpy;iy. Mdhy; Kd;idtplf; P ; $LjyhNdhh; tptrhak; nra;tijf; iftpl;Ls;sdh;. NtW tpjkhfr; nrhd;dhy; Nghplh; fhyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;Nthhpd; vz;zpf;if Fiwe;J tu> tptrhapfspd; jw;nfhiyfs; mjpfhpj;J tUfpwJ. tUlj;jpw;F rpf;fypy; cs;sJ. Nkiy ehLfNs jq;fSila nghUshjhu Kd;khjphp kpff; FWfpa rpyUf;Nf gad;gl;L tUk; epiyapy;> kf;fs; jpus; Nghuhl;lq;fshy; jpzwp 15>000j;jpw;F Nkw;gl;l tptrhapfs; tpgj;J /

jw;nfhiyapy; kbe;J tUfpd;wdh;. czTf;fhd cj;juthjk; (Food security)

tUfpd;wd. mth;fs; jpzwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpw Ntisapy; kd;Nkhfd; rpq;Nfh nghUshjhuj;jpy; Nkw;Fyifr; rhh;eJ epw;gjhy; mth;fisg; ghh;jJ ePqfs; ; ; ; nfhQ;rk; Rjhhpf;f Ntz;Lk;; vd;W nfQ;rp epw;fpwhh;. mg;gbg;gl;lnjhU nghUshjhu Kd;khjphpapy; ,Ue;J vOk; kpd; ,yf;Fjhd; mg;Jy;fyhk; mth;fs; itf;Fk; 2030y; 9>50>000 nk.th. vd;gJ. NghJk; ,e;j cyfg; nghUshjhu epGzh;fspd; ,yf;F vd;w Nkhrb! jpl;lf;fkp~d; ,Nj kpd; ,yf;Ffisf; $WfpwJ. kpd;rf;jp/kpd;Mw;wy; ,yf;Ffisnay;yhk; tUlq;fisf; Fwpg;gpl;Lg; NgRk; jpl;lf;FO> ,e;j jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L tp~aj;jpy; kl;Lk; njspthff; Fwpg;gplhky; Fog;GfpwJ. ,J Vd;? rPdh Nghd;W jpwk;gl;l Mw;wy; gad;ghl;L Kiwfis mky;gLj;j ,e;jpah jPtuk; fhl;ltpy;iy. rPdh 2005Kjy; 2010-k; Mz;bw;Fs; Energy Intensity per GDP ia 20% Fiwg;gjhf KbntLj;Jr; nray;gLfpwJ. Vd; ,e;jpahtpy; mt;thW jPtpuk; fhl;lg;gltpy;iy? jpwk;gl Nrkpg;gJ vd;gJ ek; fyhr;rhuj;jpy; gutuhf cs;s xU ey;y mk;rk;. rkPgj;jpa cyfshtpa nghUshjhu gpd;diltpd;NghJ> ek; ehL nghUshjhu tPorrp milahky; jiyepkph;eJ epw;f itj;jd Nrkpg;G ; ; ; Kiwfs;. mNj Neuj;jpy; Nrkpg;Gf; fyhr;rhuj;ij ,y;yhjjhf;fp vt;tsT d; Ntz;LkhdhYk; Rfp> mDgtp vd;W Nkw;Fyfj;J eilKiwfs; ,Ue;jd ,g;NghJ Nkw;Fyfpy; mj;jhl;rp! ele;JtUk; gpur;ridfs; ekf;Ff; fz;$lhd

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Nghd;w Nkiy ehLfspy; cs;s khjphpahd mstpw;F kpd; gad;ghl;il (per capita consumption of energy) Kd;itf;fg;gLfpwJ. mij xl;b kf;fs; eyd; kPjhd ve;j mf;fiwAk; ,d;wp;> Mw;wy; ,yf;Ffs; eph;zapf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Cjpg;ngUf;fpa ,yf;Ffisf; fhuzk; fhl;b mZ Mw;wy; Njit vd;w thjk; Kd;itf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gb Nkw;FyF khjphpia ml;ilf; fhg;gp mbj;j jpl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; ehk; nrd;why;> mj;japNy Fsph;fha;gth;fs; gd;dhl;L njhopy; epWtdq;fs;> P mjpfhu mZ tpQ;Qhdpfs;> Coy; murpay;thjpfspd; $l;L kl;LNk. ,e;j ghijapy; ehk; gazkhdhy; Nkw;Fyfpy; elf;fpw nghUshjhu rPhNfl;NlhL ; (financial meltdown), Mw;wy; rhh;ej Rw;Wf;#oy; rPhNfLk; (environmental ; ; meltdown) Nrh;eJ elg;gJ epr;rak;! ; nfhz;L tu Ntz;Lk; vd;w jpl;lk;