Please read: A personal appeal from Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales

Read now

Performing arts
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with Performance art.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010)

Performing arts

Major forms

Dance · Music · Opera ·Theatre · Circus

Minor forms Magic · Puppetry

Genres Drama · Tragedy · Comedy ·Tragicomedy · Romance ·Satire · Epic · Lyric

view · talk · edit

The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object. The term "performing arts" first appeared in the English language in the year 1711.

1 Theatre 1. such as with costumes and stage makeup. Performing arts are also supported by workers in related fields. 1 Types of performing arts o o  1. such as songwriting and stagecraft. dancers. magicians.2 Iran 3.6 Cambodia 3. magic. opera. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers. music. musicians. Performers often adapt their appearance.3 India/Pakistan 3. circus arts and musical theatre. Dance was often referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era.2 Dance 2 History of Western performing arts o o o  2. and singers.1 Renaissance 2.3 Post-War performance 3 Eastern performing arts o o o o o o o    3. This is called performance art. etc. comedians. theatre.1 Middle East 3. including actors.7 Japan 4 See also 5 References 6 External links [edit]Types of performing arts Performing arts include the dance.5 Thailand 3. perhaps in the creation of props.4 China 3. Chris Lipman [edit]Theatre Main article: Theatre . There is also a specialized form of fine art in which the artists perform their work live to an audience. Spoken word. Most performance art also involves some form of plastic art.2 Modern era 2.

spiritual orperformance setting. illusion. aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to codified. [edit]Dance Dance (from Old French dancier. pantomime. In sports. ballet. improvisational theatre. virtuoso techniques such as ballet. classical Indian dance. [edit]History of Western performing arts Main article: Western art history . music. stand-up comedy. perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social. gesture. Choreography is the art of making dances. gymnastics. and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while martial arts "kata" are often compared to dances. opera. motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind). In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. musicals. figure skating. dance. mummers' plays. theatre takes such forms asplays. Theatre is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech.A scene from The Nutcracker ballet (Watch). and the person who does this is called a choreographer. and non-conventional or arthouse theatre. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance. and certain music genres. sound and spectacle—indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. cultural. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social. mating dance). kabuki. mime.

These poets wrote plays which. along with the arts in general. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles. organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.Sophocles. commedia dell'arte show. The first Ballet per se is considered to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine(1581). in some cases. Western performing arts had been largely ended. dated 1657. Starting in the 6th century BC. as depicted in the Nordisk familjebok. some of which incorporated dance were performed and Domenico da Piacenza was credited with the first use of the term ballo (in De Arte Saltandi et Choreas Ducendi) instead of danza(dance) for his baletti or balli which later came to be known as Ballets. incorporated dance (see Euripides). Between the 9th century and 14th century. However by the 6th century AD. as the Dark Ages began. saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays. the Classical period of performing art began in Greece. [edit]Renaissance Main article: Renaissance In the 15th century performing arts. (Louvre) . performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays.

In 1597. and eventually for large numbers of people living in cities and towns throughout Europe. It is also during this time that the first plays were performed in the American Colonies. In ballet. During the 18th century the introduction of the popular opera buffa brought opera to the masses as an accessible form of performance. At the turn of the 19th century Beethoven and the Romantic movement ushered in a new era that lead first to the spectacles of grand opera and then to the musical dramas of Giuseppe Verdi and the Gesamtkunstwerk (total work of art) of the operas of Richard Wagner leading directly to the music of the 20th century. introducing the use of improvisation. and variety theater. Isadora Duncan. women began to appear in both French and English plays. The French introduced a formal dance instruction in the late 17th century. dance and elaborate costumes as well as professional theatrical companies in England. Meanwhile. Dafne was performed and throughout the 17th century. . After this period.minstrel dancing. Mozart's The Marriage of Figaroand Don Giovanni are landmarks of the late 18th century opera. featuring music. William Shakespeare's plays in the late 16th century developed from this new class of professional performance.By the mid-16th century commedia dell'arte became popular in Europe. The 19th century was a period of growth for the performing arts for all social classes. opera would rapidly become the entertainment of choice for the aristocracy in most of Europe. the first opera. women make great progress in the previously male-dominated art. [edit]Modern era Main article: Modern world The introduction of the proscenium arch in Italy during the 17th century established the traditional theater form that persists to this day. bringing a halt to performing arts which lasted until 1660. burlesque. one of the developers of free dance. technical advances such as the introduction of gaslight to theatres. thePuritans forbid acting. in England. This period also introduced the Elizabethan masque.

Postmodernism in performing arts dominated the 1960s to large extent. composers and musicians together to revitalise and revolutionise ballet. which brought choreographers. influencing a range of later popular music styles internationally. Rhythm and blues. dancers. and became the staple musical form of popular entertainment. Konstantin Stanislavski's "System" revolutionized acting in the early 20th century. With the invention of the motion picture in the late 19th century by Thomas Edison. film became a dominant performance medium throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. [edit]Post-War performance Post-World War II performing arts were highlighted by the resurgence of both ballet and opera in the Western world. and continues to have a major influence on actors of stage and screen to the current day. Both impressionism and modern realism were introduced to the stage during this period. In the 1930s Jean Rosenthal introduced what would become modern stage lighting. set designers/artists. most importatntly through Diaghilev's emphasis on collaboration. [edit]Eastern performing arts . Portrait of Alvin Ailey. changing the nature of the stage as the Broadway musical became a phenomenon in the United States. and the growth of the motion picture industry in Hollywood in the early 20th century. The arrival of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (1909–1929) revolutionised ballet and the performing arts generally throughout the Western world. Rock and roll evolved from rhythm and blues during the 1950s. a cultural phenomenon of black America became came to prominence in the early 20th century.Modern dance began in the late 19th century and early 20th century in response to the restrictions of traditional ballet.

Adya Rangacharaya. including theatre. His Natya Shastra seems to be the first attempt to develop the technique or rather art. etc. Live secular plays were known as akhraja. Many historians. dance.. Bharata Muni (fl. etc. As men and their doings have to be respected on the stage. is the imitation of men and their doings (loka-vritti). where actors re-enact episodes from Muslim history. acting. Drama. Indian dramatists such as Bhasa in the 2nd century BC wrote plays that were heavily inspired by the Ramayana and Mahabharata. . 5th–2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian writer best known for writing the Natya Shastra of Bharata. Ru-Howzi. plus a depiction of events from daily life. and music.. a theoretical treatise on Indian performing arts.[1] [edit]Iran In Iran there are other forms of theatrical events such as Naghali (story telling). which has been compared to Aristotle's Poetics. Kosambi. Those who acted as mammals like goats. food. Parde-Khani. Bharata is often known as the father of Indian theatrical arts. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya. recorded in medieval adab literature. These epics provided the inspiration to the earliest Indian dramatists and they do it even today. Shia Islamic plays revolved around the shaheed (martyrdom) of Ali's sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. of drama in a systematic manner. This story of the god Osiris was performed annually at festivals throughout the civilization. though they were less common than puppetry andta'ziya theater. shadow plays and marionette productions) and livepassion plays known as ta'ziya. D. Bazi. buffaloes. were chased by those playing the role of hunters. The Natya Shastra tells us not only what is to be portrayed in a drama. have referred to the prevalence of ritualism amongst Indo-Aryan tribes in which some members of the tribe acted as if they were wild animals and some others were the hunters. It was the last element which made it the origin of the classical theatre of later times.[edit]Middle East The earliest recorded theatrical event dates back to 2000 BC with the passion plays of Ancient Egypt. notably D. as Bharata Muni says. The Ramayana and Mahabharata can be considered the first recognized plays that originated in India. but how the portrayal is to be done. ritualism. Siah- [edit]India/Pakistan Main articles: Theatre in India and Sanskrit drama Folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic peoples in the 2nd millennium BC. monkeys. In particular. The most popular forms of theater in the medieval Islamic world were puppet theatre (which included hand puppets. so drama in Sanskrit is also known by the term roopaka which means portrayal. marking the known beginning of a long relationship between theatre and religion. reindeer.Mareke giri. This folk theatre of the misty past was mixed with dance.

Priyadarsika. Kerala is such a state with different such art forms like Kathakali. Mahaviracharita and Uttar Ramacharita. Cantonese shadow puppets were the larger of the two. Thus. Among these three. The rods ran parallel to the bodies of the puppet then turned at a ninety degree angle to connect to the neck. There were many performing art forms in the southern part of India. Symbolic color was also very prevalent. the last two cover between them. It was the first to be translated into English and German. They were created out of thin.Vikramuurvashiiya (Pertaining to Vikrama and Urvashi). translucent leather usually taken from the belly of a donkey. they often involved music. The rods attached at the necks to facilitate the use of . The next great Indian dramatist was Bhavabhuti (c. The powerful Indian emperor Harsha (606–648) is credited with having written three plays: the comedy Ratnavali. Cantonese southern and Pekingese northern. clowning and acrobatic displays. is arguably considered to be ancient India's greatest dramatist. shadow puppetry first emerged as a recognized form of theatre in China. they laid outside the shadow of the puppet. a black face represented honesty. There were two distinct forms of shadow puppetry. as opposed to the type of play performed by the puppets. the entire epic of Ramayana. They were built using thick leather which created more substantial shadows. Chakyar koothu and there were many prominent artists likePainkulam Raman Chakyar and others. [edit]China Main article: Chinese theatre There are references to theatrical entertainments in China as early as 1500 BC during the Shang Dynasty. 7th century). During this era. He is said to have written the following three plays: Malati-Madhava. While these rods were visible when the shadow was cast. thus they cast a very colorful shadow.Kālidāsa in the 1st century BC. a red one bravery. The thin rods which controlled their movements were attached to a leather collar at the neck of the puppet. Emperor Xuanzong formed an acting school known as the Children of the Pear Garden to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical. Pekingese puppets were more delicate and smaller. The rods used to control Cantonese puppets were attached perpendicular to the puppets’ heads. Both styles generally performed plays depicting great adventure and fantasy. Kālidāsa can be considered an original playwright. They were painted with vibrant paints. The two styles were differentiated by the method of making the puppets and the positioning of the rods on the puppets. The last was inspired by a story in the Mahabharata and is the most famous. who drew heavily from the epics. Three famous romantic plays written by Kālidāsa are the Mālavikāgnimitram (Mālavikā and Agnimitra). In comparison to Bhasa. rarely was this very stylized form of theatre used for political propaganda. they were not seen by the audience when the shadow was created. During the Han Dynasty. and Abhijñānaśākuntala (The Recognition of Shakuntala). thus they did not interfere with the appearance of the figure. Many other dramatists followed during the Middle Ages. The Tang Dynasty is sometimes known as "The Age of 1000 Entertainments". and theBuddhist drama Nagananda.

a version of the Indian Ramayana. remains popular in Thailand even today. In particular. at the ancient capital Angkor Wat. after a long period of civil wars and political disarray. the best known of which is Beijing Opera. A mixture of pantomime and vocal acrobatics. sometimes vulgar comedies. The first form of theatre to flourish was Ningyō jōruri (commonly referred to as Bunraku). Similar reliefs are found at Borobudurin Indonesia.Zeami Motokiyo (1363–1443) who was considered one of the finest child actors in Japan. he implored Zeami to have a court education for his arts. The heads were always removed at night. it has been a tradition from the Middle Ages to stage plays based on plots drawn from Indian epics. alarmed at increasing Christian growth. which is still popular today. they were stored in a muslin book or fabric lined box. was unified and at peace primarily due to shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1600–1668). there were many popular plays involving acrobatics and music. Japan. Shadow puppetry is said to have reached its highest point of artistic development in the 11th century before becoming a tool of the government. [edit]Cambodia In Cambodia. a flourish of cultural influence and growing merchant class demanded its own entertainment. had a son. the puppets would come to life at night. Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653–1725). After Zeami succeeded his father. stories from the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata have been carved on the walls of temples and palaces. These developed in the Yuan Dynasty into a more sophisticated form with a four or five act structure. The men who . When the heads were not being used. the Shogun of Japan. This was in keeping with the old superstition that if left intact. this style has fascinated the Japanese for hundreds of years. there were small companies of actors in Japan who performed short. the theatrical version of Thailand's national epic Ramakien.multiple heads with one body. The founder of and main contributor to Ningyō jōruri. Kabuki. In the Sung Dynasty. to further reduce the possibility of reanimating puppets. Bunraku. A director of one of these companies. [edit]Thailand Further information: Ramakien In Thailand. When peace did come. he continued to perform and adapt his style into what is today Noh. today about 1/3d the size of a human. However. Yuan drama spread across China and diversified into numerous regional forms. and Butoh During the 14th century. Kan'ami (1333–1384). Some puppeteers went so far as to store the heads in one book and the bodies in another. Ningyō jōruri is a highly stylized form of theatre using puppets. When Kan'ami's company performed for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358–1408). [edit]Japan Main articles: Noh. turned his form of theatre into a true art form. he cut off contact from Japan to Europe and China and outlawed Christianity.

4. List of 64 types of Arts The Sixty-four Arts are Dressing 1. and even acrobatics. who uses varied tones of voice and speaking manners to simulate different characters. etc. legend has it by an actress named Okuni. 9. Kabuki was first performed by young girls. Chikamatsu wrote thousands of plays during his lifetime. Toilet Make-up. The dialogue is handled by a single person. Kabuki is less formal and more distant than Nõ. However. pantomime. then by young boys. when they can then operate the puppet's head and right arm and choose to show their faces during the performance.control the puppets train their entire lives to become master puppeteers. 3. Proper matching of decorations and jewellery. Painting the body. Art of hair dressing. controlling the less important limbs of the puppet. . The other puppeteers. Singing. 5. Playing on musical instruments. Actors are trained in many varied things including dancing. and colouring the nails. toilet and use of beautifying agents 2. Most of Kabuki's material came from Nõ and Bunraku. yet very popular among the Japanese public. 6. Playing on musical glasses filled with water. to imply their invisibility. Kabuki began shortly after Bunraku. Art of dressing. most of which are still used today. Decoration of the forehead. Music and Dancing 7. hair. singing. and its erratic dance-type movements are also an effect of Bunraku. cover themselves and their faces in a black suit. The men who portrayed women on stage were specifically trained to elicit the essence of a woman in their subtle movements and gestures. 8. who lived around the end of the 16th century. and by the end of the 16th century. Kabuki companies consisted of all men.

Sewing and needle work. Art of Entertaining 37. Swimming and water-sports. The art of changing the appearance of things such as making to appear as silk. Good manners and etiquette. 36. 28. clapnets. . 14. Art of cooking. Criticism of poems. Fine Arts 41. sweet and acid drinks. 27. Art of attracting others (bewitching). etc. Making birds. Skill in youthful sports. Knowledge of different languages and dialects. The art of speaking by changing the forms of words. Games of dice. 32. ivory. 43. 48. Mimicry or imitation (of voice or sounds). Floral decorations of carriages. Preparation of ear-rings of shell. Criticism of dramas and analysis of stories. Making of different beds for different purposes and for different seasons. Preparation of different beverages. Clay-modelling: making figures and images. etc. 13. Making of artificial flowers. 39. Knowledge of Rhetoric or Figures of Speech. Puzzles and their solution. of thread or yarn. 47. Physical culture 30. Physical culture. such as crowns.10. chess. 34. Filling up the missing line of a poem. Art of disguise. 19. 25. chutneys. 24. 17. 35. Knowledge of vocabularies. Arithmetical games. Composing poems to order. flowers. Acting. 23. Games 33. 29. 15. Stringing flowers into garlands and other ornaments for decorating the body. Dancing. 22. 18. 20. 46. Painting in colours. etc. Magic: art of creating illusions. Reciting poems. 38. 42. Trick of hand. Domestic Science 26. General Education 12. 44. 11. Games of chance. etc. 16. Art of knowing the character of a man from his features.. 21. 40. Reading. etc. 31. Reply in verse (when one person recites a poem. 45. another gives the reply in verse).

60. Professional Training 51. Wood-engraving. Knowledge of metals. Preparation of perfumery. Knowledge of machinery. 57. 63. Floor decoration with coloured stones. Gardening and agriculture. Making furniture from canes and reeds. Colouring precious stones. Knowledge of gems and jewels. Training rams and cocks and other birds for mock fight. 55. 62. 58. 61. 50. 56. Signals for conveying messages. Art of war. 52. Construction of building (Architecture). 54.Pet Animals 49. 53. 64. Carpentry. . 59. Knowledge of code words. Training parrots and other birds to talk.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful