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A Little Background Gas Turbine Theory There are many different kinds of turbines: You have probably heard

of a steam turbine. Most power plants use coal, natural gas, oil or a nuclear reactor to create steam. The steam runs through a huge and very carefully designed multi-stage turbine to spin an output shaft that drives the plant's generator. Hydroelectric dams use water turbines in the same way to generate power. The turbines used in a hydroelectric plant look completely different from a steam turbine because water is so much denser (and slower moving) than steam, but it is the same principle. Wind turbines, also known as wind mills, use the wind as their motive force. A wind turbine looks nothing like a steam turbine or a water turbine because wind is slow moving and very light, but again the principle is the same. A gas turbine is an extension on the same concept. In a gas turbine a pressurized gas spins the turbine. In all modern gas turbine engines the engine produces its own pressurized gas, and it does this by burning something like propane, natural gas, kerosene or jet fuel. The heat that comes from burning the fuel expands air, and the high-speed rush of this hot air spins the turbine.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Gas Turbine Engines So why does the M-1 tank use a 1,500 horsepower gas turbine engine instead of a diesel engine? It turns out that there are two big advantages:

1. Gas turbine engines have a great power-to-weight ratio compared to reciprocating 2.


engines. That is, the amount of power you get out of the engine compared to the weight of the engine itself is very good. Gas turbine engines are also smaller than their reciprocating counterparts of the same power.

The main disadvantage of gas turbines is that, compared to a reciprocating engine of the same size, they are expensive. Because they spin at such high speeds and because of the high operating temperatures, designing and manufacturing gas turbines is a tough problem from both the engineering and materials standpoint. Gas turbines also tend to use more fuel when they are idling and they prefer a constant load rather than a fluctuating load. That makes gas turbines great for things like trans-continental jet aircraft and power plants, but explains why you don't have one under the hood of your car.

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, Third Edition


How Gas Turbine Engines Work

Gas turbine engines are, theoretically, extremely simple. They have 3 parts: A compressor to compress the incoming air to high pressure. A combustion area to burn the fuel and produce high pressure, high velocity gas. A turbine to extract the energy from the high pressure, high velocity gas flowing from the combustion chamber. The following figure shows the general layout of an axial-flow gas turbine - the sort of engine you would find driving the rotor of a helicopter, for example:

In this engine air is sucked in from the right by the compressor. The compressor is basically a cone-shaped cylinder with small fan blades attached in rows (8 rows of blades are represented here). Assuming the light blue represents air at normal air pressure, then as the air is forced through the compression stage its pressure and velocity rise significantly. In some engines the pressure of the air can rise by a factor of 30. The high-pressure air produced by the compressor is shown in dark blue. This high-pressure air then enters the combustion area, where a ring of fuel injectors injects a steady stream of fuel. The fuel is generally kerosene, jet fuel, propane, or natural gas. If you think about how easy it is to blow a candle out, then you can see the design problem in the combustion area - entering this area is high-pressure air moving at hundreds of miles per hour. You want to keep a flame burning continuously in that environment. The piece that solves this problem is called a "flame holder", or sometimes a "can". The can is a hollow, perforated piece of heavy metal (shown here is half of the can in cross-section):

The injectors are at the right. Compressed air enters through the perforations. Exhaust gases exit at the left. You can see in the previous figure that a second set of cylinders wraps around

the inside and the outside of this perforated can, guiding the compressed intake air into the perforations. At the left of the engine is the turbine section. In this figure there are two sets of turbines. The first set directly drives the compressor. The turbines, the shaft and the compressor all turn as a single unit:

At the far left is a final turbine stage, shown here with a single set of vanes. It drives the output shaft. This final turbine stage and the output shaft are a completely stand-alone, freewheeling unit. They spin freely without any connection to the rest of the engine. And that is the amazing part about a gas turbine engine - there is enough energy in the hot gases blowing through the blades of that final output turbine to generate 1,500 horsepower and drive a 63 ton M-1 Tank! A gas turbine engine really is that simple. In the case of the turbine used in a tank or a power plant, there really is nothing to do with the exhaust gases but vent them through an exhaust pipe, as shown. Sometimes the exhaust will run through some sort of heat exchanger either to extract the heat for some other purpose or to preheat air before it enters the combustion chamber. The discussion here is obviously simplified a bit. For example, we have not discussed the areas of bearings, oiling systems, internal support structures of the engine, stator vanes and so on. All of these areas become major engineering problems because of the tremendous temperatures, pressures and spin rates inside the engine. But the basic principles described here govern all gas turbine engines and help you to understand the basic layout and operation of the engine. Other variations

Gas Turbine Theory


Large jetliners use what are known as turbofan engines, which are nothing more than gas turbines combined with a large fan at the front of the engine. Here's the basic (highly simplified) layout of a turbofan engine:

You can see that the core of a turbofan is a normal gas turbine engine like the one described in the previous section. The difference is that the final turbine stage drives a shaft that makes it's way back to the front of the engine to power the fan (shown in red in this picture). This multiple concentric shaft approach, by the way, is extremely common in gas turbines. In many larger turbofans, in fact, there may be two completely separate compression stages driven by separate turbines, along with the fan turbine as shown above. All three shafts ride within one another concentrically. The purpose of the fan is to dramatically increase the amount of air moving through the engine, and therefore increase the engine's thrust. When you look into the engine of a commercial jet at the airport, what you see is this fan at the front of the engine. It is huge (on the order of 10 feet in diameter on big jets), so it can move a lot of air. The air that the fan moves is called "bypass air" (shown in purple above) because it bypasses the turbine portion of the engine and moves straight through to the back of the nacelle at high speed to provide thrust. A turboprop engine is similar to a turbofan, but instead of a fan there is a conventional propeller at the front of the engine. The output shaft connects to a gearbox to reduce the speed, and the output of the gearbox turns the propeller.

Gas Turbines are one of the most efficient equipment for converting fuel energy to mechanical energy. How does a Gas Turbine work? What are the auxiliary systems for the Gas Turbine? This article explains in simple terms the working of the Auxiliary Systems in the Gas Turbine Power Plant. The three main sections of a Gas Turbine are the Compressor, Combustor and Turbine. The gas turbine power plant has to work continuously for long period of time without output and performance decline. Apart from the main sections there are other important Auxiliaries systems which are required for operating a Gas Turbine Power Plant on a long term basis.

Air Intake System


Air Intake System provides clean air into the compressor. During continuous operation the impurities and dust in the air deposits on the compressor blades. This

reduces the efficiency and output of the plant . The Air Filter in the Air Intake system prevents this. A blade cleaning system comprising of a high pressure pump provides on line cleaning facility for the compressor blades. The flow of the large amount of air into the compressor creates high noise levels. A Silencer in the intake duct reduces the noise to acceptable levels.

Exhaust System
Exhaust system discharges the hot gases to a level which is safe for the people and the environment. The exhaust gas that leaves the turbine is around 550 C. This includes an outlet stack high enough for the safe discharge of the gases.
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Silencer in the outlet stack reduces the noise to acceptable levels. In Combined Cycle power plants the exhaust system has a diverter damper to change the flow of gases to the Heat Recovery Boilers instead of the outlet stack.

Starting System
Starting system provides the initial momentum for the Gas Turbine to reach the operating speed. This is similar to the starter motor of your car. The gas turbine in a power plant runs at 3000 RPM (for the 50 Hz grid - 3600 RPM for the 60 Hz grid). During starting the speed has to reach at least 60 % for the turbine to work on its on inertia. The simple method is to have a starter motor with a torque converter to bring the heavy mass of the turbine to the required speed. For large turbines this means a big capacity motor. The latest trend is to use the generator itself as the starter motor with suitable electrics. In situations where there is no other start up power available, like a ship or an off-shore platform or a remote location, a small diesel or gas engine is used.

Fuel System
The Fuel system prepares a clean fuel for burning in the combustor. Gas Turbines normally burn Natural gas but can also fire diesel or distillate fuels. Many Gas Turbines have dual firing capabilities. A burner system and ignition system with the necessary safety interlocks are the most important items. A control valve regulates the amount of fuel burned . A filter prevents entry of any particles that may clog the burners. Natural gas directly from the

wells is scrubbed and cleaned prior to admission into the turbine. External heaters heat the gas for better combustion. For liquid fuels high pressure pumps pump fuel to the pressure required for fine atomisation of the fuel for burning.

These are the main Aiuxiliary systems in a Gas Turbine Power Plant. Many other systems and subsystems also form part of the complex system required for the operation of the Gas Turbine Power Plant Gas Turbines are one of the most efficient equipment for converting fuel energy to mechanical energy. How does a Gas Turbine work? What are auxiliary systems ? This article explains in simple terms the working of the main parts of the Gas Turbine. Gas turbine functions in the same way as the Internal Combustion engine. It sucks in air from the atmosphere, compresses it. The fuel is injected and ignited. The gases expand doing work and finally exhausts outside. The only difference is instead of the reciprocating motion, gas turbine uses a rotary motion throughout. This article details the three main sections of the Gas Turbine.

1. Compressor.
The compressor sucks in air form the atmosphere and compresses it to pressures in the range of 15 to 20 bar. The compressor consists of a number of rows of blades mounted on a shaft. This is something like a series of fans placed one after the other. The pressurized air from the first row is further pressurised in the second row and so on. Stationary vanes between each of the blade rows guide the air flow from one section to the next section. The shaft is connected and rotates along with the main gas turbine.

2. Combustor.
This is an annular chamber where the fuel burns and is similar to the furnace in a boiler. The air from the compressor is the Combustion air. Burners arranged circumferentially on the annular chamber control the fuel entry to the chamber. The hot gases in the range of 1400 to 1500 C leave the chamber with high energy levels. The chamber and the subsequent sections are made of special alloys and designs that can withstand this high temperature.
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3. Turbine
The turbine does the main work of energy conversion. The turbine portion also consists of rows of blades fixed to the shaft. Stationary guide vanes direct the gases to the next set of blades. The kinetic energy of the hot gases impacting on the blades rotates the blades and the shaft. The blades and vanes are made of special alloys and designs that can withstand the very high temperature gas. The exhaust gases then exit to exhaust system through the diffuser. The gas temperature leaving the Turbine is in the range of 500 to 550 C.

The gas turbine shaft connects to the generator to produce electric power. This is similar to generators used in conventional thermal power plants.

Performance
More than Fifty percent of the energy converted is used by the compressor. Only around 35 % of the energy input is available for electric power generation in the generator. The rest of the energy is lost as heat of the exhaust gases to the atmosphere. Three parameters that affect the performance of a of gas turbine are

The pressure of the air leaving the compressor. The hot gas temperature leaving the Combustion chamber. The gas temperature of the exhaust gases leaving the turbine.

The above is a simple description of the Gas Turbine. Actually it is a very sophisticated and complex equipment which over the years have become one of the most reliable mechanical equipment. Used in Combined Cycle mode gives us the most efficient power plant.
Usag

Gas Turbine Usage


In an aircraft gas turbine the output of the turbine is used to turn the compressor (which may also have an associated fan or propeller). The hot air flow leaving the turbine is than accelerated into the atmosphere through an exhaust nozzle (Fig. la) to provide thrust or propulsion power:

Figure 1a. Schematic for an aircraft jet engine

Figure 1.b A land-based gas turbine. A typical jet engine is shown in Fig. 2. Such engines can range from about 100 pounds of thrust (lbst.) to as high as 100,000 lbst. with weights ranging from about 30 to 20,000 lbs. The smallest jets are used for devices such as the cruise missile, the largest for future generations of commercial aircraft. The jet engine of Fig.2 is a turbofan engine, with a large diameter compressor-mounted fan. Thrust is generated both by air passing through the fan (bypass air) and through the gas generator itself. With a large frontal area, the turbofan generates peak thrust at low (takeoff) speeds making it most suitable for commercial aircraft.

Figure 2. A modern jet engine used to power Boeing 777 aircraft. This is a Pratt & Whitney PW4084 turbofan which can produce 84,000 pounds of thrust. It has a 112-inch diameter front-mounted fan, a length of 192 inches (4.87 m) and a weight of about 15,000 pounds (6804 kg). The nozzle has been disconnected from this engine. A turbojet does not have a fan and generates all of its thrust from air that passes through the gas generator. Turbojets have smaller frontal areas and generate peak thrusts at high speeds, making them most suitable for fighter aircraft. In non-aviation gas turbines, part of the turbine power is used to drive the compressor. The remainder, the "useful power", is used as output shaftpower to turn an energy conversion device (Fig. lb) such as an electrical generator or a ship's propeller. A typical land-based gas turbine is shown in Fig. 3. Such units can range in power output from 0.05 MW(Megawatts) to as high as 240 MW. The unit shown in Fig. 3 is an aeroderivative gas turbine; i.e., a lighter weight unit derived from an aircraft jet

engine. Heavier weight units designed specifically for land use are called industrial or frame machines. Although aeroderivative gas turbines are being increasingly used for base load electrical power generation they are most frequently used to drive compressors for natural gas pipelines, power ships and provide peaking and intermittent power for electric utility applications. Peaking power supplements a utility's normal steam turbine or hydroelectric power output during high demand periods ... such as the summer demand for air conditioning in many major cities.

Figure 3. A modern land-based gas turbine used for electrical power production and for mechanical drives. This is a General Electric LM5000 machine with a length of 246 inches (6.2 m) and a weight of about 27,700 pounds (12,500 kg). It produces maximum shaft power of 55.2 MW (74,000 hp) at 3,600 rpm with steam injection. This model shows a direct drive configuration where the l.p. turbine drives both the l.p. compressor and the output shaft. Other models can be made with a power turbine. Some of the principle advantages of the gas turbine are: 1. It is capable of producing large amounts of useful power for a relatively small size and weight. 2. Since motion of all its major components involve pure rotation (i.e. no reciprocating motion as in a piston engine), its mechanical life is long and the corresponding maintenance cost is relatively low. 3. Although the gas turbine must be started by some external means (a small external motor or other source, such as another gas turbine), it can be brought up to full-load (peak output) conditions in minutes as contrasted to a steam turbine plant whose start up time is measured in hours. 4. A wide variety of fuels can be utilized. Natural gas is commonly used in landbased gas turbines while light distillate (kerosene-like) oils power aircraft gas turbines. Diesel oil or specially treated residual oils can also be used, as well as combustible gases derived from blast furnaces, refineries and the gasification of solid fuels such as coal, wood chips and bagasse.

5. The usual working fluid is atmospheric air. As a basic power supply, the gas turbine requires no coolant (e.g. water). In the past, one of the major disadvantages of the gas turbine was its lower efficiency (hence higher fuel usage) when compared to other IC engines and to steam turbine power plants. However, during the last fifty years, continuous engineering development work has pushed the thermal efficiency (18% for the 1939 Neuchatel gas turbine) to present levels of about 40% for simple cycle operation, and about 55% for combined cycle operation (see next section). Even more fuel-efficient gas turbines are in the planning stages, with simple cycle efficiencies predicted as high as 45-47% and combined cycle machines in the 60% range. These projected values are significantly higher than other prime movers, such as steam power plants.
Oprition

Gas Turbine Operations

Countergravity casting at Gas Turbine Operations

Gas Turbine Operations is located in Milford, NH adjacent to corporate headquarters. Established in 1983 as Hitchiner's Gas Turbine Division, the organization has experienced steady growth since its inception. This division primarily services the jet engine component market and specializes in producing hot-section parts requiring sophisticated vacuum-melted alloys, with emphasis on complex, thin-walled applications. Gas Turbine Operations utilizes the Countergravity Low-pressure Vacuum melt (CLV) and the Countergravity Pressure Vacuum (CPV) casting processes to produce parts as thin as .015 of an inch. This technological capability, an advantage over the conventional techniques employed by our competitors, has enabled us to create new markets by converting to investment castings many components previously manufactured by more costly combinations of processes. Gas Turbine Operations is a fully qualified supplier to Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Westinghouse, Allison, BMW-Rolls Royce, MTU, Sundstrand, Solar and many others. Our ISO-9002 certified quality systems assure this status, and our process advantage assures our dominance as the leading producer of thin-walled vacuum castings.

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Gas Turbine Operations Aim - This course is designed to enable engineers, supervisors, operations and maintenance personnel to safely operate GE designed heavy duty gas turbine units. This course develops a background in gas turbine operation that will enable participants to properly analyse operating problems and take the necessary corrective action. Emphasis is placed on the operators responsibilities with regard to auxiliary systems, operational data taking, and data evaluation. Operators are instructed in how to interpret fault annunciation and how to determine if the annunciated fault can be remedied by operator action or by the assistance of instrumentation and/or maintenance personnel. The course focuses on the starting, loading, and specific operator checks of the various turbine support and auxiliary systems to ensure safe and reliable operation of the gas turbine unit. Also covered is the effect of operation on major mechanical maintenance. Pre-requisites - Personnel with a basic knowledge of turbine technology. Course Duration - The course is of five days in duration. Optimum Number - Maximum of 10 delegates per course. Training Aids - OHP, PC Projector, Information hand-outs, TV and Video Assessment - Delegates do not do a direct assessment. However, all delegates are closely monitored to make sure they fully understand and are able to demonstrate correct procedures. Course Syllabus The typical Gas Turbine Operation course covers the following areas:

Gas Turbine Fundamentals Support Systems Operation and System Checks Control System Operator Responsibilities Unit Operation

Training Introduction Electrical Instrumentation Gas Turbines Health & Safety

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Speedtronic Mark V <1> Operations Aim - Emphasis is placed on enabling operators and supervisors to

confidently operate and monitor the gas turbine using the Speedtronic Mark V Control System. Pre-requisites - Personnel with a basic knowledge of turbine technology and personal computers. Course Duration - The course is of three days in duration. Optimum Number - Maximum of 10 delegates per course. Training Aids - OHP, PC Projector, Information hand-outs, TV and Video Assessment - Delegates do not do a direct assessment. However, all delegates are closely monitored to make sure they fully understand and are able to demonstrate correct procedures. Course Syllabus - The typical SPEEDTRONIC Mark V Gas Turbine Operator Course covers the following areas:

Gas Turbine Control Fundamentals Gas turbine principles of operation Governing system requirements Introduction to SPEEDTRONIC Fundamentals Introduction to control function Fuel systems Redundancy, hardware, security Protection systems Startup, speed, temperature, controls Users manual SPEEDTRONIC Control Documentation Function Interpretation and Use Operator Interface <I> Operation Data Retrieval Operating system Alarm management Display Modification Backup Operator Interface <BOI> Operation Alarms Data Recovery Startup and Shutdown Sequences Troubleshooting Gas turbine process alarms Mark V panel diagnostic alarms

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Speedtronic Mark V <HMI> Operations Aim -This course is designed to instruct a qualified gas turbine operator to the modifications made to upgrade the unit to a SPEEDTRONIC Mark V Control System. This course covers major topics in the fundamentals of the Gas Turbine Mark V Control System and related systems, documentation, backup operators interface <BOI> and the operators control interface <HMI>. Emphasis is placed on enabling operators and supervisors to confidently operate and monitor the gas turbine using the SPEEDTRONIC Mark V

Control System. Pre-requisites - GT operators and supervisors with a basic knowledge of turbine technology. Course Duration - The course is of three days in duration. Optimum Number - Maximum of 10 delegates per course. Training Aids - OHP, PC Projector, Information hand-outs, TV and Video Assessment - Delegates do not do a direct assessment. However, all delegates are closely monitored to make sure they fully understand and are able to demonstrate correct procedures. Course Syllabus The typical SPEEDTRONIC Mark V Turbine Operator Course covers the following areas:

Hardware Modification and Interface Revision of SPEEDTRONIC Fundamentals Introduction to control function Protection Systems Startup, Speed, Temperature and Controls Fuel Systems Redundancy, Hardware and Security SPEEDTRONIC Mark V HMI Control Documentation Function Interpretation and Use Operator Interface <HMI> Operation Data Retrieval Display Modification Backup Operator Interface <BOI> Operation Data Recovery Startup and Shutdown Sequences

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Speedtronic Mark II Maintenance Aim - This course is designed to enable engineers and competent technicians to confidently calibrate the controls and diagnose problems in Gas Turbine SPEEDTRONIC Mark II control systems. The course provides a solid background in turbine governing system circuitry. Participants increase their skills in relating machine operating requirements to the SPEEDTRONIC control which establishes the vital parameters of a gas turbine prime mover. Pre-requisites - Personnel with a basic knowledge of turbine technology.

Course Duration - The course is of ten days in duration. Optimum Number - Maximum of 8 delegates per course. Training Aids - OHP, PC Projector, Information hand-outs, TV and Video Assessment - Delegates do not do a direct assessment. However, all delegates are closely monitored to make sure they fully understand and are able to demonstrate correct procedures. Course Syllabus The typical SPEEDTRONIC Mark V Turbine Operator Course covers the following areas:

GT Speedtronic Control Principles Gas Turbine Control Sequencing GT Control Calibration GT Control Troubleshooting

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Speedtronic Mark IV Maintenance Aim - This site-specific course is designed to introduce operations and maintenance personnel to the routine preventative maintenance procedures of the turbine support systems required to attain high levels of availability and reliability from the gas turbine. This course does not cover the turbine-generator disassembly inspections required for major mechanical maintenance. Operating and maintenance personnel should attend this course together to develop a working relationship regarding the routine maintenance requirements of the unit. The training includes detailed descriptions of the turbine support systems. This includes a functional description of the system was well as the routine maintenance requirements of the system. If the course is held at the customers location it will include site visits to familiarise personnel with the location of the various system components and to allow personnel to correlate the system piping schematics to the system hardware. Pre-requisites - Control and Instrumentation Technicians and Engineers with a basic knowledge of turbine technology. Course Duration - The course is of ten days in duration. Optimum Number - Maximum of 7 delegates per course.

Training Aids - OHP, PC Projector, Information hand-outs, TV and Video Assessment - Delegates do not do a direct assessment. However, all delegates are closely monitored to make sure they fully understand and are able to demonstrate correct procedures. Course Syllabus

Mark IV Speedtronic Control Principles Level 1 Mark IV Speedtronic Control Principles Level 2 Mark IV Speedtronic Control Sequencing Mark IV Speedtronic Control Calibration Mark IV Speedtronic Control Troubleshooting

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Speedtronic Mark V <1>Maintenance Aim - The Mark V Maintenance Course offers a curriculum that emphasises a hands-on approach to learning the process of monitoring, maintaining, improving the availability of the Mark V Control System. Pre-requisites - Control and Instrumentation Technicians and Engineers with a basic knowledge of turbine technology and personal computers. Course Duration - The course is of ten days in duration. Optimum Number - Maximum of 7 delegates per course. Training Aids - OHP, PC Projector, Information hand-outs, TV and Video Assessment - Delegates do not do a direct assessment. However, all delegates are closely monitored to make sure they fully understand and are able to demonstrate correct procedures. Course Syllabus

Gas Turbine Control Fundamentals Revision Gas turbine principles of operation Governing system requirements Mark V Panel Hardware Cores, I/O Card, Terminal Boards Troubleshooting and Panel Layout Wiring diagram Gas Turbine Control Startup/speed/temperature/other controls Control Displays Users manual Control System Software IDOS and File descriptions Software Tools CSP and Big Block Language Data acquisition on Mark V interface

Modifying and downloading control configuration and software backup

Troubleshooting Gas Turbine process alarms Mark V panel diagnostic alarms and Rung Display Calibration Procedures (Manual and Auto) GCV, SRV and IGV

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The working cycle that is Brayton cycle is as follow 1) the fresh air enters through the inlet of compressor and compressed adiabatically for next step this proccess is from 1-2 in fig. Thats why the temperature of the air increases. 2) After compression air goes into the Combustion chamber where the fuel is sprayed at hot compressed air. In this way combustion starts and the temperature increases at constant pressure.This process starts from 2? and end at 3?. 3) This process is Adiabatic expansion in which work is done by the turbine or we get work out put 4) after giving workout put the flue gases will be sent to environment.
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A type of turbine, also known as a combustion turbine, in which combusted, pressurized gas is directed against a series of blades connected to a shaft, which forces the shaft to turn to produce mechanical energy. Gas turbine plants operate on the Brayton cycle. They use a compressor to compress the inlet air upstream of a combustion chamber. Then the fuel is introduced and ignited to produce a high temperature, high-pressure gas that enters and expands through the turbine section. The turbine section powers both the generator and compressor. bustion turbines are also able to burn a wide range of liquid and gaseous fuels from crude oil to natural gas. The gas turbine's energy conversion typically ranges from 25% to 35% efficiency as a simple cycle. The simple cycle GE H series power generation gas turbine efficiency can be increased by installing a recuperator or waste heat boiler onto the turbine's exhaust. A recuperator captures waste heat in the turbine exhaust stream to preheat the compressor discharge air before it enters the combustion chamber. A waste heat boiler generates steam by capturing heat form the turbine exhaust. These boilers are known as heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). They can provide steam for heating or industrial processes, which is called cogeneration. High-pressure steam from these boilers can also generate power with steam turbines, which is called a combined cycle (steam and combustion turbine operation). Recuperators and HRSGs can increase the gas turbine's overall energy cycle efficiency up to 80%. Gas turbine development accelerated in the 1930s as a means of propulsion for jet aircraft. It was not until the early 1980s that the efficiency and reliability of gas turbines had progressed sufficiently to be widely adopted for stationary power applications. Gas turbines range in size from 30 kW (micro-turbines) to 250 MW (industrial frames). Industrial gas turbines have efficiencies approaching 40% and 60% for simple and combined cycles respectively. The gas turbine share of the (world) power generation market has climbed from 20% to 40% of capacity additions over the past 20 years with this technology seeing increased use for base load power generation. Much of this growth can be accredited to large (>500 MW) combined cycle plants that exhibit low capital cost (less than $550/kW) and high thermal efficiency.

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Source: University of Alaska at Fairbanks

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A type of turbine, also known as a combustion turbine, in which combusted, pressurized gas is directed against a series of blades connected to a shaft, which forces the shaft to turn to produce mechanical energy.

Gas turbine plants operate on the Brayton cycle. They use a compressor to compress the inlet air upstream of a combustion chamber. Then the fuel is introduced and ignited to produce a high temperature, high-pressure gas that enters and expands through the turbine section. The turbine section powers both the generator and compressor. bustion turbines are also able to burn a wide range of liquid and gaseous fuels from crude oil to natural gas.

GE H series power generation gas turbine

The gas turbine's energy conversion typically ranges from 25% to 35% efficiency as a simple cycle. The simple cycle efficiency can be increased by installing a recuperator or waste heat boiler onto the turbine's exhaust. A recuperator captures waste heat in the turbine exhaust stream to preheat the compressor discharge air before it enters the combustion chamber. A waste heat boiler generates steam by capturing heat form the turbine exhaust. These boilers

are known as heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). They can provide steam for heating or industrial processes, which is called cogeneration. High-pressure steam from these boilers can also generate power with steam turbines, which is called a combined cycle (steam and combustion turbine operation). Recuperators and HRSGs can increase the gas turbine's overall energy cycle efficiency up to 80%. Gas turbine development accelerated in the 1930s as a means of propulsion for jet aircraft. It was not until the early 1980s that the efficiency and reliability of gas turbines had progressed sufficiently to be widely adopted for stationary power applications. Gas turbines range in size from 30 kW (micro-turbines) to 250 MW (industrial frames). Industrial gas turbines have efficiencies approaching 40% and 60% for simple and combined cycles respectively. The gas turbine share of the (world) power generation market has climbed from 20% to 40% of capacity additions over the past 20 years with this technology seeing increased use for base load power generation. Much of this growth can be accredited to large (>500 MW) combined cycle plants that exhibit low capital cost (less than $550/kW) and high thermal efficiency.