MINI- ROMAG GENERATOR

INTRODUCTION :-

During the past few decades the developed technological nations of the world have been engaged in an energy and resources race that has brought us to the position of energy crisis. This recent energy crisis has forced the world to develop new and alternative methods of energy generation. The mini- romag generator is a magnetic energy device, which uses free energy provided by magnets and the earth’s energy field to produce magnetic current equivalent of 3- ½ volts and 7 amps. The generator not only runs on this renewable energy or free energy but it is also designed to recycle the magnetic energy back into the earth’s energy system.

EARTH’S MAGNETIC ENERGY OR EARTH’S ENERGY FIELD ? Earth is surrounded with protective blanket called atmosphere. The atmosphere consists of various layers ,out of which ionosphere is the highest layer at 300 km above the earth surface. The ionosphere is a sea of energy that is pulsating and is bring commonly slipplied by a universal energy system. This energy field supplies all of the energy needs our planet. This earth`s energy field or magnetic energy of earth is not confined to the simple force people observe between two magnets. Magnetic energy is more accurately describe as on infinite variety of energy manifestation that are multidimensional in nature. The magnetic energy can manifest as force fields, as fields with various characteristics like weightlessness, it can be transmitted through air & space, it can replicate other energy or matter, it can change the characteristics of energy & matter, it can be blended with various elements to produce various results like heat & cold, it can convert matter like garbage into more pure energy & the list go on and on.

PRINCIPLE BEHIND THIS ENERGY SOURCE :Unlike conventional energy generator mini-romag generator is a magnetic device which convert earth`s magnetic energy into magnetic energy, which we can use. The unit incorporates the use of permanent magnets turning with a rotor to generate a magnetic energy. Generator requires startup of 2100 rpm for 42 seconds. When magnets of generator are spun at 2100 rpm speed & their fields are harnessed with the proper elements, they produce a frequency very similar to the ionosphere . The small signal generated by the unit travells at a speed behond space & time, and energy structure similar to it are attracted to it at same velocity. Because of the universal phenomenon of attract – attract, energy structure in the ionosphere begin to gather & similar energies are attracted to each other & swirl into a vortex as the unit attracts them. This attract-attract phenomenon allows magnets to assist in a tremendous amount of energy generation. The unit then circuits the magnetic energy to other mechanisum to do useful work. This simple unit is like a water wheel, it only function if a flow is moving through it & it will continue turning as long as it is being used to power something. An important object of the present device is to provide a revolutionary new concept concerning the utilization of power by directly capilalizing on the natural resources like magnetic energy. magnetic generator to continuously function. There is no incorporation of a secondary energy source except at start up, to cause this

CONSTRUCTION :The mini-romag generator is composed of two main parts. The rotor & the stator. The rotor is a brass cylinder with 6 pairs & magnets placed at 600 around its circumference. The magnets use the copper coated steel coiles around the magnets. The stator is a copper cylinder with 6 flat coils wound so as the coils axis are tangent to rotation of the rotor. So only the orthogonal component & the magnetic field of the magnets is used. Fig.1. shows the construction of mini-romag generator. HOW THE UNIT FUNCTIONS? The disclosed 3-1/2 volt, 7 amperage magnetic generator must be charged up by driving the main shaft at 2100 rpm for 42 seconds. This charging is process manifects as magnetic energy within the six coils of copper wire, the copper tube supporting these coils & the copper coated steel wires wrapped wound the magnets. This charging is accomplished while six coil connection wires are making contact & setting up their alternating magnetic poles. After the 42 seconds charging time, one of these coils connection wires must be opened & this circuit again completed through an energy drawn process at what could be called 7 amps. As magnetic current is drawn from the six coils, this draw sets up magnetic poles, which are a response between the rotor magnets & stator coils.

Adjustant fig. shows the flux pattern at the point where the back emf pulse would occur. The flux collapse (back emf) at the position shown in the rotation, shows that the fields between the coils & magnets that provides the torque. These fields are opposed & repel each other. Since rotation moves the rotor past the point where it would be normal backdrag the force aids rotation rather than stopping the rotation. A critical speed of 2100 rpm must be exceeded for this to work. After this response, the drives unit (like hand crank) is disconnected allowing the unit to rotate with the load being the activating driving force. The fields of the magnets must be maintained during their spin movement. These magnetic fields which are encapsulating are achieved by the wiring system around the magnets of rotor. The wiring system distributes an energy flow by properly containing the magnetic energy power of each magnet & at the power pulse point, release the harnessed energy into the stator windings. The mini-romag generator runs only when it places vertically. It can`t run horizontally. The magnetisum of the earth system FEEDS this unit from the top. Gravity is compressed magnetism. The spinning rotor captures this compressed magnetism.

HOW ACTUALLY VOLTAGE GENERATES ? The mini-romage generator is tested with other magnetic devices. The oscilloscope picture, shows the signal generated by a moving magnet :The left picture is the voltage generated across the coil when a magnetic axis acrosses the coil axis. This is a case of convenational magnetic generator in which coils are placed such that coil axis are perpendicular the rotation of the rotor. In this case, you can notice the signal induced across coil is symmetrical Vs the zero line, the voltage value induced during the approach phase is the voltage induced during the exit phase. (Sinusoidal wave). In right case, it is picture the voltage generated across the coil when magnetic axis crosses the middle of the tangent coil ,(orthogonal component of the magnetic field) this is case of mini-romag generator. In this right picture you may notice that the voltage induced is more positive than negative (asymmetrical) when the magnet crosses the middle of the tangent coil. During approach phase of the north pole of the magnet, a north pole is created on the left surface of coil, this creates the negative voltage as (according to Lenz law) shown. During the exit phase of the north pole of the magnet (from the middle of coil to the right), a south pole is created on the right surface of the right surface of the coil (according to Lenz law). This creates the negative voltage shown. The

coil flux has never been reverse in this case. Now at the middle position (when the magnetic crosses the middle of the coils), the orthogonal magnet flux density drops to zero . So the positive pulse induced in the coil is not due to moving magnet, but is generated by the collapse of the magnetic field (back emf). In this case, unlike the conventional generator, there is no coupling between the rotor magnets & the stator coils during the positive phase of the signal generated. At this moment, we have two important events, the back emf current is maximum & the creation of a magnet. Magnetic field in the coils which contributes to attract the previous magnet placed at – 600. The coil #1 attract the coil magnet #2 The coil # 2attract the coil magnet # 3 . . . .

The coil # 6, attract the coil magnet # 1 Thus in this way, it seems possible that mini romag generator is able to generate its own motional energy at a certain speed & thus it is able to run itself in self sustained mode.

NEED OF THE MAGNETIC ENERGY DEVICE – MINI ROMAG GENERATOR ? Mini romag generator runs on free energy provided by magnets & earth`s energy field. The generator is designed to recycle magnetic energy back to the environment, to help to save the environment. Thus it does not produce pollution. Electricity which is backbone of today`s technically progressing world, also constantly drawing energy from the ionosphere to maintain functioning. The problem is that power plants do not use the energy properly nor do they recycle the energy back to the ionosphere, thus creates imbalance. Powerful vortex fields form in ionosphere that draw energy up to restore to depleted field because of power plants, often results in dangerous storms that involve torndoes & hurricants. Many of the negative effects of electricity production are apparent to most people, along with the above mentioned severe negative effect on the environment, & the millions of tons of pollution that power plants pump into atmosphere. And hence people now progress beyond the current destructive Technologies, to the processes of extracting natural resources like magnetic energy & manufacturing material will become pollution free.

Application :It seems the best application for this unit is to feed magnetic current to a small magnetic heating unit, a magnetic water pump, or some other small magnetic device that will attract magnetic energy. Neutral magnetic current must be offered a place to go which offers if a chance to gain a particular polarity. So, the principles of the pump & the magnetic motor reveal a way to set up a magnetic circuit & device & draw magnetic current into various devices. Electrical devices do not draw magnetic current as they do not have an attract structure. CONCLUSION :Romag generator, which is next step after mini-romag generator, is magnetic device which produces magnetic current equivalent to 50 H.P. output. It is also a pollution free device. It requires startup to achieve 1850 rpm for 67 seconds. In today`s urbanized society where environmental pollution is the most severe problem because of imperfect recycling processes, the challenge is to design the economic system ,so that it will not destroy the environmental support systems & economic progress can continue. The magnetic devices like Mini-romag generator ,which are pollution free devices tries to solve the problem in this menance.

BIBLIOGRAPHY :www.magneticenergy.com

The Mini-Romag generator from Magnetic Energy is composed of two main parts : The Rotor and the Stator. - The Rotor is a brass cylinder with 6 pairs of magnets placed at 60° around its circumference. The magnets polarities are alternatively North and South. - The Stator is a copper cylinder with 6 flat coils wounded so as the coils axis are tangent to the rotation of the rotor. So, only the orthogonal component of the magnetic field of the magnets is used. The oscilloscope pictures below, show the signal generated by a moving magnet : - The left picture is the voltage generated across the coil when a magnet axis crosses the coil axis, this is a conventional setup for a magnetic generator. - The right picture is the voltage generated across the coil when a magnet axis crosses the middle of the tangent coil (orthogonal component of the magnetic field), this is the case of the Mini-Romag generator. In the left case (conventional generator), you can notice that the signal induced across the coil is symetrical Vs the zero line, the voltage value induced during the approach phase is equal to the voltage induced during the exit phase. During the approach phase of the North pole of the magnet (from the left to the coil axis), a North pole is created on the bottom surface of the coil (according to the Lenz law), this creates the negative voltage shown. When the North pole of the magnet leaves the axis of the coil, a South pole is created on the bottom surface of the coil (according to the Lenz law), this creates the positive voltage shown in the scope picture. The flux in the coil has been reversed in this case. In this case there is always a magnetic coupling between the rotor (magnets) and the stator (coil). In the right case (orthogonal field (Mini-Romag Setup)), you may notice that the voltage induced is more positive than negative (asymmetrical) when the magnet crosses the middle of the tangent coil. During the approach phase of the North

pole of the magnet (from the left to the middle of the coil), a North pole is created on the left surface of the coil (according to the Lenz law), this creates the negative voltage shown. During the exit phase of the North pole of the magnet (from the middle of the coil to the right), a South pole is created on the right surface of the coil (according to the Lenz law), this creates the negative voltage shown. The coil flux has never been reversed in this case. Now, look at the middle position (when the magnet crosses the middle of the coil). In this case, the orthogonal magnetic flux density drops to zero (this has been checked with a gauss meter). So the positive pulse induced in the coil is not due to the moving magnet, but it is generated by the collapse of the magnetic field (Back EMF)....In this case there is no magnetic coupling between the rotor (magnets) and the stator (coil) during the positive phase of the signal generated At this moment, we have two important events : the Back EMF current is maximum and the creation of a magnetic field in the coil which contributes to ATTRACT the previous magnet placed at -60°. For instance : - the coil #1 attracts the coil magnet #2, - the coil #2 attracts the coil magnet #3, - the coil #3 attracts the coil magnet #4, - the coil #4 attracts the coil magnet #5, - the coil #5 attracts the coil magnet #6, - the coil #6 attracts the coil magnet #1. According to this principle, it seems possible that the Mini-Romag is able to generate its own motional energy at a certain speed and thus, is able to run itself in self-sustained mode.... The use of a copper tube for the stator contributes to increase the attraction of the previous rotor magnet, because the eddy currents induced change their magnetic axis direction due to the magnetic field interaction with the magnetic field generated in the stator coil. This is a personal analysis, and this proposal needs to be checked experimentaly, so, today, I can't confirm that this device can work really as Magnetic Energy claims, but some premises encourage me to go further in this way... You will find below some additional informations sent by Magnetic Energy about the "Magnetic Current"... <<Very briefly, magnetic current is an energy that can flow through a wire, it can jump a gap and change form, it can be conducted through air and space, it can take on an infinite variety of polarities, it will not shock the body but make it numb depending on the intensity (more on this later), it flows when it is attracted to something, it can produce matter or break down matter in the right conditions, it can produce force fields, it can assist in momentum, it can assist in particle detection up close or far away, it can produce heat and cold in the right conditions, it can produce light in the right conditions, it can effect any natural system either enhancing it or alleviating it, it can enhance or detract from literally any energy

form, it can be polarized into fields that can serve an infinite number of purposes, it does not deplete the earth's atmosphere like electricity, it occurs in various levels throughout nature, it can be monitored like electricity but it is not the same, nature does not produce electricity - it produces magnetic current that can be measured as electricity, magnetic current can move at a nearly infinite velocity, and it can be altered by the elements it interacts with - this is why the composition of the magnets is so very important - the composition or the elements determine the characteristics of the magnetic current as well as its speed and pulse rate. Every amazing or miraculous human event can be reproduced using magnetic current in the right conditions.>> Recommended documents: •"Magnetic Currents -- the Monopole ?" by Kristen Joseph (Electric Spacecraft Journal July/Aug/sept 1991) Issue No.3 •"New experiments about the Magnetic Current", Ehrenhaft, Felix, Physical Review, Vol 65, 1944, pp 62-63 •"Continuation of experiments with the Magnetic Current", Ehrenhaft, Felix, Physical Review, Vol 65, 1944, pp 256 •"Magnetic Current" Radio News Electric World, April 1945, p22. From Jean-Louis Naudin : I shall be very interested and this will be very helpful for me, if you send me some additional informations about the "Magnetic Current" and some experiments that I can perform about this. Thanks for sharing your knowledge...

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3.6 Waste Incineration

In 1989 there were 3.75 million tonnes of solid waste disposed of in the Sydney region. The quantity of waste being disposed of is increasing both in total and on a per capita basis. It is estimated that at these rates, annual waste quantities would increase to some 5.5 million tonnes by 2001 and by as much as 7.1 million tonnes by 2011. Waste analysis programs carried out by the then Waste Management Authority (WMA) indicate the average composition of council collected garbage are those shown in the following table:

Figure 3.7 - Average composition of council collected garbage
Component of Waste Weight % (as received) ---------------------------------------------------------paper products 20.9 food waste 27.5 garden waste 20.5 plastics 7.6 wood, rubber, textiles 4.3 metals 6.3 glass 9.3 fines 3.6 It is important to note that solid wastes are not homogeneous in nature but are a mixture of both combustible and non-combustible materials which vary from location to location and over time. Apart from avoiding waste from the very beginning and recycling the waste produced, one of the best methods of waste management for the future is to burn it in a refuse fuelled power station. An international comparison shows that countries with little space for waste disposal sites make greater use of incineration technologies. While the incineration of household waste in the European Community member countries averages only 20%, the corresponding figures for Japan and Switzerland are 65% and 80% respectively. 20

The energy content of household waste varies greatly. This energy can be recovered in waste incineration. The relative contribution of waste incineration to the overall generation of energy is small, hardly exceeding 1% of the national consumption of primary energy in any country. However, considered from the perspective of plant technology, conventional waste incineration is a well-developed process. The technology of waste incineration provides two distinct advantages. The first is the reduction in volume of disposed wastes to about 5% of the original volume (or about 20-30% of the original weight) and the second is the utilization of the energy produced for the generation of electricity. The scarcity of landfill sites and the increasing difficulty in obtaining approval for future disposal sites, particularly in built-up areas such as the Sydney Basin, is forcing other disposal options to be considered. Waste incineration whilst it is not necessarily the whole answer, will be an important consideration in the assessment of options for future disposal. The WMA Strategic Plan has included the use of incineration as an alternative to the long distance transfer of waste away from the metropolitan area. The WMA also indicate that a strategy of progressive implementation of three incinerators (1000 tonnes/day) during the planning period of 2001 to 2011 would require an investment of the order of $450 million in 1988 values.

Technologies
The technologies for the incineration of wastes can be divided in two distinct categories. The first has been developed for the incineration of domestic refuse and sewage sludge, whilst the second has been developed for the incineration of industrial refuse and sludge. Domestic incinerators consist of a moving grate, of which there are numerous designs and onto which the garbage is dumped (some of the more common designs are known as the roller grate, tilting grate, step type travelling grate and the inclined grate). Combustion air is passed from beneath the grate through the burning garbage. The heat produced is used for the production of steam. Residence time in the incinerator can be strictly controlled by varying the grate speed and hence avoiding emission problems caused by incomplete combustion. There are two types of industrial refuse and sludge incineration plant, namely the rotary kiln and the fluidised bed. Both domestic and industrial waste disposal methods rely on the concept of complete 'burnout' of the waste. This is done to minimise the pollutants contained in combustion gases. Complete 'burnout' is best achieved by high temperatures, long residence times and by good mixing of the combustion gases. 21

The heat produced from the combustion of waste material is transferred to banks of water wall tubes for the production of steam which in turn is used to drive a steam turbine and electrical generator. This process of steam raising is similar in design to some of the other technologies discussed throughout this document, for instance fluidised bed combustion technologies and combined cycle. Once the heat contained in the combustion gases is transferred to the steam circuit, pollution control equipment is used to reduce harmful pollutants. Burning of domestic and industrial refuse, leads to emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Depending on the nature of refuse, it is expected that the refuse residue should only contain low levels of organic compounds and heavy metals. Waste incineration plants can operate with minimum impact on the environment by employing emission control equipment such as flue gas desulphurisation for the control of sulphur dioxide and acid gases, a thermal nitrogen oxides removal system for control of nitrogen oxides and a high efficiency particulate collection device such as a fabric filter for removal of solids and heavy metals carried along by the exhaust gases. The size of waste incineration plants is often quoted in terms of the mass of refuse consumed per hour rather than the maximum electrical output. This is useful because the energy contained in the refuse feed can vary substantially with time and hence the maximum electrical energy generated also varies. Common incinerator sizes are between 5 and 30 tonnes per hour. Plant sizes are generally between 15 and 30 MW of electrical output. For waste tonnages greater than this, it is usual to install a number of these units in a single facility. The energy contained in domestic garbage is approximately 8-10 MJ/kg or 3040% of the energy content of black coal. Industrial refuse incineration generally excludes the burning of scrap tyres. Because of the nature of manufacture of tyres, the tyre combustion process releases a significant amount of potentially toxic air pollutants such as arsenic, cadmium, dioxins, furans and other trace heavy metals. Therefore, tyre combustion requires "Best Available Control Technology" (BACT) for the control of emissions. To achieve this level of environmental control a significant amount of expenditure is required which adds significantly to the total cost of the incineration plant. For this reason, the current practice of waste disposal is to separate scrap tyres from other wastes. Tyre combustion technology has already proven to be clean, safe, odourless and virtually pollution free at a power plant constructed at Modesto, California, U.S.A. The plant can burn up to 6 million tyres per year. Whole scrap tyres are fed into two identical incineration plants at a rate of about 6.5 22

tonnes/hour and burned under carefully controlled conditions. Combustion is carried out at a temperature of 1100 degrees Celsius to produce 14 MW of electric power. This relatively high temperature combustion process ensures the complete burnout of the tyres. Together with complete air quality control, the operation of this facility has been claimed to be environmentally safe.
3.7 Landfill Gas

Landfill gas refers to the formation of combustible gases from garbage dumps through primarily anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes (mostly food, garden and paper wastes). The gas produced consists predominantly of methane and carbon dioxide and contains 40-60% of the energy content of natural gas. Some 3.75 million tonnes of solid waste were disposed of in the Sydney region in 1989, and as much as 7.1 million tonnes annually are projected by the year 2011. These wastes not only represent a significant problem in terms of disposal urban areas such as Sydney but also a large potential energy resource. Driven by environmental concerns during the 1950's investigations were carried out around the world into the characteristics of landfills over their lifetime and the constituents of the odorous gases produced. It was found that the wastes decomposed in the presence of moisture and the action of anaerobic bacteria, producing methane and carbon dioxide. As well as these gases being produced, other gases were released including nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and traces of hydrogen sulphide (rotten egg gas) resulting in the foul odours normally associated with garbage dumps. Methane as a gas contributes significantly to the greenhouse effect and contributes 6 times more to global warming than does carbon dioxide on a molecule for molecule basis. For this reason there is an advantage in burning this methane to produce energy, which although producing carbon dioxide has less impact on the greenhouse effect. The decomposition of garbage commences soon after collection with the initial process being aerobically activated and the gases produced consisting mainly of carbon dioxide. Once the garbage has been compacted into the landfill the remaining oxygen is consumed and anaerobic conditions prevail. This is then suitable, providing moisture is present, for the production of methane. The technology for using landfill gas as a fuel source for power generation, using gas turbines or engines is well established. In 1975, the USA started utilising landfill gas at Palos Verdes in southern California and since then more than 70 sites have been developed. In Germany more than 50 sites now exploit this gas and in Britain there are 24 commercial schemes drawing gas 23

from 18 locations with a further 26 schemes either in advanced planning stages or under construction. In the Sydney region there are two projects presently underway. The first located at Merrylands was originally the site of an old brickworks excavation which was filled with approximately 700,000 tonnes of garbage between 1979 and 1985 and now produces about 700 cubed metres per hour of landfill gas. Most of this site has now been dressed with soil and landscaped. About 7 years ago the then Waste Management Authority began selling this gas to the local brick works for firing its kilns. More recently, however, the brickworks have ceased operation and a 165kW engine and generator have now been installed to utilise the gas for generating electricity. This project has been a joint effort between Prospect Electricity, Waste Management Authority and Pacific Power and will provide valuable operating experience for future use of this technology. The second project located at Lucas Heights, south-west of Sydney, is planned to be larger than the Merrylands project and will be built, owned and operated by a private company as a commercial venture. There is estimated to be at least 0.5 PJ per annum (initially some 3000 cubed metres per hour) of gas at this location which is sufficient to generate on average 5 MW of electricity over the next 15 years.

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Fig. Shows the flux pattern at 26 point where the back emf the plus would occur

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