Encyclopedia of Mind Enhancing Foods, Drugs and Nutritional Substances | Carbohydrates | Honey

Encyclopedia Of Mind Enhancing Foods, Drugs And Nutritional Substances

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Encyclopedia of Mind Enhancing Foods, Drugs and Nutritional Substances

Author: Group, David W. Hardback; Book 224 pages Published: November 2000 McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN: 0786408537

Book Description
It seems as though every day brings a new pill or potion claiming to restore mental alertness or improve memory. While many of these claims are based on factual information, many others are not. This encyclopedia of foods and drugs that are believed to improve mental performance contains information on nearly 400 nutrients, herbs, and drugs, ranging from ancient plant compounds to the latest pharmaceuticals. Entries are arranged by type of substance, such as foods, vitamins, minerals, spices, and medical drugs. Each entry contains information such as alternate names and forms, sources, results, side effects, precautions, and recommended dosage. Although readers are encouraged to consult with their doctors before diagnosing and treating themselves, this book provides crucial, factual, and unbiased information on the "miracle drugs" that many people believe can solve health problems from fatigue to Alzheimer's. Readers can discover for themselves the properties of each substance. A complete index allows for easy reference and help with alternate names, food and drug interactions, and symptoms.

Preface
The brain is a physical organ just like the heart or lungs or liver and, as such, its functioning can be affected by our environment, particularly the substances we put in our bodies. I first became aware of smart drugs from an article in Omni magazine some twenty years ago while I was attending college. It was also at that time that I was becoming aware of health foods, and the article so impressed me that, while other students were taking speed and No-Doz to cram for exams, I was gobbling hand-fuls of vitamins. While my approach was undoubtedly too haphazard and belated to have had much effect, it certainly set me on the right path. But it wasn't until a few years ago that a number of books began coming out extolling the virtues of synthetic drugs that could actually reverse aging, prevent Alzheimer's, or improve the functioning of the brain. I began taking notes, thinking the information, when summarized, would amount to no more than a few dozen pages. Even though I only worked on it occasionally and in my spare time, it didn't take long for the research to swell to its current size. My enthusiasm for the project was tempered by the fact that many of these books downplayed or ignored the side effects of these drugs, some of which were quite serious. Compounding my frustration was the fact that none was very comprehensive and none could be used for easy reference by the reader. I vowed to remedy that situation. The result is this book, which deals with over 400 various substances ranging from basic foods to the newest wonder drugs, from the most commonplace substances to the most obscure — by far the most complete work on the subject. The chapters are arranged progressively, beginning with the safest and most natural substances and ending with synthetic drugs and additives that are experimental and potentially hazardous. The entries for the substances are alphabetized by popular name within the appropriate chapter, and include such information as alternative names and forms (scientific, brand names, and so forth), sources (such as foods), effects (benefits), precautions (side effects, interactions, overdosage, medical conditions that may render the substance ineffective or toxic), and dosage. In the interest of brevity, I have eliminated much of the history, folklore, background, and detailed analysis of individual studies, dealing only with that information that can help the reader evaluate each substance. This book does not contain a discussion of how the brain works and the various theories of aging. Neither does it deal with all the vitamins and nutritional supplements required by the human body— only those that have more-or-less direct effects on the brain. It should also be noted that all of the substances mentioned in this book are secondary to the two most important brain-boosters: physical exercise and mental exercise. It is essential to keep challenging yourself throughout life so that the mind and body remain in peak condition. It seems rather ironic that, with new strides in medical and nutritional science enabling us to live longer and more productive lives, most people would rather not live to a ripe old age. This fear of old age is based on a basic misconception — that the elderly are invariably frail in mind and body. Too often, however, the ravages of age are no more than the accumulated results of a lifetime of poor health habits. Though some decline in abilities is inevitable, the picture is not as dire as it was once thought. Though smart-drug proponents and the media will often tout a particular substance as a new "wonder drug," the truth is that there is probably no such thing. The human mind — not to mention the human body and the process of aging — is too complex for any single pill to be considered a cure-all, as there are inevitable side effects of any medicine, natural or man-made. The Fountain of Youth is not so much a single herb, or vitamin, or pill, but a way of life, a holistic view that takes into account all aspects of nutrition and health.

Encyclopedia of Mind Enhancing foods, drugs, and nutritional substances
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Foods Herbs Vitamins, Minerals, and related Nutrients Amino Acids Lipids Nucleic Acids Miscellanious Nutrients Hormones Essential Oils Etheogens Medical Drugs Nootropics Other

Stuart Berger. it can rot teeth faster than table sugar. a simple sugar found in nature that is necessary for the brain's functioning. and has a thick. Complex carbohydrates are preferable. Ph. and E. nor should anything hot be consumed immediately after taking it. and can promote cavities. and women may even experience uterine bleeding. Super Blue Green Algae can cause abdominal distress. is extremely unstable and should always be kept refrigerated. The darker the honey. in fact. B-12. unsaturated fats. Renner. carbohydrates should be taken with as little protein and fat as possible.. asserts that any health benefits of bee pollen are a myth. Ideally. either to contaminants in harvesting or possible natural toxins in the SBGA itself. instead of becoming sleepy. Simple carbohydrates include the various sugars found in fruit (fructose). which could pose a threat to susceptible individuals. and antioxidants. refined foods. Spirulina is high in phenylalanine. Effects: Protects against bacteria. ROYALJELLY Royal jelly is made from bee pollen. Honey could also contain carcinogens that bees have inadvertently picked up from flowers sprayed with pesticides. and that it can even be harmful. skin rashes. MlCROALGAE AND SEAWEED AKA: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. destroying much of the protein and nutritional content. sea mussel. it could also contain any number of naturally occurring toxins that are as yet undiscovered. the honey is heated to high temperatures. Effects: Super Blue Green Algae (SBGA) is said to increase energy and give feelings of euphoria. If consumption is timed right. HONEY Effects: Contains antioxidants. releasing the sugar into the bloodstream slowly. room temperature. honey made from Illinois buckwheat flowers has 20 times the antioxidants as honey made from California sage. the more the antioxidants. used in the making of SBGA. and any derived benefits negligible.D. Simple carbohydrates. as it may contain harmful bacteria. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. there is no evidence SBGA strengthens the immune system. diarrhea. Some avoid the freezedried form. leaving them susceptible to sickness or even death. Super Blue Green Algae. one of which affects the liver and the other the nervous system. or traces of penicillin and sulfite. while adults and older children have stomach acid that can kill the bacterium. Honey should never be fed to infants under one year of age. as it takes longer for the body to break them down." Dosage: 300 to 400 g/day from complex carbohydrates. SBGA. Food Sources: Fruits. It contains many vitamins.. professor of biology at the University of North Dakota at Grand Forks. They act as an antidepressant for people with less sugarinduced serotonin in the brain than normal (such as those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder [SAD]). the organism that causes botulism.. whole grains. Despite the claims of some health advocates. and Sheldon Saul Hendler. as these slow down or hinder serotonin on its way to the brain. and testosterone. as it contains spores of Clostridium botulinum. M. All forms of microalgae and seaweed are excellent sources of amino acids. M. chlorella. fresh.D. and essential trace elements. the vitamin and mineral content of honey is minimal. dizziness. fatty acids. heart palpitations. infants do not.. for instance. freezedried. It should never be used in hot drinks.D. Microalgae are singlecelled plants that grow in fresh water or bacteria. and even has more sugar content than refined sugar. possibly because of its stickiness and the fact that its vitamin and mineral content. Some people are "carbohydrate cravers. The few studies that have been conducted bear out this statement. and natural. Foods should be unrefined. The most common types used for food are chlorella and spirulina. and honey. is capable of producing two toxins. vitamins A. an acidic condition of the blood. Adverse side effects may result from an allergy or intolerance. Ph. and is said to be similar to Omega-3. minerals. however small. protein (higher than meats or soybeans). and unprocessed. Effects: Carbohydrates help relax the brain and are necessary for good mental functioning. but more potent in its health benefits. gastrointestinal problems. has found that every sample tested had significant levels of the toxic metals mercury and lead. The oil of this shellfish is rich in amino acids. restlessness. Precautions: For the most health benefits. Not only that. vegetables. for instance) have no nutritional value except for calories. whole grains. except for one report that spirulina is a good source of gammalinolenic acid (GLA). Precautions: Fructose does not have this calming effect. and snack foods should be avoided. Pure royal jelly. and diabetes. or trigger an allergic reaction from the variety of pollens it may contain. Compounding the problem is the fact that manufacturers may feed bees sugar water or add sugar syrup to the honey to increase the sweetness (a tipoff is inexpensive brands that pour easily). among other disorders. unheated. Complex carbohydrates are found in vegetables. especially table sugar. "They are the only food category not linked to any killer diseases. to quote Dr. enzymes. Tupelo honey has the most fructose of any of the honeys and doesn't cause the insulin rush that others do. For best effect. or boredom. Honey also has the highest sugar content of all the natural sweeteners. vomiting. resulting in an initial surge of energy from the sugar followed by lethargy caused by the sudden rush of insulin. spirulina. Harvard researchers have discovered that some components of this microalga may encourage the growth of cancerous tumors. or about 1200 to 1600 kilocalories/day (out of an average total of 1800 to 2200 kilocalories/day). though seaweed could probably be placed in this category also. milk (lactose). cause rapid changes in blood sugar and insulin. Manufacturers say several weeks may pass before the beneficial effects of improved mental functioning and concentration are evident. as it may cause dependency. seaweed. possibly by amplifying serotonergic neurotransmission. frozen. nausea. or mixed with honey. and so should not be taken by anyone with phenylketonuria (PKU) or skin cancer. can flood the body and trigger an oversecretion of insulin by the isles of Langerhans. as well as the sole natural source of pure acetylcholine. C. There is no way of controlling the purity or potency of spirulina — consider the fact that Elliot Shubert.CHAPTER 1 Foods CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are the principal source of the body's energy and are divided into two types —simple and complex. brown sugar. may provide a favorable environment for bacteria.D. some recommend 150 mg/day.. saliva secretions of worker bees. A minimum of 50 g/day are needed to prevent ketosis. Dosage: Approximately Yi of a teaspoon daily. beyond that. 65 percent of a person's caloric intake should be carbohydrates —55 percent from complex carbohydrates and starches and 10 percent from natural sugars such as those found in fruit. or sunlight. enzymes. and funguses. as the chemical structure is said to be altered in the process. milky texture. . these people become more focused and alert. M. and table sugar (sucrose). and lead to obesity. Carbohydrates are safe and. others 600 mg/ day. Precautions: Microalgae and seaweed are good sources of amino acids and some vitamins but. John H. viruses. headaches. and legumes. It is available in sealed capsules.D. claims of their nutritional or therapeutic value are overstated. they can increase the brain's energy levels. the honey should be unfiltered. canned goods. nori. According to Dr. Precautions: It is more stable when mixed with honey. Andrew Weil. president of the Consumer Health Information Research Institute. and honey. in capsule form. amino acids. cyanobacteria." and need them to prevent drowsiness. Simple sugars (table sugar. Effects: Reputed to prevent heart disease and relieve joint and muscle pains. hypoglycemia. Further. and better sustain concentration. chlorophyll. NEW ZEALAND GREEN-LIPPED MUSSEL AKA: Perna canaliculus. And the fact that no one knows what the pharmacological agent is that provides the stimulant effect worries Dr. as they are readily broken down into glucose. and it loses some of its nutritional value when exposed to air. and is one of the richest natural sources of B-5. Andrew Weil. states there is no scientific evidence for the salubrious effects attributed to these organisms. the most potent form.

ANISE AKA: Aniseed. and a variety of eye problems. sedative. Effects: An adaptogen that may provide energy and stamina. Preparing herbs from extracts insures the standardization of the level of the active ingredients. and cardamom has been used to treat asthma. Populus candicans. it "may act as brain food. Ph. Effects: Said to reduce anxiety. Ph. chronic lung weakness. aconite. the usual dose of a decoction is 9 to 16 g/day. and reduce intestinal gas. which is helpful in treating gallstones. Elettaria cardamomum. 3 times a day between meals. and eggplants. as well. it is said to reduce stress and anxiety and to improve vitality. CALIFORNIA POPPY AKA: Eschscholtzia californica. BLACK COHOSH AKA: Black snakeroot. obesity. increasing circulation. Taken internally. laryngitis. It purportedly has antiviral properties. use can cause a urine test to read positive for opiates. Dosage: One to two cups of tea a day. fever.. It should not be combined with alcohol. kidney problems. which may account for its reputation in Arab cultures as a male aphrodisiac. Duke. Effects: According to traditional Indian medicine. when the plant is harvested. Precautions: Common side effects include skin rashes and allergic reactions. flu. ASHWAGANDHA AKA: Winter cherry. it is used for coughs and chest conditions. and symptoms of menopause. vomiting. Pimpinella anisum. Precautions: Overdose symptoms include headaches. vomiting. Populus tacamahaca." Ashwagandha is a member of the nightshade family. Care should be taken when using herbs. presumably for HIV. burren myrtle. for medicinal purposes. prescription sedatives. Dosage: James Duke recommends adding 1 to 2 teaspoons of crushed seed per cup of boiling water. Works synergistically with schizandra berry. It is said to increase male libido. Ph. whineberry. No scientific studies of its effects have been done on humans. stimulate the appetite. richweed. It may have a stimulating effect on the cardiac system. Ph. including ones sold in health food stores. hurtleberry. It contains estrogen-like substances which may be helpful in treating symptoms associated with menstruation and menopause. though according to James A. itching.D. heartburn. improve peripheral circulation. problems with blood circulation to the brain. cardamon. Effects: May relieve insomnia and anxiety. and Phyllis Balch. recommends 400 mg/day. and may inhibit cancer. Precautions: May increase blood pressure in some individuals. Earl Mindell. pennyroyal. BLESSED THISTLE AKA: Cerbenia benedicta. and treating liver problems. it is said to treat coughs. balance the bodily systems. Though its alkaloids are nowhere near as powerful. Works synergistically with citrus fruits. emphysema. BILBERRY AKA: Black whortleberry. rheumatism. Populus balsamifera. Also used as an antiseptic. and catarrhal enteritis. There have been few studies. and vaginitis. many other herbs work better. and animal feces. Astragalus membranaceous. get rid of phlegm and bronchial congestion. Herbal products from India may be contaminated with mold. the California poppy is related to the opium poppy. it is perfectly legal to grow and. anxiety. It has been used to treat hemorrhoids.. huang qi. Precautions: It can cause mild gastrointestinal problems. Works synergistically with such sedative herbs as valerian. climate. Various extracts have displayed antiinflammatory. Cimicifuga racemosa. as it may contain some compounds that are harmful when taken in significant quantities. detoxify various drugs and metals. Cineole also kills bacteria that cause bad breath. sweet broom. Precautions: None known. Exceeding the recommended dose is not advised. ASTRAGALUS AKA: Astragalus hoantchy. though there is no scientific evidence for this. BALM OF GILEAD AKA: Balsam poplar. a mild central nervous system stimulant. Populus gileadensis. It has been used to treat nausea.. as some of them (comfrey. .D. and female disorders. and — in combination with vitamin E — cortical cataracts. According to James A. then straining. Effects: May be a mild relaxant. boost the immune system." It is used by herbalists as a tonic for the stomach and heart.S. CARDAMOM AKA: Bastard cardamom. knee holly. sweating. Ruscus aculeatus.D. bugwort. applied externally it is used for rheumatoid arthritis and sore muscles. varicose veins. cancer. nausea. in fact. Take once in the morning and once in the evening. Sometimes referred to as the "Indian ginseng. but this can be prevented by taking it with meals..C. and tumors. and gas. or 9 g/day of a powder composed of 15 to 20 percent astragalus. dyeberry. Works synergistically with gotu kola. Duke. acid indigestion. huang chi. and dizziness.D. Eating the fresh berries can reportedly regulate bowel action. high cholesterol. As with poppy seeds. malaria. common anise. rattleroot. Precautions: Handling the plant can cause toxic skin reactions. bugbane.. it can reportedly help combat HIV. blueberry. Effects: Said to increase blood flow to the brain. Despite this. It can interfere with the absorption of iron. Raynaud's syndrome. wineberry. recommends 400 mg 1 to 3 times a day. Dosage: As a tincture. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid herbs as a general rule. astringent. including night blindness. It may relieve inflammation and prove beneficial to the bladder and kidneys. are very powerful. transport.Ph. Dosage: Earl Mindell. and other circulatory problems. Cardamom also contains the compound borneol. It has been used to treat epilepsy and leprosy. Vaccinium myrtillus. and Siberian ginseng to relieve stress. have antiviral properties. Effects: May have antioxidant properties. huckleberry. Consumption of large amounts could cause nausea (though mild nausea may just be a response to its bitter taste). Cancer patients are generally given up to 30 g/day. and the method of preparation (the word standardized should be on any herbal product). rattleweed. Stick with brandname herbal products made in the U. It has been used to treat arthritis and help heal broken bones. It has traditionally been used to treat respiratory ailments. counteract stress. James Duke recommends 5 teaspoons of the herb in a cup of boiling water 2 or 3 times a day. As a tea. BUPLERUM AKA:Ch'aihu. stomach cramps. and memory. and antidiarrhea medication. is the state flower of California. 15-40 drops in water 3 times a day. Precautions: It should not be taken by those running a fever. Dosage: In China. sore throat.Ph. Evidence suggests it might be useful in the treatment of colds. even teas. Precautions: Though the fresh berries can stop diarrhea in some people. R. It may also be used to treat nervous tension and muscle tics. if used indiscriminately selfdiagnosis and selftreatment are not encouraged. and other minor side effects. Other herbs maybe added in a blend that increases the absorption. Effects: Contains several estrogen-like compounds. and improve mental functioning. steeping for 10 to 15 minutes. and vertigo. Herbalists have used it to treat cramps. and blood pressure-lowering effects in animals. Malabar cardamom. It should not be used as a substitute for anticoagulant medication. but those conducted have yielded encouraging results: it enhanced mood and improved hemoglobin and blood plasma protein levels in a 1993 study. glaucoma. fever.D.. golden poppy. Vaccinium corybosum. photophobia. where qualitative standards are higher than in other countries.. and effectiveness of the main herb. The alkaloids are different from those of the opium poppy and. though they have not been thoroughly studied. Dosage: The usual dose is 30 drops of tincture. Works synergistically with vitamin C. squawroot. BRAHMI AKA: Hydrocetyle asiatica. Butcher's Broom is an evergreen shrub in the lily family that is closely related to asparagus. or a spoonful of whole dried herb in a cup of tea 2 to 3 times a day. Meniere's disease. It is used in Europe to treat varicose veins. HIV. as well as carpal tunnel syndrome. BUTCHER'S BROOM AKA: Box holly. R. hangover-like effects the next day. Effects: A natural antioxidant. whortleberry. and it is said to improve digestion and appetite. Balm of Gilead is a North American poplar that is different from the biblical plant (Commiphora meccanensis) of the same name. Effects: Contains cineole. edema.. and showed positive results for patients with anxiety neurosis in a 1997 study. or other depressants. cimicifuga. gas. Effects: According to James Balch. Ph. C.N. even deadly. because some can interact with medications and prescription drugs. they can cause it in others. Dosage: One ounce of herb in one pint of boiling water taken 1 cup at a time. thrombophlebitis. and suppress coughing. can freshen bad breath. are not known to be narcotic or addictive. along with potatoes. and ephedra are some examples). and pain. Precautions: It should not be used by anyone suffering from a chronic disease. learning.CHAPTER 2 Herbs Individual herbs may have several active ingredients that enhance each other's effects. Effects: Said to relieve anxiety. tomatoes. Withania somnifera. was shown to alleviate withdrawal symptoms in morphine addiction in a 1995 study. Use of the leaves over an extended period of time can cause poisoning.. It is said to be a potent anticancer agent and may be useful in fighting off the flu and other respiratory infections. shatavari (Indian asparagus). diabetic retinopathy. Herbalists have used it for bronchitis. menstrual cramps. as the ingredients in the plants themselves can vary according to soil conditions. A doctor should always be informed of what herbs are being taken. insects. It has traditionally been used by Native Americans to treat chronic fatigue. high blood pressure.

Zanzibar pepper. and parasites. It may be helpful in treating constipation. Dosage: One cup of tea a day. and it may also have antiseptic properties. Ph. Further. it reportedly also relieves stress and anxiety and stimulates the appetite. The plant could cause inflammation of the skin if touched. abscesses.. flatulence. Effects: A mild sedative used in the treatment of insomnia. cockspur pepper. especially if taken in large doses or for prolonged periods of time. which may explain its reputation as an aphrodisiac. flu. Effects: It may have a calming or sleep-inducing effect. treating bacteria.D. Effects: Contains hyperzine. bleeding problems. Effects: An antioxidant. eczema. obesity. Precautions: Used as a folk remedy for a variety of conditions. Dosage: V4 teaspoon 3 times a day. stiff joints. cankerwort. priest's crown. liver disorders. arthritis. not to mention diabetes. gout. though it is generally considered very safe. and should not be used by those with kidney problems. Perkamillon. Effects: A mushroom that is used in China as a tonic to increase energy and stamina. Effects: Chamomile is said to stimulate the brain. and permanent loss of the sense of taste. Matricaria recutita (German chamomile). stitchwort. lycopod. Some claim that smoking the leaves results in a mild marijuana-like high. CHAPARRAL AKA: Larrea divaricata. and stimulates the white blood cells. It may help prevent colds. some may experience a burning sensation during defecation. It also has antinflammatory properties. A member of the mint family. dizziness. headaches. chili pepper. and prevent and heal ulcers. arthritis. both of which are beneficial to memory. starweed. Stellaria media (common chickweed). Clove oil is toxic in large amounts. aid in digestion. though scientific evidence is lacking. and chronic rheumatism. There appear to be no reports of toxicity. Syzygium aromaticum. Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed). Popular in Mexico. CAT'S CLAW AKA: Una de gato. one tablespoon two or three times a day an hour before meals. inflammation. angina. Dosage: The tea contains only 10 percent of the sedative-inducing chemicals of the herb.D. and pain. swine snout. bronchitis. An overdose of the tincture may cause diarrhea. Stellaria pubera (star chickweed). Capsicum frutescens. and anxiety. Cola soft drinks do not contain the herb. bird pepper. normalize blood pressure. Spanish pepper. plus the antioxidant carotenoids lutein and violaxanthin. Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). kidney damage. Dosage: James A. Precautions: Can cause reactions in those allergic to ragweed. There have also been reports of asthma. calm the nerves. Herbalists have used it to treat arthritis. As a tea. starwort. gout. which may aid in the alleviation of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various cancers. diarrhea. kolanin. wild celery. tuberculosis. either as a tea or an extract. The oil has antifungal and antibacterial properties. and wounds. constipation. catswort. Capsicum anuum. pericarditis. gout. Dosage: Up to 3 cups of tea a day (one ounce of herb per pint of water). it has antibacterial and antifungal properties and may inhibit the growth of the polio virus and certain tumors. Kamillosan. vomiting. Duke.In addition. pu gong ying. Precautions: There is no scientific evidence for any of its supposed health benefits. viruses. Effects: Contains the stimulant compound ephedrine. wild endive. vegetable sulfur. CLOVE AKA: Caryophyllus aromaticus. and strokes. CELERY AKA: Apium graveolens. cancer. cardiac arrhythmia. Eugenia aromatica. CAYENNE AKA: Africa pepper. rheumatism. kidney disease. Overdosing can cause nausea and vomiting. and caffeine. chronic fatigue. It is also a strong diuretic. fever. Precautions: Scientific evidence for any claims is lacking. though it is generally considered a safe herb. staghorn. DA T'SAO AKA: Jujube date. hemorrhoids. hay fever. Nepeta cataria. bladder infections. It is used as a female aphrodisiac in Jamaican and West African societies. as swallowing could produce side effects. high blood pressure. As a juice. Capsicum cream reportedly relieves the intense pain following an attack of herpes zoster (shingles) when applied to the affected areas. CATNIP AKA: Catmint. puffball. Huperzia serrata. Prolonged skin application (for treating arthritis. America pepper. depression. It is high in vitamin C and is good for colds. heart attacks. field balm. recommends five teaspoons of the herb in a cup of boiling water. a strong anesthetic. all of which are stimulants. CHINESE CLUB MOSS AKA: Club moss. and it can be very irritating to the mucous membranes if inhaled. goat's pepper. recommends a tablespoon of dried herb in a cup of boiling water. Effects: Contains the compounds theobromine. foxtail. Dosage: One to two cups of tea a day. Indian chickweed. Precautions: It is said to be nontoxic. but much milder. break up mucus in the throat and lungs. herbalists have used it to treat colic. and rheumatism) can result in dermatitis and blisters. it can reduce cavities by up to 75 percent. Precautions: Only the spores should be used. It increases circulation and thins the blood. dispel weariness. hot pepper. flu inflammation. but they do share the stimulating compound caffeine. Used as a mouthwash. nosebleeds. Cayenne is also said to help the body utilize other herbs more effectively. It has a similar effect to marijuana. and aid the immune system. CHAMOMILE AKA: Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile). asthma. one active ingredient is similar to an ingredient in valerian. Larrea tridentata. CHICKWEED AKA: Adder's mouth. aster. hepatitis. Dosage: James A Duke. Internal use may cause damage to the liver. nerve damage. Evidence for its supposed aphrodisiac qualities is only anecdotal. pleuritis. Precautions: There is only one documented case of an individual having suffered any adverse reactions. l/2 teaspoon of seeds in ¥2 cup of boiling water and strain. Used by herbalists as a diuretic for kidney disorders and as a treatment for nervous disorders and epilepsy. as it contains eugenol. Dosage: It is best used sparingly as a vegetable or salad green. Overconsumption can lead to gastroenteritis. . or who are taking anticoagulants should consult a physician before using cayenne. which inhibits the breakdown of acetylcholine. Lycopodium calvatum. and boils. and lack of appetite. Herbalists have also used it for dropsy. wolf claw. Effects: Da t'sao is said to promote calmness and is used in China to treat insomnia and dizziness. and several antioxidant vitamins. It also aids digestion and is used in the treatment of flatulence. tonguegrass. venereal diseases. Kamillosan and Perkamillon are German pharmaceutical brands used to treat indigestion and ulcers. DAMIANA AKA: Turnera aphrodisiaca. which dilates the blood vessels. It is traditionally thought of as an aphrodisiac. and it has been used to treat asthma. and hives in susceptible individuals. camomile. though all of it should be spit out immediately after rinsing the mouth. snake bites. Effects: A good source of lecithin and choline. and nausea. Effects: An antioxidant. CORDYCEPS AKA: Caterpillar fungus. Ph. Precautions: It can interfere with the absorption of iron. lion's tooth. it is used to make both a tea and a liqueur. cleanses the intestinal tract. COLA AKA: Cola nitida. Effects: May improve blood circulation and help prevent blood clots. Precautions: It appears to be a safe herb with no apparent side effects. Effects: It is high in vitamin C. Dosage: At least one celery stalk a day. stimulate appetite and digestion.. asthma. counteract insomnia. Effects: Contains nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). infection. alleviate the pain and joint inflammation of arthritis. catnep. It can be used to treat amenorrhea. winterweed. Uncaria species. Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile). Works synergistically with other sedative herbs. Herbalists have used it as an antibiotic. insomnia. eczema. this is not recommended. fever. catrup. blood disorders. It has been used to treat bronchial congestion and narcolepsy. Effects: Contains apigenin. pod pepper. skin problems. bruises. Precautions: May cause a numbing effect on the tongue. and headaches. red pepper. capsicum. Taraxacum officinale. bruises. as the plant itself is poisonous. Herbalists have used it to treat muscular and nervous system problems such as sciatica. white endive. or chrysanthemums. a chemical which has shown antioxidant and antiseptic qualities. DANDELION AKA: Blowball. garden celery. obesity. COUNTRY MALLOW AKA: Sida cordifolia. and high cholesterol. and has been used to treat impotence and sterility. Precautions: It is high in sodium. Turnera diffusa. satin flower. Precautions: Those with duodenal ulcers.

Studies which have shown it relieves the symptoms of gout through antiinflammatory properties and by lowering uric acid levels have employed injections. the presence of which indicates inattention and lack of concentration). Ephedra could cause a positive response on a drug test for amphetamine use. sores. the symptoms of menopause. and some types of cancer. Rokan. arteriosclerosis. and skin cancer. Effects: Gentian may increase circulation. GINGER AKA: African ginger. lycium Chinese. especially digestive and colon cancers. though he cautions that this should only be done after consultation with a doctor. Its use in treating allergies. It may also be helpful in relieving the symptoms of such conditions as bronchial and cardiac asthma. and which is characterized by restlessness. and nausea. It may have no memory. and circulation. headaches. Effects: Said to be useful in treating insomnia and "emotional imbalances" such as apprehension. which occurs as a result of a reaction between the compound alliin — a sulfur amino acid — and the enzyme allinase. recommends one level teaspoon of the dried herb or one-half to one teaspoon of the tincture. It may inhibit mental deterioration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease for six to twelve months. may cause gastrointestinal disorders. and has been shown to have antibacterial. Don quai is similar to western angelica (Angelica archangelica). retinopathy. DON SEN AKA: Campanumaeapilosula. Those who are underweight. squaw tea. irritability.pneumonia. tang kwei. and vertigo. Isadore Rosenfeld states that sanitized capsules are also effective.has shown that those who took supplements of 300 mg/day of garlic had aortas that were 15 percent more supple than those who didn't. Bodybuilders often take 100 mg of caffeine. as it has been found to produce the same consistent EEG changes as those produced by drugs prescribed for dementia. as the caffeine-ephedra combination may have been responsible for almost two dozen deaths in recent years. wolfberry. Ph. nausea. and stimulate the appetite. it can aggravate gastroesophageal reflux disease. Proponents of ephedra say the evidence is inconclusive. tang shen. or 2 to 5 mg/day of garlic oil. high blood pressure. Because of the relationship to PAF. and overall brain functioning. many of whom also regularly drink caffeinated beverages. diarrhea. particularly since ephedra has been used for much of recorded history. Asarum canadense. It is said to restore energy and improve digestion. Garlic can also trigger enzymes in the liver to deactivate afla-toxin. FENUGREEK AKA: Greek hayseed. heart disease. short-term memory. eczema. nasal congestion. and diabetes. glaucoma. cowboy tea. recovering from an illness. have sleep problems. cold extremities. and is used to treat heartburn. compounds which lead to the development of cancer. Because it contains sulfhydryl compounds (which regulate immune function) and the minerals selenium and germanium. excessive salivation.. insomnia. Indian ginger. improving circulation in the medium and small capillaries in the brain and extremities (it also increases the circulation of the microcapillaries. or by those who have a history of abusing stimulant drugs. or who have a weak digestive system may find that ma huang may make them feel more stressed out and run down. respiratory ailments. bronchial inflammation. It has been used to treat high blood pressure. even in moderate amounts. Precautions: There is no scientific evidence for any of its claims. GAY GEE AKA: Lycii. herpes zoster (shingles). it can be a problem for those with clotting disorders. and has been used to treat diabetes. as the allicin breaks down quickly after it is cut or sliced. and diabetes.. it can fight infection by stimulating the immune system. it is said to benefit the stomach. or acid reflux. there may be a chance that some extracts are not. diabetes. GENTIAN AKA: Bitter root. Dosage: Two teaspoons of seeds per cup of water for up to two to three cups a day. and chest pain. and is known to increase testosterone levels in men who are deficient. Effects: Known as an antiaging herb. It should not be combined with MAO inhibitor drugs or 5-HTP. gallweed). candidiasis. race ginger. high blood pressure. nervousness. It is said to be useful in the treatment of asthma (by dilating the bronchioles). so that larger and larger doses are needed to achieve the same effect. bitterwort. heart disease. fever. a bacteria that plays a role in the development of stomach ulcers and possibly even stomach cancer. Effects: Has been used to treat anxiety and depression. though some dispute this. allergies. a major component of asthma. Ephedra sinica may contain a substance that prevents the growth of the Influenza B virus. nausea. whorehouse tea). and seizures. Works synergistically with astragalus. FU LING AKA: Muk sheng (red fu ling). multiple sclerosis. Effects: A good source of choline and beta-carotene. Though commercially sold ginkgo biloba products are tannin-free. motion sickness. and to relieve the symptoms of colds. and vomiting. as it could cause excessive bleeding. a process developed by the Japanese ages garlic for a year. intestines. though its effects are milder and slightly different. There is no evidence it can help sustain male erections. bronchitis. Effects: Considered similar in effect to ginseng. insomnia. recommend that a clove of garlic should be crushed at least ten minutes before heating to obtain the full cancer-fighting benefits. Trigonella foenum-graecum. where serotonin levels in the body are too high. both of which are useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Effects: It is believed that this herb can contribute to a long life span and a sunny disposition. allergies. Dosage: One teaspoon in one or two cups of water. On the other hand. Ephedra sinica (Chinese ephedra. fear. elevated thyroid. Gentiana catesbaei (blue gentian. Fresh. tinnitus. The FDA does not recommend more than 24 mg of ephedrine a day. 50 mg of ephedrine. Garlic supplements should be stopped about two weeks before surgery. or four tablets or capsules a day in two divided doses. Large doses can cause headache. it is not known if ingesting this herb would have the same effects. helps the brain to metabolize glucose better. Precautions: It should not be used by persons who suffer from anxiety attacks (panic disorder). narcolepsy. or high blood pressure. prevents free radical damage in cell membranes (and repairs lesions caused by free radicals). don shen. Dosage: James A. dang quai. cancer. and these tannins. Poria cocos. A recommended dose of aged extract is 600 to 1200 mg/day. Duke. difficult urination. It is high in antioxidants and carotenoids. and one aspirin three times a day for "cutting up" (reducing fat and increasing muscle definition). neuralgia. and insecurity. black ginger. desert herb. and increases alertness (by reducing theta brainwaves.DEVIL'S CLAW AKA: Harpagophytum procumbens. and individuals should exceed the average daily dose only under a physician's care. molecules that are antagonistic to Platelet Activating Factor (PAF). macular degeneration. Brigham Young weed. heart disease. facilitates nerve transmission. Tebonin. It has also been used in the treatment of gout. a strong central nervous system stimulant. swollen glands. gas. and has been used to treat cramps. and attempts by individuals to obtain a high have led to a few deaths. palpitations. heart rate. inner ear dysfunction. In the 1930s. it is used to treat fever. asthma. Traditional Chinese medicine has used it in conjunction with other herbs. There are twenty reported cases of ephedrine psychosis attributed to overuse. and ephedra-based alkaloids are found in numerous over-the-counter remedies that have been used by millions. though it may take six months before changes become apparent. gastrointestinal disorders. Ginkgo biloba contains ginkgolides. Effects: Garlic inhibits the formations of nitrosamines. skin irritations. though milder.'American ephedra contains norpseudoephedrine. sweating. enhancing its antioxidant effects by fully metabolizing allicin into other biologically active sulfur compounds while eliminating its odor. Ginkgold. American gentian). It is also one of the most powerful diuretics known. and antifungal properties. diabetes. protects nerve tissue from damage resulting from hypoxia (lack of oxygen). whole garlic is the only effective form. maidenhair tree. gentian root. Ephedra nevadensis (American ephedra. Chinese angelica. Effects: In Europe. dizziness. arthritis. Ph. Dosage: A clove of garlic a day (about 4 grams). High doses may cause diarrhea. The fruit can cause severe allergic reactions much like poison ivy and poison oak. sciatica. though this is not recommended. allicin is not activated in garlic that has been aged or dried.D. and . Gentiana officinalis. epitonin. hypothyroidism. It has been used to treat earaches. hypertension. sedentary. A stimulant. GARLIC AKA: Allium canadense. aid digestion. Precautions: Large doses can cause stomach upset. arthritis. rapid heart rate. restlessness. teamster's tea. Use of the whole plant causes liver damage in animals. Zingiberis officianalis. The effects wear off rapidly. and blood pressure. as well as allergies. GlNKGO BILOBA AKA: EGb 761. though Dr. It increases adrenaline production. and allergies. Gentiana quinque-folia (stiff gentian. Mormon tea. Garlic will increase the blood thinning properties of aspirin and other anticoagulants. kidney disease. Studies have revealed that garlic destroys the Helicobacter pylori bug. Gentiana crinita (fringed gentian). Allium sativum. It is also used to treat menstrual problems. FRANKINCENSE Effects: An antioxidant. EPHEDRA AND MA-HUANG AKA: Dymetadrine 25. it has been used to treat senility. high blood pressure. Herbalists have also used it to treat kidney problems and lung congestion. Overuse may also lead to a condition called the serotonin syndrome. Jamaican ginger used in an alcoholic beverage caused major neurological symptoms in some people. migraine headaches. Effects: Acts as a vasodilator. In Africa. and inflammatory conditions. confusion. ma-huang). Effects: Chinese and Pakistani ephedra contain ephedrine. Garlic's effectiveness depends on its allicin production.D. tang keui. by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter muscle. and ulcers. high cholesterol. hu suan. Dosage: Three cups of tea a day. Dymetadrine 25 is an over-the-counter drug that is pure ephedrine. hypoglycemia. tremors. suffering from extreme stress. DONG QUAI AKA: Angelica sinensis. asthma. Joe and Teresa Graedon. and tumors. Precautions: Very large doses of garlic may cause gastrointestinal problems. simmered for 30 minutes. so caution should be exercised when combining them. something no other known substance is known to do). malaria. instability. or astringent chemicals. Zingiber officinale. Some claim it helps to burn off fat and contribute to weight loss. subsisting on a poor diet. neuralgia and neuropathy. It is said to help cleanse the body through sweating. heartburn. Supplements should provide at least 10 mg/day of alliin or a total allicin potential of 4000 meg/day (equivalent to roughly 4000 mg of fresh garlic). Ephedra gerardiana (Pakistani ephedra). Tanakan. One study. indigestion. Canada snake-root. and congestion has largely been replaced by more effective drugs that exhibit fewer side effects. a strong carcinogen found on mold in peanuts and grains. cirrhosis of the liver.or brain-enhancement effect in healthy people with no brain impairment. Precautions: It has been found to reduce the ability of sperm to penetrate eggs. anemia. and these are recommended for those concerned about the odor. diabetes. Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian). indigestion. gan Jiang. antimicrobial. wild ginger. vascular fragility. increased body temperature. Lycium chinenses. to stimulate the appetite. . pale gentian. which may be even more powerful. glaucoma. Recently. skin irritations. It has been used to treat age-related dementia in Europe for years.

there are over two hundred different varieties. and consuming high amounts could cause restlessness. redberry).H. and E. Gotu-kola is a plant found throughout Africa and the East and. not ginseng at all. caffeol. Fo-ti-tieng is so similar that botanists think it may be a geographic variant. helps reduce insomnia and sleep disturbances. as it is fermented. and include caffeine. kola nut. M. Chinese ginseng. gota-kola. Precautions: Since these grasses cannot be digested by the human body in their solid state. Precautions: Caffeine may be both physically and psychologically addicting. Energy Elixir. phosphorus. (2) leaves that are whole instead of broken. and raise the levels of HDL. fo-ti. Brazilian cocoa. Many people believe Ginseng stimulates the brain and improves concentration. grapeseed. Green tea is made from the same plant as black tea. and they must be consumed before they go bad (within ten minutes). Dosage: One-half cup of tea using one ounce of gotu-kola per pint of water. Dosage: From 500 to 3000 mg/day in divided doses. at most. and radiation) and discourages the growth of harmful bacteria. Super Pep. It contains many bioflavonoids and is used by herbalists for various heart conditions— such as high blood pressure. especially if taken at high doses for prolonged periods of time. and improves sexual performance (though it is not an aphrodisiac). GINSENG AKA: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng). strictly speaking. and tea is" diluted more with water than coffee is. Wonder-of-the-world). flavone glycosides. Adding milk to green tea may prevent the absorption of at least some of the polyphenols. Paullinia cupana. even though it comes from the same plant family. or "good" cholesterol. ren shen. Effects: Traditionally used as a stimulant. Ginseng may cause allergy symptoms. May bush. Unfortunately. Further. Works synergistically with red wine. and 100 to 150 mg/day of caffeine maybe necessary for weight loss. GUAYUSA AKA: Ilex guayusa. a nontoxic substance that normalizes body functions and protects against various stressors on the body. a name bestowed upon it by early researchers who did not realize the two alkaloids were identical. and theobromine.D. though research has. they must be juiced. Gunpowder tea from China and matcha and sencha tea from Japan are examples of such teas. tremors. possibly because the fats and oils in the seeds allow the caffeine to be digested much more slowly. it has fewer side effects and more consistent results. Gotu-kola can cause dermatitis if applied to the skin. especially calcium. It has been shown to lower levels of LDL. matcha tea. . May tree. Hit Energy. as yet. though the caffeine content may sometimes be misleadingly referred to as guaranine. varicose veins. Though tea leaves have a higher caffeine content than coffee beans (1 to 4 percent as opposed to 1 to 2 percent). is considered an adaptogen. recommends taking four to eight tablets a day of the Chinese medicine Ching Chun Bao. The various saponins in guarana may enhance the health benefits of this herb. quite a few products available are lower in concentration and are taken in doses as high as 1000 mg/day. In addition to all the vitamins and minerals. and Firearms found that most liquid ginseng contains alcohol. Guarana sodas have. and arteriosclerosis — digestive problems. Panax notoginseng (Tienchi ginseng). chronic sore throats. stimulate the brain by increasing blood flow. Tea has a calming effect conducive to mental activity. It does not cause the caffeine "jitters" that coffee normally does. and drugs. fever. resulting in a milder and longer-lasting high. GRASS. They should not be taken by those with an overactive thyroid. have an antistress tranquilizing effect. Taken with calamus root. five-leafed ginseng. Isadore Rosenfeld recommends half that. Imperial tea. color perception. Precautions: Solid scientific evidence is lacking for many of their benefits. Large doses should not be taken during an acute infection. it has traditionally been used by the indigenous peoples of South America as a stimulant. normalizes body functions. anxiety disorder. do not recommend taking it. cobalt. but since it creates heat in the body. reduces heart rate. prevent tooth decay because of its high fluoride content. tremors.3 to 0. bipolar disorder (manic-depression). and borage oil. high blood pressure. being the lowest grade as they contain a high amount of twigs and stems. and good ginseng is very expensive. and avoided as a general rule. C. while Dharma Singh Khalsa. the strongest and most effective form of ginseng. phenol. which oxidizes some of the compounds and produces a product that is both bitter-tasting and potentially irritating to the stomach. sulfur. stimulates endocrine activity and metabolic functions. Siberian ginseng is. modern processing grinds the seeds at high temperatures. and appetite suppressant. hypertension. and the symptoms of menopause. or three capsules a day in three divided doses. are still of good quality. and a 1997 study by the Bureau of Alcohol. More unfortunately. coffee. Many commercial products which contain ginseng. considers 60 to 240 mg/day safe). increased blood pressure. Effects: Works as an adaptogen. like ginseng. sencha tea. and contribute to weight loss because of the metabolism-increasing effects of caffeine and the fatburning property of the polyphenols. Effects: Wheat grass is an excellent source of such antioxidant vitamins as A. along with 24 percent active ingredients (gingkoflavonglycosides. or high blood pressure. GUARANA AKA: Brazilian chocolate. aids circulation and digestion. but not for as long as black tea. weakness. but at the expense of some of their nutritional value. Ho shou wu. works as a general stimulant to combat fatigue and stress. and lacks the toxic or carcinogenic compounds found in coffee (e. Panax trifolius (dwarf ginseng). it has a halflife of three hours. or bronchitis should avoid American and Asian ginseng. stimulates macrophage activity in the immune system. and even longer frozen. such as soft drinks. for up to one and one-half cups a day. they may improve memory and mental clarity. Hydrocotyle asiatica minor. theophylline. as that may suppress the immune system. Panax schinseng (Asiatic ginseng. helps the body resist toxins. potassium. Preliminary research has shown that. green tea may have a much lower level of caffeine than coffee (20 to 30 mg compared to 75 to 150 mg) because caffeine is more readily leached into coffee than tea. when applied to the skin. Women who drink more than four-and-a-half cups of green tea a day are much more likely to suffer from PMS. Precautions: Has a higher caffeine level than tea or coffee. tars). Some prefer American ginseng because it is a milder form than its Asian counterpart and avoids some of the side effects. reduces cholesterol. HAWTHORN AKA: Crataegus oxyacantha. which contains. and aural acuity. Centella asiatica. masculinizaton in women and feminization in men. quickset. cancer. Yamashire tea. insomnia.g. Taking higher doses should be done only under the supervision of a health professional. A tree resin similar to myrrh. cola. Tea that is brewed for only two to three minutes has about half the caffeine as tea brewed for five or more minutes. Ph. A member of the holly family.. which according to some experts helps rid the body of toxins (including pesticides. Effects: All teas contain mind-altering alkaloids known as methylxanthines. Precautions: Its concentrated form should be used only under the guidance of a physician. Camellia sinensis. it is related to yaupon and yerbe mate. leading some to conclude that the disease may be due more to the habit of drinking tea scalding hot than to any particular ingredient in the tea. tissue swelling. boosts athletic performance and recovery from workouts. Effects: May relieve anxiety and insomnia and improve circulation. It has been used as a general health tonic in China for the past forty centuries. However. and used by herbalists to treat diarrhea. Ph. Products should only be made with six-year-old roots. nervousness. they can be stored in plastic containers in the fridge for up to a week.A. English hawthorn. Quality can vary widely. and kidney disorders. Those suffering from acute inflammatory disease. though made from older leaves. Duke.D... based on many of the precautions cited above. normalizes blood pressure. Panax ginseng contains an estrogen-like compound that could cause problems in some individuals. guarana. and skin rash. GREEN TEA AKA: Bancha tea. It is also said to prevent the buildup of plaque. normalizes blood sugar." as is done with black tea. AKA (Fo-ti-tieng): Asian marsh pennywort. and energize the cells. indigestion. headaches. Chinese Imperial and Japanese Yamashire teas. insomnia. Dosage: From 120 to 160 mg/day of flavonoid extract in three divided doses (Dr. Effects: A strong antioxidant that is said to relieve arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. GUGGULU AKA: Guggul. rather than being fermented by "sweating. but white may or may not be stripped. heart palpitations. Even within each variety. as it should not be harvested before then. however. gunpowder tea. Dosage: Five cups or more a day for at least six months have been shown to significantly lower the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. fights free radicals. It has also been used to treat arthritis. or ginkgoheterosides). and heart palpitations. hagthorn. abdominal pain. they are high in chlorophyll. There should be at least a three-hour span between taking ginseng and taking vitamin C. Effects: Both Gotu-kola and fo-ti-tieng have been used to treat obesity. They may improve attention and concentration. and some skin conditions. while the Japanese bancha and kukicha teas. while James A. red ginseng always has an intact bark. rashes. Extracts produce the most consistent results. alcohol. diarrhea. asthma. Koreans routinely strip the bark during processing. chemotherapy. which are also found in chocolate. and headaches. as opposed to the sudden stimulation of coffee. Studies on whether green tea or black tea causes esophageal cancer are inconclusive. Tobacco. They are said to increase longevity. Josta (soft drink). GOTU-KOLA AND FO-TI-TIENG AKA (Gotu-kola): Brahmi. Both wheat grass and barley grass contain all the minerals essential for health. 0. iron. as some of the ginseng may be neutralized. Tea also contains polyphenols. thorn-apple tree. Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng. improves brain circulation.6 percent). B. Barley also contains the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and 2-0-GIV. emphysema. Zoom.It may interact with such blood thinners as Warfarin (coumadin) and aspirin. aphrodisiac. but is processed by steaming before drying. gastrointestinal problems. which is more suitable to physical activity. five fingers. tuberculosis. Effects: One of the richest plant sources of caffeine (up to 7. heart palpitations. Thomas H. Royal Manchurian ginseng. Precautions: Solid research of its benefits is lacking. compounds which have 25 to 100 times the antioxidant properties of vitamins C or E. and yerbe mate. M. and Brenda Adderly. memory and learning.. and as a purgative in ceremonial rituals. arrhythmic heartbeat. skin eruptions. Green Magma. High quality tea is dependent upon three things: (1) leaves and buds that are young and small. and it is pretty much gone after 6 hours. Indian pennywort. some as much as 34 percent. taken three times a day. contain too little of the herb to provide any health benefits. myocarditis. but they appear to be safe herbs. most of what is available is cheap and offers very little in the way of active ingredients: one study in the 1980s found that 50 to 70 percent of the products sold were diluted or adulterated. and zinc. Guarana Tai (soft drink). also referred to as flavoglycosides. it is an effective sunscreen. among other things. fleeceflower. Extracts may have lower levels of caffeine and higher levels of polyphenols than the tea. Crook III. it should be avoided by those suffering from hot dry eyes. WHEAT AND BARLEY AKA: Green Kamut. The extract must be at least a 50-to-l concentration (50 pounds of leaves used to make 1 pound of extract). the quality can vary widely. Dosage: One teaspoon of flowers steeped in one-half cup of water. the part of the plant which contains the highest amount of the active ingredients. Improvements should be seen within three to six months. wounds.6 percent of the herb. visual acuity. a headache remedy. It has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and raise HDL cholesterol. anxiety. drugs.. and experts cannot come to a consensus on what is the best type. whitethorn. not borne this out. kukicha tea. have the lowest amount of caffeine. and (3) the absence of less beneficial parts such as twigs and stems.D. or "bad" cholesterol. and is not as bitter. creosote. Five to ten cups a day is believed to normalize blood sugar by regulating insulin production. detoxify the body. Oolong tea (also known as red tea or yellow tea) stands in the middle. Poly-gonum multiflorium.

burns. The effects begin after twenty or thirty minutes and generally last two to three hours. reduces flatulence. Dosage: One teaspoon of rootstock in one cup of water for up to three cups a day. Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot). chest pain. holy thistle. biochemical abnormalities. licorice root. Silymarin and its basic component silybin may protect cell membranes from free . LlGUSTRUM AKA: Ligustrum lucidium. Oswego tea. forearms. awa. and by herbalists in the treatment of dizziness. Used by herbalists to treat allergies. Effects: Lavender may relieve stress. high balm. No clinical studies have been done in the U. heart disease. a resinous pyrone extracted from the root of the kava plant. KAVA AND KAWAIN AKA: Ava. severe anxiety. Milk thistle may even reverse damage that has already occurred. it is used to add flavor to beer. as it is not as effective in inducing sleep. Dioscorea mexicanan. Kavaform. Tea made from the dried and powdered root bark may not have the pleasant lilac aroma and flavor of freshly made kava. or glaucoma. severe menstrual problems.. has been used to treat such viruses as herpes zoster (shingles). Effects: Licorice has been used to treat depression. Some of its compounds show promise as anticancer agents. An extract. emphysema. and symptoms of menopause and PMS. JASMINE AKA: Jasminum officinale. respiratory. and bladder ailments. Mary's thistle. headaches. and some are concerned that it might be abused as it has psychotropic properties similar to opium and cocaine. In Japan. and the poisonous Amanita mushroom. up to one to two cups a day. and inflammation of the bowels. Silybum marianum.. and tossing a handful in bathwater is a good way to relax. Effects: Its medicinal qualities are said to be similar to astragalus..5 to 3 mg/day in divided doses. so it should not be combined with certain drugs. dosage should be between 3 to 6 ml/day in divided doses. producing an anesthetic effect. gastric irritation. nausea. and shins (which may clear up when use is discontinued). while one daily dose of this amount taken a half hour before bedtime induces sleep. back. Effects: Contains the bioflavonoid mixture silymarin. No significant side effects have been reported. asthma. A member of the hemp family. and then only under the care of a physician. on which most of the studies have been done. which include kawain (or kavain). monarda. Precautions: Licorice should not be used by those with hypertension (it could raise the blood pressure even more). are stimulating rather than tranquilizing. though this is something even the indigenous population of the South Seas do not engage in. and toxins such as carbon tetrachloride. Waka is a Fijian term that refers to the kava taken from the plant's lateral roots. also known as kava alphapyrones or kavapyrones. It may also be good for the skin. horsemint. and has been used in the treatment of amenorrhea. though it is believed they pass through the blood-brain barrier and affect certain neurotransmitters. This bioflavonoid mixture may also be useful in preventing or treating gallstones and in relieving the symptoms of psoriasis. the sedative compounds can be absorbed in the skin. it has been used to treat chronic hepatitis B and C. Because of its sedative effect. as saliva activates the kavalactones. flatulence. Overdosage or constant use (i.HOPS AKA: Humulus lupulus. soles. The initial dose should be about 70 mg of kavalactones. Precautions: There is little scientific evidence to back up any of its supposed benefits. wild artichoke. polio type 1. It also stimulates the appetite. however. it should be taken just before sleep. LAVENDER AKA: Lavandula officinalis. cirrhosis. Precautions: Kava should not be taken by those with Parkinson's disease (it could worsen muscular weakness and twitching). Those suffering from depression should not take high doses. Works synergistically with skullcap. Probably the least effective method of consumption is as a tea. LICORICE AKA: Gan cao. kawa kawa. waka. used in the treatment of various types of ulcers. Kaviase. Neither should it be used as a substitute for benzodiazepines. antidepressants. the lower sterns. has been shown to control lipofuscin deposits. Licorice is a legume. It can also inhibit tooth decay. carpal tunnel syndrome. and high doses of Tylenol (acetaminophen) and iron. it contains two potentially immune-regulating ingredients. and skin that is pigmented or darkened. A Polynesian herb used by native peoples to make an alcoholic drink. In China. dizziness. Piper methysticum. Mary thistle. gastrointestinal distress. such as Spanish lavender. and tinnitus. cholesterol-lowering drugs such as Zocor (simvastatin) and Mevacor (lovastatin). It may also help protect the liver from otherwise beneficial pharmaceuticals such as antianxiety drugs. herpes simplex 1. Synthetic progesterone. Dosage: One teaspoon of leaves or tops per cup of water. Precautions: It cannot be stored for long. is helpful in the treatment of sore throats and coughs. damage to the heart and lungs. At least eight compounds in licorice are MAO inhibitors. induces sleep and has much greater pain-killing abilities. by those who are severely depressed. Piper wichmannii. and mild intellectual impairment — possibly indicating that this may be an important herb to add to the diet. mushrooms and peyote).. An acceptable dosage is 1. some European licorice candies. is slower to take effect. dizziness. Extended use of doses equal to 400 mg/day of kavalactones and higher could result in a buildup of toxins in the liver. or whether older plants are more potent than younger ones. Laitan. depression (it can elevate blood cortisol and deepen the depression). hypoglycemia. psoriasis. part of the same family as beans and peas.D. Kava works synergistically with chamomile. blue balm. heart disease. glycyrrhizin. May aid the respiratory and urinary systems and help in weight loss. fatigue. depression. Dosage: One teaspoon of leaves in one-half cup of water. JATOBA BARK A plant used as a tea in the rain forests of Brazil and Peru.. It probably should not be used for severe anxiety or for long-term treatment. syringin and a terpene compound. It has been used to relieve the symptoms of various digestive. One man suffered congestive heart failure after eating a pound and a half of the herb for a week. or sleeping pills. sakau. keu. dry. and drowsiness in larger doses. yaqona. and one woman suffered cardiac arrest (among other side effects) after consuming four pounds a week over an unknown period of time. Though kavalactones are not. it has been used to treat fatigue and prevent aging. muscle spasms. kava root of high quality will contain approximately 5 to 8 percent kavalactones. body aches. Other symptoms include numbness of the tongue. anise. and cold-related ailments. Said by herbalists to be good for estrogen imbalances in women and in relieving the symptoms of diverticulitis. hops. Most licorice candy does not contain any trace of the herb but. lewena. and to inhibit HIV. and shortness of breath. Studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association have revealed that at least three-quarters of all adult Americans show at least some sign of chronic liver damage — which could manifest itself as irritability. and waka is the most expensive and potent form. sweet wood. and kasa. for a maximum of one cup a day. inhibit the growth of cancer in vitro and in mice. and relieves intestinal cramps. Dioscorea composita. both of which prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine. called prog-estins or prestrogens. each kavalactone has a different effect on the body. and relaxation. alcohol. Fatsoluble kava. and vaccinia in vitro. which protects the liver against hepatitis. are cheaper and less potent forms. a water-soluble extract can be made. and valerian. MEXICAN WILD YAM AKA: Dioscorea barbasco. Mentha sylvestris. According to James A. malaise. Effects: Jasmine is believed to promote relaxation and is a possible aphrodisiac. and increased risk of cancer. including depression. or steroid saponins. vision disturbances. is not as effective for severe agitation.g. inflammation of the skin and eyes. How the kavalactones work is still not known. headaches. it differs from the usual fatsoluble extract in that it does not induce sleep. anxiety. high blood pressure. Lewena. It has shown promise in treating liver disorders and hepatitis (including chronic hepatitis). These compounds may be able to cross the blood-brain barrier. dihydrokawain. and vaginitis. it does not enhance intellect or produce altered states of consciousness. Precautions: Some species. lethargy. sweet licorice. kava kava. Only whole yam will provide benefits. or products containing wild yam may be lacking in essential nutrients and may have many side effects. but it does have some pain-killing properties. respiratory. as water does not release the kavalactones the way oil does. kidney. dihydromethysticin. low balm. Stronger effects may be achieved by chewing the root. which should be gradually increased to about 100 mg. yagona. or convulsions. so it may be beneficial even when used externally. Effects: Has an energy-boosting effect. Effects: Contains DHEA and diosgenin. Generally.S. Effects: Contains carvacrol and thymol. An acceptable compromise is liquid extract formulas or standardized extract capsules. on a daily basis for more than a week) can result in headache. particularly on the palms." It has been found to improve digestion. Lavandula vera. Dosage: The most effective method of consumption is by eating the dried root. Harold Bloomfield. It's uncertain whether the leaves and stems produce different effects from the roots. "Medical studies have shown that kava can often relieve mild to moderate anxiety as effectively as benzodiazepine tranquilizers. St. for the most part. alcohol. heart palpitations. Kava contains several active compounds called kavalactones. or by those allergic to it. It is recommended that kava not be combined with benzodiapezine tranquilizers. It also has local anesthetic properties and can be used to treat urinary tract infections and bladder disorders. methysticin. and excessive loss of potassium. English horsemint. Monarda didyma (bee balm. and covered with scales. in addition to being prescribed for infections. sudden muscle spasms. Kawain. Glycyrrhiza glabra. The elderly or ill should take smaller doses. It can be habit-forming. If taking a tincture with a 1:2 ratio. and skin problems. Unlike other psychoactive plants (e. Monarda punctata. It is more effective when taken on an empty stomach. Derivatives have also led to such drugs as Carbenoxolone. reaction time. and does not remain effective for as long a period as the prescription drug. though anecdotal evidence indicates it may enhance visual and auditory perception as well as produce more vivid dreams. the rootstock. chronic fatigue. Kava should not be taken on a daily basis for more than four to six months. fainting. and vigilance. Dosage: From 6 to 15 g/day of a decoction made from the berries. and may aid in the treatment of Addison's disease. insomnia.e. retention of water and salt. relax muscles. kasa. licorice. wati. seka. as the taste and thick fibers of the root make this an unappealing alternative. as it deteriorates rapidly and becomes very unstable when exposed to light and air. depression. which are the precursor to the hormone progesterone. antidepressants. Kava is not advisable when driving or operating heavy machinery. mountain balm. hypertension. grogginess. and yangonin. Effects: May have a relaxing. sedative effect that promotes restful sleep. and insomnia because of its ability to slow nerve impulses. and the effects of different plants may vary according to the levels of the various kavalactones. memory. Dioscorea villosa. some even claim that a salve made from it can enlarge women's breasts. instead. Effects: May induce a sense of wellbeing in small doses. water soluble. dizziness. may contain dangerously high levels of licorice. fever. kidney problems. Reports indicate that 150 to 210 mg/day of kavalactones relieves anxiety. as well as digestive. kawa. According to Dr. MILK THISTLE AKA: Carduus marianus. mountain mint. which may aid in the alleviation of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. There is one documented case of a man who lapsed into a brief coma after combining kava with the drug Xanax. pain. lethargy. and decrease anxiety. A pungent and numbing aftertaste deters the drinker from consuming too much. Duke. diabetes. The practice of preparing the root and stem for the drink by having a designated person chew on them is no longer done because of health risks. Ph. HORSEBALM AKA: American horsemint.

and with Procarbazine. bones. Precautions: It can worsen heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease. though scientific evidence is lacking. uncooked plants can cause kidney damage and poisoning. painful urination. wrinkles. or ulcerative colitis. and skin disorders. coughs. mountain mint. trembling in the hands. the two could be toxic to the central nervous system. skin problems. tendinitis. Effects: An antioxidant. including glutathione and vitamins A. It is said to be good for abdominal pains. Rauwolfia serpentaria. Dosage: One teaspoon steeped in one pint of boiling water for a few minutes before straining. indigestion. or two to five drops of tincture at a time as needed. Effects: Rich in antioxidants. stiffness (muscles. It should not be taken for longer than two or three months on a daily basis. and joints). magnesium and potassium. bladder. and may be useful in treating chronic bronchitis. RAUWOLFIA AKA: Indian snakeroot. and slows aging. and spasms. high blood pressure. Dosage: Two to three tablespoons of leaves or plants in one cup of water. peptic ulcer disease. MYRRH AKA: Commiphora myrrha. asthma. a burning sensation on the skin. dwarf nettle. ROSEMARY . chest pain. chills. MUGWORT AKA: Artemisia vulgaris. The effects of both rauwolfia alkaloids and Dronabinol. angina. gout. low blood pressure. and depression. it can result in an unpredictable increase or decrease in the anticoagulant effect. Precautions: Those taking any medication or suffering from liver damage should consult a physician first. protein. It also contains high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids. breathing that is slow and shallow. insomnia. tuberculosis. MURIA PUAMA AKA: Ptychopetalum olacoides. Overdosage may cause heart problems. mint. C. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone who suffers from an allergy to rauwolfia alkaloids. It may also help prevent cataracts and heart disease. Urtica dioica. may protect the liver from various toxins. Precautions: Scientific evidence is lacking in its treatment for the above disorders. with digitalis preparations. According to James A. with any mind-altering drug. simmered for 5 minutes to make a tea. and lithium. constipation. rheumatism. stuffy nose. impotence. and skin eruptions. gum myrrh tree. diarrhea. dizziness. Effects: An adaptogen that boosts the immune system. improving mood and short-term memory in those with Alzheimer's.. Precautions: Evidence of its antidepressant and aphrodisiac qualities is lacking. Less common side effects include black stools. and E. kidney problems. stinging nettle. it should not be considered a substitute for yohimbe. convulsions. Effects: An antioxidant. cocaine can increase the risk of heart block and high blood pressure. REISHI AKA: Ganoderma. Duke. Combining rauwolfia alkaloids with alcohol can lead to greater intoxication. Ph. wild marjoram. unusual bruising or bleeding. Effects: Has been used to reduce nervousness and insomnia. and the tincture is used to treat mouth and throat ulcers. along with calcium. and Lisinopril. intermittent claudication. Overdose symptoms include drowsiness. It is used to treat insomnia and Raynaud's disease. Performing isometric exercises while on rauwolfia may cause the blood pressure to rise too high. Reishi is a mushroom that grows in the mountains of Asia. Dosage: The common dosage is a 200 mg pill containing a standardized extract of 80 percent silymarin (160 mg of silymarin) taken one to three times a day. No significant side effects have been reported. gingivitis. and yeast infections. It may reduce symptoms of altitude sickness by thinning the blood. cardiac arrhythmia. antihistamines.D. Those who suffer from epilepsy or who have had surgery in the past two months requiring general or spinal anesthesia should consult a physician first. It may interfere with the absorption of iron. Dosage: One tablespoon of dried herb steeped in half a cup of water or one-half teaspoon of powdered rootstock with water twice a day. headache. NETTLE AKA: Common nettle. fever. Side effects include achiness. and dry mouth. sore throat. maybe eaten when ripe. spicy foods can cause an upset stomach. abdominal pain. counteracts stress. psoriasis. Origanum vulgare. and marijuana can cause drowsiness. red eyes. ser-pentwood. and effectiveness in such cases is very doubtful. nervousness. headache. Effects: An antioxidant. it could result in an irregular heartbeat. Rauwolfia alkaloids can increase the effects of antidepressants. Common side effects to prescription rauwolfia alkaloids include depression. diarrhea. it could cause some side effects. It is well-known that oat bran lowers cholesterol. Effects: Reportedly aids cell regeneration. jaundice. Passiflora incarnata. felon herb. ling-zhi. and gonorrhea. wintersweet. Also used as a stomach tonic and to treat rheumatism. diarrhea. C. a few handfuls of oatmeal in a warm bath can relieve the itching of hives. and bloating. Dosage: Between 750 and 1000 mg/day of extract in three divided doses. and nightmares. heartbeat that is irregular or slow. gastrointestinal problems. reduced sex drive. PURSLANE AKA: Portulaca. It has been used by herbalists as a tonic for the kidneys. and decrease the effects of aspirin. winter marjoram. Effects: Used as a stimulant in Brazil. PASSION FLOWER AKA: Maypops. levodopa. folate. more frequent bowel movements in the first few days. Dosage: Two or three teaspoons of herb in one cup of water once or twice a day. great stinging nettle. peptic ulcers. and swelling in the feet and legs. Fluoxetine. Carteolol. Ganoderma lucidum. Though it contains some yohimbine. Dosage: From 200 to 300 mg of extract one hour before bedtime. itchiness. betaadrenergic blocking agents. ling-chih-tsao. Effects: Dilates the blood vessels and contains the alkaloid reserpine. periodontal disease. worms. there could be a marked increase in blood pressure. and high cholesterol. with Nabilone it could cause increased depression of the central nervous sytem. as long-term effects are unknown. There appears to be little chance of any side effects with moderate use: studies have shown that less than one percent of users have suffered side effects — and then only gastrointestinal discomfort and loose stools. It may have a calming effect. and decreased by Sotalol. with Nicardipine or Nimodipine. POLYNESIAN NONI AKA: Morinda species. nausea. central nervous system depressants. purple passion flower. heartburn. OAT AKA: Avena sativa. and Methyprylon. PEPPERMINT AKA: American mint. faintness. Portulaca oleracea. which can increase the body's estrogen levels. and terazosin. The fruit. When combined with oral anticoagulants. multiple sclerosis. with anticonvulsants. and minerals. lethargy. migraine headaches. it could result in a drop in blood pressure. and urinary tract.radicals through antioxidant properties. cramps. OREGANO AKA: Marjoram. it could cause severe depression. it could cause excessive sedation. common stinging nettle. Ethinamate. coma. balances the bodily systems. Effects: Contains high levels of boron. with Leucovorin's high alcohol content.5 to 4 percent isovitexin (flavonoids). Loxapine. goiter. lamb mint. vertigo. Herbalists have used it to treat bad breath. a pulse that is slow and weak. Guanfacine. flushing. Reishi can interact with Thorazine and barbiturates. poor appetite. Side effects from the tea include upset stomach. May relieve mental fatigue and improve memory. Urtica urens. It has been used to treat anxiety. insomnia. and E. Effects: Said to have antidepressant and aphrodisiac properties. shingles. Rare side effects include a rash or itchy skin. headache. bloody vomit. which has a tranquilizing effect. and a pillow made from the bruised leaves may help insomnia. shortness of breath. Dosage: The fresh stems and leaves can be used as salad greens. colic. hypertension. it can result in changes in the seizure pattern. Precautions: It is toxic in large amounts. and pupils contracted to pinpoints. but normal usage reportedly produces no adverse symptoms. Mentha piperita. depression. It has been used to treat viral hepatitis. Dosage: Two to three teaspoons of leaves per cup of water. Nettle has been used by herbalists to treat anemia. Preliminary studies have shown that extracts have some success in helping individuals overcome opiate and nicotine (from cigarette smoking) addiction. vomiting. strengthens the immune system. with Clozapine. nausea. and neuralgia. It is also a rich source of vitamins A. with MAO inhibitors. arthritis. Precautions: High doses can lead to poisoning. The effects of rauwolfia alkaloids may be increased by other antihypertensives. chronic fatigue syndrome. containing 3. not to exceed one and a half to two cups a day for eight to twelve days. brandy mint. wu-ling-chih. Pergolide. Origanum majorana. and improves mental functioning. or made into a jelly. sailor's tobacco. It is said to be an aphrodisiac. Eating old. common mugwort. Rauwolfia serpentina. though low in nutrition. drowsiness. liver disease. Purslane has been used to treat asthma. or acid reflux. or Sertraline are increased when combined. Those over age sixty may suffer increased adverse reactions or side effects. Works synergistically with other sedative herbs. Precautions: It should only be taken an hour or two before sleep. difficult urination (even though it is normally a mild diuretic). pussley. lowered body temperature. while carbonated beverages can decrease the rauwolfia effect. passion vine. Effects: Passion flower is said to relieve depression and anxiety and promote restful sleep. bursitis. cancer. all of which may help relieve depression. Precautions: It should not be taken by hemophiliacs because it is high in adenosine.

St. and confusion. hypericum. nervous system disorders. making accurate dosage difficult. altitude sickness. One-quarter to one-half teaspoon of powdered leaves at a time. inflammatory conditions. as just 10 to 20 percent of the active ingredients are dissolved in water. Precautions: Contains a weak carcinogen. irritability. TURMERIC AKA: Curcuma longa. and it was used by Indians in the Northwest to increase endurance and stamina. wu-wei-tzu. indigestion. but with fewer side effects. or other anti-depressants. and a producer of estrogen-like effects. Extracts must be at least 0. sweet myrtle. SHANKA PUSPI AKA: Convolvulus mycrophyllus. Bioflavonoids in Chinese skullcap have antiinflammatory and antiallergic properties. dizziness. irritable bowels. which can cause convulsions in high doses. a central nervous system stimulant. Aralia racemosa (spikenard). It can protect the liver against toxins. fever. and insomnia. Works synergistically with other sedative herbs. There are a few recorded cases where high doses have caused liver damage. twitching. and increased appetite. It has a very mild MAO inhibitor effect. In China. high or low blood pressure. It may have antiviral properties and be useful against herpes. Europe. calamus. John's Wort had only 20 to 90 percent of the potency listed on the label. osteoarthritis. Prolonged use or overuse can lead to poisoning. a few individuals may experience paradoxical reactions. stomach gas. which lowers blood pressure. balances the bodily systems. convulsions. the dried root can cause nausea in smokers. Fifteen to 40 drops of tincture three or four times a day. inflammation. Dosage: One teaspoon of rootstock in one cup of water for one to two cups a day. it may help relieve insomnia. and dopamine —the first substance known to do so. Effects: Reported to reduce insomnia and anxiety. Has been used to treat exhaustion resulting from Epstein-Barr disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. blue pimpernel. finding that it makes them more alert. diarrhea. nervousness. Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla). colds. and insomnia. and improve memory. The most widely-used sedative in Europe. Chinese root. Precautions: It may cause the skin to be sensitive to light. incensier. but other studies do not bear this out. Isadore Rosenfeld does not recommend using it for more than eight weeks at a time. Euvegal. mild anxiety. maddog-weed. An overdose of the tincture can cause confusion. licorice. Scutellaria baikalensis (Chinese skullcap). helmet flower. dysentery. and is also used by herbalists to treat colic. It may be beneficial to those with atherosclerosis. and nausea. Rosemarinus officinalis. Dosage: It could cause problems when used in large quantities. and chronic diarrhea. Scutellaria lateriflora. for up to one cup a day. . hives. and depression.3 percent hypericin strength (Rosenfeld recommends 300 mg/day). rheumatism. Schizandra fructus. gas. Dosage: One teaspoon of rootstock in one-half cup of water. Works synergistically with artichoke. It may take three to six weeks for it to fully take effect. Biral. SWEET FLAG AKA: Acorus calamus. It may help oxygenate the brain. and may also be helpful in treating nervous conditions and depression. Effects: Contains crocetin. cancer. but not enough to warrant food restrictions. and be an aphrodisiac. headaches. It should not be taken with any tyramine rich foods or drugs. Virginia skullcap. SAGE AKA: Garden sage. curcumin. Hypericum perforatum. ST. It has been used by herbalists to treat amenorrhea. SKULLCAP AKA: Blue skullcap. It has proven beneficial in treating some liver disorders and appears to have some cortisone-like effects. and high doses should not be combined with high doses of 5-HTP. Overdose symptoms. John's wort. it has been used to treat dry cough. It can be fatal at doses of 10 to 12 grams. SAFFRON AKA: Autumn crocus. Effects: Probably the most effective natural antidepressant known (it is used extensively throughout Europe). Johns-wort. stupor. delirium tremens. Effects: An herb used in India to relieve anxiety. It acts as a stimulant and improves blood circulation. or safrol. as it could cause dangerously high blood pressure. Effects: Sarsaparilla is said to increase energy. vacha. cardiac symptoms. Effects: When taken as a tea just before bedtime. coughs. Precautions: When chewed. rat root. and long-term effects are not known. It may be used as a treatment for headaches. restlessness. Benefits may include longer and deeper sleep. and herbalists have used it for treating digestive problems. flag root. and extracts using the whole plant are more effective than extracts derived solely from the hypericin compound. sweet rush. Works synergistically with astragalus. Precautions: It contains a poison that can affect the central nervous system and damage the kidneys. Spanish saffron. counteracts stress. Effects: Promotes energy and stamina. Dosage: One-half teaspoon of dried plant in one-half cup of water. Dr. relieve various stomach problems. colds and flus. liver disease. Dosage: Three to six capsules a day in three divided doses. Valdispert forte. and tense muscles. and certain blood disorders. Less common side effects include gastrointestinal irritation. it should not be used by those with impaired kidney or liver function or those with chronic insomnia. goatweed. others recommend not using it for more than six to eight months at a time. and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be useful in treating muscle cramps. hoodwort. sweet calomel. Effects: Sage is antioxidant. severe anxiety. frigidity. estragon. as it produces lethargy. include depression. It should not be taken during the day. It enhances three important neurotransmitters — serotonin. life-of-man. rheumatism. muscle tension.3 percent hypericin to be effective. It has been used to treat exhaustion. there should be at least a four week interval between taking an MAO inhibitor and taking St. dandelion root. SARSAPARILLA AKA: Aralia hispida (bristly sarsaparilla). stomach cramps. a property which leads some to promote it as an aid for those wishing to quit. Crocus sativus. Effects: An adaptogen that reportedly boosts the immune system. excessive perspiration. and ^may relieve mental fatigue. and definitely no more than six months. neuralgia. sweet cinnamon. and milk thistle. night sweats. Works synergistically with kava. mouth and throat disorders. indigestion. Herbalists have used it for catarrhal problems. and barbiturate addiction. gastrointestinal problems. phu. Nutrasleep. moon root. Some of its components are very unstable. and sweating. and can cause cataracts if the individual is exposed to bright light. and sinus conditions. is correlated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. for up to one cup a day. grass myrtle. gallbladder disease. infertility. insomnia. The plant has a strong unpleasant odor which some liken to smelly socks. scullcap. dry mouth. JOHN'S WORT AKA: Amber. and other neurological problems. fever. seizures. improved mood. which can occur at dosages of 900 mg/day or more. menstrual cramps. Dosage: One teaspoon in half a cup of water once or twice a day. Paxil. side-flowering skullcap. mi die xiang. Precautions: Raises blood pressure. Effects: Relieves anxiety. sweet grass. It can interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals. and mild allergic reactions. It should not be used for serious depression. including its ability to reduce insomnia and anxiety. regulate hormonal activity and protect against radiation. and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Klamath weed. though evidence is no more than anecdotal. impotence. chronic fatigue syndrome. insomnia. norepinephrine. VALERIAN AKA: All-heal. sweet root. Undine's herb. PMS. HIV. Excessive amounts taken internally can be fatal. if found in adult women. working much like Prozac and similar drugs. myrtle flag. In 1998. menstrual cramps. headaches. It is also used by herbalists in the treatment of bladder infections. asthma. Its daily use should be limited to a few weeks. The species native to India. It can kill lice when applied directly to the affected parts. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with seizure disorders or in large quantities because it contains thujone. Effects: A strong antioxidant. high blood pressure. It is said to stimulate the appetite. Pfaffia paniculata. Saffron oil. Precautions: Though it is said to be safe. hypertension. Dosage: From 600 to 900 mg/day in three divided doses of 0. Tipton weed. flatulence. headaches. Standardized extracts are more likely to have active ingredients. or 5 to 20 drops of tincture a day. Dosage: One teaspoon of leaves steeped in one-half cup of water for 30 minutes and taken one tablespoonful at a time. Scutellaria laterifolia. obesity. setwall. Just 300 mg/ day has proven effective against Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Works synergistically with hops. digestive problems. a study commissioned by the Los Angeles Times found that seven out of ten of the leading brands of St. as a tolerance toward the herb could develop. Some studies indicate that valepotriates may cause cancer. and improves mental functioning. can be processed to make the narcotic MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine). John's wort as a tea is not very effective. and North America may each have very different pharmacological properties. gout. possibly because of chemicals called valepotriates and an as yet poorly understood ability to interact with either of the neurotransmitters serotonin and GABA. giddiness. for up to one cup a day. Claims by herbalists that it is good for chest congestion. night sweats. Effects: Reduces anxiety and insomnia to a moderate degree. Recent evidence has shown that it can completely prevent the ability of sperm to penetrate eggs and may cause a genetic mutation which. colic. Valmane. Valeriana officinalis. It should not be combined with Prozac. It may also prove useful in treating amenorrhea and high blood pressure. It can interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals. fevers. TARRAGON AKA: Artemisia dracunculus.AKA: Compass plant. greater energy. Effects: An antioxidant which also prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine. SUM A AKA: Para todo. Smilax offidnalis. SCHIZANDRA BERRY AKA: Schizandra chinensis. Salvia officinalis. whooping cough. nocturnal emissions. Precautions: Scientific evidence is lacking for many of its claims. small spikenard.

diet pills.4 mg tablet three times a day for up to ten weeks. Prohim. coffee addiction. Ph. It could interfere with the absorption of iron and other minerals. increased blood pressure.5 to 1 percent of essential oils about one-half to two hours before sleep. flatulence. Yohimbe can decrease the effects of antidepressant and antihypertensive drugs. including yohimbine." The active compound. muscle relaxants. which quickens its effects and reduces the nausea. insomnia. cocaine. M. cassene. tremors in the hands and feet. control the appetite. and headaches. A rare North American shrub. Indian Black Tea. angina pectoris. Pausinystalia yohimbe. Yohimar. Has been used by herbalists to treat fever. The whole herb is a complex combination of adrenergics. Dosage: Two teaspoons of powdered root in one cup of hot water (the herb should not be put in boiling water. called yohimbine or yohimbine hydrochloride. as studies of those individuals taking the drugs seem to show a lower incidence of that disease. and inflammatory bowel disorders. it may also cleanse the blood. recommends one 5. and dehydration. Yovital. Ilex paraguayensis. some antihistamines.. Yocon. Yohimex.menstrual pains. or one cup of tea a day. Salix nigra (black willow.. M. it even increases the sex drive of men with normal libido. There are no known overdose symptoms. does not recommend it for treating chronic fatigue syndrome. Sheldon Saul Hendler. liver disease. purple willow). or any moodaltering drug. It may also be good for backache.D. and alcohol consumption may also play a role. lack of coordination. South American holly. heartburn. nerve pain. Overdose symptoms in susceptible individuals include tiredness the following day. Precautions: It should not be used by those with an allergy to yohimbine or any of the Rauwolfia alkaloids. Ray Sahelian. amphetamines. YOHIMBE AND YOHIMBINE AKA: Actibine. James A. Rare side effects include nausea. and toothache. The doses needed to produce the hallucinogen-like effects are very high and potentially toxic. though other factors such as the steaming hot temperature at which the tea is sometimes consumed. ZlZYPHUS Effects: Induces relaxation and sleep.. hepatitis.. It has been traditionally used in Mexico for gastrointestinal disorders and as a mild brain stimulant. Ilex paraguariensis. it "is the only substance with a specific FDA-approved indication as an aphrodisiac. kidney disease.D. It should not be used with alcohol. In high enough doses. in fact. Ilex vomitoria. Dosage: One cup of tea or one dropperful of extract. recommends no more than two cups of tea or two capsules of 500 mg each per day. panic attacks. lack of appetite. diabetes. It may have the same effects on women. hallucinations. after treatment in a hospital. cassina. dizziness. Ph. yerba mate. Mark Mayell recommends 15 to 20 drops of tincture. tranquilizers. hypoglycemia. emetic holly. Dayto Himbin. rapid heart rate. It should also not be combined with antihistamines. with the added benefit of helping them lose weight. and euphoric high lasting four to six hours. It contains a number of psychoactive alkaloids. Sheldon Saul Hendler. or those taking any drugs that interfere with norepinephrine's neuronal uptake or metabolism (including Selegiline) should use yohimbe only under a physician's guidance. any psychiatric disorder. overstimulation.S.. or schizophrenia. Taking it on a regular basis with large doses of vitamin C could cause it to build up to dangerous levels in the body. 250 to 500 mg of the dried herb in capsules. psychotropic drugs. white willow.D. bipolar disorder.D. Dosage: The plant can be made into a tea by drying in the oven until black and then steeping in hot water. an overdose is not generally considered life-threatening. unless under the guidance of a physician. catkins willow. any other allergy. but can create a psychological dependence. as that will destroy some of its beneficial oils). yerba. marijuana. heart disease. vomiting. mild confusion upon awakening. with the dosage cut in half and gradually built up to a full dose if side effects occur. many herbalists caution that the potent herb should never be used without the advice of a physician or herbalist. mate yerba. the pure oil is a strong poison. Works synergistically with 500 to 1000 mg of vitamin C. benefit the nervous system. and their levels | in products may decline after a few months.D. The amount of yohimbine in herbal products can vary considerably. Willow is the herbal origin of aspirin. It may take two to three weeks for any effects to occur. Valepotriates are very unstable. to contain caffeine. Effects: May aid in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease much in the same manner that antiinflammatory drugs for arthritis seem to. heart palpitations. In traditional Chinese medicine. Less common side effects include anxiety. YERBEMATE AKA: Holly. An overdose may cause nausea. Effects: A mild stimulant because of its caffeine content. Yoman. With the dried root. Those suffering from or being treated for depression. lethargy. Duke. and liver enzymes were all normal and. While yohimbine is not an MAO inhibitor. Ph. pleasant. and the plague are unproven. Rare side effects include restless legs during sleep and stomach upset. narcotics. Salix purpurea (purple osier. There are no known life-threatening or common side effects. Effects: A caffeine-like stimulant reputed to relieve fatigue and insomnia. withy). M. According to James A. The berries are slightly poisonous and can cause vomiting and diarrhea. ulcers. followed by a mild. Herbalists use Yerbe mate for allergies. her EKG. is isolated and sold as a prescription medication. wounds. Aphrodyne. and so should not be combined with tyraminerich foods or MAO inhibitors. and is much safer. Precautions: As its Latin name suggests. Mucho Mate (tea).D. substances which act counter to each other and which could cause serious health risks. it can readily induce vomiting. W.. Baron-X. There is one case on record of an 18-year-old college student who took approximately 20 grams of powdered valerian root in capsule form and experienced fatigue..D.1 percent). sedatives. tobacco consumption. Salix caprea (goat willow. sores. M. withe. vascular disorders such as migraines. and headache. yaupon holly. Effects: A mild sedative. and tremors. she fully recovered within 24 hours. Indian black drink. Precautions: Excessive consumption can lead to a feeling of exhaustion. which is rather small (0. salivation. constipation. yerba mansa. abdominal cramps. it is often combined with other herbs for a sedative effect. tightness of the chest. mate. and intestinal parasites. Precautions: May be habit-forming if used for a prolonged period of time or cause poisoning if taken in large quantities. panic attacks. blood pressure disorders. pussywillow). and reserpine alkaloids. recommends 300 to 500 mg/day of concentrated root extract containing 0. sweating. indigestion. overstimulation. WILLOW AKA: Salix alba (salicin willow. headache. the potency is directly related to the strength of its smell. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone allergic to aspirin. using the herb in its natural form (dried bark) is dangerous. and work synergistically with other healing herbs. and is the only plant native to the U. Artemisia absinthium. Paraguay tea.D. restlessness. it can produce mild hallucinogeniclike effects. Duke. Morning Thunder (tea). Effects: Yohimbe is said to produce a tingling feeling along the spine. which could be useful in cases of insomnia. cholinergics. encourage the production of cortisone. yohimbe is. Thybine. lizard tail. Indians have used it to induce ecstasy and visions. YAUPON AKA: Black drink plant. Some supplements may contain little or no active yohimbine. According to Ward Dean. WORMWOOD AKA: Absinthe. Ph. Researchers have noted a correlation between mate drinkers and cancer of the esophagus. Effects: An antioxidant. it is related to yerbe mate and guayusa. epilepsy. though a trip to the hospital or doctor is recommended in such cases. and mild pupil dilation. yohimbine hydrochloride. or narcotics. Corynanthe yohimbe. blood. convulsions. yerba del pasmo. and 100 mg/day to reduce anxiety. flushed skin. Dosage: Six to ten teaspoons of shaved bark boiled in a pint of water for five minutes. VANILLA AKA: Vanilla planifolia. yohimbine alkaloids. Nathaniel Phillips does not recommend taking it with meals. and has shown positive results in treating both psychological and physiological impotence. The effects of yohimbe can be decreased by alcohol. It is not physically addictive. Dosage: Two teaspoons of leaves or tops in one cup of water for one-half cup a day to be taken in one teaspoonful doses. sallow). .

and various prescription drugs can all take their toll on the body's supply of vitamin A. tomatoes. poultry (white meat). If more than 10. Minerals. Its benefits are enhanced when taken with adequate amounts of other B vitamins. fresh green vegetables. lean pork. though 100 to 300 mg/day is probably the optimal range. and improves the oxygen-carrying ability of red blood cells. About 20 to 25 mg of zinc may be needed to help utilize vitamin A that is stored in the liver. and the drugs cholestyramine. brussel sprouts. and lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Dosage: The RDA is 1. degeneration of tooth enamel and gums. and sulphur. high blood pressure. antacids. sensitivity to noise. irregular menses. neurosis. Deficiency is rare. manifesting itself in anxiety. A deficiency is known as pellegra. found in spinach and collard greens. fish liver. cirrhosis. Thiamine. lean meat. and B-6 may not be able to produce niacin in this manner. and some cases lead even to death. If taking a broad spectrum antibiotic. and vision. impaired night vision. carotene. Even rarer are incidents of nervousness and panic caused by high doses of nicotinic acid. helps fight infections and speeds up healing. Other uncommon side effects may include abdominal pain. These disappear when the dosage is reduced. B-12. vomiting. reduces blood clotting. Effects: A strong antioxidant. some people seem to be able to manufacture it from their intestinal bacteria. and should go away within two months. gout. dates. Effects: Improves memory and other mental functions. liver. High doses can produce false positive results in tests for uric acid and urobilinogeh. Biamine. eggs. and wheezing. porphyria. dry cracked lips. oatmeal. and is used in the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles). vitamin B-l also helps in stabilizes the brain and nervous system's energy production from glucose. NAD. liver. are also found in plant foods. and "niacin hepatitis. absorption diseases. sunflower seeds. Food Sources: Asparagus. prolonged diarrhea. choline. nausea. muscle pains. The active coenzymatic form. milk. hair. vision problems. and usually resulting from injections of B-l— include allergic reactions. glaucoma. egg yolk. impaired liver function. Vitamin B-3 is a histamine releaser. A deficiency can result in dry skin. infection. and lutein from spinach. bran. blurred vision and related eye problems. extremely high doses — over 750 mg/day — can cause abdominal cramps. and eating fish. is reportedly harmless. headaches. lima beans. a class of drugs used with anesthesia to relax the muscles during surgery. the majority of health professionals recommend 10. is non-toxic. of B-3. pollution. and pellegra. which can cause a flushing.CHAPTER 3 Vitamins. and that taking aspirin an hour before taking B-3 or drinking a glass of water with the vitamin can prevent these symptoms. Nutritionists recommend taking more beta-carotene than vitamin A. sweating. fainting. calcium supplements. lima beans. irritability. milk. eyes. nausea. loss of smell. as well as the sex hormones estrogen. fatigue. swelling over the long bones. split peas. figs. though other researchers have not been able to duplicate their success. emotional instability. Overdosages can also affect thyroid and insulin production. Food Sources (Beta-carotene): Some fruits. pink grapefruit. rapid or irregular heartbeat. or NADH (the reduced form). and one admittedly flawed study using 17 subjects suggests that 5 mg twice daily can improve the symptoms of Alzheimer's. depression. in the latter case. dizziness. BETA-CAROTENE. wheat germ. tomatoes. oral contraceptives. while others say that this only occurs with nicotinic acid. Antacids. It is also necessary for the synthesis of cortisone. Both vitamin A and beta-carotene are absorbed more readily if consumed with foods containing fat and any hard physical activity is avoided for four hours afterwards. or hemorrhaging. and symptoms — though rare. a situation which alarms some because the average American diet is already deficient in this important class of nutrients. stomach ulcers. helps relieve air and seasickness. shellfish. it may cause dry skin. and what might be a low dose for one person could be toxic to another. and apparently one case of . Cooking. rapid pulse and heartbeat. aspirin. spirulina (an algae). Effects: Vitamin A is essential for the skin. stabilizing the appetite. vitamin A palmitate. There are some reports that large doses of vitamin C can prevent these problems. herpes. as the liver can store enough for months or even years before it is depleted. calcium. dizziness. helps repair cell damage. kelp. sulfa drugs.000 to 25. colestipol. yeasts. estrogen. The fat substitute Olestra can interfere with the absorption of carotenoids. dementia. An unusual sensitivity of the skin to sunlight may be an early warning sign. do not take high doses of vitamin A. wheat germ. it can also produce a false reading in a test for the level of theophylline (a drug used for the treatment of bronchial asthma) in the blood. bone pain. niacinamide. Those with poor health habits — such as smokers —and those with specific problems that inhibit absorption of vitamin A and beta-carotene — such as those with gastrointestinal or liver diseases. diarrhea. Mycelized vitamin A can be at least five times as powerful as oil-based supplements. broccoli. and insulin. And vitamin A should not be taken with the acne drug Accutane (isotretinoin). of which there are over 600. vitamin A acid. vinegar. lightheadedness. Bewon. diarrhea. ringing in the ears. fish. may help prevent macular degeneration. as these can render insulin inactive. liver. nicotinic acid. blurred vision. roasted peanuts. folic acid. fish. and redness of the skin in some people. diarrhea. Food Sources (vitamin A): Beef. fainting.000 lU/day. A deficiency (dosages below the minimum daily requirement of 1 mg/day) known as beriberi often results in physical and mental deterioration. and burns. whole-grain cereals. mineral oil. Food Sources: Avocados. on the other hand. pro-vitamin A.000 ID/day are taken. loss of manual dexterity. loss of appetite. rashes. stress. Astaxan-thin. even if none is consumed in the diet. reduced levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. brewer's yeast. food processing. manganese. jaundice. and vitamin A can interfere with the effectiveness of phenytoin. such as with a B-complex supplement. yeast. Retinol is the form of vitamin A found in animal foods. Much more research is needed. sleep disturbances. Beta-carotene. weakness. loss of vitamin C. fish liver oils. body flush. chronic heavy drinking. or headaches for about 10 to 20 minutes when first starting supplementation. low blood pressure. Paradoxically. though Dr. poor memory. tingling. Antibiotics. one of the main causes of blindness in old people. Beta-carotene appears to prevent lung cancer and tumors of the mouth and throat. and hunger pains. Those with ulcers may have to take an antacid to prevent aggravating their condition. caffeine. liver enlargement. after it is converted by the body. Some may also find that they have an abnormal glucose tolerance such as found in diabetics. as the body only converts it into vitamin A when it is needed. Recommended dosage is 50 to 1000 mg/day. severe itching. retin A. It should be taken only under the guidance of a physician if any of the following conditions are present: diabetes. muscle tremors. along with adequate supplies of the B vitamins. It should not be taken in high doses in combination with vitamin C and the amino acid L-cysteine except under the supervision of a doctor. and a natural metabolite. nervousness.000 IU daily for maximum health. vitamins C and E. weakness. Individuals with allergies may have problems. hives. headache. In doses larger than 50 mg (the RDA is 18 mg/day for men. nicotinamide. and recent research has shown that it may protect against memory loss and other forms of cognitive impairment. which is harmless and disappears when the dosage is reduced. dimallela salina (a marine plant). which have lots of fat and thus are readily damaged by free radicals. barbituates. and hyperirritability. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. and a person who is deficient in B-l. but some evidence indicates that the continuous release of niacin may be detrimental to the liver. a flushing or redness of the skin accompanied by a tingling. Both beta-carotene and vitamin A each have their own specific antioxidant properties. very low blood pressure. and the equivalent amounts of B-2 and B-6. drowsiness. an excess of iron. at least 10. weakness. though antibiotics may disturb the natural balance of these bacteria. vitamin D. but are not as plentiful or important. or wine can also contribute to the destruction of this vitamin in foods. CAROTENOIDS AKA: Aeon. Drs. High doses can result in deficiencies of other B vitamins. spinach. vitamin C. and Related Nutrients VITAMIN A. problems with bone growth. Should be taken in 3 or 4 divided doses with meals. and neomycin. confusion. vitamin A acetate. Precautions: It should not be taken by those sensitive to niacin or who have liver disease. which exists in some plants. shields the skin from the harmful effects of the sun's UV rays. protects against stress. including pantothenic acid.000 to 35. VITAMIN B-3 AKA: Niacin. and is characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances leading to a redness of the skin and inflammation. joint swelling. excessive amounts may cause a yellowing of the skin (carotenosis). It should be noted that there is good evidence that toxicity can result from long-term intake of as low as two and one-half times the RDA. barbituates. prunes. rash. A recent study by the Salk Institute for Biological Studies indicates vitamin A may be an important factor in memory and learning. The cholesterol-reducing drug Questran (cholestyramine) may interfere with the absorption of vitamin A to such an extent that supplementation may be needed. women on oral contraceptives have a decreased need for vitamin A. Alphalin. progesterone. maintain the health of the skin. helps the immune system work better. and marine animals. and protects the membranes of brain cells. Carotenoids. shortness of breath. sensitivity to tartrazine dye. the flushing usually occurs on an empty stomach.500 lU/day. throxine. Other carotenoids could lower the chance of heart attack in men with high blood pressure by 60 to 70 percent. alcoholism. which. butter. Afaxin. beans. as it helps metabolize them. gout. fish. Beta carotene (sometimes called carotene or pro-vitamin A) is found almost exclusively in plant foods and is a precursor to vitamin A. There are other common precautions that should be kept in mind: polyunsaturated fatty acids with carotene can work against vitamin A if antioxidants are not present. though a diet too high in carbohydrates may increase the need for B-1. clams. and phosphorus. insomnia. bloating. retinol. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxan-thin. Vitamin A acetate and vitamin A palmitate are synthetic forms found in fortified foods. Food Sources (carotenoids): egg yolks. Aquasol A. which can be prevented by increasing the intake of other B vitamins accordingly. higher dosages should only be taken under the careful eye of a qualified professional. Some say this only occurs with pure niacin. sea food. or ulcers. fatigue. and mucous membranes. Dosage: The RDA for vitamin A is 5000 lU/day. irritabilty. It may enhance the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents. faintness. whole wheat products. 1 mg/day for women. The victims of pellegra suffer from dermatitis. nails. beta-carotene has been found to increase the death rate of smokers due to lung cancer if their levels of vitamin C are low. B-2. chicken. itching. dry rough or scaly skin. though only recently has a process been developed that can stabilize this nutrient so that it can be taken orally. effects which can heighten sexual pleasure. due to its higher degree of absorption. and testosterone. parsley. fever. edema. vitamin E. brown rice. or diabetes— may require a higher dosage.000 international units (IU) of A are needed if more than 400 lU/day of vitamin E are taken. alpha and beta carotenes from carrots.000 IU taken over an extended period of time can result in abdominal pain. dark-green and orange vegetables. Vitamin B-l should be taken with carbohydrates. weight loss. apprehension. Precautions: There is a wide variation in the amount individuals need. and red cabbage in their raw state can destroy or inhibit the absorption of B-l. Humphry Osmond and Abram Hoffer contend that B-3 is an effective treatment for schizophrenia. inability to recall recent events. loss of appetite. Individual needs vary widely. The vitamin can relieve gastrointestinal problems. coffee. confusion. Betaxin." though the latter is not life-threatening. Retin A. gas. is commonly used in prescription doses of 10. premenstrual headaches. a deficiency of vitamin D. vomiting. aids in the functioning of the nervous system. and increased susceptibility to infections. SustA. milk. nuts. numbness in hands and feet. and liver and eye damage (the main storage sites in the body for vitamin A). depression. heartburn. ease the severity of (or even prevent) migraines. overactive thyroid. works as an antioxidant (prevents vitamin C from oxidizing). sinus trouble. Precautions: Daily doses of vitamin A higher than 25. gall bladder problems. irritability. and gastrointestinal disturbances. There are time-release niacin tablets that avoid the flush. The absorption of vitamin A can be inhibited by alcohol. In some cases. or vitamin A acid. red palm oil. liver damage. lycopene from tomatoes. Dispatabs. it will increase the effect of anticoagulants. oranges. soybeans. Carotenoids are more effective if taken in combination—for instance. called variously niacinamide adenine dinucleotide. diarrhea. 13 mg/day for women). and those with gout may find their symptoms increasing because of increased uric acid levels in the blood. as nicotinic acid reportedly raises the histamine level in the body. heart. eggs. carbonated citrates in food and drinks. though it takes 60 parts tryptophan to make one part niacin. restlessness. has 5 to 20 times the antioxidant activity of beta-carotene. and marinating meat in soy sauce. has shown promise in mental enhancement. L-tryptophan can be converted by the body into B-3. Those with kidney disorders should consult a physician before increasing intake of vitamin C. kidney. gall bladder or liver disease. resulting in an increase of free radicals rather than a reduction. sensitivity to light. VITAMIN B-l AKA: Betalin S. stress. tobacco. fight canker sores and bad breath. It is best taken with the other B vitamins.4 mg/day for men. poultry. hair loss. Stuart Berger recommends a maximum daily dosage of 17. It is used to treat vertigo.

Do not exceed 500 mg/day. Cyanabin. cabbage. diisopropylamine-dichloracetate (DIPADCA). Dilantin can deplete the body's stores of B-12. so a diet rich in animal fats may be more likely to result in cholesterol plaques if there is insufficient B-6. and tobacco. Its advocates contend that DMG increases energy. A deficiency of both B-6 and folic acid is correlated with a high level of the amino acid homocysteine. there is some evidence that it can be manufactured by intestinal bacteria. Ph. The vitamin needs to be taken with calcium to be properly absorbed and utilized by the body. fresh vegetables. brewer's yeast. and protect the liver. Precautions: Though it is nontoxic. It also helps keep the bones strong and metabolizes calcium. indicates a diet so poor that deficiency symptoms of other vitamins are also likely to be present. estrogen. pyridoxinal. It is best if taken with a multivitamin which includes calcium. usually resulting from overdose. leading to neuritis. Sheldon Saul Hendler. protects against stress and fatigue (promotes the release of energy in foods). It should not be taken by those who are allergic to pantothenic acid.D. and it has been used to treat depression. Rezide. alcohol. cycloserine. sulfa drugs. and sulfinpyrazone. though some permanent nerve damage (such as loss of sense of touch) may remain. food processing (up to half the B-6 in flour may be lost in the refining process). VITAMIN B-15 AND DIMETHYLGLYCINE AKA: Calcium pangamate and pangamic acid. and those with hemophilia should consult a physician first. can increase the need for niacin. Kaybovite. and protector against stress. deficiency is rare. The vitamin can interfere with the effects of hypnotic barbiturates. Best taken with vitamins B-l. brain-wave abnormalities. kidney. memory loss. meat. The only B vitamin that can be stored by the body (the liver can store three to five years worth). rash. It may also help in relieving the symptoms of depression and sickle-cell anemia. Among the other benefits are the healing of wounds and minimizing the side effects of many antibiotics. Rubramin. and death. A highprotein diet with meat. sulfa drugs. liver. those with chronic malabsorption problems. and symptoms include poor appetite. isoniazid. nervousness. peas. Precautions: Too much B-6 in the body can result in night restlessness and very vivid dream recall. Effects: Boron helps keep the brain alert and able to perform simple functions. Food Sources: Avocados. and can also cause liver damage and. moodiness. nerve disorders. Vitamin B-6 is actually a trio of very similar substances — pyridoxine. A naturally occurring deficiency is probably extremely rare. Niacin can reduce the effectiveness of antidiabetic drugs. It helps in the synthesis of acetylcholine. and diarrhea. cooking. it could cause an increased flushing of the skin. and rash. anticonvulsants. tobacco. fish. It is absorbed best when taken with meals that contain calcium. and a carbidopa-levodopa combination does not have this problem). egg yolk. weakness. Rubion. Vitabec 6. mental confusion. irritability. are potential carcinogens. potassium supplements. and tobacco. stamina enhancer. while reducing oxidation within cells. Food Sources: Beef. overcoming deficiency. headaches. is needed for the transportation and storage of folic acid. Tagamet. niacinimide. and water. which avoids the niacin flush. yet no toxicity was observed in tests where individuals took 500 to 1000 micrograms (0. vitamin C (if taken within two hours of each other). lamb. chicken. A deficiency is known as pernicious anemia. sleeping pills. Nicotinic acid can also interfere with the Benedict's reagent test for sugar in the urine. High doses of B-6 can lead to increased susceptibility to cadmium toxicity. Precautions: It can cause heartburn or. the measurement of catecholamines in the blood or urine. and anticoagulant drugs. birth control pills. 1000 mg twice a day with meals helps relieve the suffering from allergies. learning disabilities. seaweed. Droxomin. Its effectiveness can be reduced by tobacco and obesity. seborrheic dermatitis. Some tablets sold contain the B-12 intrinsic factor. Pyroxine. ethionamide. and penicillamine can all reduce the absorption of B-5 and cause anemia and tingling or numbness in the hands and feet. yeast. Redisol. Effects: Prevents oxygen deprivation in the body's tissues. and dopamine) needed for mental energy and memory. Serpasil-Apresoline. laxatives. however. sleeping pills. Those with gout should consult a physician before taking supplements. rather than tablets. Alpha Redisol. It is recommended that those age 51 and over take 4 meg/day. cimetidine. nausea. milk. and riboflavin. cheese. particularly dried fruits. eggs. ethionamide. and magnesium. heat. and is characterized by blood and skin disorders. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with Leber's disease (optic nerve atrophy). Dosage: Some suggest 10 to 75 mg/day. 50 to 200 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses. Effects: Vitamin B-6 protects against stress and is needed by the brain for transporting and metabolizing amino acids to develop various neurotransmitters (such as norepinephrine. Deficiency is rare. pork. carrots. recent evidence suggests that some older people who have less stomach acid and more digestive bacteria may need to take as much as 25 meg/day. diary products. Effects: A strong antioxidant. lacks many of the beneficial effects of niacin. C. VITAMIN B-6 AKA: Beesix. grapes. with such symptoms as pain in the arms and legs. Life-threatening symptoms. VITAMIN B-5 AKA: Calcium pantothenate. potatoes. Dosage: Approximately 150 to 250 mg/day. wheat germ. panthenol. or alcohol could result in excessively low blood pressure. Research has shown that women can cut their risk of heart disease in half by consuming at least 400 meg/day of folic acid and 3 mg/day of B-6. Though it is a water-soluble vitamin that needs to be supplied every day. The RDA for adults is 3 micrograms. and years of chronic inadequate intake may precede the onset of symptoms. Vitamin B-5 can be destroyed by alcohol. Combining with betaandrenergic blocking agents. The recommended dose is 3 mg/day. canning. Kaybo-vite1000. Similarly. cantaloupe. the ingredient Hydralazine (contained in such blood pressure medications as Apresazide. VITAMIN C AND BIOFLAVONOIDS . mecamylamine. hair loss. anemia. sunlight. Nicotinic acid can also interact with ganglionic blocking drugs. malfunctioning of the nervous system. cholestyramine. broccoli. oral contraceptives. The following drugs may increase the need for B-6: birth control pills. pantothenic acid. and immuno-suppressants. endurance. There are no known overdose symptoms. A deficiency can be similar to thiamin and niacin deficiencies. probenecid. In fact. M. those who do not produce enough intrinsic factor in the stomach to help utilize it. According to Pearson and Shaw. and hypoglycemia. there is evidence that DMG and another component. aspirin. canning. bran. chloramphenicol. spleen. According to Earl Mindell. gradually increasing to 250 to 1000 mg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses. vegans. There is no known toxicity. nervousness. egg yolks.D. It may play a key role in fat metabolism.hypothyroidism. immunosuppressants. and strength (mainly by reducing the lactic acid in the muscles). strict vegetarians may not get enough. nuts. whole grains. possibly by the cellulose in a largely vegetarian diet. eggs. less frequently.. and other foods high in B-3 can provide adequate amounts. serotonin. difficulty walking and maintaining balance. a mucoprotein secreted in the stomach which aids in the absorption of this vitamin. and Penicillamine (a drug unrelated to penicillin which is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and rare genetic diseases). Bedoc. duodenal ulcers. glossitis. enhancing their blood pressurelowering effect. nuts. coffee. BORON Food sources: Most fruits and vegetables. dairy products. Dexol T. It can reduce the effectiveness of levodopa (but not carbidopalevodopa). itching. insomnia. potassium (extendedrelease forms). depression. and memory loss. Codroxomin. As it is only found in meat and dairy products. or took 100. nizatidine. others. brain damage. wheat bran. The effects of pernicious anemia may include nerve transmission problems. arthritis. Allergies to this vitamin are rare. Berubigen. hydroxocobalamin. cycloserine (Seromycin). and those taking estrogen. L-dopa (though the drug Sinemet may be able to bypass this interaction. though initial large doses can cause temporary diarrhea. pregnant women. clumsiness. Isoniazid. brown rice. sleeping pills. inflammation of the mouth and tongue. Hexa-Betalin. severe psychosis. and maximizes blood transport from the blood to the heart and brain. Betalin 12. Taking more than 200 mg/day can cause peripheral neuropathy and such high dosages should be administered only under the guidance of a physician. if it does occur. though lack of deficiency in nonmeat eaters leads some to speculate that some vegetables may contain bacteria that produce B-12. it is believed men can enjoy similar benefits from such an increase. phenobarbital. food processing. lentils. pantothenic acid. resulting in acne. "Nicotinic analogues" or "niacin analogues" are drugs used to treat specific conditions. and have no value as vitamin supplements. leading to serious central nervous system problems. famotidine. roasting or stewing of meat. is essential for the synthesis of antibodies. and phosphorus. cramps. estrogen. Combined with folic acid and methionine. consist of faintness (from anaphylaxis). improves the immune system (mainly be creating phosphocreatine. Pepcid. Niacin can be destroyed by alcohol. and a swelling or crusting of skin around the lips) usually occur with injections.. sleeping pills. Rare symptoms include hives. poultry. estrogen. Combining with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors could increase the risk of heart or kidney problems. and sexual organs. Vitamin B-5 occurs in such a wide variety of foods that a deficiency is rare and. eczema. Dosage: Start at low doses and gradually increase to 100 to 200 mg/day.. used to treat tuberculosis.5 to 1 mg) for up to five years. dosage should not exceed 10 mg/day. and difficult breathing. soybeans and soy products. Food Sources: Bananas. Those at risk include smokers. loss of balance. according to John Mann. depression. Apresoline. Preliminary studies have shown that supplementation of B-12 and folic acid may prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's. a tingling in the hands and feet. and yeast are the best sources. It may help promote sleep when combined with inositol. and phenytoin. hives. and is an essential growth factor needed for healthy brain and nerve function. Taken by itself over an extended period of time may increase the need for B-l. pork. a dose of approximately 1000 micrograms taken immediately before sleep has about a 50% chance of creating dreams in color. Dosage: It is generally recommended that initial doses should be 100 mg/day. Those on a high-protein diet will need more B-6. hydralazine. as there is no evidence that the body has a need for it. Ser-Ap-Es. Precautions: While there appear to be no adverse effects with doses as high as 6 mg/day. sale of B-15 is illegal. neomycin. depression. magnesium. wheezing. and — in one case — it has decreased the liver's uptake of the chemical used to make that organ visible for a liver scan. Dosage: 3 meg/day. though experimenting with supplements could be risky. and water. blackstrap molasses. kidney. Doses higher than 500 mg/day may be toxic. Pyridoxine. and difficulty in walking. estrogen. oats. Effects: Encourages RNA and DNA synthesis in nerve cells. digestive disorders. prunes. With cocaine. Deficiency symptoms of B-12 can be masked by taking more than 1000 meg/day of folic acid. Lab rats experience an increase in their rate of learning. preferably with meals. which go away once the dosage is reduced. Alphamin. Dosage: There is no RDA. estrogens. liver.000 micrograms in a single dose. ranitidine. in some people. Chloram-phenicol. Rodex. which also helps the muscles contract). those who have undergone stomach surgery. and pyridoxamine — working together. does not recommend supplementation under any circumstances.D. Vitamin B-12 injections are generally regarded as worthless. milk. It should be taken in 3 to 4 divided doses. it can help manufacture choline in the body. Prilosec. It is not a vitamin. chloramphenicol. cyanocobalamin. a metabolic brain enhancer said to detoxify the body. and an underactive thyroid gland can interfere with the absorption of this vitamin. colchicine. yogurt. food processing. a numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. magnesium. fatigue. manganese. plays an indirect role in making choline available for the synthesis of neurotransmitters. stomach medications (such as Prevacid. methyldopa. Diabetics may find that B-6 can be used to decrease their need for insulin. Vitamin B-6 can be destroyed by alcohol. VITAMIN B-12 AKA: Acti-B-12. Rubramin-PC. and Unipres). heavy drinkers. which plays a role in heart disease. beef. Anocobin. caffeine. Because the body can recycle the vitamin. High protein diets increase the need for B-6. convulsions. The active ingredient is dimethylglycine (DMG). enriched cereals. B-2. antacids. and is needed for the utilization of PABA and choline. brewer's yeast. fish. Rare side effects consist of itchy skin. It can also be destroyed or have absorption interfered with by acids and alkalies. radiation. and reactions (the symptoms for which include acne. None of the benefits claimed for it or DMG have any basis in fact. Necessary for the proper functioning of the thymus. helps stabilize the brain's metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins and its synthesis of myelin in the nerves. liver and other organ meats. Chronic megadoses of 2 to 6 grams/day used to treat carpal tunnel syndrome have led to vitamin toxicity and sensory neuropathy. Isoniazid. and possible cardiovascular disease. The vitamin also helps the immune system by producing antibodies and red blood cells. Cobalamin. lower cholesterol. and Zantac).

in fact. cellulose sodium phosphate. population) can lead to diabetes mellitus (though this condition may result from a chromiumpoor diet that is deficient in other minerals. it lengthened the life span of mice 33-50 percent). In doses above 200 mg/day. individuals taking 2000 mg or more a day may lower the resistance of their white blood cells to fight one common form of bacteria. and work synergistically with C. Bimanol. cauliflower. liver. Effects: Works as an antioxidant (unlike antioxidants vitamin E. Those who experience stomach problems or heartburn from taking ascorbic acid may eliminate these problems by taking calcium ascorbate. Ester C. students with high vitamin C levels did better on IQ tests than those with lower levels. which include rutin and hesperidin. others 2000 to 5000 mg/day. calcium ascorbate. Alcohol. as this mineral is mainly found in eggs. dull headaches. Vitamin C can give false readings for the following blood and urine lab tests: blood bilirubin. and providing energy throughout the day. steady stimulant effect which is said to lead to no letdown or side effects. Flavorcee. Food Sources: Bean sprouts. in which case chromium should only be taken under a doctor's supervision. dimethylaminoethanol pace-tamidobenzoate. stress. but does not prevent the occurrence of subclinical deficiency. serious kidney disease or kidney failure. Cemill. SCOT. vitamin C. and a class of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. Cevalin. cortisone. Precautions: People with manic-depression should not take DMAE. sulfonamides. Some contend that the U. Effects: Chromium assists in the breakdown and distribution of proteins and carbohydrates in the body. Man is the only animal that cannot synthesize vitamin C in the body (apes and guinea pigs have a similar problem in that their bodies cannot synthesize it fast enough). Some brands contain tartrazine dye. green leafy vegetables. brewer's yeast. lengthens the life span of lab animals (in one study. though many people may respond well to lower dosages. which can lead to a toxic buildup after several doses. as there could be a negative interaction between them. Trimipramine (also known as Surmontil). anticholinergics. headaches. G-6PD deficiency. liver. Deficiency symptoms related to scurvy that accompany a sudden withdrawal of high dosages are rare. Cetane. preventing mood swings. and Ester C) can stop these symptoms. Dosages above 4000 mg/day can increase kidney stone formation in those already susceptible (though magnesium supplements may prevent this problem). folk acid deficiency (from such conditions as alcoholism). and frozen vegetables should not be thawed before cooking. black pepper. mercury. and should be avoided by those who are allergic. thrombosis. or muscle tension (especially in the jaw. high fever. Sunkist. There are no known serious side effects or contraindications. M. creatinine. leading to anemia. diarrhea. that it might take a dose of several thousand times the recommended dosage to produce adverse side effects. Sinequan). Sheldon Saul Hendler. or the so-called vitamin P. though a 1999 research paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association recommends that this be increased to 200 mg/day. occult blood test for colon cancer. tomatoes. clams. Rare symptoms include abdominal pain and anemia. its effect possibly due to the fact that subjects may have been deficient in chromium to begin with. deanol. depression. According to some studies. as well as chromium polynicotinate and chromium chloride. Food Sources: DMAE exists in tiny amounts in the brain and is found in such seafoods as anchovies. With vitamin E. Dr.D. Some recommend 1000 to 3000 mg/day. so an effective dosage is much lower than for the other two supplements. and may need to take a folic acid supplement. Stuart Berger states that bioflavonoids. intercepting the oxidants that initiate the free-radical cycle) is needed for the manufacture of neurotransmitters and cell structures. Effects: When combined with phosphatidyl choline and vitamin B-5. A deficiency is known as scurvy which. No letdown or depression is experienced if use is discontinued. RDA of 60 mg/day prevents these obvious symptoms. Atrol. antibiotics. There is one case of a false-positive reading for a test of porphyria in a man who took one-third of an ounce a day. thyme. protects against bacteria and viruses. and pesticides). they may have reduced receptor sensitivity to acetylcholine. but a growth factor needed by certain organisms. thalassemia (hereditary anemia). Bioflavonoids. undetermined. states that there is no solid evidence that bioflavonoids help the body utilize vitamin C better. and legs). A few more things should be kept in mind: cases of allergies to this mineral have been reported. tranquilizers such as phenotiazine. what this means for individuals taking the supplement is. It should be stored in a cool. which is enough to produce the desired effects. It is more effectively utilized by the body if taken with bioflavonoids. protects against heart and blood diseases. In fact. may help safeguard against and reduce the symptoms of colds and flu. Dosage: Gradually increase the dosage until it is around 500 to 1000 mg/day. and aids in restful sleep. older people can tolerate higher doses. and sardines. Deficiency (which may be very widespread in the U. It is also essential for the production of an enzyme-like substance called Glucose Tolerance Factor or GTF (chromium combined with nicotinic acid and amino acids). whole-grain cereals. oxygen. dizziness. in turn. LDH. neck. vitamin P. Cenolate. Earl Mindell recommends 100 mg of bioflavonoids for every 500 mg of C. reduces fatigue. Imipramine (also known as Tofranil). a natural antihistamine. increased blood pressure. baking soda. can inhibit sugar-induced high blood pressure. and adultonset diabetes. helps build collagen (the connective tissue in the body). the breakdown of neuronal membranes. Chromium picolinate. Chewable vitamin C can lead to severe dental erosion. kidney stones. may be the end result of long-term deprivation of vitamin C. the first sign of diarrhea (called the "bowel tolerance") is a sign that the body's optimal dosage of vitamin C has been surpassed. Symptoms include bleeding gums. Dosage: The RDA has not yet been established. citrus fruits. cortisones. Risatarun. birth control pills. Stuart Berger recommends only 40 meg/day for those who exercise at least 5 times a week). In general. increase the iron absorption from iron supplements. Pamelor). or gout. wheat germ. athletes and those who exercise heavily — male or female — may need up to 400 meg/day (though Dr. Refined sugar should be avoided for three reasons: it has been stripped of its chromium (along with the magnesium). AKA (Bioflavonoids): Flavonoids. preventing one of the major factors of aging. Ph. but not soaked. blood glucose. Re-doxon. is a fat-soluble form (vitamin C is basically water-soluble): it remains in the fat tissues until used by the body and is not wasted through excretion. boosts the immune system. Piracetam. and vomiting can occur. nausea. shellfish. Studies on lab animals have shown. There are two new forms of vitamin C. There should be at least a three-hour span between taking vitamin C and taking ginseng. and urinary glucose. It can also slow down the metabolizing of aspirin by the body. one study recommends oral doses as low as 10 to 30 mg/day. and it causes a loss of chromium through the urine. or GTF. though some research indicates that human placentas and nursing mothers may have this ability. Paxanol. ulceration of the nasal tissues and toxic levels can occur with long-time exposure in workers who deal with chromium in metal plating or making dyes. heat. a waste product that may inhibit nerve cell functioning. There are no known symptoms of toxicity. phenacetin. takes carbohydrates from the blood and gets them to the brain cells. With too high a dose. Chromium picolinate's reputation as a muscle-building nutrient may be overrated. it produces acetylcholine. and CoEnzyme Q10. One study in 1996 showed that chromium picolinate caused chromosome damage in cells that had been grown in a laboratory. and researchers have identified over 500 of them. Hydergine. and vasopressin. which aids in the making and proper utilization of insulin. which use them for energy. CHROMIUM AND CHROMIUM PICOLINATE Food Sources: Beef.S. protects the lungs by preventing oxygen from converting into peroxides. and aluminum) and chemical toxins (such as formaldehyde. as it enters the body tissues faster and remains there longer than regular vitamin C. Varesal. It can cross the blood/ brain barrier more readily than choline or lecithin. quinidine. Lowering the dosage or using a buffered form (such as sodium ascorbate. Amoxapine (also known as Asendin). Some recommend no more than 200 meg/day on the basis that no adequate research has been conducted on levels higher than that. Chromium picolinate is a scientifically developed form which appears to be more efficient than regular chromium. and lead to salicylate toxicity if such supplements are taken. It can also cause problems in people with sickle cell anemia. The picolinate and polynicotinate forms (the latter sold under the brand name Chrome-Mate) also act as antioxidants. C-Span. The other. reduces anxiety. Women taking 2000 mg or more a day may experience fertility problems. Pabenol. this insulin. Desipramine (also known as Norpramin. Dosage: The current RDA is 60 mg/day. magnesium ascorbate. or they may have altered feedback in their brain metabolism. mushrooms. hemorrhaging. it can counteract the effects of a fatty meal. and diminishes the duration and severity of herpes blister outbreaks. or sodium ascorbate.D. is not a vitamin at all. dicoumarol. Vegetables should be washed. Vitamin C may also deplete the sulfur reserves in the body. even a few can cause the body to excrete it at up to three times the normal rate. strengthens memory and learning. salicylates. polycythemia (an increase in the blood's total cell mass). and tetracycline. beta-carotene. Ascorbicap. Deaner. Cevi-Bid. perhaps. Endep. so lower doses should be taken if any of these supplements are also being taken. uric acid. cheese. Cecon. There is some evidence it stabilizes the cell membranes of neurons. lowers blood cholesterol. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be eaten within a few days. mixing it fresh each time. and it has a mild. The dosage is about 250 mg/day. copper pots. meat. Chromium salts. aspirin. one study shows that synthetic vitamin C is absorbed more fully than "natural" vitamin C from orange juice or vitamin C with rutin. Pertofrane). gastritis. and fruits and vegetables should be cut with a sharp knife immediately before consumption. has a higher level of bioavailability —patients given this form of the vitamin only need 20 to 30 percent of the usual dose of vitamin C. corn oil. vitamin C by itself may reduce the effectiveness of warfarin and other oral anticoagulants. and water can all contribute to the loss or reduced effectiveness of this vitamin. though rare. the neurotransmitter essential for short-term memory. which disappear if dosage is reduced. Cevita.AKA (Vitamin C): Ascorbic acid. The only deficiency symptom of bioflavonoids that has been identified is bleeding gums. Too high a dosage (at least 500 mg/day in some cases) can cause anxiety. Vitamin C can increase the effect of barbiturates. varies among brands. especially in cases of those who are diabetic. excluding man. as such a high dose of C will deplete this B vitamin. large doses of C does not destroy B-12 (if taken more than two hours apart) or contribute to the formation of kidney stones in those not already susceptible. It also helps regenerate vitamin E after the latter has done its own job of eliminating free radicals. Those taking 3000 mg or more a day may experience reduced levels of the amino acid cysteine in the blood (though this condition is not serious) and lowered resistance to high altitude conditions. either because they have lower levels of acetyl-choline. as some of the ginseng may be neutralized. one would probably have to ingest several pounds a day to reach toxic levels. berries. Triavil). Ce-Vi-Sol. poultry. Nortriptyline (also known as Aventyl. organic solvents. dark place. Limbitrol. vitamin A deficiency. Difo-rene. Elevan. to the low absorption rate (about 2 percent of intake). Moreover. smoking (each cigarette can destroy 25 to 100 mg). with the ideal balance of ten parts bioflavonoids to one part rutin and hesperidin. It may take up to three weeks before the effects are noticed. too) and arteriosclerosis (though chromium's exact role in this is not yet clear). and decreases the amount of sleep needed. or an allergy to vitamin C. It is similar in effect to centrophenoxine or Lucidril. The prescription drug Deaner (deanol) is chemically similar. magnesium ascorbate. Precautions: Supplements should not be taken by those with increased iron absorption (caused by such conditions as hemochromatosis). as it can worsen the depressive phase. Studies seem to indicate that 200 meg/day for women is a good dose. that the body can use.000 mg/day without serious consequences. though often high. mexiletine. light-headedness. sodium ascorbate. Smart drug expert Michael Hutchison even states that dosages of 10 to 20 grams are not unheard of! In fact. beer. as they can render insulin ineffective. herring. and the chromium content of brewer's yeast. which reduce oxidation damage. Precautions: Some people cannot convert chromium chloride or chromium from chelated supplements into the "biologically active" form. ascorbyl palmitate. are part of the C complex of vitamins. As people get older. Contrary to earlier beliefs. plus the minerals calcium and magnesium. a slight deficiency which may have no readily identifiable symptoms and which may lead to health problems years down the line. Dimethylaminoethanol. as it can deteriorate . cevitamin acid. protects the body against the effects of pollutants (particularly the metals lead. so it is readily excreted by the body. as C will readily oxidise to the toxic form dehydroascorbate. calcium ascorbate. ascorbyl palmitate. as bruising with a dull knife and letting cut food stand can destroy vitamin C. and poor healing of wounds. bran. helps wounds heal faster. Protriptyline (also known as Vivactil). loose teeth. it encourages the production of other enzymes that utilize C and is water-soluble. vitamin C works preemptively. amphetamines. Dimethaen. whether this also occurs in females is unknown. to prevent vitamin loss. though these may be just temporary. those with epilepsy or seizure disorders should only do so under a physician's guidance. as yet. they retain less of this mineral in their bodies. emotional disturbances. light. Cervoxan. cooking. especially damage done to blood vessels from high cholesterol. Ester C. insomnia. protects against heart attacks. potatoes. in 3 or 4 divided doses. increases alertness and mental functioning. They give plants their color. it may also have a mild muscle-building effect on people with a regular exercise program. including Amitriptyline (also known as Elavil. produces sounder sleep. helps the intestine absorb iron. improves intelligence. chicken. however. It is believed that sufficient amounts keep the blood sugar on a consistent level. One. DMAE-H3. however. which are an inorganic form of chromium. Works synergistically with choline. do not seem to be absorbed by the body very well and so are of little use as supplements. attributable. Chromium supplements should not be taken at the same time as vanadium supplements. nervousness. More than eight aspirin a day for more than a week can cause the body to excrete more vitamin C. Tonibral. Daily dosages above 500 mg/day may deplete the level of copper in the blood of males. Extra care should be taken when using the powdered form. Additionally.. It has often been taken in doses up to 10. Drugs whose long-term use may increase the need for vitamin C include barbiturates. sweet potatoes. helps preserve the elasticity of the skin and capillaries. increase the side effects from estrogens (if vitamin C taken is more than 1 g/day). It also removes the cellular aging pigment called lipofuscin. gas. Vitamin C should not be taken in large doses in conjunction with vitamins B-l and the amino acid Lcysteine. levodopa. Etrafron. it requires chromium to metabolize it. leukemia. Selegiline.. diabetes. in that it elevates mood. placing vegetarians at risk. DMAE AKA: Acumen.S. Doxepin (also known as Adapin.

peas. Vitamin E prolongs the clotting of blood. To increase potency. eta. sore tongue and throat. and bronchospasm. or if a person is taking coumarin-type drugs or drugs with anticlotting properties. as it is excreted by the body rather quickly. Marguerite Kay had published erroneous research papers on aging.S. analgesics. Dosage: Supplements are generally in the 100 to 800 meg/day range. It also strengthens the immune system. fever. such as ferrous gluconate. Precautions: No adverse side effects have been found in doses as high as 35. as well as boost the immune system. pernicious anemia. which is common in most communities). especially when taken in conjunction with selenium. The findings are supported by the fact that excessive amounts of creatinine. It may also increase athletic performance because of its antioxidant properties. Ph. Supplements should not be taken by anyone with hormone-related cancer. It has been used by NASA astronauts to fight the breakdown of red blood cells from radiation. salmon. say a healthy diet can offset this deficiency.g. doses of 400 to 800 ID/day can reduce heart attacks by 77 percent in those already suffering from heart disease. fresh wheat germ. each a mirror image of the other. vitamin E may cause blood clots if taken in doses above 800 lU/day. vitamin Be. make sure there is at least a six. apricots. Controversy has arisen over the efficacy of natural versus synthetic forms of vitamin E. sulfasalazine. as it could cause excessive bleeding. folate. Permanent nerve damage may result. pumpkins. brewer's yeast. While most synthetic vitamins are just as effective as the natural forms. In one preliminary study dosages above 400 micrograms/day blocked the absorption of zinc in the body. impaired concentration. abdominal bloating. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are allergic to any of the B vitamins. as it will interfere with the effectiveness of the drug. dl-alphatocopherol. Allergies can also occur when vitamin E is used in skin preparations. estrogen. the "good" cholesterol. vitamin B-9. fatigue. cooking in copper pots. and the symptoms may include anorexia. in dosages above 1000 micrograms/day. Dosage: Antioxidant expert Laster Packer. while the synthetic products are a mixture of both "d" and "1" forms. Dosages above 1000 micrograms/day range may block the absorption of vitamin B-12. weight loss. birth control pills. or vitamers. When given in doses of 2000 lU/day. their ability to absorb E decreases). Only gamma-tocopherol can eliminate peroxynitrite. including one study that concluded that vitamin E had some positive effects on aging. but these are extremely rare. and those with liver disease and pernicious anemia should consult a physician first. It also helps the body utilize vitamin A better. nuts and oils of nuts. a component of air pollution. A dosage of as little as 50 lU/day. and has antiinflammatory properties that protect against such ailments as arthritis and allergic reactions. Still. rancid fat and oil. it can extend the effectiveness of vitamin C over a longer period of time and can effectively protect against the hydroxyl free radical. Common side effects include breast enlargement. Effects: One of the most potent antioxidants available (it is 50 times more powerful than vitamin E and 20 times more powerful than vitamin C). Dosages above 600 lU/day should not be taken by those with high blood triglyceride levels or a thyroid condition. it is recommended that 25 micrograms of selenium be taken with each 200 IU of vitamin E. and sweet potatoes. cholestyramine. Vitamin E exists in two forms. upset stomach. anticancer drugs (e. vitamin M. vitamin O. peptonate. though it should not be taken by those who are allergic to vitamin E. even from a healthy diet. and can counteract the effects of a fatty meal. is reportedly enough to protect against heart disease (the RDA is only 30 lU/day). strengthens the capillaries. beta. internal bleeding or ecchymoses (discoloration of the skin due to blood leaching into body tissues) if there is a deficiency of vitamin K.. nerve damage caused by such neurological disorders as cystic fibrosis and chronic liver disease. however. A common side effect is yellow urine.rapidly. or fumarate has no known adverse effect). blocks the formation of nitrosamine. wheat germ oil. and sufficient amounts of protein may restore hair growth). the dtocopherol (right-handed) form and 1tocopherol (left-handed) form. rare side effects include rash. zeta. Chew-E. seeds. it is one of the polyphenol extracts known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). GERMANIUM AKA: GE-132. certain rare medical conditions are present. iron supplements (in healthy individuals). liver. recommends 50-100 mg/ day. and raises the levels of HDLs. anticonvulsant drugs. Overdose symptoms consist of fatigue. neomycin. cerebral hemorrhage. it has been shown to prevent liver damage and liver cancer caused by DHEA. Beyond this. In the past few decades in the U. stress. helps preserve the lung function of elderly people. heart disease. chapped lips. Studies have also shown that it can protect against stroke. with daily doses not to exceed 1600 lU/day. diabetic retinopathy. and it can relieve the symptoms of psoriasis and swelling of the lower legs. increases the ability of cells to make energy. It also works synergistically with French maritime pine bark extract. Dosage: Some suggest 100 to 1000 lU/day. Combined with vitamin B-12 and methionine. interact with antipsychotic medication. Vitamin E can increase the effect of oral anticoagulants. and sometimes reverse.000 mg/day over a six month period. the University of Arizona found that microbiologist Dr. soybeans. was found in subjects' urine. it may increase life span when combined with the sulfhydryl drug 4-thiazolidine carboxylic acid. It can even halt. in some people. stress-related ulcers. and spinach). adequate amounts of inositol and choline should also be present in the diet. nausea. antituberculosis drugs. such is not the case with E. vitamin C (in dosages above 2000 mg/day). Though vitamin E is fat-soluble. Recent evidence indicates that the pill form may be harmful. especially damage done to blood vessels from high cholesterol. and may. graying hair. and theta). molasses. vitamin U. sunlight. Those with thrombophlebitis (blood clots in the leg veins) or liver disease should consult a physician first. Current research is attempting to determine whether it has any effect on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). and thin the blood. green leafy vegetables (such as collard greens. It is recommended that those who are elderly or who have digestive problems take the dry or succinate form. nausea. dilate the blood vessels. Deficiency symptoms include gastrointestinal problems. others 800 to 1200 lU/day. or 2-MEA. estrogen. which also include grape seed extract. and vomiting. It can elevate blood pressure when first taken. some. It may also cause abdominal pain. colestipol. High levels of alpha-tocopherol can suppress levels of gamma-tocopherol in the blood. and may restore hair to its original color when 5 mg of folic acid are combined with 300 mg each of pantothenic acid and PABA. In lab rats. which plays a role in heart disease. heat. BHT. Lab animals given extremely high doses have experienced adverse effects on their adrenal. decrease the effect of iron supplements in those with iron-deficiency anemia. food processing. it acts more like a water-soluble vitamin. Regular supplementation has also been proven to protect against exercise-induced DNA damage that may lead to cancer. lack of development of red blood cells. which can directly damage DNA. sulfa drugs. it may shorten the life span. Works synergistically with the steroid DHEA. Epsilan-M. Synthetics are only 50 to 70 percent as effective as naturals. Those engaged in regular strenuous exercise have a greater need for this vitamin than most people. synthetic and natural are equally as effective in preventing heart disease and inhibiting the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Food Sources: Eggs. VITAMIN E AKA: Aquasol E. Folk acid can interact with the anti-convulsant drugs (such as sodium phenytoin) used to treat epilepsy. and infertility. and oxygen. nightmares. enlarged prostate. PCAGeO. flour (whole wheat and dark rye). doses in the 800 lU/day range may cause weakness and fatigue — symptoms which disappear a day or so after supplementation is stopped — and damage to the skeletal muscles. and water. gas. Pycnogenol. helps prevent heart disease. in recommended doses. impotency. Unfortunately. whole grains. chlorine (including chlorinated drinking water. thyroid. organic iron. which can lead to problems such as bleeding-type strokes. weakness. and sterility. delta. Recent evidence indicates that an optimum level of 200 lU/day can protect the elderly from heart disease and dementia. Vitamin E can be destroyed or rendered ineffective by birth control pills. some recommend switching back and forth between these mixed tocopherols and D-alpha-tocopherol. A chronic deficiency may lead to a condition called megaloblastic folic-acid-deficiency anemia. If taking a multivitamin supplement with iron. A deficiency of both B-6 and folic acid is correlated with a high level of the amino acid homocysteine. Preliminary studies have shown that supplementation of B-12 and folic acid may prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's. It can also be destroyed by cooking. d-alpha-tocopherol. researchers are evenly divided on whether vitamin E is harmful or not. miscarriages. paraaminosalicylic acid (PAS). another antioxidant. a food additive and suspected carcinogen. though zinc levels remained within the normal range. FRENCH MARITIME PINE BARK EXTRACT AKA: Pine bark extract. gamma. there seems to be a direct correlation between the decline in the amount of vitamin E in the diet and the rise in heart attacks. Pinus maritima. and remove nitrogen oxide. occasional diarrhea and constipation. 50 to 100 mg of B-6. Germanium sesquioxide. cortisone. enhances the ability of brain cells to use oxygen. Effects: Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant. so those with high blood pressure or heart disease should not take more than 200 IU without consulting a physician first. and deplete the body of vitamin A if vitamin E is taken in excessive amounts (and yet. aspirin. it is impossible to maintain adequate levels.D. Only the "d" forms are produced in nature. Pinus pinaster. inorganic iron (ferrous sulfate. Olestra. d-alpha-tocopheryl acid succinate. each of which is absorbed differently in the body and stays in the body for varying amounts of time. however. PCAGeS. diarrhea. dizziness. prevents lung damage from nitrogen oxides. According to one study. and blurred vision. Folic acid in the body can be destroyed or inhibited by alcohol. citrate. dry dull hair. Vitamin E supplementation should be stopped about two weeks before surgery. especially cooking with copper pots. antibacterial drugs. mushrooms. A complex of some 40 antioxidant flavonoids and organic acids working together synergistically. broccoli. soybean oils (cold-pressed and unrefined only). The extract can also cross the blood/brain barrier and protect brain cells from harmful compounds in the body. trimethoprim. methotrexate). cantaloupe. Cases of allergies to this vitamin are extremely rare. Those with chronic liver disease may be candidates for a folic acid deficiency. nausea. peanuts. Effects: Needed for synthesis of RNA and other molecules in the brain. Eprolin. another carcinogen. Its anticoagulant effect is five times greater than that of aspirin. higher doses have not led to greater protection. an end product of muscle metabolism. Vitamin E breaks down sodium nitrate. A dose of 400 lU/day. Food Sources: Almonds. barbiturates. dl-alpha-tocopheryl. It can also inhibit the effectiveness of sulfonamides like Gantrisin. and — especially —prostate cancers. it can manufacture choline in the body. milk. it may slow the progress of Alzheimer's to a moderate degree. muscle aches. strengthens and repairs connective tissue.to eight-hour span between taking the supplement and vitamin E. colorectal. Those taking methotrexate as part of a chemotherapy treatment are advised not to take folic acid supplements. Too high a dosage can mask symptoms of pernicious anemia. insomnia. such as Warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin. can help protect against lung. itching. fresh fruits.. breast tumors. are found in nature (alpha. Folic acid is considered one of the B vitamins. blood pressure pills such as Dyazide (triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide). Even so. Paradoxically. Deficiency symptoms include bleeding gums. and may do an incomplete job of neutralizing some harmful compounds. and headaches. and it may slow the aging process by protecting the skin and brain cells (which have high percentages of fat compared to the rest of the body's cells) from free radicals (as people age. chloramphenicol. . both in their natural forms. mineral oil. hives. avocados. along with sufficient amounts of the other B vitamins (the addition of 1500 mg of inositol. and helps maintain brain's protein metabolism. One study indicates that. as do those eating a lot of polyunsaturated vegetable oils. beans. According to John Mann. As yet. freezing. epsilon. irritability. It is reported to extend the life of red blood cells. lettuce. coffee. the manufacture of DNA coding in the cells. though it is still not known whether it can protect healthy people from getting the disease. heat. Individuals using mineral oil on a frequent basis may need more vitamin E. malaise. and some forms of cancer. egg yolk. E can increase the benefits and decrease the side effects of A). food processing. Precautions: No known toxicity up to 3200 IU. cabbage and other dark leafy vegetables. pyrimethamine. tobacco. Pheryl-E. smaller amounts are found in asparagus. therefore d-alpha-tocopherol would be a natural vitamin whereas d-alpha-tocopherol would be synthetic. When high dosages are combined with high dosages of BHA. and sex glands. and breast enlargement (in men as well as women) are unsupported by hard evidence. carrots. Works synergistically with vitamin E.. Evidence indicates that it may suppress the immune system when taken in doses of 100 IU or more. as most only contain alpha-tocopherol. though these are rare. a very destructive nitric oxide radical found at sites of inflammation which can lead to cancer and heart disease. gas and abdominal discomfort. irritability. there is no evidence that each of these forms serves a specific purpose. but hard evidence is still lacking. kale. or five times the minimum daily recommended intake for men. It also aids the immune system. brussel sprouts. Viterra E. FOLIC ACID AKA: Folacin. Claims that it is a causative factor in phlebitis. forgetfulness. In 1998. Eight different forms of vitamin E molecules.

though some recommend 2 to 5 mg/day. whole grains." the fact that the French consume just as much dietary fat and cholesterol as Americans. insomnia (when combined with calcium). celery. comfrey. calf's liver. According to James F.D. nausea. cucumbers. allowing phytase. calcium.. not biologically active. recommends 1 to 2 grams of IP6 plus inositol. can be treated by levodopa. SELENIUM AKA: L-selenomethione. wheat germ. beans. Sheldon Saul Hendler. anticancer drugs. phytate. and Phyllis A Balch. Myoinositol is the nutritionally active form. and the heart. and scaly dermatitis. high blood pressure. milling (in grains). Ph. Effects: Inositol acts as a cell membrane stabilizer. brewer's yeast. garlic. Magnesium salts have a laxative effect in healthy individuals in doses of 3000 to 5000 milligrams/day. and whole-grain flour. followed by a depressive stage of extreme drowsiness. Precautions: Those with severely impaired kidney function or some types of heart rhythm abnormalities should consult a physician before taking supplements. The magnesium stored in the body can be depleted by the synthetic vitamin D in milk. antacids. mushrooms. Effects: Magnesium provides energy. green vegetables. diuretics. yet do not suffer the same rate of cardiovascular disease. soft drinks) can deplete the amount of inositol in the body. protects against cardiovascular disease. It also helps redistribute body fat. was unjustifiably considered a deadly poison. Parkinson's disease. It has been shown to provide some benefit in improving sensory nerve function in those with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. heart disease. fruits. procyanidins. the toxic effects of the heart drug digitalis. PCAGeO. as it is the nutritionally active form. Effects: Germanium stimulates the immune system.Food Sources: Aloe. herring. magnesium gluconate. often resulting in diarrhea. Shamsuddin. shiitake mushrooms. whole-grain breads and cereals. aids in cell division and the production of DNA and RNA. MANGANESE AKA: Manganese gluconate. sometimes toxic. sodium selenate. helps utilize vitamins Bl and E. and much more research needs to be done to determine its effects on human metabolism. GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AKA: Activin. improve the strength and elasticity of blood vessels. and malabsorption disorders such as Crohn's disease. and — in women — the tension of PMS and postmenopausal bone loss. magnesium orotate. can cause confusion. Food Sources (Inositol): Beans (almost all kinds).. Grape seed extracts are superior to pine bark extracts. Claims that myoinositol lowers triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. reduce the probability of developing diabetic retinopathy. Epsom salts. chick peas. depression. which is virtually unheard of. the most popular being French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Magnesium can be toxic in high dosages if calcium and phosphorus intakes are also high. seafood. Dosage: It appears to have low toxicity. Chronic deficiency can result in various cardiovascular problems. They have often been mistakenly referred to as bioflavonoids. Some over-the-counter products are hidden sources of magnesium. Mylanta. or relieves anxiety are. keep cholesterol low. phosphate. alcohol. Dosage: A maximum intake of 500 to 750 mg/day. for the most part. processing. In combination with vitamins C and E and choline. cocoa. but signs of severe deficiency include loss of coordination. high blood pressure. green leafy vegetables. phytates in vegetables. and unable to bind with proteins. the daily intake of the average American is about one-half to one-third of what it was nearly a century ago. tumors. canned. and hallucinations. relieve the symptoms of varicose veins. PCOs.. Dosage: Inositol has so far been found to be nontoxic in doses as high as 50 grams. tea). candidiasis. compared to 80 to 85 percent in the latter. tea. wheat beans. Deficiency symptoms are vague and illdefined. nervousness. Resivit. It may be a more potent cancer-fighter when taken by itself than when taken as part of a high-fiber diet. memory impairment. Abul Kalam M. foods rich in oxalic acid (almonds. lentils. chlorella. and athletes should be especially aware of their intake. tooth decay. cantaloupes. not to exceed 10 mg/day. it may prevent some of the side effects of vitamin A and D overdoses. and lower cholesterol. Barley. and tuna can have high levels. prevent some of the damage caused by sickle-cell anemia. though the former is the one that should be taken. Phytic acid (IP6) is an antioxidant. fiber (including bran). prevent kidney stones. sesame. cerebral sclerosis. and is 50 times more powerful than vitamin E and 20 times more powerful than vitamin C in its antioxidant properties. radishes. and wheat germ may have high levels if grown in soil that is high in selenium. a B vitamin. Dosage: Optimal dosage appears to be 100 to 200 mg/day for the average healthy individual. Much more research needs to be done. C. magnesium lactate.D. and viruses. plays a role in the manufacture of DNA and RNA coding in cells. InsP6. It works synergistically with green tea to reduce colon cancer. garlic. and may be an antioxidant. and should be in the proper proportions of one part magnesium to nine parts vitamin C. it is one of the polyphenol extracts known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). including Bayer Plus. seeds. The first sign is a manic stage characterized by inexplicable laughter. to break it down before it can be released. heightened libido. ginseng. Food Sources: Almonds. prevent edema and inflammation. however. iron. Even a mild deficiency can lead to abnormal heart rhythms. nuts. blackstrap molasses. acts as a free radical blocker. The absorption of manganese may be decreased by high dietary levels of magnesium. AKA (IP6): Inositol hexaphosphate. Improves brain functioning by oxygenating the brain. calcium buildup in neurons (a common condition found in those with Alzheimer's). Precautions: Frozen. . and a component of phosphatidylinositol which. like Parkinson's. The third and final stage is distinguished by symptoms much like those of Parkinson's disease and. and protects against cancers. dairy products. sodium selenite. activates some enzymes and other minerals. confusion. inositol is considered part of the B vitamin complex. itself. grape seed extract (Activin and Resivit). brown rice. a new process (called the phytosome process) also binds grape seed extract OPCs to lecithin. Magnesium ascorbate is a combination of the mineral with vitamin C. oral contraceptives. Ph. and toxicity involving magnesium generally occurs in the 9000 mg range. Bufferin." or manganese madness. Most people may not get enough. The OPCs are polyphenol extracts derived from plant sources. GE-132. Its plant form is known as phytic acid or IP6 (inositol plus six phosphate groups of PO4). peas. and eye diseases. sardines. It also fights cancer. relieve the discomfort of PMS and menopause.N. which contains manganese. muscle contractions. chronic fatigue syndrome. and can bind with proteins. and usually occurs in individuals with kidney failure. Manganese is a little-understood mineral. No adverse effects have been reported in those taking supplementation of myoinositol or phosphatidylinositol. they share a similar chemical structure. magnesiumcontaining laxatives. Evidence also indicates it may reduce lung damage from asbestos. bran. apricots. allowing them to be better absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and more fully utilized by the body.. diarrhea. the most effective form for scavenging free radicals. grapefruit. impulsiveness. reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. as the former contains 92 to 95 percent OPCs. peaches. aids in the metabolism of calcium and vitamin C. or salt-free foods contain less myoinositol than fresh foods. and keep hair healthy. prevent eczema. The average American diet for adults provides approximately 1 g/day of myoinositol. shellfish. Dosage: 15 to 25 mg/day. barley. selenium ascorbate. organ meats. promotes sleep. Effects: Manganese is involved in the formation of bones and the growth of connective tissue. though these last two effects may result from its effects on phosphatidylinositol levels in brain cells. and maintain skin health. eye and ear problems. brown rice. as exercise depletes the body of this nutrient. and whole grains. muscles. does not recommend supplementation until more research is done. diary products. yellow in color. sunflower seeds. myoinositol hexakisphosphate. grape seed extracts also contain the gallic esters of OPCs. sunflower seeds. Brazil nuts. It protects against anxiety. nuts (almost all kinds). though miners in northern Chile exposed to manganese dust have commonly developed a disorder known as "locura manganica. and up to 3 g/ day have been taken for short periods of time with no apparent ill effects. kidney disease. No definite deficiency symptoms have been identified in humans. Premarin. organ meats (such as liver and kidneys). procyanidolic oligomers. and it can interfere with calcium absorption if too much or too little is taken (ideally. headaches. poultry. onions. is a phospholipid molecule that is a small component of cell membranes. Magnesium absorption can be decreased by a diet high in fats and proteins. impotence. pork. and sometimes fatal convulsions. figs. spinach. and cooking.. milk. and Landes pine bark (Flavan). a food enzyme. barley. croplands. softened stools. vomiting. It is one of the most powerful of the antioxidant minerals. delusions. protect against age-related and degenerative diseases by increasing collagen's ability to repair itself. selenomethionine. corn. Food Sources: Avocados. tannins in tea. MAGNESIUM AKA: Magnesium ascorbate.S. brown rice. tea. broccoli. Consuming large amounts of caffeine (coffee. hard water. Without exception.D. A trace element that. Effects: The OPCs are antioxidants. tumors are deficient in superoxide dismutase. and is one component of insoluble fiber. onions. Effects: Like French maritime pine bark extract. heart medications such as digitalis and digoxin. diabetes. magnesium citrate. shellfish. magnesium and calcium intake should be a 1:1 to 1:2 ratio). proanthocyanidins. unproven. soy products. canteloupe. plays a key role in the chemical reactions of some 325 essential enzymes. bananas. tomatoes. a reduction in the growth of hair and nails. soybeans. loss of appetite. oatmeal. and stress. while pine bark extract does not. poor memory. mainly because it is not bound up in protein. In addition. lemons. whereas biofiavonoids are. M. dried peas. Food Sources: Brazil nuts. Precautions: Overdose through diet is extremely unlikely. A sugar-like molecule that exists in large amounts in the brain. protects cells (particularly blood cells) from excess iron by chelating the iron atoms. and contributes to the formation and growth of cell membranes. but levels can vary widely.. veal. OPCs AKA: Oligomeric proanthocyanidins. antibiotics. Balch. but OPCs are 100 percent bioavailable.D. eggs. making it preferable to the unbound form. but no studies on humans have yet been done. They are one of the keys to understanding the "French paradox. tremors. kidney stones and gallstones. and Phillips' milk of magnesia. nuts. convulsions. and has been used in the treatment of AIDS.D. Magnesium orotate may help control lipofuscin deposits. Overdose is rare. Because of its depletion in soil on U. migraines. M. phytic acid. nontoxic. a lowering of serum cholesterol. fatigue. reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. suma. Rare side effects include skin eruptions. though it is not. They can also lower LDL cholesterol levels. a beneficial intake of 100 to 300 mg/day can be obtained through dietary means. A deficiency. anticonvulsants. Those who have taken it to relieve insomnia or anxiety have generally taken 1 to 2 g/day of myoinositol. Maalox. impaired blood clotting. magnesium oxide. selenocystine. M. avocados. until recently. INOSITOL AND IP6 AKA (Inositol): Myoinositol. cabbage.C. Precautions: Only the organic form (sesquioxide) of germanium has the beneficial effects. and slowed speech. reduce heart attacks. coffee. and oxalic acid in spinach. De-Gel. insomnia. rice. mainly due to their intake of red wine. filberts. depression. peanuts. irritability. colorless. phosphatidylinositol. as yet. osteoporosis. apples. a rapid pulse. enhances the immune system. and kidney failure. and PCAGeS are organic forms which have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors in mice. even in doses of 10 g/day taken for several months. in turn. It may also cure arthritis. oats. though more research is needed to determine its exact role in this disease. manganese sulfate. maintain cardiovascular health. Magnesium in foods can be depleted by poor soil conditions. phytic acid. nerves. Food Sources (IP6): In descending order: Corn. most citrus fruits (lemons are one exception).

metal and refinery workers. acute poisoning is evidenced by fever. and death. esophagus. wheat germ. a restoration of loss of taste. reportedly slows down some of the aging processes. There may be minor reactions such as blurred vision. Emodinamin. though this occupational poisoning has been characterized as "mostly accidental and rare. egg yolk. in particular. dizziness. brussel sprouts. oysters. SK 331 A. breast. lamb. which can even occur from eating too much high-zinc foods or from foods which have been stored in galvanized containers. It also helps the body absorb vitamins (especially the B vitamins). atrophy of the sex glands. have a greater need for it than women. More readily available zinc is found in meats than from other sources. when given in doses around 220 micrograms/day. or liver problems (xanthinol nicotinate can cause liver dysfunction) should avoid taking it. diarrhea. may cause an excessive amount of zinc to be excreted and may retard wound healing. liver. prednisone. Most of the medical research has been done with zinc sulfate. Men. as the body may mistake these amino acids for sulfur-containing amino acids and make them perform functions they are incapable of carrying out. Complamex. Zinc acetate causes fewer gastrointestinal problems than the other forms. cadmium. fish (particularly herring). aids in the smooth contraction of muscles. side effects occur in many individuals in the 100 to 200 mg/day range. and boosts the immune system. as both are strong antioxidants. Additional reported benefits include faster healing of wounds. the body's antibody defenses experience a thirty-fold increase. Zincate. bladder. and most adverse effects disappear within a few weeks. but the latter is less susceptible to side effects. A form of niacin that passes through cell membranes more readily than niacin. indigestion. dizziness. brittle or blackened nails.D. Zinc supplements can also irritate the stomach lining and perforate ulcers. cadmium. Any stomach discomfort can usually be avoided by taking zinc after meals or with milk. Orazinc. cabbage. a high level of copper can collect in the blood and sap the brain's supply of zinc). headaches. keeping them more elastic. fatigue and lethargy. Landrina. this is especially true if extra bran has been added (though phytic acid is now believed to prevent colon cancer). as selenium is used in the processing of some metals. Some studies have found no harmful effects in people whose daily intake averages 1500 micrograms/day. XANTHINOL NICOTINATE AKA: Androgeron. inflammation of the spinal cord and bone marrow.Effects: Selenium detoxifies heavy metals (such as arsenic. alcohol. Verazinc. the consequences of this have not yet been determined. Sumycin). Corticosteroids. almost nothing is known about chelated zinc. impotence. skin flushing or a sense of warmth. however. Effects: Xanthinol nicotinate increases ATP production. Circulan. cadmium. clams. though vitamin C may decrease the absorption of inorganic selenium if taken at the same time. iron supplements. or taking vitamin B-6 supplements. otherwise known as Lou Gehrig's disease). low sperm count and. stomach. but appears to have no effect on skin cancer. scaly skin. Despite early reports. upset stomach. there is a greater need for zinc. Food Sources: Beef. synthesize proteins. and sweat. at 200 meg/day. lead. it improves moods and thinking. and Xavin. most multiple vitamin supplements contain the inorganic form. pancreas. Zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate are both well tolerated by the body. There are no known deficiency symptoms. and suggests supplementation of 50 to 200 meg/ day. Vedrin. Regreton) and thiazide diuretics may also increase the excretion of zinc. can take the place of zinc where both are present. Overdose symptoms include a metallic taste in the mouth. zinc chloride. pumpkin seeds. urine. jaundice. metabolize carbohydrates. chills. itchy skin. Dosage: No RDA has been established. acne (when used in combination with vitamin A). skin-color changes. fiber. in severe cases. phytic acid (phytates). and prostate cancer. suggests 400 to 1000 meg/day is equivalent to the anticancer doses given to animals. A mineral important to many of the brain's enzyme systems. yet is not widely available. these generally disappear with continued use or when use is discontinued. helps in the manufacture of DNA and RNA. Decreased absorption of zinc can be caused by tetracycline (Achromycin V. Rare side effects. A zinc deficiency can make a vitamin A deficiency worse (conversely. folic acid supplements. sunflower seeds. One study found that 200 micrograms/ day can protect against lung. Selenium has a synergistic effect when taken with vitamin E. R. however. legumes. stress. indicating most people do not get enough. There have been documented cases of cystic fibrosis patients who have become gravely ill or died after taking supplemental doses that would have been well within the safe range for the average person. Sadamin. and irregular menses. liver. especially for alcoholics or diabetics. rapid breathing. and yellow eyes and skin. and thalassemia. because zinc is concentrated in the bran (largely absent from white bread). which can lead to a deficiency in the long run. Jupal. but since sulfur is an important component of many amino acids. Alcoholics. Diuretics like chlorthalidone (Combipres. Pearson and Shaw. Birth control pills increase the amount of zinc in the red blood cells but. living in hot climates (heavy sweating depletes the body's supply to a significant extent). Stuart Berger sets the upper limit at 300 meg/day and Earl Mindell. which is 14 percent zinc by weight and is not widely researched. EDTA (a food additive found in beer. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone with an upper respiratory infection. and some may experience the overdose symptoms mentioned above. Precautions: It is not known whether any overdose symptoms are associated with organic sulfur.D. extreme fatigue or weakness. ZINC AKA: Chelated zinc. sore throat. including superoxide dismutase. zinc ascorbate. healthy hair.. There is no consensus on the optimal dose —some say 100 to 300 meg/day. . peroxidized fats. even in those who are not deficient. Some say that a combination of zinc and manganese supplements help guard against senility. diarrhea. irritability. shortness of breath. fish. The zinc content of vegetables is dependent on the soil in which they are grown. Some have reported mouth irritation and taste distortions when dissolving lozenges (those made for swallowing) in the mouth for 10 to 20 minutes. which occur with an overdose. drowsiness. PMS Egozinc. There are no studies comparing the two. Angiomanin. Clofamin. Individuals taking zinc should take adequate amounts of vitamin A. eggs. slow healing of wounds. Organic selenium (made from highselenium yeast) has a higher nutritional value and is more readily absorbed by the body than inorganic selenium salts (sodium selenite). Zinc 220. Precautions: People with ulcers. there appears to be no link between high selenium levels and amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS. bran (wheat and rice). skin inflammation. Dosages above the 50 to 150 mg/day range can cause severe anemia due to iron and copper deficiency (Conversely. it is a component of 90 essential enzymes. and can cause symptoms when approximately 2400 to 3000 micrograms/day is taken over a long period of time. but inorganic sulfur may pose problems. in both. it can improve mental performance. rheumatoid arthritis. whole-grain flour. hair loss. consist of chest pain. Zinc can be destroyed or inhibited by alcohol.D. those eating sufficient protein are most likely getting adequate amounts of sulfur. though Sheldon Saul Hendler. and gastrointestinal tract. as yet. pancreatic disease. loss of hair. nausea. is very near the toxic level for some individuals. desoxycortisone (Percoten). as long-term effects are not known. claim that an inorganic form. or vomiting. Permanent side effects are rare. There is one case where the anticancer drugs mercaptopurine (Purinethol) and methotrexate caused a deficiency. though these higher doses should be taken only while under the guidance of a physician. a phosphorus compound that prevents the body from absorbing the zinc in the food. There are significant amounts of zinc in the brain. nausea. vomiting. It has been used to treat psoriasis (when used in combination with sulfur). a toxic mineral which can be found in food as a result of pollution.. Dosages above 80 mg/day can cause levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) in the blood to fall. ulcers in the throat or mouth. sicklecell anemia. Those involved in smelting operations can suffer from zinc poisoning by inhaling the fumes. prednisolone (Deltasone). SULFUR Food Sources: Dried beans and peas. This is a problem with white bread. zinc supplements may increase the need for vitamin A). however. Also. Cafardil. Too much zinc. helps the body get rid of carbon dioxide. discoloration of skin. Zinc gluconate is said to help speed recovery from the common cold. Necessary for good complexion. Other studies have correlated high levels of selenium with a low incidence of leukemia and cancers of the rectum. even after several months of high dosages. anorexia. difficulty in concentration. Xanidil. as these machines use selenium plates. while selenomethionine and selenocystine — two organic forms — are potentially harmful. an early symptom of overdose is a garlicky scent in the breath. psoriasis.Ph. diabetics.. Effects: Zinc is important in protecting cell membranes against free radical damage. but taking frequent small doses throughout the day with meals may prevent some of these. heart palpitations. pork. mental dullness. dilates blood vessels. decline in the number of red and white blood cells. onions. wheat germ. Zinkaps-220. These medications include dexamethasone (Decadron). If high doses of vitamin B-6 are taken. some feel that zinc deficiency is very common in the U.. fatigue. organ meats. There appear to be no contraindications with any drugs or any other vitamins. cardiovascular problems. maybe exposed to toxic levels. nausea. or cortisone medications. and lower cholesterol deposits. sodium selenite. Hygroton. turkey. and phosphorus for zinc to work with maximum efficiency. which release this mineral into the air. lean beef. The best supplements to take are those composed of chelated zinc. or a sudden drop in blood pressure when going from a sitting to a standing position. as this mineral is lost through semen. Mysteclin F. Medical conditions associated with insufficient zinc in the body include chronic infections or inflammatory diseases. is relatively nontoxic. skin. and form insulin. Niconicol. and mercury). fever. garlic. 135 mg/day. Precautions: The FDA's recommended intake is 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Dosage: 300 to 600 mg/day in three divided doses with meals. especially sexually active men. The risk of toxicity is low because selenium is quickly excreted by the body. muscle cramps. which is 22 percent zinc by weight. Nutritionist Nicola Reavley sets the toxic dosage at 600 to 750 meg/day. heartburn. betamethasone (Celestone). On the other hand. protection against prostate problems. zinc acetate. The only known deficiency symptom is a heart condition known as Keshan's disease. Dosage: Doses higher than 15 to 30 mg/day are not recommended. Studies have shown that. Vasoprin. bad teeth. and methyprednisolone (Depo-Medrol. skin rash. poultry. and also helps the blood resist bacterial infections. most of the supplements sold to the public are zinc gluconate. Effects: Helps provide the brain with sufficient oxygen. it may improve mental performance. Whole grains and breads that have been prepared without yeast have a high level of phytic acid. seafood and shellfish. and is often characterized by hypogeusia (a loss of taste and smell). garlic breath. Selenium in its natural state is poisonous. whereas cadmium is concentrated in the white part of the grain. ground mustard. gastrointestinal problems. Sulfur works synergistically with the B vitamins to maintain basic body metabolism and strong nerves. nonfat dry milk. and progressive paralysis. can interfere with the body's absorption of copper. Dosage: The RDA is 70 meg/day for men and 55 meg/day for women. zinc gluconate. Complamin. bran. Other drugs that inhibit or deplete zinc include penicillamine and the antibiotics chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) and oxytetracycline (Terramycin). and foods high in vegetable oils).S. nuts. soybeans. and strong nails. and tobacco. M. while others claim good results with doses of up to 3000 meg/day." Another risk group may be office workers who are at a copy machine all day. Egozinc. and heavy exercisers need higher than normal levels of zinc. Dr. blackstrap molasses. colon. kidney disease. Depo-Predate). When combined with selenium. zinc pyrithione.. canned foods. ovary. though some say organic selenium is three times less toxic than inorganic selenium. essential for the growth and development of the reproductive organs. depression. Ph. It may cause postural hypotension. Angiomin. though it may help eradicate moles and brown spots. Dacilin. peanuts. and inhibits the oxidation that leads to hardening of the tissues. which may help protect against lead poisoning from the environment. and some drugs. When combined with zinc. and improves shortterm memory. soft drinks. Ph. calcium. zinc sulfate. heartburn. lowered resistance to infections. Metal-binding drugs such as penicillamine (Cuprimine) can cause zinc to bind with copper. It strengthens the immune system — some say that when selenium and vitamin E are taken together. phosphorus-containing additives used in foods. possibly leading to heart disease. strict vegetarians. Likewise. The dosage normally used for treating acne. as do persons eating high-fiber diets. Zinc pyrithione is used for shampoos and hair conditioners and is not intended for oral use.

N-acetylcysteine (NAG) is form of cysteine more fully utilized by the body. particularly in relation to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. nine are not. Carnosine is a composite of two amino acids that work synergistically with other antioxidants such as vitamin C. Dosage: Up to 1 to 3 g/day. To relax or fall asleep. there is concern that the vitamin may convert 5-HTP to serotonin in the blood or tissues. illness (fever). Dosages over 20 to 30 grams a day could lead to enlarged joints and bone deformities. protect the liver by detoxifying harmful substances. possibly because it contains sulfur. In order to get an energy boost. though there is no evidence that it aggravates this condition. On the other hand. grains.. milk. which helps to convert tryptophan to melatonin. A synthetic amino acid. cancer.D. and brain cells. time of day. It may also help tissue healing after surgery protect the liver against damage from exposure to carbon tetrachloride. However. supplements or medications. though Leon Chaitow recommends up to 8 g/day and Hendler suggests a more conservative dose. though Sheldon Saul Hendler.CHAPTER 4 Amino Acids Though most of the amino acids needed are manufactured by the body. and headaches. because they enhance the effect of L-tryptophan. oxitrip-tan. Unlike serotonin. .. It works by binding to harmful metals in the brain and body and removing them.5 g/day. cystine. milk. along with vitamin C (in doses three times the amount of cysteine so that the body does not produce too much cystine) and vitamin B-6. says this last has not been proven). or pregnancy. so you may not encounter it when buying supplements.5 g/day. and has been used to treat allergies. liver. increased body temperature. M. it is necessary to eat foods high in L-tyrosine. excess prolactin secretion. diarrhea. upset stomach. cysteine. scleroderma. hypoglycemia. Though it does seem to have a stimulating effect on human growth hormone when taken along with lysine. Daytime drowsiness. confusion. found in semen. by stimulating the production of T-cells). sweating. A deficiency can result in male infertility. brown rice. there are some experts. and alertness — and L-tryptophan. it apparently does not reduce fat to any significant extent. Effects: EDTA has been used in chelation therapy to treat Alzheimer's patients. high blood pressure. Though amino acids play an essential role in brain function. bronchitis. The large doses given to sick people are safe only for short periods of time. along with the foods rich in carbohydrates. such as Dr. or bladder stones. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone with ulcers or other gastrointestinal diseases. cramps. Too large a dose can result in diarrhea. Crohn's disease. eggs. aspartic acid. it is necessary to eat the proteins (meat. NAC. PMS. the FDA bans sale of the latter. toxic agents). or carcinoid syndrome. as there is the possibility it could cause bone and skin disorders. however. even though L-tryptophan needs carbohydrates to get into the brain. More ominously. Some 5-HTP supplements contain vitamin B-6 (pyroxidal phosphate). meat. contributing to clear . Effects: Cysteine is a strong antioxidant believed to purify the body. states that because cysteine cannot cross cell membranes. Incomplete proteins — such as those found in beans. when buying powdered amino acid supplements.. Natural Medicine) and Dr. B-complex. It is said to help fight cancer by boosting the immune system (more specifically. tremors. fibromyalgia. Nausea and fatigue occur initially. asparginine. and seeds — lack some essential amino acids and must be eaten in combination for best results. Daily use can lead to increased tolerance. Amino acids should be taken with cofactors — such as vitamins. and it can sometimes be hard to determine if 5-HTP will make you alert or drowsy (dosage.D. valine). Anecdotal evidence indicates that it could increase the toxicity of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in those already susceptible. extreme cold. can become essential. seafood. glutamine. caution that nondietary amino acid supplements may produce effects different from those found in food. diarrhea. It has also shown promise in treating anxiety. Andrew Weil (author of Natural Health. a highly imbalanced intake of amino acids could have an adverse effect on protein synthesis in children. The line between essential and nonessential amino acids is fuzzy. and obesity. Amino acids can be in either the "L" or "D" form. protein-rich foods. excessive salivation. dairy products. the label specifies the amount of free-form amino acids in the product. sunflower seeds) first. seafood. sweating. and the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Those with allergies. a thickening or coarsening of the skin. as children require arginine for growth and. M. It has been proven to extend the life span of mice and guinea pigs. but may eventually disappear. Long-term effects are not known. fast thinking. who do not believe they should be taken as supplements.D. Dosage: The RDA has not yet been established. Effects: The body converts it to spermine. sunflower and sesame seeds. L-isoleucine. Some reference texts. fish (all kinds). Those with any form of liver or kidney failure should take high doses for a prolonged period of time only while under the care of a physician. though sufficient amounts of lysine may help counteract this. ornithine. supplements are useless. Effects: It is converted by the body into serotonin after it has been converted from the amino acid tryptophan. Stuart Berger. isoleucine. cataracts. N-acetyl-cysteine. popcorn. counteracting any sedative effects of 5-HTP. To get the mental lift from L-tyrosine. it can cross the blood/ brain barrier. used by the brain to synthesize the neurotransmitter serotonin— which has a sedative effect on the brain. In turn. It should also be taken on an empty stomach and with water. with the result that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effects. Reduced levels have been found in people with senility and memory loss. The functioning of the brain relies on amino acids. and hormonal levels all play a part). lungs. poultry. it is necessary to eat the foods high in Ltryptophan (bananas. hardening of the arteries. the pill distributes it. glycine. The "L" forms are readily absorbed and utilized by the body as proteins. The other fifteen not needed in the diet are alanine. Both NAG and cysteine are helpful in preventing damage to the body and subsequent side effects from radiation. helps prevent cataracts. Lphenylalanine. beta-carotene. blood tissue. beans. arginine. which could cause adverse reactions or increase the manufacture of norepinephrine and dopamine. Those over 60 may need smaller doses. Subjects in the early stages of Alzheimer's have shown definite improvements in brain-cell function. L-leucine. Also. peas. and L-valine — and all are provided by proteins in the diet. Supplementary forms should not be taken by children or teenagers. Cysteine helps protect against radiation damage when combined with vitamins C and Bl. a substance that deactives free radicals. which is manufactured from histidine. leading to a slower reaction time. as these are the essential components for the development of neurotransmitters. seizures. and increase the sperm count in men. and chronic diseases. serine. Food Sources: Carob. nuts. and — in rare cases — death. as they can severely disrupt the brain chemistry. removing heavy metals and protecting the blood. age. recommends no more than 1. or nutrients — that assist the body in metabolizing them. and pollution by detoxifying acetaldehyde. for example. Precautions: Supplements should not be taken by those with schizophrenia.. and which is characterized by restlessness. Complete proteins provide the proper balance of all the amino acids. M. Pearson and Shaw claim that it can restore hair growth and extend a person's life span. Arginine is needed for the normal functioning of the pituitary gland. where serotonin levels are too high. and cheese. Food Sources: It is found only in animal foods such as eggs. ARGININE AKA: L-arginine. while the brain creates 5-HTP and immediately destroys it. There is one instance. neurotransmitters are important factors in brain chemistry. the safe level for healthy people has not yet been determined.D." the bottle may contain mostly inexpensive protein filler and not much of any amino acids. and also works synergistically with vitamin E and selenium. Precautions: Anyone with diabetes or blood sugar problems should not take supplements in doses above 3000 mg and in combination with large doses of vitamins B-l and C except under the guidance of a physician. cereals. 5-HTP AKA: 5-hydroxy tryptophan. Ph.D. helps offset the effects of iron deficiency. Pearson and Shaw recommend taking three times as much vitamin C as the total cysteine intake and plenty of fluids to prevent the formation of kidney and bladder stones. long-term memory. Effects: Carnosine stabilizes some thirteen important functions of the body and is also an antioxidant that fights certain free radicals found in air pollution and second-hand smoke. arthritis. as it can inactive insulin production. those with herpes should avoid arginine supplements and argininerich foods. smoking. Recovery is complete if dosage is stopped. 5-OHT. raisins. Precautions: Cystine should be used with caution by those susceptible to kidney. loss of appetite. It works synergistically with melatonin. while the "D" forms must be converted by the body into a usable form first. Ph. nightmares. it does so much more readily than L-tyrosine.. nuts. Food Sources: Some cereals. Manufactured from methionine or serine by the liver. stuffy or runny nose. CARNOSINE AKA: L-carnosine. nausea. carnitine. shock. gelatin desserts. and the adverse consequences of radiation in chemotherapy and X-rays. any one of the nonessential amino acids. 5-hydroxy 1-tryptophan. obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD). poultry. L-methionine. use an excess of histamine in their bodies. In fact. selenium. Ray Sahelian. and lowered sex drive may also result. despite the therapeutic value found in some "D" forms. oatmeal. E. tofu. Rare side effects include long-term fatigue. Overdose symptoms include the serotonin syndrome. mostly the "branchchain" ones (leucine. in such cases. and lentils) in the meal before the food that contains carbohydrates. and sleepiness. gas. CYSTEINE AKA: Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate. and the possible promotion of the herpes virus (though Sheldon Saul Hendler. time of meals. Genetic problems can also lead to deficiencies. and milk. chocolate. where two amino acids play opposite roles and are not compatible with each other: L-tyrosine. these are known as the essential amino acids — L-histi-dine. It induces calmness and reduces insomnia. glutamic acid. through the bloodstream. Chances are that if the label says only "amino acids. ornithine may be used in place of arginine. CYSTINE Effects: Cystine removes heavy metals from the body and is used in the treatment of psoriasis and eczema. premature aging. diabetes. L-tryptophan. The reason for this is that. L-thre-onine. eggs. and tyrosine. hydroxyproline. intestinal tract. panic disorder. it is also a good idea to take a variety of amino acids together and in their proper proportions to one another. such as the Psychotropic Drug Handbook. and these foods include meats. It may boost the immune system and help fight liver cancer. minerals. and migraine headaches. and liver against the harmful effects of alcohol.of 1. meat (all kinds). L-cysteine. which the brain uses to manufacture the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine —both of which have a stimulating effect. increased free radical activity. a feeling of fullness after a meal. Freeform amino acids are ones that have been taken from complex proteins. ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID AKA: EDTA. N-acetyl-Lcysteine. as certain deficiencies or excesses of some neurotransmitters can cause mood disorders. and thus may be of some benefit to bodybuilders. and is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. rapid heart rate. drugs. generally from higher doses. vomiting. and has shown some promise as an appetite suppressant and in treating mild depression. proline. for adults under such condition as stress to the body (extreme heat. L-lysine. whole wheat bread. and you must be sure that. It plays a role in the formation of the skin.

alertness. rather than taking supplements.all over the body. recommends no more than 1. 500 mg of magnesium. cataracts. it produces the compound phenylethylamine (PEA). fish (all kinds). Dosage: It is about ten times more potent than tryptophan. Other symptoms include headaches and nausea. mercury) in the brain and body. but the exact dosage needed has not yet been determined. and vivid uncontrollable thoughts. whereas the "D" form elevates mood and enhances memory. Excessive histadine intake in males can lead to premature ejaculation. PCA. Dosage: Some suggest starting with 250 to 500 mg/day and increasing to as much as 1 to 2 g/day. watermelon. peaches. Precautions: Methionine should always be taken with B-6 —to prevent an excess of homocysteine — and magnesium. 2-oxo-pyrrolidon carboxylic acid. though not as strong. GSH 250 Master Glutathione Formula. and glycine. high blood pressure. Those with high blood pressure should only take it under the guidance of a health professional. Deficiency symptoms include bad skin tone. methionine can decrease the level of histamine). 500 mg of vitamin C. One individual taking high doses of glutamine experienced sleep loss. better memory. Dosages of over 4 g/day in women can trigger menstruation. which may be the key to its antiaging effect. grandiose delusions. and a voracious sex drive.D.4 grams a day. R. and has been useful in the treatment of arthritis. nervousness. Effects: Glutathione is said to protect the brain cells against the cross-linking of proteins — a condition which reduces the efficiency of the brain cells — and increases the flow of oxygen and blood to the brain. provides no known benefit. Earl Mindell. claims only the "D" form produces these beneficial results. which can be countered with a supplementation of 500 mg of methionine. Likewise. meat (all kinds). fish. Effects: It has been found to enhance learning. A free-form amino acid that produces glutamic acid. Effects: Subjects have reported clearer thinking. A stable tripeptide made by the body from the three amino acids L-cysteine.D. D. METHIONINE AKA: L-methionine.. PHENYLALANINE AKA: DL-phenylalanine (DLPA). enhances mood and cognition. One study suggests that methionine might be destroyed by excessive alcohol consumption.. L-glutamic acid. In a second reported case. and poultry (all kinds). tomatoes. Ph. this time with 100 mg of B-6. while Mark Mayell claims that the "L" form stimulates the nervous system and libido. Arginine Pidolate. vegetables.. that produce mental arousal. aspartame (NutraSweet). and play an important role in the biosynthesis of two other amino acids — cysteine and taurine. a brain chemical that protects against ammonia metabolic waste. M. but there is no evidence that it suppresses appetite or enhances the libido. Dosage: 100 to 250 mg/day. and reduces anxiety . PYROGLUTAMATE AKA: Adjuvant. Additionally. milk. recommends 1 to 4 g/day in divided doses. Precautions: Persons with kidney disease. Selenomethionine is a variant in which selenium atoms replace the sulfur atoms. alertness. phenylketonuria (or PKU. and a better emotional state. the cerebrospinal fluid. Ray Sahelian recommends 10 to 50 mg one-half to one hour before sleep. with hallucinations. John's Wort.Ph. eggs. heart palpitations. and can be avoided by reducing the dosage. Dosage: The RDA has not been established. an increase in learning ability. It reportedly deactivates free radicals and counters the effect of lipid peroxides. Ph. and vitamins B-2 and E. ulcers in the digestive tract. It is recommended that both "D" and "L" forms be used.. psychosis.. and DLPA combines the effects of both. in some cases. It should not be combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants. or taking it only in the morning. and some cases of Parkinson's disease. nuts. Plants contain mostly the "D" form. insomnia. watercress. Dosage: Some suggest 250 to 500 mg/day. helps protect nerves by maintaining the myelin sheath. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with pigmented malignant melanoma cancer. ill temper. Pyroglutamate is able to cross the blood/brain barrier. N. fatigue. and doctors usually have patients restrict their intake of these amino acids. render selenium available to the body. Laboratory tests have shown that glutamic acid retards the formation of or dissolves kidney stones. and a weakened immune system. Ph. and vitamin B12). M. Sheldon Saul Hendler. Amino Mass. N. chronic pain. D. and an increased ability to focus and pay attention.. GLUTAMINE AKA: L-glutamine. Cysteine may also make some people more sensitive to the food additive MSG. cottage cheese.D. unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Capsules are preferable to other forms because they avoid the rotten egg smell that usually accompanies it. Effects: Histadine is converted by the body into the neurotransmitter histamine. a neurotransmitter which soothes and calms the mind. and blood. Over 2 g/day of glutamine can cause manic behavior. There is some evidence that. loss of hair. It may be more effective to consume the three amino acids and allow the body to manufacture glutathione on its own. and some fruit or fruit juice to help convert the amino acid to norepinephrine. One study has shown that a significant percentage of individuals suffering from depression exhibited rapid improvements in mood when given 500 mg/day of L-phenylalanine (which was gradually increased to 3 to 4 g/day). phenylalanine can help suppress addictive behavior and cravings. and nausea during pregnancy. and research has shown that it can offset the adverse effects of immune system suppression caused by intense exercise.O. more motivation and ambition. L-PROLYL L-LEUCYL GLYCINE AMIDE A tripeptide formed by three amino acids linked together. play a key part in the production of the brain neurotransmitter choline (not to mention adrenaline. HlSTIDINE AKA: L-histidine. dairy products. L-phenylalanine.. A deficiency can lead to partial or total deafness and one form of schizophrenia (sufferers are referred to as histapenics). severe liver disease (especially that resulting from cirrhosis or Reye's syndrome). Hendler. it promotes the manufacture of both red and white blood cells.) It may help counter jet lag when taken first thing in the morning or right after a long flight. alertness. recommends 200 to 1000 mg/ day with vitamin B-6 and magnesium. and eating it with carbohydrates may help improve the rate at which it enters the brain.5 g/day.. and is found in significant amounts in the brain. GLUTATHIONE AKA: Glutaplex. meats. Leon Chaitow. switching to DLPA. as should pregnant or lactating women. soybeans. as it helps regulate the body's biological clock. It removes heavy metals from the body. a man taking four grams a day of L-glutamine for three weeks became psychotic. cadmium. or the diet drug dexfenfluramine (Redux). strawberries. Dosage: Between 1 to 6 g/day with vitamin C. weight gain. It should only be combined with MAO inhibitors under the guidance of a physician. anemia. Those with sensitivity to the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) may experience an allergic reaction to glutamine.D. and for the relief of depression. peanuts. Early studies seem to indicate that phenylalanine and tyrosine encourage the growth of melanomas (or skin cancers. asthma. and prevent certain tumors when used in combination with choline and folic acid. hormones which act as painkillers. arginine pyroglutamate. (Leon Chaitow. purslane. though Leon Chaitow recommends 1 to 3 g/day. prevent fat from getting into the arteries and liver. advises against supplementation. Effects: Pyroglutamate improves memory. It is often used by those attending raves. A sulfur-containing amino acid. it may cause insomnia. and atherosclerosis. which plays a role in smooth muscle function and the dilation and contraction of blood vessels. one of the deadliest forms of cancer). It does not break down into the toxic product cystine (which can crystalize and produce kidney stones). beef. both should be taken in smaller doses to prevent the serotonin syndrome. cauliflower. Mental Edge. Food sources: Found only in animal foods such as eggs. Food Sources: Asparagus. but is totally absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. impeded protein synthesis. grapefruit. Piraglutargine. first thing in the morning and at least 30 minutes before breakfast. along with 100 to 200 mg a day of vitamin B-6 to facilitate the effects of the amino acid. chiefly norepinephrine. sunflower seeds. or those with seizure disorders should not take glutathione supplements without first consulting a physician. Those with diabetes or blood sugar problems should avoid doses above 3000 mg except under the care of a physician. In combination with B-6. black beans. A deficiency can result in moodiness. Mayell advocates a more modest dose of 375 to 500 mg of the "L" form or 750 to 1000 mg of DLPA. the consequences of this are as yet unknown. pyroglutamic acid.D. Similar in effect to piracetam. cabbage. glutiminic acid. those taking MAO-inhibitor drugs should avoid phenylalanine. and helps protect against radiation damage. more energy.D. It is believed that DLPA activates the morphine-like endorphins in the body. and suppresses the appetite. poor sexual arousal. an overdose can lead to another form (sufferers are referred to as histadelics. combining 200 mg of 5-HTP with MAO inhibitors can result in high blood pressure and emotional instability. It has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. or Wilson's disease (otherwise known as hepatolenticular degeneration. It has been used to treat schizophrenia and senility. Whereas a deficiency can lead to one form of schizophrenia. When combined with St. A deficiency can result in mood swings.. and learning. in combination with other substances. D-phenylalanine. a rare hereditary disease chiefly characterized by a toxic buildup of copper in the organs and tissues of the body). liver. pumpkin and sesame seeds. It should be taken no more than once or twice a week. fruits. Food sources: Almonds. pyroGlu. Phenylalanine helps create the neurotransmitters. Precautions: Histidine should not be used by manic-depressives with elevated levels of histamine or by women suffering from premenstrual depression. if taken later in the day. lecithin. concentration. chicken. hyper-activity. Methionine is believed to relieve some cases of schizophrenia by lowering the level of histamine in the blood. broccoli. potatoes. which may elevate mood based on its action as a neurotransmitter. Mayell says these symptoms only occur with the "L" form. It may help protect the liver against damage from carbon tetrachloride. as a combination of L-cysteine and large doses of vitamins Bl and C may inactivate insulin. Alpha-aminoglutaric acid lactam.O. A dose of 1000 to 1500 mg of DLPA may be taken in the morning without food. a second dose may be taken later in the day. and problems with blood circulation. high cholesterol. Effects: Phenylalanine may contribute to a more positive mental state. avocados. milk. a genetic metabolic disorder). lima beans. glutimic acid. and irritability. and impotence.g. The precursor N-acetyl-cysteine has been proven a more potent source of glutathione. epinephrine (or adrenalin). improved alertness. selenium.D. pyrrolidon carboxylic acid. Precautions: Glutamic acid. Some warn that the daily dosage should not exceed 2. oranges. and 50 mg of vitamin B-6. glutamic acid lactam. a buildup of toxic wastes in the body and fat in the liver.. with 20 to 30 mg/ day of vitamin B-6 (not to exceed more than 50 mg/ day). especially in the treatment of depression or for increased energy. It is used to make various nootropic drugs such as piracetam and oxiracetam. GSH. Deep Thought. The effectiveness of glutathione can be increased by lipoic acid. while animal proteins contain mostly the "L" form.. It manufactures GAB A. and dopamine. allergies. Another study showed significant improvements in those with depression when 250 mg of L-phenylalanine was combined with 5 to 10 mg of Eldepryl. Side effects generally occur in doses above 100 mg. It has also reportedly helped in the control of obesity (by reducing the craving for carbohydrates) and alcoholism. in reducing the healing time for ulcers. Food sources: Dairy products. Taking it with 25 to 50 mg of vitamin B-6 may increase the amount converted to serotonin in the brain. Effects: Methionin is an antioxidant that is also said to protect against the accumulation of chemicals and heavy metals (e. Too much phenylalanine can result in overstimulation. and better moods.

cocaine abuse. fish. unaccompanied by a manic phase) that do not respond to tryptophan. Specific tryptophan metabolites could cause bladder cancer. Effects: Tryptophan is necessary for the manufacture of the neurotransmitter serotonin. eye problems. headaches. a bit less for plain pyroglutamate. Deficiency symptoms include nervousness. DMAE. Effects: An electrical-charge stabilizer in the nerves of the brain and nervous system (it can decrease or even prevent epileptic seizures. pasta. seaweed. chronic liver disease. a Japanese firm that did not specialize in drugs or nutritional supplements. 36 of them died and many more were left permanently crippled.D. and dopamine. to sleep during the day. two parts methionine. gastric discomfort. some 5.e. some supplemental B-3 (in a ratio of two parts tryptophan to one part B-3) and magnesium may also be helpful. it can be manufactured in the human body from cysteine.and depression. meat. Three to four ounces of fish seems to be the optimal amount for most people.. and chronic pain. the need for tryptophan will be higher). as fat and deepfrying destroys some of the beneficial effects. but many experts dispute the validity of these reports.O.. N. Since taurine controls the synthesis of glutamate. Dosage: For the cure of insomnia. Elevates mood and energy (it has been effective in treating patients with depression). and motivation.D. 100 mg of vitamin B-6. eat fish alone or with carbohydrate-rich foods (e. and that it be taken with 25 mg/day of vitamin B-6 or B complex and 250 to 500 mg of vitamin C.. High levels are found in human milk. and cases of unipolar depression (i. pork. Precautions: It forms a harmful interaction when combined with MAO-inhibitor drugs or tricyclics. or Lou Gehrig's disease. advises against supplementation. turkey. Food sources: Bananas. Scientists have still not unraveled the complicated process by which tryptophan is converted into serotonin. steamed. It could also trigger headaches in those already susceptible. It is not recommended that more than 2 grams a day be taken. it should be taken with the following amino acids in these proportions: one part tryptophan. VALINE AKA: L-valine.. and plays a role in the manufacture of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Subjects given these amino acids over the course of a year retained more of their muscle strength and ability to walk than those given a placebo. Because there are rare cases where tryptophan can cause excitability and insomnia. It may be necessary for proper growth of the human body. It has proven helpful in the treatment of jet lag. and some question whether oral doses are effective in this regard. Ph. stress. liver damage resulting from alcoholism. some forms of vascular migraines. and related illnesses are attributable to L-tryptophan itself. grass allergies. Positive results have been recorded in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. and other acetylcholine-enhancing nutrients. chicken. leading to depression and mental impairment. Dr. M. D. two parts valine. If the level of tryptophan is high in relation to the other amino acids. recommends 100 mg per kilo of body weight per day. attention. milk. and it may be of some benefit in treating cystic fibrosis. Arginine pyroglutamate also increases muscle mass by stimulating the growth hormone. potatoes). and may help in cases of rheumatoid arthritis and tardive dyskinesia. and a nitrogen imbalance in the body. and may worsen the symptoms of bronchial asthma and lupus. atherosclerosis. broiled. soybeans and soybean products. Any physical or mental benefits of supplementation by healthy individuals is unproven. it is important for muscle function. as it intensifies the side effects of these drugs. Tyrosine should not be taken by anyone with melanoma. pineapple. obsessive-compulsive disorder. depression. a result which may have been due in part to leucine and isoleucine's assistance in the breakdown of glutamate. Food sources: Fish. immune function disorders. High doses can cause irritability. it acts as a depressant. shellfish. evening primrose seeds. Effects: Normalizes the nitrogen balance in the body and it is necessary for proper mental and neural functioning. Works synergistically with choline. Eye problems may result if a zinc deficiency is also present.D. and three parts phenylalanine. Individuals deprived of full-spectrum light may suffer a deficiency of taurine in the pineal and pituitary glands.000 people suffered debilitating health problems from impurities in a batch of Ltryptophan distributed by Showa Denko. and has been used to treat stress. anxiety. nausea and vomiting are likely to occur in doses used to treat depression (6 to 9 grams and higher). so supplementation is not advised. Cases have also been reported for uncontaminated batches and for the similar compound L-5-hydroxytryptophan. panic attacks (when taken with vitamin B-6). Parkinson's disease.O. binge eating. Dosage: 100 to 500 mg/day. brittle fingernails. and some types of epilepsy. hay fever. a blood disease called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS). It is said to help the heart function better by conserving potassium and calcium. peanuts. as well as other serious consequences. Because it might increase blood pressure in a small percentage of susceptible individuals.. PMS. improves reaction time. but not cow's milk. One study funded by the National Institutes of Health has found that. and muscle atrophy in chronic heavy drinkers. TRYPTOPHAN AKA: L-tryptophan. as the brain needs these to turn the amino acid into norepinephrine. depression. Sheldon Saul Hendler. In 1989. Precautions: An overdose can lead to feelings of "crawling skin" and hallucinations. spirulina. According to Leon Chaitow. lamb. TAURINE AKA: L-taurine. Though it is not found in any plant foods. fatigue may result.. Dosage: 500 to 1000 mg/day for arginine pyroglutamate. Proteins inhibit the brain's ability to absorb this amino acid. Those taking MAOinhibiting antidepressants should not take tyrosine supplements. Supplements should be taken with vitamins B-6 and C. Precautions: There is good evidence that taurine is a central nervous system depressant and that it can impair short-term memory. . Precautions: None known. or stewed. The FDA contends that the illness suffered by these victims. that it not be combined with other amino acids. valine was added because of a deficiency noted in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients. and 1 gram of vitamin C on an empty stomach before going to bed. Side effects may include nausea. and help regulate insulin and blood sugar levels. mental disturbances (particularly aggressive behavior). which regulates mood and sleep patterns. N. and even reverse. fish (all kinds). gall bladder disease. Stuart Berger recommends 2 grams of tryptophan. Supplements can create mild gastric problems if taken on an empty stomach. For best results.. disrupted sleep patterns and mental functioning. norepinephrine (noradrenaline). It may help protect the liver from damage due to carbon tetrachloride. Eating sugary snacks can cause wild swings in insulin production and interfere with the body's ability to absorb tryptophan. chicken liver. grilled. As a result. though some studies have given subjects as much as 15 grams a day with no serious consequences. and for muscle coordination.D. working up to 750 mg twice a day until effects are noticed). as they can have adverse effects on blood pressure. bread. Precautions: The fish or shellfish should be baked. a dosage of 6 g/day in three divided doses for a two week period is recommended for the treatment of depression. particularly shellfish. bad skin color and tone. and constipation. D. those who experience such symptoms should cease taking it immediately. cottage cheese. milk. yogurt. Dosage: 1 g/day. This combination also may prevent. Taurine has been used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. those with high blood pressure should take it only under the guidance of a physician.g. pumpkin seeds. and a craving for carbohydrates. eating more will not result in any significant increase in effect. TYROSINE AKA: L-tyrosine. that it be taken on an empty stomach. unripened cheese. and heart palpitations. A deficiency may be characterized by insomnia. Hightryptophan foods should be combined with carbohydrate-rich foods such as bread.. or potatoes for best results. though some research indicates that 1 gram of tryptophan may be sufficient for most people (this applies only to late at night. meat (all kinds). sunflower seeds. the sale of L-tryptophan supplements was banned in 1990. indigestion. though the mental stimulation only occurs if the brain has used up these neurotransmitters. Women require taurine more than men because its synthesis is inhibited by the female hormone estradiol. in combination with leucine and isoleucine — two other branched-chain amino acids — Valine has shown promise as a treatment for amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Leon Chaitow. Food sources: Eggs. lentils. Effects: Boosts the brain neurotransmitters epinephrine (adrenaline). alertness. Dosage: The RDA has not been established. and may even prove beneficial in other brain disorders such as Huntington's chorea). Mark Mayell recommends that dosage not exceed 2 to 3 g/day (initial dosage should be 250 to 500 mg/day. It may be harmful to pregnant women.

high blood pressure. epilepsy. which only supply Omega-6. eating good fats is important to developing and maintaining the healthy brain. but only when it is accompanied by unsaturated fatty acids. particularly saturated fats. While hydrogenated fats (also known as trans fats or trans fatty acids) are harmful because they are processed. flaxseed oil. and both also emulsify cholesterol. natural and unprocessed fats and oils can be harmful. and dizziness. the most important EFA. Other overdose symptoms include nausea. and Alzheimer's disease.. There is no known toxicity level for choline. Hydrogenated fats are known to increase levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the body. There are different types of Omega-3 fatty acids. It is this same imbalance of the two that creates gallstones. cabbage. Four grams a day of Omega-3 reduce cholesterol and blood pressure.g. and other animal products). according to some.. though the dose may have to be larger. leading to heart disease. salmon. The RDAs of both have not been established. because it may deepen the depressive phase. cheese. Never deep-fry (avoid eating at fast-food restaurants). and monounsaturated. does not recommend taking supplements. Tourette's syndrome. red meat..CHAPTER 5 Lipids Lipids are fats and fat soluble compounds. The reason for this lack is threefold: the introduction of white flour. The body manufactures all the fats it needs. is a precursor to acetylcholine. and sesame oils are more stable and less likely to oxidize. and possibly cancer. where they make up 60 percent of the total brain mass. tuna. certain types of cardiac problems. as it is the most natural type). as a decrease in phosphatidylcholine and an increase in cholesterol as a consequence of aging makes these membranes more rigid. learning. most of what we get being in the form of lecithin: beans. and cause atherosclerosis. and may prove to be useful in treating kidney disease. seed oils. short for conjugated linoleic acid). high oleic sunflower. especially if more than 16 grams a day are taken. soy oil. The intake of phosphatidylcholine by the average American is 3. and necessary for the transmission of messages via the nervous system throughout the body. and health problems (e. and animal organs. Some studies have shown that phosphatidylcholine is effective against viral hepatitis types A. olive. Omega-3. Use oils such as olive (especially extra virgin olive oil. don't use it. flounder. One study has shown that subjects given fish oil with 50 percent docosahexaenoic acid — or about four times as much as is normally present — showed a significant decrease in aggression. If an oil is rancid or smells bad. or psoriasis. a fat-like compound which destroys fats such as cholesterol. hardening of the arteries. though choline needs inositol (another B-complex vitamin) to achieve this. cauliflower. cirrhosis and fatty degeneration of the liver. drug addiction. Be aware that cultured or pond-reared freshwater fish. despite the fact that it may be too stimulating for some people. Effects: An important component in the development of vision. D. diabetes.g.D. or by diabetics. food processing. Very high doses of choline over an extended period of time may produce a vitamin B-6 deficiency. states that up to 10 g/day of phosphatidylcholine or 1 g/day of choline can be taken without side effects. B. AL721 is seven parts neutral lipids. and phosphatidylcholine (or pure lecithin) — all of which may enhance memory. Monounsaturated oils like high oleic safflower. FATS AND OILS The largest number of fat cells in the body are found in the brain. and is necessary in maintaining cell membrane fluidity. Primrose oil is a good source of Omega-6. so it is only necessary to take it twice a day. gamma-linolenic acid (found in borage seed and primrose oil). or drinking acidophilus milk. other B vitamins. cold-climate oils are more beneficial than warm-climate oils. headaches. and dry skin. though it should be taken with 1 g/day of vitamin B-5. depriving cells of nutrients and prohibiting the evacuation of toxins. Both have been shown to be effective treatments for bipolar disorder (manicdepression) in those individuals who have shown little or no improvement with standard drugs such as lithium. AL721 AKA: Egg lecithin. CHOLINE AND LECITHIN Choline. don't do much good and.. and one part phosphatidylethanolamine. cholesterol buildup. Peroxidized fats in lecithin can damage DNA. cancer. Choline may interact with antide-pressant drugs and morphine. containing 2 percent lecithin and supplying both essential fatty acids (Omega-3 [9 percent] andOmega-6 [57 percent]). and as little as two servings of fish a week may protect against heart disease. it is mainly found in fish oils. memory loss. a supplement of chelated calcium should also be taken to keep a stable balance of phosphorus and calcium in the body.D. Ph. In addition to being classified as essential or non-essential. Precautions: It lacks sufficient vitamin E to prevent it from rapidly per-oxidizing. phosphatidylcholine with unsaturated fatty acids may also play an anti-aging role by keeping cell membranes fluid. M. There are at least three different forms of choline — choline bitartrate. Keep oil in the refrigerator after opening. and fiber. he recommends 2 to 4 g/day under a doctor's supervision. poppyseeds. Effects: Reportedly improves memory in healthy people. ischemic heart disease or any other condition that could lead to healththreatening clotting of the blood. Dosage: Sheldon Saul Hendler. polyunsaturated. and the different dietary fats. Both choline and phosphatidylcholine have the same effects. classified as a B vitamin. M. Sheldon Saul Hendler. as is linseed oil. which are called the essential fatty acids (EFAs). bluefish. a stiff neck. and this category can encompass a variety of essential nutrients. this is higher than that consumed by Europeans. in fact. fish. Taking very high doses could also result in hemorrhaging in normal individuals.g. as eating a lot of fish cannot counteract a high-fat diet. soybeans. as it can reduce the ability of the blood to clot. The need for vitamin E may increase as a person's intake of DHA increases. sulfa drugs. but reports of improved mental abilities specifically from AL721 are only anecdotal. Saturated forms. minerals. though phosphatidylcholine is a necessary component of every cell membrane in the body and is believed to have the best memory-boosting effect. such as much of the white fish sold . and linoleic acid (also known as Omega-6 or CLA. peanuts. except for two— alpha-linolenic acid (also known as Omega-3 or Alena. such as choline bitartrate and choline chloride can cause a fishy body odor and diarrhea. egg yolks. A deficiency of Omega6 seems to be associated with colds and increased use of antibiotics. tofu. It can also protect against cardiovascular disease. brewer's yeast.. insomnia.. high oleic sunflower. soft drinks) can deplete the amount of inos-itol in the body. heart disease. docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA). A deficiency of Omega-3 seems to be associated with behavior. don't heat oil until it smokes. and obesity. It works with inosi-tol to emulsify fats and cholesterol. as most supplements only contain 10 to 20 percent phosphatidylcholine (look for supplements that contain at least 35 percent phosphatidylcholine). Recommended dosage is 2. and docosapen-taenoic acid (DPA). or 300 mg of choline. Though Alzheimer's patients suffer from a deficiency of acetylcholine in the brain. Brazil nuts. lowering the blood cholesterol level. for example) with supplements of phosphatidylcholine or choline have proved disappointing. including the fat soluble vitamins. in the case of hydrogenated fats and oils. and high oleic safflower when quick-frying. but results have proven inconclusive in treating such other neurological disorders as Parkinson's disease. and then only sparingly. Food Sources (in descending order of total beneficial fish oils): Herring. It is best utilized when combined with eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA). as it is highly carcinogenic. green leafy vegetables. The body odor and diarrhea are often the result of intestinal bacteria breaking down the choline into trimethylamine (though liver disease may also be a cause). and methionine. walnuts. Precautions: Determine intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 and reduce fat intake.. is the one people are most deficient in. and other degenerative illnesses. being white fish cooked in unhealthy fats and almost completely depleted of Omega-3. refined flour. particularly when heated and exposed to air. and Friedreich's ataxia. Other symptoms include thirst. liver disease. and orientation. gall stones. vomiting. attempts to reverse the symptoms (loss of memory. Choline can also cause muscle tension. soybeans. they should only be used in salads and other uncooked foods. can even be toxic to the brain. eventually leading to cells that are malnourished and loaded with toxins. cod. arthritis. the results are poor thinking.. low tolerance of fats in the diet. and chronic hepatitis. or those taking prescription anticholinergic drugs. canola. Dosage: 2 to 10 g/day is considered a sufficient dose. Effects: Lecithin from egg yolk is said to improve thinking. and butter when sauteing. Certain forms of choline. as it can increase blood sugar and decrease insulin secretion in the body. Deficiency may lead to high cholesterol. can contribute to cancer. Polyunsaturated forms such as safflower oil. nor should it be taken by those with Parkinson's disease. sardines. frequent urination. too. dandelion flowers. including eicos-apentaenoic acid or EPA (found in fish oil). swordfish. and gastric cramps. Ph. memory deficits. cardiovascular problems. or going rancid. An imbalance of these two fatty acids is said by some to be associated with cancer. another fish oil fatty acid. which removes important vitamins. and stroke. and taken with adequate amounts of vitamin E and selenium. an important neurotransmitter that aids memory. skin problems such as psoriasis.D. Food Sources: Eel and cold-water fish such as herring. and they can usually peroxi-dize (go rancid) quite easily. including 1 gram of B-5. There is no definitive evidence that either choline or phosphatidylcholine protect against cardiovascular disease. Choline and lecithin can be destroyed by alcohol. Huntington's disease. cholesterol. Consuming large amounts of caffeine (coffee.5 to 3 g/day in three to four divided doses. These fats compete with and slow down those metabolic processes dealing with the essential fatty acids. short for alpha-lino/emc acid). two parts phosphatidylcholine. heart disease. cabbage) than in foods that are high in saturated fatty acids (e. Lecithin has a time-release effect. and may be prevented by eating yogurt. heart disease. and sunflower oil oxidate and turn bad quickly. Supplements should be used only under a physician's guidance by those who have a tendency to hemorrhage or bleed easily. peas. Fish from fast-food restaurants are no good. and much research needs to be done in this area. egg yolk. cauliflower. Unfortunately. There are three basic types: saturated. Precautions: It should not be taken by those suffering from manic-depression. also recommends taking DMAE with lecithin. refined sugar. and wheat germ. learning. They have been used to effectively treat tardive dyskinesia. Lack of it can also lead to decreased mental functioning. If taking lecithin. In general. liver. Those with gastric ulcers or a history of ulcers should only take choline under a doctor's orders. and C. Choline and inositol also maximize the efficiency of vitamin E. Effects: Since damage to fats is central to biological aging. though this has yet to be proven. gastric ulcers. M. judgment. Soybean oil is the best source. Don't cook with polyun-saturated oils. tea. DMA AKA: Docosohexaenoic acid. in these cases. unlike most other oils. eggs. and abnormal blood clots.D. and it is believed that supplementation may prevent such stones from forming. and the processing (or hydrogenation) of vegetable oils. eating a high-fiber diet. choline chloride. Choline can be manufactured by the body from folic acid. AIDS. soybeans and soybean products. when this happens. an improved memory can usually result after only a few days of taking choline or lecithin. heart attacks. peanut. Dosage: Phosphatidylcholine is more beneficial when consumed in foods that have polyunsaturated fatty acids (e. Dharma Singh Khalsa. B-12. It shows some promise in enhancing the immune system and in the treatment of herpes. but may still be too low. they can be categorized according to their degree of saturation. fenugreek. Remove all partially hydrogenated fats from the diet and use cooking oils only once. estrogen. various steroid hormones. the consumption of beef as the main source of protein. Food Sources: Very little free choline is found in foods. shrimp. high blood pressure. mackerel. restlessness. Precautions: Choline should not be taken by those who are manic-depressive. and strokes. The kinds of fats commonly ingested. and alcohol dependency. and seems to have a synergistic effect with nootropic drugs. rheumatoid arthritis or related inflammation. such as butter and animal fats. use butter or monounsaturated oil for baking. For salad dressings. and this can lead to such chronic degenerative diseases as cancer. Omega3 can also protect against rheumatoid arthritis by suppressing the prostaglandins and leuko-trienes in the body that produce the symptoms of this affliction. expeller-pressed vegetable oils. Lecithin may not cause these. and tuna (albacore and bluefin) are good sources of Omega-3. from those in beef to hydro-genated oils. and water. One study found that MIT students showed a greater ability to recall a list of words after taking 3 grams a day. and both choline and inositol are components of lecithin. use only unfiltered. meat. arthritis. and an overall loss of health. An extract of egg yolk. A polyunsaturated fat that is the main structural fatty acid in the brain's gray matter. trout. neuropathy). as it may worsen the depression (even those who aren't manic-depressive may experience depression if taking doses in the range of 20 grams a day). except for those with hypertension. salmon. should be taken with any form of choline or lecithin to help convert them to acetylcholine. and mental alertness. but it does have two significant drawbacks — the supplements sold in health food stores usually have lots of fat. meat. impair the immune system.1 g/day.

Still. concentration. Donald Rudin recommends one teaspoon of linseed oil (about 2 grams of Omega-3 fatty acids) as a minimum daily requirement to correct any nutritional deficiency. fish oil supplements should be stopped about two weeks before surgery. eczema). Dosage: 100 to 200 mg/day to be taken with meals. LlPOTROPES Lipotropes are substances attracted to fat. Those with serious degenerative diseases might need more. maintaining immunity. It should not be taken too late in the evening. have a limited capacity to biochemically convert the flaxseed oil. it is believed to increase the blood flow and the utilization of oxygen in the brain. When taking flaxseed oil. other substances in fish may contribute to Omega-3's beneficial effects and may not be present in fish oil capsules.g. the others are phosphatidylcholine (PC). Avoid cod liver oil. they can raise blood sugar and lower insulin secretion. Food sources: Fish. take one tablespoon twice a day. A PS "complex" may only be 20 percent pure PS. vitamin E. One of the four main phospho-lipids found in lecithin. Omega-3 oil supplement should meet the following requirements: it should be in a black plastic bottle so as to prevent exposure to light (brown glass is unacceptable. Dosage: 3 or 4 ounces of fish. and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Parkinson's disease. folic acid. worsening their condition. but should take higher doses only under the guidance of a qualified health professional. Diets heavy in highly unsatu-rated Omega-3 oils should be supplemented with anti-oxidants (vitamin C. It has been used effectively in the treatment of people both in the early stages of Alzheimer's and in severe cases. Diabetics should avoid taking fish oil capsules. It can also prevent the normal clotting of blood. prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver. It has proven superior to ginkgo biloba and other herbs in its benefits. as clear and colorless oils have most likely been deodorized and bleached. and even though the aphpa-linolenic acid in fish oil is already converted to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) while that in flaxseed oil has to be converted in the body. One of the forms. and similar degenerative brain disorders. Phosphatidylserine has its highest concentration in the brain. fat-soluble vitamins that can easily build up to toxic levels in the body. the ability to handle stress. and it has been used to treat lupus. Taking too much Omega-3 in capsule form may over-stimulate the prostaglandins. alertness. as Omega-3 is easily destroyed by light. Additionally. the four most important being choline.. SAM has no known side effects. oxygen. especially when ill. A significant number of people. CDP-choline is used in Japan and Italy to stimulate brain circulation following brain injury or brain surgery. fibromyalgia. and high temperature. learning. Fish oil capsules are high in cholesterol. and loss of blood pressure. and autoimmune diseases (e. rheumatoid arthritis. dizziness. and to treat Alzheimer's disease. selenium. Dr. PS. and those that aren't may contribute to cell-destroying lipid peroxidation. rice. severe depression. Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are the active forms of choline and methionine. and are necessary for DNA synthesis. multiple sclerosis. . mood. phosphati-dylethanolamine (PE). and vitamin B-12. harming the body. Because they could cause excessive bleeding.. Precautions: CDP-choline can cause agitation. headaches. and preventing cancer. flaxseed oil has one hundred times the level of lignans. beta-carotene).. All are vital components of cell membranes. and it should have some color to it. Effects: It improves brain functioning in all areas measured: the functioning of nerve cells. daily hormone rhythms. and so the dosage should be adjusted accordingly. even though research has been conducted almost exclusively on fish oil and the results extrapolated to flaxseed.g. green leafy vegetables. soy products. PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE AKA: LECI-PS. which has high concentrations of vitamins A and D. is being investigated as a treatment for depression. high cholesterol and other cardiovascular diseases. nausea. cancer). where it plays a role in various nerve cell functions. and osteo-arthritis. electrical activity in the brain. SAM. of other plant foods. allergic and inflammatory conditions (e. The effects of Omega-3 in flaxseed is assumed to have the same effects as the Omega-3 in fish. it needs to be refrigerated at all times when not in use. As yet. and sociability. vocabulary skills. or beneficial compounds. memory.S. methionine. may have very little Omega-3 (they may also be high in pesticides and such industrial chemicals as PCBs). Precautions: No known side effects. it is recommended that no more than 5 g/day be taken. as it still allows certain wavelengths of light to enter). psoriasis. and with fish oil capsules. Though the exact mechanism by which it works is unknown.in the U. Effects: They play an important role in the synthesis of phosphatidyl-choline. and the bottle should have both a pressing date and a four-month expiration date.

particularly in regard to breast cancer. congestive heart failure. and may have anti-cancer properties. presumably building muscle mass. Food sources: Brewer's yeast. M. and cholesterol.C) are two synthetic polyribonucleotides that have shown promise as anti-cancer treatments. Precautions: According to W. dosages higher than 2 grams a day degrade into uric acid. increased immunity to bacterial and fungal infections in humans. Its acidity can also cause upset stomach. Dosage: No side effects have been reported for normal people given up to 80 g/day. possibly prevented with the ingestion of baking soda with the supplements. It has increased the life span of lab rats by 20 percent. as it. along with its resistance to misprogramming of the genetic code caused by the by-products of lipid per-oxidation. Effects: Has improved memory in lab animals and protects against oxidizing chemicals contributing to aging. which can cause joint pain and kidney stones after prolonged use. inosine. Ph. sardines. Athletes use inosinic acid to stimulate protein synthesis in muscle cells. Inosinic acid promotes the dilation of blood vessels — increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery in the body — and increases both RNA and DNA production.. but much more research needs to be done. A few Russian studies have shown that they may be helpful in treating hearts damaged by heart attacks. can have too little RNA to have any effect. Poly (A)/Poly (U) and Poly (I.D. thereby slowing the deterioration seen in older people.5 g/ day. recommends taking up to 1.C).. Precautions: It should not be taken by those with gout or high urate levels. Poly (I. Any supplement with less than 12 percent RNA is also of limited value. RIBONUCLEIC ACID AKA: Ampligen. RNA. Ph. Those with kidney disease or other kidney problems should avoid using this supplement. Levels of RNA decrease starting at age 40. but only for athletes whose training sessions are long and rigorous. the cause of gout (the uric acids forms crystals in the joints and kidneys. Yeast can be 6 to 10 percent RNA but does little good because the cell walls of the plant cannot be digested to any significant extent by the body. or about one tablespoon of brewer's yeast. does not recommend supplementation. Effects: Orotic acid is a possible B vitamin and is a precursor of the pyrim-idines.info/ Nucleic acids are large molecules which contain genetic material. Nathaniel Phillips. M.D.D. Both orotic and inosinic acids are converted by the body into DNA.nd-warez. Dosage: Phillips recommends 1. resulting in extreme pain and permanent damage to the body). .D. which help manufacture nucleo-tides and nucleosides...5 to 2 g/day an hour before workouts or training. Sheldon Saul Hendler. Sheldon Saul Hendler. OROTIC AND INOSINIC ACIDS AKA (inosinic acid): Hypoxan-thine riboside. as it produces large amounts of uric acid. too.CHAPTER 6 Nucleic Acids http://www. Poly (A)/Poly (U).

Though a nutrient. SOD. Dosage: Earl Mindell. tomatoes. sharpen reflexes. Less frequent side effects include diarrhea.. Deficiencies of CoEnzyme Q10 have been associated with cardiovascular disease. peri-odontal disease. Exercise. which can be reduced or eliminated with lower dosages. D-carnitine. and is an excellent source of vitamin E. abdominal pain. or liver disease. walnuts. Dosage: The body manufactures sufficient amounts on its own. They may also bolster the immune system. alleviates angina attacks. Precautions: Those with kidney damage should use supplements with extreme caution. the part of the cell which creates energy. prevents cholesterol from sticking to arterial walls. Dosage: 1 to 3 g/day in two divided doses. heart. anti-cancer. Food Sources: Asparagus. prevents damage to tissues caused by hypoxia. alpha-lipoic acid. Effects: Said to increase energy and endurance. LlPOIC ACID AKA: l. Joe and Theresa Graedon.S. R. however.g. Precautions: There is no scientific evidence to support any of its claims. stimulation of the immune system. anti-inflammatory. with white albacore tuna packed in cans with spring water having the highest amount. Valproic acid. lysine. improve oxygen utilization. Ray Sahelian. reduces triglyceride levels and removes ketones (fat waste products) from the blood. Ph.. alertness. recommend 50 to 100 mg/day and say that there are no serious side effects even in the 300 to 600 mg/day range used to treat diabetics. polyunsaturated oils. without the hazard of metabolizing into free radicals. Carn-itor. soybeans. Supplements should contain only L-carni-tine. can attack free radicals in both the watery and fatty parts of the body. Saponins are steroid-like chemicals connected to sugar molecules that occur naturally in plants. milk and dairy products. which cancels out the effectiveness of levocarni-tine. and overstimula-tion. CoEnzyme QlO should be taken with oily or fatty foods (e. peanuts. help the body adjust to high altitudes. increases the life span in lab animals up to 56 percent. L-car-nitine. cardiovascular problems such as high blood pressure. MnSOD. oats. High doses could cause over-stimulation.D. Effects: Saponins are believed to have anti-oxidant. physical activity. LA. Saponins are only one of a class of nutrients called phyto-chemicals which are found in all fruits and vegetables. At present. Overdosing can produce severe muscle weakness. in cells. Precautions: The few studies that have been conducted show no evident toxic side effects. Cu/ZnSOD. Studies have shown that doses of anywhere from 2000 to 3500 mg a day can slow the onset of Alzheimer's and mental deterioration. Mevacor. M. meat. It is found in high amounts in the human heart and liver.D. Allan Sosin. liver disease. Ph.. specifically memory. and has been used in the treatment of diabetes. plus iron. At present. it may contain fillers. Cytochromes are a component of ATP production. but not the U. It takes about three weeks before the effects are noticed. kidney disease. it acts much the same way as vitamin E. potatoes. decreased blood pressure. improvement of athletic performance. liver ailments such as hepatitis. and mental and physical stress.. Precautions: Can sometimes be metabolized by the body to create certain compounds that have damaging effects similar to those caused by free radicals. a citrus-flavored drink mix containing two types of L-carnitine. Effects: Said to increase energy and endurance. CYTOCHROMES AKA: Cytochrome-C. and vomiting. enhance the synthesis of glutathione. nausea. cardiovascular and cere-brovascular diseases.. The amount of carnitine in meat is in direct proportion to the redness of the meat. SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AKA: Cell Guard. preventing the transportation of fats to the mitochondria and suppressing membrane enzymes. Drug use. and whole grains. Prava-chol. Food Sources: Beef. brain and nerve degeneration. cataracts. language ability.D. adequate amounts of vitamins C. It also slows down the cell damage caused by agerelated conditions and may accelerate the repair of damaged DNA in cells ravaged by free radicals. Octacosanol is one of several long-chain alcohol molecules found in wheat germ oil. carnitine. Ward Dean. SUCCINATES Succinates are metabolites necessary for energy production in cells. SAPONINS AKA: Triterpene glycosides. plus a mild visual enhancement. Food Sources: Broccoli. A deficiency can cause damage to heart tissue. tomatoes. OCTACOSANOL Food Sources: Alfalfa. LIP-SOD. ProXeed. and cancer.D. liver. potatoes. sardines. Very high doses may produce an abnormally low blood sugar. Other effects include weight loss. ProXeed. Alcar. and may prove helpful in treating diabetes. Effects: It is said to lower blood cholesterol.. Ph. and methionine are needed in the diet for this to occur. Precautions: There is no evidence that supplementation produces any benefits. and improved mental abilities. and B-6. Precautions: There is no evidence that supplementation provides any benefits. ginseng. if not.CHAPTER 7 Miscellaneous Nutrients ACETYL-L-CARNITINE AKA: ALC. and Beth Ley Jacobs. as well as legumes and whole grains. recommends 1000 to 6000 mg/day.D. Nacetyl-1-carni-tine. is marketed as a cure for low sperm count. The body can usually manufacture it from amino acids L-tyrosine and Lmethionine. It is said to improve long-term memory by protecting brain cell membranes from damage by free radicals. and flavonoids (found in citrus fruits). bean sprouts. angina. motor activities. infertility. seafood. and Zocor can also deplete levels of CoEnzyme QlO in the body. such as vitamins C and E. though experts point out that there are many causes of male infertility which carnitine does not cure. will reduce the effect of L-carni-tine. unlike other anti-oxidants. Interestingly. illnesses. extreme confusion.D.. and spatial abilities. keep the body metabolism balanced under stress. It produces a mild feeling of relaxation and well-being. insure that the two main enzymes that convert food into energy function properly.Ph. levocarnitine. It works synergistically with pho-phatidylserine. carrots. and spinach all have significant amounts. Lipitor. though some have experienced only mild diarrhea with doses as high as 26. It may help protect the brain from the effects of aging by preventing the accumulation of lipofuscin in the brain. and form another anti-oxidant. VitaCarn. HIV)..2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid. ALC has many of the same effects. say experts recommend between 50 to 150 mg a day. M.. spinach. helps cure some forms of gum disease. a lower incidence of heart disease. attention. Dosage: Optimal doses have not yet been determined. wheat germ oil. "Vitamin B-T" supplements contain dextro-carnitine as well. though certain medical conditions may cause deficiencies. Some cholesterol-lowering drugs such as Lescol. CoEnzyme Q10 may protect against or reverse some of the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. CoEnzyme QlO can be supplied by dietary means or from the body's own resources. thiotic acid. M. and male infertility. COENZYM Q1O AKA: CoQIO. Classified as a nonvitamin nutrient. yams. Longchain acetylcar-nitines (LCACs) work counter to ALC. including lycopenes (found in tomatoes). neither will it build muscle or protect against diabetes. adequate amounts of anti-oxi-dant vitamins (beta-carotene. infections (e. can increase levels. and E) should be able to prevent this.000 mg a day. and men run a greater risk of deficiency than women. dihydrolipoate. but is superior in that. recommends 10 to 50 mg/day. whole grains. protects the cell membranes from free-radical damage. There are two forms of carnitine: L-car-nitine and D-carnitine. CoEnzyme Q10 should be yellow or orange in color. Most supplements are in the 30 to 50 mg range. increase energy storage in muscle tissue. According to Sheldon Saul Hendler. exposure to cold.. and anti-viral properties. though it may take up to six months to begin to work. In this last respect. and it can be very expensive. DL-carnitine. helps control hypoglycemia. Effects: Chemically related to choline. but research indicates that a range of 10 to 90 mg/day is safe and effective. increases the levels of choline acetyl-transferase in the brain. Effects: The same benefits as CoEnzyme QlO. the two organs in the body which need the most energy. ALC belongs neither to the vitamin nor the amino acid category. muscular dystrophy. improve stamina and endurance. It acts as an anti-oxidant. fish oil). high cholesterol. it is not destroyed in the process. transports fats into the mitochondria.D. and those undergoing tube feeding on a liquid intravenous diet (total parenteral nutrition). and it is advisable to take supplements to counteract this. An anti-oxidant that is very similar to CoEnzyme QlO. Ph. . B-3. recommend 60 to 180 mg/day. Works synergistically with the co-enzyme NADH. There are several thousand different phytochemicals. It is generally agreed that the liquid form in the soft gelatin capsule is better absorbed than the capsule form. It is also found in chicken. genis-tein (found in soybeans). high cholesterol. enhances communication between the brain's hemispheres. Ubiquinone. and stress can all drain the body's supply of this nutrient. chickpeas. They have been used to treat diabetes. Effects: Helps manufacture ATP (used by the brain for energy). there is no evidence that supplements will benefit those whose levels are already normal. Effects: A potent anti-oxidant which can regenerate other anti-oxidants. and protects against peroxidation (a means by which oxygen and unsaturated fats combine to form free radicals). C.g. A coenzyme. white blood cells that serve the immune system. M. the former being the biologically active form and the latter being the inactive form which may counteract L-carnitine's benefits. and kidney disease. wheat germ. Dosage: 100 mg/day. Precautions: Daily doses above 50 mg may result in gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and upset stomach. guarana. muscle weakness.D. diabetes.. It may help fight cancer by boosting the effect of lymphocytes. however. monounsaturated oils. there is no RDA. IDEBENONE AKA: Avan. allergic skin reaction. as DL-carnitine will cause some individuals to develop a myasthenia-type syndrome. it is available in Europe. While it is synthesized by the liver from lysine and methionine. mackerel. Alpha Lipotene. Food Sources: Meat. used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and manic-depression.. It is chemically similar to carnitine but is more efficient. and blood clots. as it is oil-soluble. unlike E. It may also enhance the immune system and prevent atherosclerosis. It may cause gastrointestinal disorders and a change in body odor. and.

albumin. Behcet's disease. which protects the mitochondria. Liposomal superoxide dismutase (LIPSOD) is SOD that has been encapsulated in a liposome "delivery vehicle. and Kawasaki disease. brussel sprouts. Peyronie's disease. green plants. broccoli. Effects: It could extend life span and health indefinitely. wheat grass. Raynaud's syndrome." Both SOD and LIPSOD have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. There are two forms of SOD: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/ZnSOD). so tablet supplements must be enteric coated so that they can be safely absorbed in the small intestine. globulin.It ranks fifth among proteins in terms of the amount in our bodies. as it has been found in 90 percent of all cancer cells. and hemoglobin. the most common and hazardous free radical. Food Sources: Barley grass. Effects: An extremely powerful anti-oxidant enzyme that works syner-gistically with catalase to counteract superoxide. after collagen. Precautions: There is some debate whether it could be a carcinogen. . preventing the cells from dying of old age (normal human cells divide approximately 75 times over a person's life span before the telomere —the protective end of the chromosome — wears away and becomes too short to protect the chromosome. TELOMERASE Called the "immortality enzyme" because it encourages cell division for an indefinite period of time. and manganese. damage caused by radiation therapy and heart attacks. unresponsive anemia. and various autoimmune disorders such as scleroderma. and manganese SOD (MnSOD). The production of SOD in the body decreases as we age. It shows promise in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. which protects the cytoplasm of the cell. where the genetic information resides and cellular energy is produced. cabbage. Some say that telomerase by itself does not create cancer cells. Superoxide dismutase works synergistically with copper. Precautions: Stomach acid destroys SOD. and possibly AIDS. while others counter that its ability to promote cell division could cause cancer cells to proliferate unchecked. Crohn's disease. leading to the death of the cell). zinc. Alzheimer's disease.

Ethotoin. Food Sources: Alfalfa sprouts. Bromocriptine. For men. the formation of blood clots. bleeding gums. sexual problems. It can increase the toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants and Phenothiazine tranquilizers. hypercalcemia in breast cancer. Dr. Louis Cardinals' home run king. Caffeine can lower DHEA levels and raise cortisol levels. transdehydroandrosterone. and their ingredients and purity may be questionable. and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). angina. vomiting. Psicosterone. chest pains. and those taking it should start out at a low dosage. compulsive eating. a stroke. Additionally. a sense of tightness in the chest. Women on estrogen are also given the hormone progestin. migraine headaches. clofibrate. strokes. It should be taken only under the guidance of a physician. stimulants (including herbal stimulants). as it may result in the body's reducing or halting its own testosterone production. M. vision changes. Side effects include acne (regardless of a person's age). making supplementation questionable. fatigue. migraine headaches. viral and bacterial infections. particularly those of attention and memory loss. one expert. diabetes. as the latter prevents the cancer and uterine tumors in postmenopausal women that sometimes develop from estrogen therapy. Menstrual irregularities and bleeding between periods may occur when combined with marijuana. Some researchers state that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that it has any beneficial effect on aging or any diseases (most studies have been short-term and involved a dozen people or fewer). High doses (above 10 mg) may cause irritability. It may increase the regeneration of body tissue and accelerate healing by encouraging the growth of the protein collagen. taking a DHEA pill cannot repair the damage to the body caused by stress. a blood clot in the lung. also cautions against using any supplement that contains additional ingredients such as ephedra or yohimbe. avoid alcohol. loss of coordination. chronic anger. Oral DHEA may be at least partially destroyed by the liver. However. and changes in sex drive. mild diarrhea. may increase mental abilities in those with normal capabilities. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone who is allergic to any drugs containing estrogen. production of which is believed to decline with age. and abnormal bleeding. dehydroepiandrosterone. Food Sources: Mexican wild yam. ulcers. the optimal dosage is as yet not known. Effects: It metabolizes to produce GHB in the brain. breathing difficulties. diabetes. involuntary incontinence. dextrothyroxine. Effects: Improves physical and mental health. Men also produce estrogen. increasing stress to the body and decreasing the individual's panic threshold. dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). and DHEA may carry the same risks as testosterone. It is found at its highest levels in the body between ages 20 to 25. Precautions: Men with prostate problems should not take DHEA. Profuse bleeding could be life-threatening. leg pains. these risks dropped dramatically after four years of treatment. acne. Estrogen can lessen the effects of oral anticoagulants. Nonsupplementation methods of increasing DHEA are simple and basic: exercise regularly. 40 mg/day for men). avoid smoking. weight changes. fibroid tumors of the uterus or endometriosis. High doses (above 10 mg) may cause irritability. about half the dose normally taken by epileptics. M. It may cause an increased sensitivity to sunlight and sunlamps and. DHEA has been administered to those battling such disorders as depression. epilepsy. and blood clots leading to stroke or heart attack may result when combined with tobacco. Serum DHEA levels can be increased by taking supplements of chromium. and anxiety. chickpeas. alcohol. the amount of DHEA in the body has been found to bear an inverse correlation with mortality levels). It should not be taken with grapefruit juice. Precautions: Possible side effects include prostate cancer and enlargement. tender swollen breasts. baldness. In tests where lab rats were given doses equal to dozens of times that normally taken by people. anyone with impaired liver function or unexplained vaginal bleeding. nausea. Prasterone. maintain ideal body weight. anxiety. as women appear more responsive to the hormone than men. irritability and mood changes. though the drug company involved is keeping silent until it can develop a variant that is patentable. heart disease. Ray Sahelian. Too much insulin can also lower levels of this hormone. Pearson and Shaw cite ACTH 4-10. hypertension. menstrual irregularities. night restlessness. after that. oily skin. dong quai. cause unpredictable changes in blood sugar when combined with oral antidiabetics. and obesity. thyroid hormones. Ray Sahelian. a polypeptide composed of seven amino acids. It received much publicity in 1998 when it was revealed that the St. cancer. vomiting. impulsiveness. and involuntary movements. congestive heart failure. Common side effects include stomach cramps. apparently by encouraging the growth of brain cells and the connections between them. dehydroisoandrosterone. some recommend a more modest dose of 19 mg/day for women. diarrhea. recommends starting out at 5 to 10 mg/day. Individuals under 40 should have their levels checked first.. or leg. Its use against such a wide range of disorders maybe attributable to its ability to normalize and promote electrical activity in the body and brain in several ways. terazosin. kidney disease. hostility. in rare cases. He also recommends that users take only DHEA or DHEAS and avoid any product sold as a precursor to DHEA. and increase the risk of pancreatitis when combined with didanosine. any reports of people feeling better physically or mentally (especially with regard to sexual drive) are purely anecdotal. depression. a dose of 5 to 25 mg two days a week may be sufficient. and anxiety. cryptosporidium infection.S. and DHEA in the body. as they may not need supplementation.D. For women. hops. reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation and sleep by regulating the firing of nerve cells and countering the excitatory effects of acetylcholine. which is needed to keep sperm strong and fertile. such as the promotion of the growth of prostate cancer in men and breast and uterine cancers in women. it has also shown some success in treating AIDS. gynecomastia (breast growth). hair loss. appetite loss. heart palpitations. swollen feet and ankles. and rifampin. menopause. and may even extend life (it has been shown to extend the life span of animals by as much as 50 percent and. osteoporosis. use is experimental. irritability. It may even protect women's brains from damage caused by strokes. moodiness. stomach or side pains. PMS. porphyria. and excessive vaginal bleeding. The effects of estrogen can be lessened by hydantoin anticonvulsants. and pessimism. insomnia. and maintain the health of the heart. violent behavior. Levels of this hormone in the body decrease with age (by as much as 95 percent). osteoporosis. used it to enhance his athletic performance. worry. For general health. Michael Hutchinson recommends 100 to 300 mg/day (in two or three divided doses) for life-extending and cognitive-enhancing purposes. and breast cancer. Its advocates believe it useful for those struggling with obesity. its production declines steadily. avoid stress. Diandron. menstrual irregularities. as one that has been shown to enhance learning. it can be enhanced by meprobamate. A recent study has found that it has no effect on testosterone levels in the blood or muscular strength in men. Effects: Can improve the mood of postmenopausal women. or are over age 60 should consult a physician first. In women taking estrogen. For others. and heart irregularities. increase the chance of liver damage from other drugs. depression. converting more rapidly to testosterone than DHEA. and enhance mood in those with depression. and a change in menstruation. but further tests with rat have shown that vitamin E can offset this damage. gallstones. slurred speech. The risks for younger men include infertility. though epileptics have been taking it for nearly half a century. guanfacine (antihypertensive effects only). and increasing the dosage by 5 mg/day until reaching the optimum daily dosage (which may be as little as 25 mg/day for women. Though DHEA can be converted to A-Dione. bloody skin blisters. It has been used to treat epilepsy. aggressiveness. Dosage: For humans. it may also interact with such anti-depressants as Prozac and Zoloft. including testosterone and estrogen. DHEA AKA: Astenile. some of which are irreversible. or hormone replacement drugs. or a heart attack. diabetes. ESTROGEN One of the six steroid hormones in the body. Stephen Cherniske. aggressiveness. acne. irritability. Effects: It is said to increase energy and restore sexual drive — particularly in older individuals — increase muscle and bone mass. arthritis. A steroid manufactured in the adrenal gland that is similar to testosterone and is a precursor to all steroid hormones in the body. memory loss. It may also relieve or even prevent the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women. dizziness. insomnia. facial hair. It can be depleted by stress. protect against osteoporosis (bone loss). get plenty of sleep. A natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. headaches. It works synergistically with vitamin E. anxiety. fibrocystic breast disease. by keeping the level of cortisol low and by helping neurons grow new dendrites. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE ANALOGS AKA: ACTH.CHAPTER 8 Hormones Hormones are organic compounds secreted by specific cells that control the functions of other cells receptive to those hormone molecules. rye. It may cause harmful interactions if used in conjunction with aspirin or blood thinners. and decreased by stress. Those on estrogen replacement therapy may have to adjust their dosage of DHEA accordingly. increase the amount of Cyclosporine and adrenal corticosteroid drugs in the blood. fatigue. flaxseed. A neurotransmitter and central nervous system depressant. Mephenytoin. alcohol and drug withdrawal. insulin. and reduce the percentage of fat in the body. carbamazepine. GABA Plus. high blood pressure. Phenytoin. Gabatol. pain. GABA AKA: GABA Calm. and vitamin C. ANDROSTENEDIONE AKA: A-Dione. and much more research is needed to uncover any additional side effects. and testicular atrophy. Little is known about this hormone. autoimmune diseases. aggressiveness. soybeans. and heart disease. barbiturates. because the estrogen may induce a deficiency of DHEA. gamma aminobutyric acid. impatience. asthma. fluid retention. Because sufficient research has not yet been done. it has caused liver damage leading to the formation of tumors.. and nothing is known about long-term effects. Certain herbs such as blue cohosh. voice changes. Mark McGwire. 31 mg/day for men. Recent research has shown that older women with cardiac conditions risk a much greater chance of heart attacks and blood clots in the first year of estrogen treatment but. or anyone who has had blood clots. the latter appears to be much more powerful. arthritis. it is recommended that it be taken only under the guidance of a physician. diabetes. tamoxifen. loss of tolerance to contact lenses. Less frequent side effects consist of rash. Dosage: It may not be needed by those under age 45. Those with Alzheimer's have levels lower than healthy individuals of similar age. Effects: A class of neuropeptides currently under study for their brain-boosting effects. PMS. It is not known if this same effect occurs in humans. vaginal discharge or bleeding. Parkinson's disease. birth control pills. 10 to 50 mg in the morning may be sufficient for energy and mood enhancement. Women may experience a slight increase in body hair and a deepening of the voice at dosages greater than 25 mg a day. brain. and then only after having tests to determine the levels in the body and whether the liver is functioning properly. CHOLECYSTOKININ-8 AKA: CCK-8. E. yams. it may boost the estrogen to dangerous levels. agitation. water retention. and ursodiol. considers any dose over 10 mg to be too high. in humans. and exists in normal brain tissue in amounts six and one-half times greater than in other parts of the body. phenobarbital. Though stress may cause the body to decrease its production of DHEA and increase its production of cortisol. but may not have the same effects. Those who have had cancer of the breast or reproductive organs. avoid synthetic steroid hormones. oddly enough. According to author Michael Hutchinson. alcohol. In combination with cholesterol-lowering drugs. and licorice have estrogen-like properties. cardiac arrhythmias. The risks for younger women include fertility problems. Deandros. It may deplete the levels of vitamins B6. hair loss. Most supplements are 25 mg. folic acid. so taking it may protect brain cells against mental deterioration such as Alzheimer's and senility. increase the chance of blood clots when combined with antifibrinolytic agents. overstimulation. both of which could otherwise lead to heart attacks and strokes. fear. It is found in the bloodstream in greater amounts than any other steroid. breast lumps. . increase the amount of calcium absorbed in the stomach. and thyroid medications. Overdose symptoms include nausea. Rare symptoms include stroke. brown blotches on the skin. growth of uterine fibroids. It is also possible that the increased energy levels felt by those taking it may be only short-term. primidone. Over-the-counter brands are unregulated by the FDA. it should be taken no more than two or three times a week. as well as memory and thinking. A neuropeptide currently under study for its brain-boosting effects. anyone who smokes. it can reduce inflammation and clotting of the blood. breast enlargement and discomfort. though usage has ranged anywhere from 50 to 2000 mg/day. jaundice. high blood pressure.

headaches. and spray —with pill dosages in the 10 to 50 mg range. among other things. which do not produce their own melatonin. nightmares. lack of sunlight during waking hours. It also works as a powerful antioxidant (as much as 500 times more powerful than DMSO). and ornithine may stimulate the body to make more HGH. A master hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates a number of the body's functions and life cycles. rice. resist cancer. eating and sleeping disorders. It should not be combined with other drugs. sweet corn. and sleepiness. tobacco. and 500 mg of magnesium at night. M. enhanced sleep. NADH AKA: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. very little of it is biologically available. and in nondepression cases can cause fatigue. as it could reduce their effectiveness. desipramine (Norpramin. pot bellies. such as falling asleep at the wheel of a car. leaving open the question of quality control. aggression. It may also extend the human life span. though this type of bingeing does not necessarily indicate a serotonin deficiency. the ability of smooth muscles to contract (including abdominal muscles. radiation therapy. Some elderly people lose their ability to produce it altogether. sugar (particularly sugar ingested just before bedtime). can interfere or react with melatonin. liquid. and it resets the body's clock rather than just knocking the person out. and the effects of other neurotransmitters. as it could worsen these conditions. Melatonin is only effective as a sedative if the pineal gland's production is low. including the adrenal glands. and possibly schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Parkinson's disease. Optimum dosage has not yet been determined. Taking it at the wrong time could cause problems.g. is found principally in spirulina.g. Reiter himself takes less than 1 mg/day. peanuts. the level of NADH decreases. jet lag. then increasing the dosage every few days until positive effects are felt. greater alcohol consumption. on the other hand. improved memory. taking tryptophan supplements (banned since 1989 because some improperly manufactured supplements caused harm to some users). beta-blockers. He also recommends that it be taken only under the guidance of a physician. lower cholesterol. women who take it for birth control do not get sleepy. it can regulate platelets (which help blood coagulate). steroids. as it could worsen the symptoms." though probably not harmful. menopause. somatotrophin (STH). PMS. insomnia.. It begins to decline about 14 percent each decade starting at about age 20. Sublingual supplements allow the melatonin to reach the brain quicker. lower blood pressure. breast cancer. convert it into progesterone. M.5 to 5 mg a day one-half to one hour before bedtime. Effects: Provides needed energy to brain cells for neurotransmitter production and information processing. and certain cardiovascular conditions such as Raynaud's disease and hypertension. It is known to produce vivid dreams. osteoporosis. colas. arginine. however. allergies. MELATONIN AKA: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine. Russel J. and following a diet that is high in healthy proteins and low in fat. maintaining ideal body weight. ibuprofen. and chocolate). increased muscle mass (up to 8. does not recommend its use more than once or twice a week. and synthetic growth hormone has only 10 percent of the effectiveness of the natural form. Human growth hormone may be expensive and difficult to obtain.8 percent after six months). most synthetic forms are manufactured outside the U.. doses as high as 75 to 150 mg will have no effect. and 750 to 1500 mg an hour before bedtime for insomnia. Japanese radish. maintaining stable blood sugar and insulin levels (even if it means snacking).S. particularly those that are hormone-related — e. and serotonin. averaging around 10 pg per milliliter of blood per day and 50 to 150 pg per milliliter at night. chicken liver. Valium. sharper vision. and long-term effects are still not known. awareness. but a time-release supplement at bedtime is probably best. 7-KETO The hormone 7-keto is metabolized from DHEA. Pertofrane).. and leave the individual feeling groggy upon wakening. Serotonin imbalances may also contribute to the onset of headaches. Tryptophan. migraines. hypertension. . Precautions: The above studies also indicate that a deficiency may lead to decreased sensitivity to alcohol and. Precautions: Too high a dose can result in irritability. Researchers recommend taking only 0. B-6. HGH. "We do not at this time believe that melatonin should be a routine part of the average nutritionalsupplement program. as they produce enough on their own. which may explain why older people have insomnia.. those with severe mental illness. aspirin (which can cut production by 75 percent). It has also been shown to boost the immune system. and lupus. elevated mood. When taken counter to the body's normal circadian rhythm (e. fluvoxamine (Luvox). skin. M. professor of neuroendocrinology at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. and gigantism. smoother skin. including the onset of puberty. nursing. Researchers are looking into it as a possible treatment or cure for such things as Alzheimer's. so it can be effectively used to treat insomnia. Down's syndrome. the body can manufacture it from tryptophan or 5-HTP in foods and supplements. Levels in the body decline with age. prostate cancer — when taken in doses of 40 mg a day or more). may be "overkill. the ability of blood vessels to expand and contract. diarrhea. leukemia. Effects: May improve mental ability. it appears to be the main hormone associated with aging. It also relieves the symptoms of PMS in women and prevents arthritis (it was first developed in the 1930s as an arthritis medication). One study has shown that it can worsen clinical depression in some cases. Taking calcium and magnesium at night may also benefit melatonin production. raisins). Production decreases with age when the pineal gland becomes worn out and calcified. surgery. carob. Food sources: Oats. and is now being tested as a possible anticancer drug (it may inhibit some types of cancers. It appears to be nontoxic. caffeine (including coffee.noradrenaline. healthy children. and Ray Sahelian. epilepsy and diabetes. Effects: Higher energy levels. It should not be used to treat insomnia. It is available in a variety of forms — pill. Its effects may be enhanced by taking it with 25 to 50 mg each of vitamin B-3 and B-6. as there are numerous causes that result in a loss of sleep. Precautions: It should only be taken under the guidance of a physician.. AIDS. Dosage: Ray Sahelian. and other relaxation techniques. cottage cheese. as it interferes with sex hormones. stronger bones. Paradoxically. restoration of immune function. and starch. taking too much (more than 0. by those working night shifts). pumpkin seeds. otherwise. The production of melatonin can also be inhibited by exposure to electromagnetic fields. sleeping pills. multiple sclerosis. and it may ease some symptoms of autism. Dosage: Mark Mayell recommends 500 to 750 mg to reduce anxiety. consequently. Most animal growth hormone is virtually ineffective. There may be a risk of contamination from viruses in the natural form. Melatonin output in the body can be improved by eating the foods mentioned above. it doesn't interfere with REM sleep (the dream state). obsessive-compulsive disorder. including lymphoma. Effects: Regulates the body's clock. NEUROPEPTIDE Y A neuropeptide currently under study for its brain-boosting effects.1 mg (equal in amount to a few grains of salt) can enhance sleep. it is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light. Precautions: It should not be taken by women who are pregnant. and autoimmune diseases such as arthritis. Effects: Stimulates the appetite. Reiter. whole grains. why this happens is not known. and even as a birth control pill. Apart from this." Reiter recommends an alternative program of 100 mg of B-3. It is used as a treatment for adults with deficiencies resulting from pituitary disease. g. and depression. The sale of melatonin is banned in Canada.5 to 3 mg.. impulsiveness. and plenty of vegetables will help maintain stable serotonin levels.D. and a reduction in fat (14. green tea. regrowth of vital organs. Effects: Serotonin has some of the most important functions in the brain and body. then cutting back to 2 to 5 mg/day with occasional periods of nonuse. noradrenaline. those taking steroid drugs such as cortisone and dexamethasone. because it accumulates in the body. Most studies have been done on rats. and lower heart rate and blood pressure. as will regular exercise. fruit (eaten in place of sugary snacks). as side effects are still not known. sublingual tablet. less consumption of alcohol. and the brain. On the other hand. to assist the body's own production of melatonin. and those with overactive immune system abnormalities. Manufactured in the pituitary gland. especially alcohol and other depressants. barley. possibly. seeds. it can have negative effects on memory and cognitive processing. and other symptoms of old age. calcium. and smoking marijuana. who publishes the newsletter Nutrition and Healing. SEROTONIN Food Sources: Complex carbohydrates (whole grains). Those with low serotonin levels tend to binge on fatty or sugary foods. regrowth of hair. micronized pill. though it may not be able to reverse it (it has been shown to increase the longevity of lab rats an average of 20 percent). depression and suicide fixation. Unlike sleeping pills. and prevent obesity. side effects may include carpal tunnel syndrome. Precautions: One Chinese study indicates that increased levels of GABA in the brain are not conducive to learning and memory. Supplements of L-glutamine. and melatonin may not be effective in countering them. Taking adequate amounts of vitamin B-3 can free up more tryptophan to be converted to melatonin. including androgens and estrogen. Some suggest it may even delay the aging process. The use of synthetic growth hormone has been associated with heart disease and the production of antigrowth hormone antibodies. grogginess or fuzzy thinking upon arising from sleep. cream. Animal experiments suggest that it can extend life span. and Britain. The body can use it as it is. states. which push food through the digestive system). especially hypertension medicines. sedatives (such as Prozac. Dosage: Not yet established. soy products. Some research does not confirm its supposed benefits.D.D. plus 25 to 50 mg of B-6 early in the morning. most MAO inhibitors. Vitamin B-6 can stimulate the body to produce more melatonin. Most pills are 2. hypothalmic disease. according to Dr. and harmful side effects may yet be uncovered. but clinical trials have shown that a single daily dose of 25 mg raised the hormone to optimum levels for subjects aged 64 to 81. which. made from animals. loss of vitality. on the other hand. Precautions: It cannot pass through the blood/brain barrier. Side effects may include depression. tomatoes. Though foods may contain some serotonin. and magnesium. HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE AKA: Growth hormone. and a reduced sex drive. alertness. the sexual organs. Taking it may improve the performance of brain cells and stimulate them to produce the cognitive-enhancing neurotransmitters dopamine. faster healing of wounds. France. doses of B-12 above 3000 meg. eating foods that have a high arginine-tolysine ratio (e. which can then be converted to melatonin. calcium-channel blockers.. natural and synthetic forms are identical. meditation. bringing about sagging skin. lack of darkness during sleep (caused even by such seemingly innocuous offenders as night lights). and other neurotransmitters. nuts. bananas. or trying to get pregnant. High levels can be maintained by aerobic exercise (especially if separated from eating and sleeping by at least two hours). though some studies have shown that as little as 0. Humatrope. As a person ages. and Alan Gaby. PREGNENOLONE A hormone formed from cholesterol in various organs of the body. prayer. Some medications. enhanced sexual performance. recommends starting out with 10 mg/day. as it most mimics natural conditions. and injury. anxiety. Studies with rats and mice indicate that overproduction of this substance in the brain may lead to sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol and. The ability of carbohydrates to raise serotonin may be negated by just 5 percent protein in a meal. Disruption in serotonin levels can result in any number of psychological disorders. visual and auditory perception. turkey. confusion. Crook and Adderly advise its use only for combating jet lag. getting enough niacin. and indomethacin (which can completely block the nighttime increase of melatonin).3 mg) in efforts to fall asleep could result in a melatonin hangover the next day. including mania. Smoking one joint of marijuana. liver.4 percent after six months). ginger. Dosage: Levels produced by the body are measured in picograms (trillionths of a gram). insomnia. shrink the prostate. can increase melatonin levels in the body 4000 percent. and aggressiveness. and Xanax). or convert it into DHEA and then to over 150 steroid hormones. which can be converted by the body into melatonin. and maintains that it is not needed by healthy people under 40. capsule. Taking HGH when it is not needed may train the pituitary gland to release less and less of it. avoiding eating before exercise. and mood by facilitating the transmission of impulses between neurons. though much research still needs to be done. as opposed to the synthetic form. and chicken. headaches. Women taking up to 75 mg a day for birth control research have shown no apparent side effects. It is important in regulating mood and behavior and. alcohol. 1000 mg of calcium. memory. tranquilizers. as the body uses it to convert tryptophan into serotonin.

VASOPRESSIN AKA: ADH. lysinevasopressin. irritability. Precautions: It may create symptoms of toxicity when taken alone. ephedrine. it occasionally results in nasal congestion. nervousness. Liotrix. estrogens. Levoid.Effects: Believed to be identical to DHEA. oral contraceptives. insomnia. menstrual problems. a language or new field of study). dry skin. It can also interact with sympathomimetics. Vasopressin is released by experiences of great trauma or intense arousal (which may be one reason why such emotional moments have such a strong impression and can be remembered with vividness long afterwards). antidiuretic hormone. hand tremors. headaches. Thyrolar. and it is only available as a nasal spray. and congestive heart failure. Effects: Increases theta wave activity in the brain which. and low energy levels. Addison's disease. runny nose. It can counteract the effects of the drugs mentioned above. Desmospray. and Ritalin (metahylphenidate) also release large amounts. cocaine. as it narrows the blood vessels. in turn. rash.and long-term recall. which is prescribed for diabetes insipidus and memory loss resulting from aging. DAY Ritter. concentration. Levothroid. these may be alleviated when taken in combination with Aldosterone. nasal ulcerations. Combining it with cocaine can result in excessive stimulation. It may prove helpful in retaining new information (e. and methylphenidate. leg cramps. menstrual irregularities. oral anticoagulants. Minirin. who have had adrenal gland deficiency. colestipol. depressant drugs such as alcohol and marijuana suppress the secretion. Synthroid. or isoproterenol for asthma should consult a physician first. and creativity. muscle cramps. insomnia.g. It works extremely fast. their effects are basically the same. and enhanced by large continuous doses of aspirin. It is littleknown and often overlooked by doctors. Liothyronine. A neuropeptide which. and habitual use of these drugs depletes the brain's supply of this hormone. as it is absorbed into the mucous membranes of the nose and taken directly into the brain. Dosage: A total dose of 12 to 16 units/day from a nasal spray bottle (one whiff. or approximately 2 U. Common symptoms include tremors. and senile dementia. which can be life-threatening. epinephrine. Subclinical hypothyroidism. Precautions: Any thyroid drugs should be taken only under the guidance of a physician. changes in appetite. is currently under study for its brain-boosting effects. and more frequent bowel movements. . Korsakoff's syndrome. cortisone drugs. heat sensitivity. and diminish the effects of barbiturates. abdominal cramps. and memory disturbances . [United States Pharmacopeia] Posterior Pituitary Units. increases attention span. sweating. AVP. as well. which may be why users frequently do not remember events when drunk or stoned. The condition is also characterized by such symptoms as cold hands and feet. headaches. weight loss. S. Dextrothyroxine. diarrhea. chest pain. heartbeat irregularities. weight loss. Proloid. Thyroid. Diapid. It should also be avoided by those with kidney disease and epilepsy. ephedrine. It is recommended that those with cardiovascular problems (particularly hypertension and angina pectoris) should not use vasopressin. L-desamino-8-D-arginine. Excessive use of the drug should not be combined with excess water consumption. tricyclic antidepressants. Thyroid hormones should not be taken by anyone who has had a heart attack within the past six weeks or for any reason other than a thyroid deficiency. as inhaling it deep into the lungs may trigger spasms of the larynx and shortness of breath. angina. LVP. stimulant drugs such as amphetamines. irritability. arginine-vasopressin. In combination. Its effect can be inhibited by cholestyramine. high blood pressure. diarrhea. Desmopressin. or who use epinephrine. as it helps imprint this information in the brain. retention. Eltroxin. Some say that angina patients will experience heart pain. Less frequent symptoms include hives. oral antidiabetics or insulin. nausea. mental confusion. memory. traumatically-induced amnesia (caused by physical injury to the brain). heartburn. For others. and phenytoin. Overdose symptoms. in each nostril three to four times a day) will improve memory. THYROID HORMONES AKA: Cytomel. or a slightly underfunctioning thyroid. betaadrenergic blocking agents. as it could lead to a rare condition called water intoxication. argipressin. and digitalis medications. recognition. rapid and irregular pulse. Alzheimer's. Euthroid. DDAVP. Adiuretin SD. LSD. Thyroglobulin. vomiting. and nervousness. consist of a "hot" feeling. possibly causing a rapid or irregular heartbeat. fever. Diapid is the synthetic version. it can enhance the effects of amphetamines. Pearson and Shaw discourage use in such cases. Effects: A class of drugs that mimic the hormone produced in the thyroid gland.P. rinderpressin. and improvements may be noticed within seconds. It may even have antidepressant qualities. Thyroxine. thin hair. heart palpitations. itching or irritation of nasal passages. A hormone and natural brain peptide secreted by the pituitary gland that has antidiuretic properties. along with its analogs. Postacton. amnesia. according to most studies. but without the side effects from metabolization. and shortness of breath. lypressin. short.. Those who have heart disease. unusual swelling. Vasopressin should be snorted into the upper nasal cavities. and reports claim it intensifies orgasms. diabetes. THYROTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE AKA: TRH. Syntopressin. Levothyroxine. headaches. Arginine-vasopressin (argipressin) and lysine-vasopressin (lypressin) are forms of vasopressin that have an additional amino acid. and possibly chemically and electrically-induced amnesia. Levoxyl. can be one reason for poor concentration. Conversely. It has been shown to restore memory lost as a result of aging.

and the bottle is opened only when dispensing oil (they can evaporate or oxidize quite readily in the open air). and turns yellow. Laurus camphora. including colic. or diffusers that provide a longer-lasting effect. It is more of a resin than an oil. some aromatherapists recommend that only Cedrus atlantica be used. Allergic reactions or photosensitivity are possible. Some shops or catalogs sell dispensers. hippocampus. Perfumes and fragrance oils sold by cosmetics companies are synthetic (the term "nature identical" is a tipoff). relieve nervousness and fatigue. including bronchitis and whooping cough. lavender. and are thought to have effects on the human mind and body as well. but may contain trace amounts of toxic solvents used in the extraction process. or sesame seed oil). and be an aphrodisiac. as it can be quite toxic. Before they could be rescued. and whether it was grown organically or not. and sandalwood. Apium graveolens. as it may cause dermatitis. geranium. They can either be inhaled (by putting a drop or two in a bowl of steaming water). It can also relieve arthritis pain and the symptoms of respiratory ailments. Precautions: Avoid sunlight if applying directly to the skin. neroli. rose. Also. Many essential oils can cause such side effects as headaches. vaporizers. and most of the purported effects are based on anecdotal evidence or folklore. CARAWAY AKA: Carum carvi. those whose blood pressure is abnormally high or abnormally low. or the use of herbal oils as medicines. and Ocimum gratissimum). Cedrus atlantica. it is used as a digestive aid.CHAPTER 9 Essential Oils Aromatherapy. and diarrhea. anxiety. BAY AKA: Bay leaf. lemon. lamps. as it may take a hundred pounds of plants or more to produce one ounce of oil. Despite the synergistic effect with alcohol. Precautions: Contains estragol. and be an aphrodisiac. and fatigue. dry. Effects: Said to promote psychic awareness. the dark brown oil should not be used. sage. Works synergistically with angelica. as they can produce effects that are the opposite of what they normally provide. and not be used on a daily basis. as well as reduce nausea and weakness during recovery from illness. and rose. Precautions: Some brands may be adulterated with other essential oils. chamomile. BENZOIN AKA: Styrax benzoin. and contribute to a calm sleep. Essential oils themselves can be rather expensive. Effects: Said to relieve fatigue. Many oils work synergistically with each other. Effects: Said to elevate mood and improve memory and concentration. cypress. lavender. especially with spice oils such as thyme. Cedrus deodora. undiluted oils are extremely concentrated and should never be inhaled directly from the bottle or applied to the skin. Elettaria cardamomum. Precautions: Should always be used with a base oil. and has to be melted by heat before being used. which may cause problems arising from the compound thujone. Precautions: Do not use the essential oil internally unless under the guidance of an expert aromatherapist. and all suffered from extreme fatigue for the next few days. diarrhea. and learning by as much as 17 percent. Pimenta acris. Effects: Said to increase energy and promote awareness. improve the respiratory system. juniper. There are over a hundred different varieties of basil. CARDAMOM AKA: Cardamon. as they can be irritating (a cotton swab soaked in vegetable oil and applied to the eye should relieve discomfort). and depression. Though several different trees produce essential oils which are marketed as cedarwood. Precautions: Should not be used by those with asthma or allergies. and are not recommended for therapeutic use. a small amount of vitamin E can help preserve the freshness. It has been used to aid digestion and reduce flatulence. Effects: Contains high amounts of cineole. and depression. jasmine. there may be some discrepancy about specific effects. geranium. and menstrual pain. or those being treated for cancer. Cinnamomum camphora. colitis. as that has the most reliable therapeutic properties. Studies have shown that pleasant aromas increase productivity in the workplace by as much as 25 percent. including juniper. Absolutes — which are essential oils that are viscous or semi-solid — are cheaper. Cinnamomum cassia. respiratory tract. little is known about the specifics with which they work: only a handful of studies have been done on aromas and aromatherapy. and they should not be taken internally (as little as a half teaspoon of pure oil can be fatal). break up congestion in the lungs. with age. and nausea. CELERY AKA: Ache. and cold sores. and relieve stomach cramps. affecting emotion and memory by stimulating the hypothalamus. or concentrated liquids extracted from various parts of plants. and ylang-ylang. laughing and giggling at first. happiness. combining the two can lead to a dangerously heightened sense of drunkenness (and accompanying hangover) with extreme nightmares. Precautions: It may be irritating if applied directly to the skin. smallage. absorbed through the skin (by using three or four drops as a massage oil. and sexuality. Effects: Said to increase energy. Pure. Precautions: It should not be used without the guidance of a trained aromatherapist. muscle spasms. CHAMOMILE AKA: Anthemis nobilis or Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). Works synergistically with bergamot. Roman chamomile is used to treat stomach aches. It should always be diluted before being applied to the skin. then dark brown. Oils should generally be reserved for treating specific conditions. CEDAR AKA: Cedarwood. are believed to help protect plants from certain diseases and pests. possibly causing blisters and burns. EUCALYPTUS AKA: Eucalyptus citriodora. . Precautions: It may cause allergic reactions in some people. which may cause adverse reactions in some people and — possibly — cancer in large doses (varieties low in estragol include Ocimum Americanum. anxiety. The fresh oil is colorless. they became aggressive and belligerent. It is a very strong oil. arthritis pain. It is used in Europe to treat infections of the skin. Effects: Said to promote a sense of spirituality. especially in its pure state. induce intense and colorful dreams. those with asthma. as it can be irritating in its pure state. Cedrus libani. flatulence. Effects: Said to increases energy. Eucalyptus radiata. coughs. and relieve headaches and the symptoms of PMS. BASIL AKA: Ocimum basilicum. act as an aphrodisiac. produce euphoria (in some people). flu. Effects: Said to improve memory. Effects: Said to relieve stress and stress-related headaches. Even among practitioners. while some may contain compounds which could be carcinogenic if used regularly for an extended period of time. flatulence. avoid getting essential oils in the eye. It is used to treat various digestive problems. Effects: Said to relieve stress. which can be irritating (patchtest an oil by dabbing a drop of it on the skin with a cotton swab. two suffered from extreme nausea. Precautions: Avoid sunlight if applying directly to the skin or using in bath water. Cinnamomum zeylanicum. It may cause an allergic reaction in some people. Precautions: Should not be used by anyone who suffers from epilepsy. has been practiced for thousands of years. and promote feelings of contentment. as the wrong dosage could prove fatal. Effects: Said to relieve depression. and dark place. contribute to a restful sleep. CAMPHOR AKA: Camphora officinarum. stress. placing a bandage over it. Ocimum canum. and to treat heartburn. dizziness. BERGAMOT AKA: Citrus aurantium bergamia. and memory. CLARY SAGE AKA: Salvia sclarea. and urinary tract. Works synergistically with bergamot. dyspepsia. CINNAMON AKA: Cassia. As for their benefits. Effects: Said to relieve stress and anxiety. Said to increase concentration. ANGELICA AKA: Angelica archangelica. Eucalyptus globulus. cedar. or both (by putting 5 or 6 drops in warm bath water). and are of little benefit in aromatherapy. Smells can have a direct influence on the brain. indigestion. sore throat) and skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. and contribute to a restful sleep. Prices can vary depending on such factors as the origin of the plant. They can last a year or more if stored properly in a cool. as well as ease the symptoms of common respiratory problems (colds. and amygdala. Essential oils. jasmine. rather than stimulate it. neroli. CORIANDER AKA: Coriandrum sativum. They should not be used by those suffering from epilepsy or other seizure disorders. Matricaria chamomila or Matricaria recutita (German chamomile). and checking it 24 hours later for any adverse reactions). the method of extraction. improve memory and creativity. as it can cause the skin to become sensitive. so caution is advised. and extra caution should be used to prevent using too much. a compound which increases blood flow to parts of the brain. especially for more than two or three weeks at a time. olive. and PMS. or a l-to-10 ratio of essential oil to a carrier oil such as sweet almond. It has been used to treat various respiratory infections. Drinking alcohol is said to intensify its effects. One case on record relates that several workers who tried to clean up fifty quarts of coriander oil spilled from a large container were overcome by the fumes within a half hour. Effects: Said to increase energy. mental functioning. German chamomile is used to treat skin conditions such as acne and eczema. Cinnamomum ceylanicum. PMS. Constant use of basil may dull the mind. and oregano.

and increase energy. PMS. depression. confidence. as it could cause kidney damage. and strength. catarrh. neroli. neroli. pine. and rose. diarrhea. depression. as well as maintaining concentration during prayer and meditation. Works synergistically with sandalwood. bee balm. lemongrass. Cymbopogon flexuosus. and to increase feelings of love and euphoria. geranium. and pine. lavendin. Precautions: If applied to the skin in its pure state. Effects: Said to have a mild calming effect similar to lavender. and asthma. hyssop. it should not be used indiscriminately because it is high in phenolic resin. GRAPEFRUIT AKA: Citrus paradissi. nausea. lemongrass. and muscular aches and pains. Never use oil that is cloudy or pale. cedar. Precautions: It may be irritating when applied to sensitive skin. lavender. Works synergistically with bergamot and lavender. It may cause irritation when applied to the skin. and contribute to a deeper. lime. Effects: Said to increase energy. Spanish jasmine). LIME AKA: Citrus limetta. Works synergistically with detoxifying and cleansing oils such as juniper. and depression. as it could produce an effect opposite to the one intended. Boswellia thurifera. It has been used to treat such conditions as anorexia. Works synergistically with lavender. chamomile. and ylang-ylang. Effects: Said to relieve stress. as well as athlete's foot and hemorrhoids. Works synergistically with geranium. rose. Jasminum officinale (common jasmine). high blood pressure. Effects: Said to relieve insomnia and depression. Precautions: It should not be used by those suffering from epilepsy. Works synergistically with cypress. fatigue. and to promote calmness and feelings of spirituality. Precautions: Since it is quite expensive. Lavandula officinalis. It is a common ingredient in cold remedies. It has been used to treat sinus congestion. Citrus aurantium bugardia. Precautions: It is often sold as lavender. and euphoria. Effects: Said to relieve stress and anxiety. and promote feelings of optimism. FRANKINCENSE AKA: Boswellia carteri. Because it is so expensive. Pelargonium odoratissimum. cedarwood. clary sage. MYRRH AKA: Commiphora myrrha. Effects: Used as an aid in meditation. lavender. It is often confused with oregano. clary sage. anxiety. Precautions: It is a very strong oil and should only be used under the guidance of an expert aromatherapist. Effects: Said to slow down and deepen breathing. Precautions: Individuals with other allergies or asthma may suffer an allergic reaction to lavender. It is also used to treat skin and mouth problems. Effects: Said to relieve stress and insomnia. insomnia. digestive problems. lemongrass. It is used for a wide variety of disorders and medical problems. Effects: Said to relieve nervous tension. and pine. GERANIUM AKA: Pelargonium graveolens. Works synergistically with bergamot. it can cause a rash when exposed to sunlight. which could cause serious side effects. olibanum. Melissa officinalis. it is often used to imitate rose and verbena. both of which stimulate the central nervous system. and increase concentration. induce calmness. MYRTLE AKA: Myrtus communis. asthma. clary sage. Lavandula fragrans. myrtle. MARJORAM AKA: Knotted marjoram. juniper. neroli. Works synergistically with jasmine and rose. fennel. juniper. chamomile. patchouli. and hangovers. Effects: Said to relieve anxiety. LEMONGRASS AKA: Cymbopogon citratus. and pine. NEROLI AKA: Citrus aurantium. and has been used to treat a variety of respiratory problems. sweet marjoram. JASMINE AKA: Jasminum grandiflorum (royal jasmine. It is used to treat muscular aches and pains. cheaper brands may be adulterated with artificial esters. and improve memory and concentration. energy. even though it has a sweet fragrance and is not as potent. The oil could be adulterated with turpentine. LAVANDIN AKA: Lavandula delphinensis. catarrh. and even skin cancer. Precautions: It could cause a rash or blisters if applied directly to the skin or added to bath water.Effects: Contains cineole and eucalyptol. Precautions: It should be used with caution by asthmatics. Effects: Said to cleanse the mind. It is used to adulterate melissa and. and pine. sexuality. marjoram. relieve depression. elevate mood. diuretic. Citrus bigaradia. whose calming properties are not as great. Lavandin is a hybrid of lavender and aspic. MELISSA AKA: Balm. Works synergistically with benzoin. Precautions: If applied to the skin. lavender. and insomnia. FENNEL AKA: Foeniculum vulgare. and contribute to health and healing. and antiseptic qualities. melissa. or lemongrass. Some brands may be adulterated with the much less expensive and less effective citronella. irritability. and body. flatulence. shock. which may contain trace amounts of toxic solvents. lemon balm. rosemary. LAVENDER AKA: Lavandula angustifolia. It has been used to treat various skin disorders. as the hot steam could have an adverse effect. NUTMEG AKA: Myristica fragrans. Effects: Said to relieve fatigue. Effects: Said to relieve nervous tension and increase life span. eucalyptus. migraines. and pain. Precautions: It may increase the chance of a sunburn if applied to the skin. it can cause an allergic reaction or irritation. JUNIPER AKA: Juniperus communis. Origanum marjorana. menopause. Precautions: Can increase chances of sunburn when applied to the skin. anxiety. and thyme. and sinusitis. bergamot. lemon. high blood pressure. it is often adulterated with other oils such as lavandin. It has been used to treat muscular aches and pains. It has been used to treat diarrhea. Works synergistically with cedar. colds. induce calmness. and it should not be used as a diuretic without supervision. GINGER AKA: Zingiber officinalis. Works synergistically with bergamot. and rheumatism. It has been used to stimulate the appetite and treat cold sores. Effects: Said to increase energy. Precautions: Should not be used for kidney problems. though some still consider it unsuitable for use. Precautions: It should not be used on young or sensitive people. or even a skin rash if exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. Precautions: Since so many flowers are needed to produce an ounce of essential oil. stress. along with geranium and citronella. The oil has antiviral and antibiotic properties. though none have been reported. sweet balm. melissa grass. It is often adulterated with petitgrain. Jasmine absolute using the process of enfleurage — placing leaves in trays of carrier oil to extract the essential oil — is considered the safest. Works synergistically with angelica. and to aid concentration during meditation. more restful sleep. Effects: Said to reduce stress and depression. LEMON AKA: Citrus Hmon. geranium. and vetiver. lavender. Some aromatherapists are also concerned about the combination of principal constituents anethol and estragol. Works synergistically with eucalyptus. lemon. and turpentine. migraines. spirit. Effects: Said to increase energy and concentration. lemon. . virtually all of the products on the market since the late 1980s are absolutes. It is also used for its detoxifying. Lavandula vera. Effects: Said to increase happiness.

or in addition to homeopathic remedies. If applied to the skin. and insomnia. It has been used to treat motion sickness. and tension. Works synergistically with cardamom. And it should not be used undiluted. Works synergistically with benzoin. hangovers. Effects: Contains large amounts of cineole. Lippia citriodora. Works synergistically with jasmine. and improve memory. It may be adulterated with castor. Rosa damascena (damask rose). cypress. tension. gas. rose. an antiseptic. colds. Effects: Said to promote awareness. it can increase susceptibility to damage by the sun. Effects: Said to relieve nervous tension. khus-khus. ROSE AKA: Rosa centifolia (cabbage rose. and as a fixative in aftershaves and colognes. Effects: Said to relieve stress. jasmine. It has been used to treat dermatitis. it can cause rashes and allergies. clary sage. and sadness. SAGE AKA: Salvia officinalis. Works synergistically with cedar. It is used mainly in perfumes and soaps. a compound which increases blood flow to parts of the brain and stimulates the central nervous system. Its effects are very similar to neroli. anxiety. Effects: Said to increase awareness. and act as an aphrodisiac. lime. a compound which increases blood flow to parts of the brain. depression. and orange. It stimulates the nervous system. which may contain trace elements of toxic solvents. melissa. sage. and palm oils. It is sometimes used as a tonic for the heart and digestive system. Precautions: It may be adulterated with aspic. Citrus aurantium sinensis. rose. It can also increase alertness and concentration. Effects: Said to reduce stress. Effects: Has antioxidant properties. Overuse could damage the kidneys. It should not be used as a massage oil. Precautions: It should not be used in bath water. and promote feelings of love and sexuality. Precautions: Yarrow should only be used in its diluted state. anxiety. VANILLA AKA: Vanilla planifolia. It has been used to treat such gastrointestinal disorders as gas. depression. lemon verbena. coconut oil. Precautions: it is quite costly. or the inferior variant Cananga macrophylla. and contains high amounts of cineole. neroli.Effects: Said to increase energy. vetivert. and promote feelings of happiness and well-being. it can relieve tension headaches. as it can be irritating to the skin. so cheaper brands may be adulterated with lemongrass and citronella. stomach aches. It is also sold as an absolute. and verbena. lemon. Precautions: It can cause narcosis. skin rashes. Precautions: It is often adulterated with cedarwood and turpentine. and congested sinuses. and increases awareness. increase energy. PEPPERMINT AKA: Mentha piperita. neroli. YLANG YLANG AKA: Cananga odorata. and to treat headaches. varicose veins. ROSEMARY AKA: Rosmarinus officinalis. . Effects: Said to reduce stress and depression. PALMAROSA AKA: Cymbopogon martini. myrtle. It has been used by herbalists to treat digestive problems. juniper. irritability. orange. The oranges used must be natural and organic. jasmine. anxiety. It has no medicinal properties. Works synergistically with bergamot. and constipation. lavender. It is used as a digestive aid. Precautions: The pure oil may irritate sensitive skin. Precautions: When applied to the skin. STAR ANISE AKA: Badian anise. It is said to relieve stress. Works synergistically with bergamot. and most of the oil now sold is either cocoa butter. Effects: Said to elevate mood and refresh the spirits. vaginal infections. alertness. at night (as it will prevent sleep). even in small amounts. It is quite rare and expensive. gaiac. SANDALWOOD AKA: Santalum album. lavender. it could make it more susceptible to damage from the sun. khas-khas. and increase concentration. vomiting. lavender. improve memory. sore throats. When rubbed into the forehead. neroli. cheaper brands may be adulterated with other oils such as bois de rose. TANGERINE AKA: Citrus reticulata. Precautions: Undiluted. VERBENA AKA: Aloysia citriodora. depression. vomiting. VETIVER AKA: Andropogon muricatus. It has been used to treat eczema and other skin disorders. Effects: Said to promote alertness. Precautions: Contains compounds (such as thujone) which could cause severe adverse side effects and be carcinogenic if used for an extended period of time. and ylang-ylang. geranium. migraines. jasmine. shingles (herpes zoster). and rose. and sandalwood. and some aromatherapists advise using clary sage instead. an alcohol that has a cooling effect on the skin. and insomnia. sandalwood. relieve stress. rheumatism. increase concentration during meditation. It may cause insomnia in some people. linseed. hyssop. It should not be used by young or sensitive individuals. Precautions: When applied to the skin. it can increase susceptibility to sunburn. It is said to increase life span. flu symptoms. frankincense. Effects: Said to reduce stress. YARROW AKA: Achillea millefolium. Effects: Said to reduce stress and nervous tension. verbena. It should not be confused with vervein. and nutmeg. Its medicinal properties have not withstood scientific scrutiny. Due to the neglect of this plant as a cash crop. Chinese anise. and turpentine. and the mood swings of PMS. clove. and palmarosa. and to clear up such skin problems as acne. It has been used to speed the healing of wounds. Works synergistically with cinnamon. and induce feelings of calm and happiness. Works syngergistically with clary sage. Provence rose). even the spice can cause severe adverse reactions. Vetiveria zizanoides. lemon. improves circulation. frankincense. Effects: Said to relieve fatigue and depression. and concentration. the oil can be toxic and irritating to the skin. hallucinations. or even death. and hay fever. only milder. Effects: It can slow down rapid breathing and rapid heartbeat. insomnia. hemorrhoids. it can make it more susceptible to skin rash when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. as most are sprayed with ethylene to give them more color and coated with wax to seal in the moisture. and myrtle. Precautions: If applied to the skin. and acne. It has been used to relieve the muscle aches accompanying flus and fevers. as it is quite powerful. catarrh. diarrhea. and urinary tract infections. Precautions: Since it is so expensive. or Verbena officinalis. Piper nigrum. Effects: Said to relieve stress. indigestion. Precautions: It is not recommended for use as an oil. fatigue. popularly known as cananga. and more than two or three drops in bathwater may sting or blister the skin. When applied to the skin. Its use is not recommended. PEPPER AKA: Black pepper. Verbena triphylla. and neroli. Precautions: Prolonged or excessive use may cause headaches or nausea. and contribute to feelings of contentment and love. Illicium verum. PETITGRAIN AKA: Citrus aurantium bigaradia. this oil is now hard to come by. ORANGE AKA: Citrus aurantium. Rosa gallica. nausea. heartburn. so less expensive brands may be adulterated with cheaper oils or synthetics. as at least half of the essential oil is menthol. Precautions: The huge demand for this oil has led to the practice of cutting trees before they reach maturity. depleting a once abundant crop. Effects: Said to relieve depression and fatigue.

however. yet they appear to have no psychoactive ingredient. One researcher has reported that those stung by a scorpion experience hallucinations. mescaline. These and other mind-altering substances act by intensifying the user's mood and the situation he or she is in when taking the drug. Amanita pantherina has been known to make people sick for up to twelve hours. or narcotics. pilde. It may work synergistically with the juice of the bog bilberry (Vacinium uliginosum). There is another type of caapi made from the vine Tetrapteris methystica. though bacteria from decay and algae eaten by the fish are two possibilities that are also considered unlikely. Salamander. recklessness. in therapeutic situations. Banisteriopsis quitensis.N-dimethyltrypta-mine) as well. antihistamines. Effects: Causes violent intoxication. delirium. depending on the dosage. popularly known as psychedelics or hallucinogenics. will likewise consume the fly agaric-filled waste. In Japan. An analysis of such poisons has yet to be conducted to determine if they have psychoactive properties. sauerkraut. cadana. a toxin found in the mushroom. An overdose can produce twitching. The drink. are among the most powerful and controversial substances known to man. ARCHONTOPHOENIX Effects: The nuts of this New Britain palm are said to be psychoactive. excess amounts of chocolate. The amanita family of mushrooms can range from those that are harmless (and actually quite delicious) to those that are deadly poisonous. heart problems. as well. though the particular species has not yet been identified. mukhomor. They are thoroughly dried first. or jungle vine. popularly known as caapipinima (painted caapi). Although 28 biologically active alkaloids have been identified. Mushrooms may also accumulate such toxins as arsenic and cesium. excess amounts of caffeine. It also increases visual acuity and sensory awareness. and allegedly by witches in Portugal. one of which is a neurotoxin that can cause convulsions and death. sorcerers' tree. two species of mullet (Mugil cephalus and Neomyxus chaptalli). as such. who aggressively seek out this mushroom. is said by the Humr people of the Sudan to induce hallucinations and vivid dreams. has an odd yellowish color and tastes very bitter. reportedly without the subsequent hangover. sacha ayahuasca). ARBOL DE LOS BRUJOS AKA: Latua pubiflora. An overdose can result in nightmarish visions. Related to the nightshade family. dill oil. it has been identified as either Paneolus papilionaceus or Pholiota spectabilis. broad beans. it may contain methylhydazines. The use of atropine by some medical professionals to treat the negative effects is counterproductive. locally referred to as budzamar. oco-yaje. what is not well-known is that other animals have psychoactive properties. but others found they could participate in the experience by drinking the shaman's urine. the bark and stems can be chewed. to pass into the urine largely intact (reindeer. The main psychoactive ingredient is the alkaloid harmine. Latua venenosa. cooking will not remove or deactivate them. It is said to endow the user with telepathic abilities. yeast extract. but allow muscimole. Richard Rudgely speculates that the bone marrow may harbor DMT. called oco-yaje by Colombian and Ecuadorian Indians along the Amazon) and various species of Psychotria. and comprise approximately one-tenth of the 600." which caused those who ate it to laugh and dance giddily. the psychoactive principle has yet to be identified. nausea. as it could cause headaches. and acts as an aphrodisiac. Precautions: Also causes delirium and insanity. Lycioplesium pubiflorum. Fish. Banisteriopsis inebrians. intense vomiting and diarrhea. is used by magicians on islands in the Torres Straits to enter an altered state. yage. is actually the wings of the Cantharis vesicatoria beetle. Diplopterys cabrerana contains DMT (N. and bufotenine. Gluckspilz. Indian holy men supposedly smoke the dried venom of the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and the common cobra (Naja naja). made from the bark by the Maku Indians on the Amazon in northwestern Brazil. Another member of the Cycas genus. Precautions: There are often unpleasant physical symptoms. parsley oil. ibotenic acid.CHAPTER 10 Entheogens Entheogens. Multiple bee and wasp stings can induce euphoria and heighten the perception of colors and geometric forms. Combinations of tropical plants containing DMT and beta-carbolines may produce similar effects to ayahuasca. Scorpion. ripe bananas. Any mushroom should probably be sauteed before eating because in its raw state. Effects: A pleasant. though the former is also known as waraitake. more recently. the method with which it is prepared. It can be dried and smoked. pickled herring. The fact that it is prepared with other plants could present additional problems. The surgeonfish (Acanthurus sandvicensis) and the rudder fish (Kyphosus cinerascens) are also rumored to be hallucinogenic. fly agaric. either. Honey made from the nectar of the belladonna plant will retain some of the plant alkaloids' psychoactive effects. the setting or circumstances under which it is taken. others are not so sure (Jonathan Ott asserts that the DMT would not be psychoactive if taken orally.000-plus plant species identified so far. Moth larva. may be psychoactive themselves. This is because the kidneys detoxify muscarine. yaje. The quality of the experience may reflect the variety and potency of the plant. chagropanga. the unpleasant side effects of nausea and vomiting were lessened in this manner. chicken liver. and possibly the physiology of the individual taking it. which may be permanent. Another "dancing mushroom" is Gymnopilus (Pholiota) spectabilis. induces an opium-like sleep filled with vivid dreams. it intensifies. and would not exist in sufficient quantities to produce the required effects if it were). Banisteriopsis martiniana. and so should not be combined with any substances contraindicated for this type of drug. though the exact psychoactive principle remains a mystery. Papuans boil the leaves and bark with the leaves of ereriba to make a drink. or alcohol. numbness of the limbs. Cycas circinalis. ephedrine. This notorious aphrodisiac. there is mention in ancient literature of the maitake. and the often theatrical and bizarre behavior exhibited by those partaking of the so-called hallucinogen may be due more to social expectations and psychodrama than to any actual pharmacological ingredient. Other varieties of amanita (Amanita phalloides. The main psychoactive ingredients include muscazon." called bicho de tacuara by the Malalis of Brazil and identified as the larva of the Myelobia smerintha moth. latue. minor convulsions. violent intoxication. milk or milk products. or "dancing mushroom. tu ying hsin). Amanita pantherina (panther mushroom). cooked. as the yage inactivates the stomach enzyme that usually destroys DMT. latuy. they have often been used in religious ceremonies and. only the shamans were allowed to eat the fly agaric mushrooms. The degree of psychoactivity is related to its color — yellow is the weakest. cocoa. like Diplopterys cabrerana (a third species. or it can be brewed in a tea." That the effects are genuine — as evinced by infants who have shown all the classic signs of nightmares after consuming it — and that it is not an allergic reaction— as non-toxic species produce no reactions in those who have also eaten the toxic ones — has been proved. chacruna). Disagreements by various Pacific Islanders concerning the physical characteristics of the relevant fish and the specific parts of the fish purported to be psychoactive only add to the confusion. excess amounts of licorice. them. aged cheeses. Dosage: One medium-sized mushroom is taken initally. . Precautions: The initial effects are nausea. pinde. of course. AMANITA MUSHROOMS AKA: Amanita muscaria (bolond gomba. While German anthropologist Christian Ratsch states that the fish may contain DMT. though the medicine men can reputedly control the duration of the madness quite accurately. Spanish fly. followed by a deep sleep characterized by vivid dreams and visions. Dosage: The dosage is a closely guarded secret. Various other plants are often added to the drink depending on the region. Diplopterys cabrerana (Banisteriopsis rusbyana. muscimole. there are certainly many in which the psychoactive ingredient has yet to be identified. though its use can cause toxicity in sufficient doses. trembling. It is an MAO inhibitor. Bees and wasps. compounds similar to rocket propellants (which are. vomiting and even death. Ayahuasca and caapi are two species (of approximately 100) of a South American liana. dreamy intoxication — accompanied by vivid hallucinations and giddiness — that lasts four to eight hours. Giraffe. and on what trees it grows near. A timber tree native to Malaysia and Australia that is related to the magnolias. ha ma chun. Several Native American tribes of Southern California have ingested ants as a means of inducing visions and obtaining supernatural powers. carcinogenic and potentially deadly). the above are the only two that are psychoactive. producing higher. mihi. It has been said that a "bamboo grub. The name "fly agaric" is derived from the fact that flies will drop into a helpless stupor after sucking on its juices. amphetamines. though these side effects usually start and end quickly. dizziness. made from the liver and bone marrow of a giraffe. or the plant can be made into a snuff. Dosage: The bark can be made into a drink. Effects: The pollen of this New Guinea plant is said to induce narcosis. Narrenschwamm. Urine can be recycled four or five times in this manner. yake. with 1 to 3 mushrooms per dose thereafter. it is the only known species of latua and is used by the medicine men of the Mapuche Indians in central Chile. some of which. tranquilizers. It is possible that medieval alchemists had been able to extract some form of psychoactive substance from the salamander. the hallucinogen. rather than nullifies. A species of Kyphosus (possibly Kyphosus fuseus or Kyphosus vaigiensis) of Norfolk Island in the Pacific. AGARA AKA: Galbulimima belgraveana. also known as cantharides. In reindeer-hunting communities in Siberia. and subsequent feelings of sickness. kahi. and death. Much of the information is sketchy and anecdotal. to determine tolerance. The secretions have been found to contain steroid alkaloids. A drink. followed by a deep sleep. Mushrooms should not be combined with alcohol. An average cup of the native decoction can contain 400 mg of psychoactive alkaloids. ANIMALS While it is common knowledge that toad secretions can induce altered states. nutmeg.S. AYAHUASCA AND CAAPI AKA: Banisteriopsis caapi (caapi. red is the strongest. Banisteriopsis muricata (mii. or just chew the leaves and bark. but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. wild fennel oil. These are sometimes referred to by ethnobotanists as ayahuasca analogues or ayahuasca borealis. or dried. and orange is in between — on where and when it is grown. William Burroughs describes his experiences with yage in The Yage Letters. Amanita verna) and other similar-looking mushrooms can be lethal when ingested. Ants. The puffer fish is supposedly one ingredient of the Haitian zombie drug." and was once used as a cheap high in the U. It is also noteworthy that the mushroom is believed to have contributed to the frenzied behavior of the Norse Vikings known as Beserkers. aggression. tiger drug. sedatives. natema. or the "laughing mushroom. and two species of goatfish (Mulloidichthys samoensis and Upeneus urge) are known by some as "dream fish" or "nightmare fish. clearer visions. canned figs. Effects: Causes a pleasurable intoxication and colorful visual hallucinations lasting six to twelve hours. Effects: Causes hallucinations because of the alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine. paranoia. so extreme care must be taken when picking them in the wild. bejuco de oro. though not in dangerous levels. Cobra. eaten fresh. supposedly. and are occasionally passed off as such on the underground drug market. It should not be combined with avocados. BAIBAI AND BUDZAMAR AKA: Bebai. dapa. yaje-uco). called umm nyolokh. and travelers are advised not to urinate in their presence out of fear for the person's safety). A number of these plants are used by various indigenous peoples around the world in their ceremonies. and under no circumstances are more than 3 mushrooms taken at any one time. There may be many more psychoactive plants that have yet to be identified.

CALAMUS AKA: Acorus calamus. followed by dizziness. guarana. and trouble sleeping. researchers still do not understand its full effects upon the human body. Decaffeinated coffee still contains some caffeine and can also cause these symptoms. nausea. central nervous system stimulants. insomnia. nutmeg. Dosage: The majority of the research shows that healthy people can consume up to two cups of coffee (200 mg) a day without suffering any ill effects. mental alertness. but this may be blamed more on the stimulant phenylprolanolamine (PPA) than on the caffeine and ephedrine found in these drugs. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high that lasts for about a half hour. chocolate. as in many cola drinks. Duke. fatigue. MAO inhibitors should not be taken less than a week before or a week after taking calamus. rapid heartbeat. Dosage: One joint per day — smoking more does not seem to extend or intensify the high. Dosage: Some people in Asia and the Middle East eat or smoke the dried. elevates mood. In addition. mate. cardamom. sweet flag. indigestion. including decaffeinated. irritability. the root can kill lice when ground into a powder and applied to the infected area. mouth. Grapefruit juice can increase the level of caffeine and extend its effects by up to one-third. anxiety. rat root. Some studies show no improvement in recall or response time. blurred vision. convulsions. which can either be chewed or brewed in a tea. Atropa belladonna. Side effects include dry mouth. confusion. Food and drug interactions are also a cause for concern. learning impairment. it can lead to convulsions or extreme nervousness. severe throbbing headaches. supari. and with tobacco. then placed in the mouth and chewed or sucked on for hours. but apparently does contain several psychoactive alkaloids. permanent eye damage. mainly by causing the release of norepinephrine in the brain. It should be taken on an empty stomach to prevent vomiting. diarrhea. can result in a feeling of drunkenness. osteoporosis. tea (excluding many herbal teas). A favorite stimulant for thousands of years. The plant is very similar in appearance to the highly poisonous blue flag. gotu kola.BELLADONNA AKA: Apples of Sodom. diarrhea. Caffeine can lead to a condition in coffee drinkers called coffee intoxication. stomach ulcers. has heart disease or irregular heartbeats. murderer's berry. a weakened immune system. contains polyphenols. dangerously high blood pressure. According to studies. plus cloves. guarana is adequate. an increase in the thyroid effect. Ph. The psychoactive property has not been identified. sweet rush. banewort. or betel that is not yet ripe. who suffers from insomnia. more than 300 mg of caffeine a day. it can lead to an increased effect of both substances along with a rapid heartbeat. caffeine can slow a person's reaction time and intensify the effects of alcohol. myrtle flag. rash. sorcerer's cherry. Consuming it with other caffeine-containing drugs. increased urination. Some mail-order "look-alike" drugs that mimic amphetamines have reportedly triggered strokes and irregular heartbeats that ultimately led to death. in which more than four or five cups a day results in irritability. but can be as little as one berry. A member of the nightshade family that is native to the highlands of South America. and many overthe-counter medications. making it preferable to black tea. as it will lose potency. sweet root. It contains the substance asarone. It is not related to the opium poppy. a clarity of the senses. it has no effect on memory or clarity of thought. concentration. anxiety. the health problems associated with ephedrine and caffeine have led the FDA to ban drugs and diet aids that contain these two ingredients. All coffee. gradually decrease the amount over a month or more. sweet cinnamon. Certain antibiotics such as Cipro (ciprofloxacin) and Penetrex (enoxacin) can significantly intensify and prolong the effects of caffeine. leaf of God. BOOPHANE DISTICHA Effects: The bulb of this South African plant is hallucinogenic. and mild diarrhea. but may not create the feeling of tension that amphetamines do. and possibly convulsions. Combined with caffeinated beverages. however. areca nut. and is used by the Basuto people for its male initiation rite. coffee. and some Zimbabweans to communicate with the dead. vomiting. and heart disease. in addition to containing about 100 mg of caffeine per serving. then decline with increasing consumption. death's herb. or Isoniazid. petty-morrel. scopolamine. anxiety. Withdrawal symptoms can begin 12 to 36 hours after the last dose. and relieves fatigue. Other adverse effects include heart palpitations. vivid dreams. or panic disorders. and gums a dark red or black. produces a psychedelic effect similar to LSD. on the brain.D. is not recommended. Effects: Supposedly made into a hallucinatory drink by the Sibundoy Valley Indians of southern Colombia. irritability. and with thyroid hormones. bladder and colon cancer. nervousness. thle-pela-kano. If caffeine must be consumed. The Indians are said to finish off with a few puffs of calea leaves rolled into a joint. as the paper niters absorb the harmful oils in the coffee grounds. ping lang. tamarind. CAFFEINE Food sources: Bissy nut. An overdose can weaken the sex drive and create other unwanted side effects. bronchitis. constipation. beautiful lady. dwale. A few cups of coffee a day can help prevent gallstones in men. The lethal dosage has been estimated to be about 10 grams. Overdose symptoms include excitement. and other neurotransmitters.. restlessness. it gives a mental boost by releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline into the bloodstream. or high blood pressure. morrel. allowing the body to shift into high gear. insomnia. or has a peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum. headache. It is used by some to treat such ailments as asthma. More than five cups a day can increase the heart attack risk to three times that of a non-coffee drinker. and coma. muscle twitches. and some asthma drugs. Effects: A psychoactive plant with ergot alkaloids found in Ecuador. and death from heart failure. BETEL AKA: Areca catechu. bladder irritation and urinary problems (especially in women). hound's berries. The calamus leaves give off a sweet smell when scratched and the roots have a pleasing aroma and sharp taste. fever. It improves typing skills. Ingesting too much arecoline. increased sensitivity to the effects of the caffeine (Tagamet can increase caffeine levels by as much as 70 percent). Mexican calea. treatments for ulcers and stomach problems. Still. sleep inducers. and dilates the bronchial tubes (making it easier to breathe). or heroin. The psychoactive principle has yet to be identified. Effects: The stimulant is the alkaloid arecoline. Dosage: An initial dose should be a 2-inch length of root the thickness of a pencil. though William Emboden and Jonathan Ott say there is none. Long-term high-dose caffeine intake can promote calcium loss due to its diuretic effect. It improves physical endurance by stimulating the skeletal muscles. Effects: Caffeine is one of the most powerful legal stimulants. it is used in various medications including sleep remedies. sweet myrtle. vacha. reaction time. Adding milk ties up some of the beneficial chemicals. cocoa. or sympathomimetics can result in overstimulation. confusion. with cocaine. Taken with alcohol. flag root. CALIFORNIA POPPY AKA: Eschscholtzia californica. Europe. caffeine may benefit the performance of simple tasks but have no effect on more complex ones such as reading comprehension or advanced mathematics. and accuracy in performing tasks. crushed leaves (30 to 200 mg) or the root (30 to 120 mg). fever. which increases energy. As for the natural forms. or strong antioxidant nutrients (which protect against arterial damage that can eventually result in heart attacks or stroke). and may contribute to birth defects. and possibly even nausea and vomiting. low blood sugar. and interference with DNA replication. It contains the psychoactive alkaloids atropine. impaired concentration. It interferes on a cellular level with the compound adenosine. sweet grass. and four to five cups a day can reduce colorectal cancer by 24 percent. and a burning feeling in the stomach. and drowsiness may result. Dosage: Two tablespoons of dried leaves brewed for five minutes in a pint of boiling water. which may contain elements of ecstasy and eroticism. kola nut and yerba mate are the best caffeine sources. oral contraceptives. naughty man's cherry. Toxicity may vary from plant to plant and from person to person. Boiled or percolated coffee can increase serum cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease. matacabra ("goat killer"). blue flag does not give off any smell. though more recent studies refute these findings. To discontinue use. and tea and coffee rank lowest. Precautions: It may cause vomiting in high doses. unpleasant taste. energizes. A member of the daisy family that grows from Mexico to Costa Rica and is used by the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca. it can lead to an accelerated heartbeat and a decreased caffeine effect. increased sensitivity to the sedative or tranquilizer. The leaves and petals are dried and rolled into joints. hallucinations. increased production of gastrointestinal acid. It can also worsen existing health problems. BORRACHERO AKA: Ipomoea carnea. It does not replenish a person's noradrenaline once it is used up. and in high enough doses. and acts as an aphrodisiac. Precautions: Constant use will stain the teeth. witches' berry. cold remedies. it can be particularly addictive or habit-forming. sweet calomel. and either depletes or limits the absorption of many vitamins and minerals. and toothache. and North America may each have very different pharmacological properties. hypertension. Precautions: Contains the dangerous alkaloid apoatropine. stomach ulcers. It has been shown to trigger panic attacks in susceptible people — which it does by lowering the body's production of DHEA and increasing its production of cortisol — and interfere with the ability to sleep in most coffee drinkers. with marijuana. vomiting. energy. It is also used to treat fever. as popular in Asia as tobacco is in the West. Precautions: The Basuto also use the bulb as an arrow poison and as a method of committing suicide. convulsions. and the roots have a bitter. abnormal heart rhythms. muscle twitches. More severe and infrequent symptoms include confusion. Though it is readily absorbed into the bloodstream. and can include lethargy. with sedatives. When combined with sugar. Effects: Stimulates. depression. Overall. Any improvements in mental functioning may peak at a certain dosage. along with traces of nicotine. it should be derived from plant sources. A physician should be consulted first if any of the following conditions are present: hypoglycemia. drip coffee does not. causes bowel movements. hot skin. turmeric. The root should not be stored for more than a few months. as the synthetic form does not have the fatburning properties the natural form does. which is then slowly sipped. hangover. indigestion. Not all researchers are convinced of its mental benefits. rambling speech and thought. Effects: Calea may produce a sense of calm. poison black cherry. some stimulant drugs sold by mail or over-the-counter. kidney disease. A member of the potato family. . in effect flatlining the body's state of arousal. It may also affect dopamine. And it may have a negative effect on a person's ability to quickly process ambiguous or confusing stimuli. The arecoline that is swallowed can rid the body of some intestinal parasites. symptoms can last from one and one-half to seven days. rapid heartbeat. which is similar to mescaline and amphetamines. increases the production of stomach acid and urine. or headaches. According to James A. black cherry. with Cimetidine (Tagamet). A 10-inch length is said to produce mild LSD-like hallucinations. and others show that high doses can impair a person's ability to work with numbers. and hallucinations lasting for a day or more. Calea zacatechichi. soft drinks. high blood pressure. Effects: Hallucinations. though this last effect may just may be an indirect result of the first two. or tranquilizers. rendering them useless. fear. betel nut. epilepsy. This will produce stimulation and euphoria. Precautions: It should not be taken by anyone who is allergic to stimulants. with MAO inhibitors. grass myrtle. it is still one of the most widely used drugs in the world. caffeine is likely to be more stimulating. The various species native to India. BORRACHERA AKA: Lochroma fuchsioides. CALEA AKA: Bitter grass. devil's herb. deadly nightshade. the presence of polyphenols in coffee and tea may prevent cancer by inhibiting the conversion of highly carcinogenic nitrosamines in the body. Green tea. contains at least three compounds that act like opiates. rectal itching. permanent brain damage. weakening bones. and sometimes resins. Dosage: A slice of betel nut is mixed with part of a leaf from the Piper betel vine and a piece of lime. acetylcholine. nausea. drowsiness. zacatechichi. and hysoscyamine.

Precautions: It is extremely potent. but it is not known if they are psychoactive. sedatives. and can cause severe hypertension in anyone taking an MAO inhibitor or antidepressant. I-Min Lee of 7841 older men found that those who ate chocolate lived longer than those who didn't. COLEUS AKA: Coleus blumei. as the high arginine content can aggravate the symptoms. It is said to induce a restful sleep filled with sexually oriented dreams when taken an hour before going to bed. though a related species. if ingested. riboflavin. with 80 percent of its alkaloids consisting of scopolamine. vanilla. has been found to be nontoxic in doses of up to 200 mg per kilogram of body weight when injected into mice. reducing tooth decay. The appearance of the bean is very similar to mescal beans —they are often mixed together by herb merchants. in fact. use these mint plants in the same way they use the hallucinogenic hojas de la Pastora. It should not be taken by anyone with allergies. A giant cactus found in Mexico. and partially prevent the absorption of calcium. Effects: An inebriant with narcotic properties. The psychoactive ingredient has not yet been isolated. Dosage: The average Indian consumes about two ounces of dried leaves a day. tranquilizers. Precautions: Overuse may cause liver damage. coleus pumilus. Symptoms include vomiting. not much is known about its pharmacology and cognitive effects. and said to act as an aphrodisiac when taken an hour before sex. Effects: A feeling of drunkenness accompanied by hallucinations. Young et al.) Chocolatl is a bitter Aztec drink made from the cacao beans and flavored with pepper. ivraie ("inebriating"). snakebite. and other spices. Ph. and minerals (calcium. CLUB MOSS AKA: Lycopodium complanatum. It contains many vitamins. Pachycereus pectenaboriginum. in fact confuses these two). it may be a distant. Chocolate and nuts should be avoided by those with herpes. Duke. Caffeine may account for some of its psychoactive properties. rendering it safer to the user. Datura alba. A 1998 Harvard study by Dr. but some researchers state that most of its effects are attributable to theobromine. and vitamin C. DATURA AND BRUGMANSIA AKA (Datura): Concombre zombi (zombi's cucumber). this common wild grass contains psychoactive alkaloids. a pounding heart. a ceremonial beverage. and vitamin A. Dosage: One-quarter to one-half bean. the latter a biochemical manufactured by the brain of a person in love. Cestrum parqui. and three chocolate bars a month was too little for it to be perceived as having any significant effect. particularly B-l. Effects: Similar to marijuana. which manifests itself as a "trippy. No psychoactive ingredient has yet been isolated. researcher Christian Felder of the National Institute of Mental Health calculates that a 130-pound person would have to eat the equivalent of 25 pounds of chocolate in one sitting to get anything close to a marijuana high. it is rarely addictive. a natural chemical also found in the brain. colorin —and piule seeds (the Rhynchosia species — Young et al. and both may be called by the same common name.5 percent active cocaine — because of this. There are several different varieties of coca. Loline. Lycopodium selago. however. sodium.CANAVALIA MARITIMA A legume that is supposedly used as a marijuana substitute. wolf's foot. Datura arborea. It can deplete the body of inositol and the B vitamins. and different parts of each plant are used. potassium. DARNEL AKA: Borrachera. and because it enters the body through the mouth and stomach. though its stimulant effect gives one the feeling of being smarter and mentally sharper. only one of over a dozen compounds in the coca leaf which have a similar effect. rather than through the more direct routes of the lungs and bloodstream common to cocaine users. cause a burning feeling in the mouth. COLORINES AKA: Erythrina flabelliformis. an alkaloid found in chocolate that is similar to caffeine but which does not have as strong an effect on the nervous system. DAMA DE NOITE AKA: Cestrum laevigatum. Chocolate can neutralize the effects of sugar. who use it to treat altitude sickness and brew it into a tea called mate de coca.. Said to work synergistically with a teaspoonful of dried saw palmetto berries. Of its several ingredients. Mexico. has found that Chinese club moss (Hu-perzia serrata) and Lycopodium club mosses both contain the beneficial compound huperzine. and there are no other known chemicals that could account for this effect. and relaxants. Precautions: It is addictive. (Chocolate does contain antioxidants known as phenols. as it can worsen symptoms. psilocybin-like state. and that it takes 50 to 70 to do the trick. Sensitivity to chocolate can trigger migraine headaches. CULEBRA BORRACHERO AKA: Methysticodendron amesianum. the main psychoactive ones are datura and San Pedro. Effects: It has been used for centuries as a gentle stimulant by indigenous peoples of South America. no hallucinogenic agent has been isolated in either of them or in any of the 150 species of coleus. and rheumatism. iron. William Emboden states that researcher R. Gordon Wasson has reported mind-altering effects. none of which is related to cocoa. Use is not recommended. Effects: Lycopodium selago can induce a mild hypnotic narcosis or a comatose state. and death may result. who use it to foretell the future and diagnose their patients. Theobrama cacao. It appears to keep the teeth and gums healthy. is said to have psychotropic properties. Theobromine mainly affects the muscles. but these have not been verified by others. CARDAMINE CONCATENATA Effects: A hallucinogen. depending on the dosage taken. CHIRIC-CASPI AND CHIRIC SANANGO AKA: Brunfelsia chiricaspi. the main alkaloid. Though it is an addictive psychoactive which some believe mimics the effects of marijuana. or steeped in lukewarm water for an hour and drunk as a tea. relative of datura. mitskway borrachera. and heart. along with many compounds that modify the cocaine. which produce effects similar to the arrow poison curare. It is sometimes added to San Pedro. colorful visual hallucinations and patterns. it also contains two other ingredients that inhibit the natural breakdown of anandamide. Brunfelsia tastevinii (keyahone). The psychoactive ingredient of the coca leaf is cocaine. It has not yet been determined whether it improves any mental functions. Precautions: The toxic dose is very small. However. among others). claim that only the fresh leaves exhibit psychoactive properties. vitamins. CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA Effects: Supposedly induces strange dreams and hallucinations. another species of club moss is often added to San Pedro. Dosage: It can be smoked like marijuana or brewed as a tea. Effects: Used by several South American Indian tribes to make a hallucinogenic drink that takes effect in about 15 minutes and has a duration of four to five hours. Precautions: It may irritate the skin or. cizana. Some have questioned the results of this study. and alleviate somewhat symptoms of altitude sickness. three stems of Lycopodium selago will induce a hypnotic narcosis. This genus of 40 species of South American and West Indian shrubs belongs to the nightshade family. and delirium. Coca usually contains less than 0. Precautions: Brief nausea a half-hour after consumption. hallucinations. it may also have a sexually stimulating effect caused by theobromine and the possible ingredient B-phenethy-lamine. kidneys. The Tarahumara Indians crush the branches in water to make cawe. Researcher Daniele Piomelli has found that chocolate contains anandamide. Datura aurea.7 grains of cocaine. In Peru. According to its users. have a positive effect on respiration. or anyone with canker sores. and telepathic and clairvoyant insights" for a duration of some two hours. or about 0.D. for psychoactive effects. it appears each species is distinctly different from the others. smoked. and extremely divergent. taumellolch ("delirium grass"). ClMORA A hallucinogenic drink consumed by the Indian witch doctors in Peru and Ecuador. Dosage: According to William Emboden. all this is lost when it is refined into cocaine. They can be chewed. thiamine. it increases the life span. It helps the body dispose of toxic metabolites. CHOCOLATE AKA: Chocolatl. and has a high (40 to 60 percent) fat content. which can place stress on the endocrine system and deplete the body's stores of potassium and zinc. including uric acid. It also has significant levels of caffeine. researchers agree that the "high" produced by chocolate is extremely mild. with those eating just three chocolate bars a month living the longest. niacin. its psychoactive properties have not yet been isolated. any more could trigger the toxic effects mentioned above. tares. The psychoactive ingredient is not known. It can decrease the effectiveness of antihistamines. including thiamine. Use can result in delirium and coma. borachuela. The only known species of its genus. Effects: Despite the fact that the Mazatecs of Oaxaca. which reacts the same way marijuana does. are roasted and used as a coffee substitute in the West Indies. Brunfelsia grandiflora. as eating more chocolate was not correlated with longer life. CAWE AKA: Chawe. . Effects: A mild marijuana-like high for about an hour. Combining the two can supposedly increase the high. Still. Some species of Erythrina are known to contain isoquinoline-type alkaloids. and convulsions. DAM/ANA AKA: Turnera diffusa. The plants are also used to treat fevers. Effects: Sold in Brazil as a marijuana substitute. Precautions: James A. yet Lycopodium complanatum can have a stimulating effect. COCA AKA: Erythroxylum coca. as it can delay healing. or the jack bean. but this alone could not account for the increase in life expectancy. dried leaves will not do. In addition to providing proteins. Effects: Excitement. Effects: Contains phenethylamine alkaloids. Lolium temulentum. Dosage: Between 50 to 70 large fresh leaves. The mature seeds of Canavalia ensiformis. riboflavin.

If taken on a full stomach." It should be noted that. huanto. wysocean). attaining a peak in 2 to 3 minutes. yopo. They may have names like MMDA. the dried leaves of Brugmansia are added to tobacco to induce diagnostic visions for treating various diseases. agitation. and liver damage. Effects: Similar to mescaline. as stomach enzymes break it down before it can pass to the bloodstream. toloache. Brugmansia insignis. The tryptamine DET produces a trip that is milder and longer-lasting than DMT. 5-MeO-DMT is not active orally. yupa. and death. intoxication lasting days (up to twenty days in some cases. However. Effects: Possibly unique among psychedelics. Tolerance to the entheogenic effects of DMT develop rapidly. jouzmathel. pickled herring.N-diallyltrypta-mine. DMT may cause severe headaches. Datura ferox. AKA (5-MeO-MMT): 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine. Other related tryptamines are listed above. there are several methods used to prepare the seeds for consumption. Other side effects include diarrhea. Experiments have found that smoking 6 to 10 mg of the free base can result in a high that begins within a minute. parsley oil. Datura versicolor. stinkweed. caffeine. eaten. The venom must be dried and smoked to inactivate the toxins. DMT AND RELATED TRYPTAMINES AKA (DMT): Anadenanthera colubrina. Datura suaveolens is often added to ayahuasca.. cocoa. heart problems. Datura sanguinea. amphetamines. and coma. PMA. 2CB. and — according to Wade Davis — is used as an antidote to the zombi drug in Haiti. huilca.. Overdose symptoms include mental disorientation. Writer William Burroughs self-experimented with DMT in doses of around 65 mg. James Town Weed. cohoba. The high is similar to that of LSD or mescaline. where datura is sometimes added to kava. AKA (DHT): N. ritalin. confusion. toloatzin. DONA ANA AKA: Coryphantha macromeris. tanga. AKA (DAT): N. the duration of the effects is dependent upon the dosage. speak with the dead. and lasts twenty. Datura discolor. cebil. or tranquilizers. he accidentally overdosed at 100 mg. sebil. Timothy Leary and Ralph Metzner reported no ill effects at doses of 1 mg/kg of body weight. it is often combined with cannabis or tobacco and smoked. and DMT and LSD show crosstolerance. AKA (DET): N. the "date rape drug. cohoba. and 2CT2. and type of effect. to treat a number of physical ailments. kinde borrachero. coma.N-dimethyltryptamine. rapid heart and respiratory rates. A member of the nightshade family. a dry burning in the mouth. it can produce an immediate high that can last one to ten minutes. it can result in bad trips.. Brugmansia arborea. Pip-tadenia peregrina.N-dihexyltrypta-mine. DMT could cause nausea.N-dimethyltryptamine. DILL Effects: Oil of dill will produce hallucinations. AKA (DPT): N. Orally. It has also been used in initiation ceremonies. receptors for DMT have been discovered in the brains of mammals. during World War II to unsatisfactory results. munchiro borrachero. Side effects include epileptic-like convulsions. meteloidine. rectal doses of up to 125 mg DMT in 15 ml water were "without any discernable effect" . NMT. and like any psychedelic.5 to 5 mg) can also be combined with marijuana." essentially agreeing with a colleague who compared it to "having a large elephant sitting on one's head. AKA (AMT): Alpha-methyltrypta-mine. Dosage: The spines are removed from 8 to 12 fresh cacti. AKA (5-MeO-DMT): 5-methoxy-N. nutmeg. DMT and its precursor tryptamine are similar to certain hormones secreted by the pineal gland. Datura dolicho-carpa. aged cheeses. according to Richard Rudgley).N-diisopropyl-tryptamine. providing stimulation without the hallucinations. A CIA experiment nearly killed three individuals with 2. floripon-dios. sebil. Datura fastuosa. An overdose could result in blood rushing to the head and rupturing weak capillaries. this latter method involves boiling in water for an . thorn apple. In Africa and Asia. Contrary to tabloid reports. DMT is not active orally.N-dibutyltrypta-mine. The effective oral dose of AMT appears to be approximately 20 mg.N-diethyltrypta-mine. angico. TMA. which also suggests that it creates cardiopulmonary distress and may be toxic even in doses as low as 10 mg when injected intravenously. atropine. it can produce an immediate high that can last thirty minutes. was tested as a "truth serum" by both the Nazis and the U." it was once used by criminals to incapacitate their victims.. Anadenanthera peregrina. one-hit grass. Unless combined with MAO inhibitors at a 10 mg dose. The tryptamine AMT produces a stimulating effect similar to LSD and amphetamines. when smoked or injected. sedatives. An overdose can be dangerous.. its potency is roughly equivalent to that of DMT (a dose of 50-60 mg takes effect in 15 minutes. and oral doses are inactive up to 350 mg. panic. or tobacco and smoked. buyes. Brugmansia sanguinea. insulin. The onset following smoking is almost immediate. AKA (5-MeO-MIPT): 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine. chocolate. in Mexico.5 mg. pineapple. According to Jonathan Ott. Reportedly. dizziness. jimson weed. The main psychoactive alkaloids are hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Overdose symptoms include convulsions. but intramuscular injections produced visual hallucinations with as little as 10 to 12. toa. convulsions. peaking in 15 minutes. Datura suaveolens. which may be due to the contaminant skatole. peaks quickly. producing a traumatic experience that left him leery of the drug afterward. IT-290. The task of classifying the numerous species is made even harder by the ability of the indigenous people to produce hybrid plants. An MAO inhibitor. huanduj. agitation. mescaline. A small spiny cactus found in southern Texas and northern Mexico.N-dimethyltryptamine. dizziness. Datura metel (dhatura. permanent damage to the eyes.. Brugmansia aurea. but shorter.S. or yopo). Parenteral injections of 5 to 10 mg were also found to produce results. huilca. heart. chamico. Addiction is unknown. Precautions: The main alkaloid is scopolamine. and getting the venom in the eyes or mouth can cause severe poisoning. AMT was made famous by Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters. The effects of DPT are nearly identical to those of DET. man-t'o-lo.N-dipropyltrypta-mine. Brugmansia Candida. but about 1/5 as potent. in combination with MAO-inhibitors. Brugmansia suaveolens. and Datura fatuosa was once used by Incan priests to sedate patients during surgery. milk or milk products. huantuc. peaks after two. Initial intoxication may be so violent that the user may have to be physically restrained.. and it is the active hallucinogenic ingredient in several South American plants. chicken liver. 5-MeO-MIPT acts more like amphetamines. and even death when combined with avocados. Datura volcanicola. 5-hdroxy-N. Single doses of up to a gram orally have no effect . though it can cause a serious case of poisoning if brought into contact with the eyes or mouth. intranasal administrations of 5 to 20 mg of pure DMT was inactive. yerba del diablo). but dissipates rapidly as well. Dosage: It can be smoked. Like Rohyp-nol. hot dry skin. AKA (DIT): N. Although DMT-containing plant snuffs are active. and a blurring and distortion of vision. narcotics. licking toads can be dangerous. white man's plant. the minor ones are atropine. or taken as an enema. misha toro. DMT cannot be taken orally. broad beans. Similarly. The average intramuscular dose of the hydrochloride salt is 50 to 60 mg. Datura inoxia (Datura meteloides. fennel oil. with the entire effect lasting only 10 to 20 minutes. bananas. vilca. kidney damage. huacacachu. tonga. The side effects of Datura stramonium include fever. The reported hallucinogenic effects of 5-OH-DMT are disputed by research. yeast extract. N. rash. eaten. dimethyltryptamine. yerba de huaca. Jonathan Ott and others have concluded that 5-MeO-DMT has "little recreational value. and brain. it is four times as potent as DMT. Datura ceratocaula (tornaloco).. and Africa. Allowing about four hours between doses has been reported to avoid tolerance. parsley. niopo. parica. AKA (DBT): N. the two types of 5-MeO-DMT produce vastly different experiences. duration of effect. tree datura. incoherence. sauerkraut.5 mg. qui-qui-sa-waal. antihistamines. the former resulting in a frightening "dissolution of reality" when smoked and the toad venom producing a much gentler experience when dried and smoked. and loss of motor coordination. the many varieties are divided into the plant forms and the tree forms. tolouaxihuitl. loss of memory. dutra). which is highly toxic. but only at high doses. loss of coordination. and lasts 2 to 3 hours). pressure in the head. AKA (Brugmansia): Borrachero. Precautions: Some characterize the odor of DMT as the smell of burning plastic. wichri. maikoa. disorientation. Existing naturally in human cere-brospinal fluid. one of the main psychoactive alkaloids. much of it inconsistent and inaccurate. Brugmansia vulcanicola. Scopo-lamine. It should not be combined with any MAO inhibitors. huanco. vomiting. dekuba. vomiting. campanilla. and diagnose illnesses. and it can also be smoked or injected intramuscularly. devil's trumpet. alcohol. Used by many shamans to foresee the future. Dosage: 5 to 20 drops of oil taken orally. where it is added to beer or wine. with one exception: above 100 mg. Precautions: They can vary widely in potency. Furthermore. since most types of toad venom are toxic. producing an entheogenic effect commencing in 2 to 5 minutes. with the entire experience accelerated dramatically. Similar methods of incapacitating a person occur in Fiji. and injected. ephedrine. businessman's trip. and in Tanzania it is added to beer. AKA (MMT): N-monomethyl-tryptamine. though tolerance is rapid.Datura Candida. with the experience lasting a total of 30 to 45 minutes. dill oil. canned figs. DET is active orally. Dosage: Readily snorted. Parica is a generic name for snuffs of all kinds. as chronicled in Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. it has proven to have a negative effect on serial learning in doses as low as 0. maicoa. and confusion. Datura stramonium (devil's apple. 5-MeO-DMT is produced both synthetically and in the venom glands of the Sonoran Desert toad of Arizona.. vilca. An effect of equal intensity is produced by 25 to 30 mg of DMT free base smoked. DESIGNER PSYCHEDELIC Custom-made synthetic drugs made by chemists. Precautions: Nausea and vomiting may result if taken on a full stomach. Unlike DMT. Datura wrightii. When smoked. The film based on Wade Davis' The Serpent and the Rainbow bears only a passing resemblance to the book. DMT (in a dose of 3. South American Indians use it in the form of snuff (and variously call it cebil. Precautions: The level needed to induce hallucinations is very close to the toxic level. difficulty swallowing. The CIA experimented on prison inmates and mental patients. when smoked. after which the plant can be chewed thoroughly and swallowed or consumed as a tea. licorice. Effects: Deep sleep and hallucinations. toe. chills. and Davis' conclusions about the ingredients of the zombi drug itself have been attacked by some as reliant on too little evidence. devil's weed. The ground seeds are often added to maize beer and.5 to 5 mg of an intramuscular injection after they were premedicated with reserpine and chlorpromazine. dangerously high blood pressure. A close relative to DMT. Datura was just one of the psychoactive plants used by European witches. Anadenanthera rigida.. As a snuff. niopo. drunk as a tea. T-9. reinforcing old stereotypes.. revealing that the snuff is inactive in doses up to 1 gram. loco weed. and norscopolamine. The psychedelic trip may be accompanied by dizziness. nausea. Carlos Castaneda's The Teachings of Don Juan and subseqent books dealing with datura make up a fictional framework on which hang numerous bits of information cribbed from some 200 esoteric works. The hallucinogenic trip begins after about an hour or two and lasts for about twelve hours. AKA (5-OH-DMT): Bufotenine. the latter of which is native only to South America and now considered to be a distinct genus: Brugmansia. only the Sonoran Desert toad has venom that is psychoactive (other toad venoms are just toxic). DMT is active in the same dose range as by intramuscular injection. hisioma.

as well as several other alkaloids. and to increase muscle strength and stamina. cold-water infusions of the ground seeds are said to prevent fewer hazards than ground seeds eaten whole. heart problems. and permanent insanity. It may be accompanied by a feeling of contentment that can linger for a few days. Effects: Contains THC. Virola multinervia. hainanensis. Naranjo) has found it to be useful in inducing fantasies and childhood memories. containing strychnine. Cecropia obtusifolia. problems with ejaculation. which can also be made synthetically. can produce a mild marijuana-like high. disorientation. Virola calophylloidea. Effects: A fairly strong sedative and tranquilizer. yato. HENBANE AKA: Bang (bangue. Vermont valerian. Virola carinata.hour and straining before drinking. yopo. Effects: Hallucinations similar to LSD. Virola calophylla. Virola melinonii. speciosa. A member of the hemp family. dried or boiled down to an amber-red crystalline state. constipation. HOPS AKA: Humulus lupulus. fetid nightshade. Ska Maria Pastora. castilago. Virola rufula. unfortunately. Side effects include uncontrollable trembling for five minutes. Virola peruviana. It can also cause numbness of the limbs. It acts as a sedative and. Dosage: No more than one joint of leaves. side effects include a hangover characterized by blurred vision. wild hydrangea. insana. Precautions: Indigenous peoples of Colombia and Brazil usually mix it with water and take it as an enema to avoid the side effects associated with snorting. hot dry skin. can be put into gelatin capsules. and at least one psychotherapist (C. Virola divergens. Hojas de Maria Pastora. EPENA AKA: Akurjua. Tabernanthe iboga. Virola elongata. JUREMA . diarrhea. Recent experiments with smoking the leaves has shown that this can also produce a short-term trip. English valerian. Homalomena ereriba. facial twitching. confusion. but twice as powerful — plus scopolamine and several other active alkaloids. obtusifolia. High doses could result in death. respiratory failure. A member of the nightshade family. dizziness. and taking it on a full stomach can cause nausea. black henbane. then filtered for use as a drink. convulsions. though Jonathan Ott calls this "a dubious proposition. Ska Pastora. vandal root. eboka. devil's eye. lusquiamus. Effects: An effect similar to sacred mushrooms. soaked in water for an hour. Salvia divinorum. Virola venosa. throbbing headache. and irritation of the mucus membranes. It is very dangerous. The resultant snuff is then blown into the nostrils with a tube. restlessness. fever. Dosage: The seeds and dried leaves can be smoked. Virola sebifera. vertigo. delirium. its taste is slightly less objectionable. phu. it is used to add flavor to beer. it is a member of the nutmeg family. or to treat various disorders. baby Hawaiian woodrose. vomiting. pseudorubicunda. or the plants can be ground up. osyrensis. stinking Roger. Natives of New Guinea use Homalomena cordata for "rain magic" and Homalomena versteegii for "love magic. HOJAS DE LA PASTORA AKA: Hojas de la Maria Pastora. madness. Valeriana officinalis. HYDRANGEA AKA: Hydrangea arborescens. one researcher experienced hallucinations after only 3 pairs of leaves. If combined with any other MAO inhibitors. then ground and sifted. stinking nightshade. It has traditionally been used in combination with the fly agaric mushroom in Afghanistan. It may also be used as an additive to ayahuasca. this is also very close to the toxic dose. Some people eat the resin in the form of pellets. Early research indicates it may be a treatment for opiate addiction. but is a woody liana in the morning glory family. followed by headaches and confusion for another ten minutes.3 percent). ERERIBA AKA: Homalomena belgraveana. Pernettya furens. the leaves of which are combined with the leaves and bark of agara or Galbulimima belgraveana. rapid heartbeat. it was one ingredient in witches' brews in the Middle Ages. Virola surinamensis. The chief psychoactive ingredients are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT. Various ancient cultures have used it as an anesthetic. IBOGA AKA: Eboga. Dosage: 4 to 8 seeds. it is not a member of the rose family. HELIOTROPE AKA: All-heal. paralysis. irrational behavior." Precautions: The Malaysians use Homalomena rubescens as a fish poison which they call ipoh. It should not be confused with the Hawaiian woodrose (Ipomoea tuberosa). GUARUMA AKA: Cecropia mexicana. it was used briefly as an antidepressant. Overuse can cause dizziness and symptoms of jaundice. or the roots and bark can be boiled into a tea. the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. Virola pavonis. Epena can exaggerate any existing pain. Hyoscyamus. seven barks. pipilzintzintli. shamans who use it claim to contact the dead. Precautions: The extremely bitter taste can trigger vomiting. Effects: The hallucinogenic effects take hold almost immediately and lasts about thirty minutes. HAWAIIAN BABY WOOD ROSE AKA: Argyreia nervosa. despite the identification of over 140 species from South America to Asia. Dosage: Though preparation varies from one area to another. Research on the Homalomena genus is limited. nyakwana. Effects: A pleasant. Precautions: It may amplify feelings of depression. HlERBA LOCA AKA: Huedhued. Precautions: Side effects include dry mouth with accompanying thirst. great wild valerian. A tree found in the rain forests of Colombia and Brazil. generally the thick red resin is scraped from the inner bark. The leaves can be nibbled and held in the mouth. and death. Despite its popular name. Dosage: Half an ounce of roots or rhizomes boiled in a covered pot for five minutes and drained. Other regional plants may also be added to vary the effect." Precautions: In high doses. shkaPastora. It is also said to act as a stimulant and aphrodisiac. bengi). and that the leaves can retain their potency even when dry. henbell. parica. Precautions: It can cause mental confusion. Virola theiodora. capitata. headaches. sakiru. a dozen other species of Argyreia contain lysergic acid amines (acuta. Hyoscyamus niger. The roots can be chewed or swallowed. wild valerian. dilated eyes. hakudufha. Some nausea may also occur. lOCHROMA AKA: lochroma fuchsioides. and wallichii). yakee. Contains the highest amount of lysergic acid amines of any of the morning glories (0. smoking any more than that could result in severe toxicity. Extreme nausea might be the result of strychnine ingestion. profuse sweating. The psychoactive ingredient is ibogaine. despite a commonly held belief to the contrary. Dosage: Though common doses are said to range between 20 and 80 pairs of leaves (approximately 50 to 200 grams). In addition to Argyreia nervosa. Effects: Intoxication and hallucinations. but not as intense or as long (about two hours). It can also be boiled down to a viscous residue and. Dosage: One gram of bark or roots can heighten feelings of sexuality and awareness — users claim that they can engage in sex for up to seventeen hours and remain awake during hunting for two full days. Filtered. and temporary amnesia. it can cause vomiting. are removed (often with a toothbrush). and added to alcoholic drinks by Indians in California and Mexico. loss of motor coordination. occasionally smoked with tobacco or marijuana in Kashmir and Pakistan. shakhrona. Effects: Hallucinations involving all the senses. HlMANTANDRA BELGRAEVEANA Effects: The Gimi people of New Guinea use the bark of this tree to induce trance states. inability to focus the eyes on close objects. It is chemically similar to datura. hog bean. hydrangea paniculata grandiflora. barnesii. henquale. and indigenous peoples use this high a dose only on rare occasions. German valerian. At the turn of the last century. Virola loretensis. marijuana-like high accompanied by a slight feeling of drunkenness. Precautions: The white fuzz on the seeds. sakrona. The only member of the dogbane family known to be used as a hallucinogen. but stronger. ebene. Jupiter's bean. in higher amounts. with a small amount of flour added. Doses of 3 grams or more are needed to induce hallucinations. or the crushed root can be brewed into a tea. resulting in uncontrollable sneezing. and death may result. valerian. turnsole. though no psychoactive compounds have yet been isolated from it. along with a feeling of drunkenness and sedation. According to William Emboden. which is not psychoactive. aggregata. poison tobacco. Effects: Said to be a narcotic. splendens. Precautions: Contains a cyanide-like compound which can result in death. Cleaned seeds are chewed and swallowed or ground into a powder and put in gelatin capsules. as overuse could cause poisoning. containing high amounts of hyoscyamine — similar to atropine. loss of muscular control. Effects: A marijuana-like effect when smoked. nausea. blackout. Precautions: The tea's aroma is intolerable to most people. No psychoactive component has yet been isolated. It is said to take effect in an hour and can result in an LSD-like trip that lasts a few hours. and physical inertia. then consumed as a tea. nausea. Effects: Similar to that produced by morning glory seeds. Effects: Used by Kamsa Indian shamans of Colombia as an inebriant. goat's joy. and there are reports that it is even smoked. Virola cuspidata. setwall. The tea is not drunk more than twice a day for more than two or three weeks at a time. difficult urination.

or even smoked in a cigarette. leaves. Lilly describes his experiments with ketamine in The Scientist: A Novel Autobiography. Mimosa pudica (dormilona. are said to induce an altered state. burns. There is some confusion about which of the above plants the Hottentots used to achieve an altered state. Cola drinks contain very little kola. Tea made from the root-bark is also said to be psychoactive. miraa. pinahuihuitztli). Ketaject. confusion. This once popular hallucinogen is now rarely used. and one of the most dangerous. which is related to the nutmeg family. maraba. numbness of the limbs. Vetalar. kutum. norpseudoephedrine. stomach pains. Dosage: The leaves can be smoked. The roots. Effects: The roots of this shrub in eastern Brazil said to produce a "miraculous drink" called ajuca or vinho de jurema. Effects: The fruit is said to induce intoxication. it is a trace constituent in human milk and cow's milk also. Effects: Altered states. Effects: Though nothing is known of its psychoactive properties. cola vera. and loss of sex drive." Studies have shown that it contains some psychoactive alkaloids. Ketalar. water. duermidillo. qat. A member of the coffee family that is sold as an opium substitute in southeast Asia. Lactuca virosa. Precautions: Though it is not known what toxic effects. Overuse can cause tremors. users may experience dizziness. caatinga. cathidine. or brewed into a tea consisting of 1 teaspoon of nut to one cup of water. ketamine hydrochloride. listlessness. KiKISIRA AKA: Bubbia. regular users do develop a dependence. taking it orally is said to result in a high that lasts longer and is less intense than with the other methods. though they lose their potency when they dry out). nervous problems. Effects: The roots and leaves of this plant are said to have psychoactive properties. Mimosa somnians. and hallucinations. Sclerocarya caffra. The main psychoactive ingredient appears to be DMT. Effects: Can stimulate the central nervous system and improve mood. An overdose can cause respiratory failure. nervousness. Solandra guerrerensis. KlERI AKA: Hueipatl. It is also used as an animal tranquilizer. It is rich in essential oils. loss of appetite. The psychoactive ingredients include the indole alkaloid mitragynine and eight other alkaloids. Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite). KOLA NUT AKA: Bissy nut. KAWANG AKA: Castanopsis acuminatissima. dried skin. Cola nitida." More recently. though some may cause death (especially among people with heart conditions) or paralysis of the central nervous system. Mesembryanthemum expansum. quat. Precautions: Though it is not believed to be physically addictive. Medical researcher John C. a true hallucinogen. and trunk can be chewed or smoked. but then. which can be smoked like a joint or chewed. though large doses are toxic. Mimosa hostilis (Mimosajurema). or they can be brewed into a tea. guaring. special K. KARA AKA: Capparis. allergies. Russian pharmacologists have found it to have a number of medicinal uses. Mesembryanthemum tortuosum. and wounds. muigin. euphoria. it is considered by William Emboden to be "one of the most complex of the hallucinogens. in fact. While the leaves produce a stimulating effect. gangrene.AKA: Ajuca. if any. it is not known how much more is needed to produce hallucinations. chewed. twitching. and paranoia. KYKEON A drink composed of barley mixed with ergot. Prolonged use can result in emaciation. Dosage: The nuts can be chewed. cathinine. Effects: A state of euphoria not unlike a very mild effect from hallucinogenic mushrooms or LSD. A member of the ginger family commonly used as a condiment in Asian cooking. Effects: A New Guinea plant said to induce altered states. Dosage: The leaves are roasted and pulverized and mixed with tobacco that is then used as a snuff. espina dormilona. Effects: Said to induce euphoria. Kratom refers to the leaves. or prepared as an infusion." Precautions: Though it does not appear to be addictive. Precautions: Side effects may be similar to those of PCP: loss of the ability to talk or communicate. numbness in the peripheral regions of the body. umganu. KHAT AKA: Catha edulis. KAEMPFERIA AKA: Galanga. but milder. An overdose can result in delirium and loss of consciousness. producing a high similar to opium. Effects: The seeds are said to be psychoactive. and ephedrine. mambog. KWASHI AKA: Pancratium trianthum. and hallucinations because of its amphetamine-like alkaloids cathine. mitragynine itself is a depressant. super K. Mimosa verrucosa. can interfere with blood flow. stomach and headache medications. It contains about 2 percent caffeine. darkened lips. Effects: The seeds of this tree. and cause muscle spasms. or lettuce opium). Kaempferia galanga. cola nut. it is habit-forming. KETAMINE AKA: Green. it is considered a hallucinogen by Botswana Bushman. chat. More than one or two cups a day may be dangerous. which may persist even after use is discontinued. Jonathan Ott questions whether this is. William Emboden considers it "perhaps one of the most unusual hallucinogens in terms of mode of use. Dosage: About 50 mg. KRATOM AKA: Gratom. and death. loss of appetite. KUBILGIM AKA: Diospyros species. Precautions: Side effects include headache. Sceletium tortuosum. which act on the central nervous system and the autonomic system. . clarity of thought. giddiness. though it is unknown whether this involves hallucinations or whether there is even a psychoactive ingredient. but appears to have no psychoactive ingredients. high doses can have a depressive effect. and stems can be chewed (the leaves are even swallowed. Effects: Used by Indians in northern Mexico as "visionary inebriants. Sceletium expansum. caffeine nut. Instead of the effects mentioned above. and depression. Heavy users may experience prolonged speech and memory impairment. Effects: An Ethiopian shrub that is said to produce bliss. gisol. and glaucoma. LETTUCE AKA: Lactuca sativa. heart trouble. it is the only known species of tree in the rare gomortegaceae family. Solandra brevicalyx. guru nut. tschat. snorted as a powder. a distended stomach. Other species of Pancratium are known to contain psychoactive alkaloids. weariness. especially as a treatment for skin diseases. Jonathan Ott warns budding experimenters that "ergot has poisoned and killed countless human beings throughout history. Found only in a small section of central Chile. Effects: Said to produce bliss and hallucinations. and depression. Mitragyna speciosa. It can be taken as pills. vitamin K. injected as a liquid. Precautions: Overuse can cause insomnia. rigid muscles. agitation. kaugoed. and mambog refers to the thick syrup made from the leaves. when steamed and eaten. This and related species are used in cough medicines. along with theobromine. A close relative of PCP. Effects: Sedation and hallucinations. Dosage: The buds. and perfumes. Its potency is about 5 to 10 percent that of PCP. it was first used as a surgical anesthetic in the Vietnam War. tecomaxochitl. kat. kwashi may have. while low doses may be stimulating. hualhual. vinho de jurema.to 45-minute LSD-like experience characterized by a dream-like state with intense visual images. excessive energy. Why bananas (which have no psychoactive ingredients whatsoever) have gained such a reputation and lettuce has not is somewhat of a mystery. KANNA AKA: Channa. and the mildly psychoactive mint Mentha pulegium that was popular in ancient Greece and Rome. leaves. and unusual cardiac disorders. Effects: The bark of this tree causes a dream-like state when smoked with tobacco. Effects: Used by people native to New Guinea as a condiment and to treat boils. tchat. Studies with animals have shown that. Surgical doses of the injectable liquid range from 400 to 700 mg. Mimosa nigra. Because it can mimic other hallucinogens unrelated to each other. Effects: Produces a vivid 30. KEULE AKA: Gomortega keule. despite its local reputation as a hallucinogen and dream enhancer. eaten whole. pallor. who rub the bulb into incisions cut into the their heads to induce visions. KORIBO AKA: Tanaecium nocturnum. Precautions: It is not addictive. and is a natural product of brain chemistry. and loss of sex drive. It also contains high levels of vitamin C. Researchers have said that even smelling the plant can induce altered states but as yet no studies have been done to determine the psychoactive elements of this plant. The two species of Sceletium are known to contain an alkaloid which induces sedation. which suggests that the other alkaloids play an important role. Jonathan Ott says trace amounts of morphine have been discovered in lettuce (lactucarium. Precautions: The ergot. Sclerocarya schweinfurthii." LAGOCHILIS INEBRIANS There are 35 different species of this plant that grow from the Middle East to Central Asia. gauwgoed. jurema branca. Dosage: About 5 grams of the alkaloid will induce lethargy. kieli. or as much as coffee. among others.

depression. MDM.. it has a longer-lasting (if slower) effect when eaten. or hash. vertigo. sterility. high blood pressure. resulting in a strong hangover the next day. hashish. There is no evidence to support the claim that it damages nerve cells in the brain. which are sometimes attributable to the general surroundings and atmosphere in which the drug is taken. excessive salivation. lysergic acid diethylamide. ganja. and occasional long-lasting psychological problems. high blood pressure. or causes damage to the chromosomes. coma. but could result in psychological dependence. A1986 Italian study found that smoking one joint can increase melatonin levels in the body 4000 percent. Precautions: Side effects include a rapid pulse. or American mandrake. There is no evidence that it causes flashbacks. Acid. circulation problems. especially when combined with tobacco smoke. majun. vomitwort. After considerable controversy about its genus and species. Dosage: About 2 tablespoons of crushed leaves and stems in a pint of water. with the pipe pointed downward so that the residue does not get in the stem. Anthony's Fire purports to be the story of an entire French town that succumbed to the effects of a naturally occurring LSD in the grain used to make the town's bread. The original chemical. but very little effect when consumed as a tea. the dried tops of the female plant full of resin smoked with tobacco (ganja. constipation. An overdose can result in painful muscular tension. however. some advocate its use for relieving the symptoms of glaucoma. Tennis player H. love apple. MARIHUANILLA AKA: Leonurus sibiricus. and which is characterized by restlessness. and death. Precautions: Those susceptible to migraines will experience headaches when smoking lobelia." writes William Emboden. or Myristica fragrans. Experimental Agent 1475. lysergic acid. Casual users sometimes experience vomiting and nausea. and loss of appetite. and blurred vision. MASHA-HARI AKA: Bolekhena. MACONHA BRAVA AKA: Zornia latifolia. Justicia pectoralis var. but high doses can cause bad reactions. It elevates serotonin levels in every area of the brain except the cerebrum and cerebellum. charas. Delysid (LSD-tartrate). the effects of which may range from totally inactive to mildly psychoactive (ALD-52 and MLD-41 are two of the more psychoactive ones). Mandragora officinarum. sweating. Though it contains alkaloids. diarrhea.. 3. severe headache. made into a candy (majun). confusion. According to Young et al. the brain. a double dose is boiled down to a gummy residue and mixed with dried leaves. pot. mandragon. "Of all the sedating-tranquilizing-psychotropic plants known. which is simmered and strained. and contains about 8 to 14 times the THC of marijuana. intense concentration. it is usually defined as a psychedelic amphetamine. and so dangerous when combined with substances contraindicated for this type of drug. rapid heart rate. It has an acrid taste when smoked." Pharmacologically. high blood pressure. and the mental instability of the user. XTC. aphrodisiac. and mainly involve euphoria. Effects: Smoked as a marijuana substitute in Mexico. rapid pulse rate. as some individuals have taken as much as 1 to 2 grams and survived. its powers were seen as allencompassing. N-acetyl-LSD. For use in a gelatin capsule. cramps. Blauer was killed in 1953 when given an intravenous injection of 500 mg of MDA in an experiment funded by the Army Chemical Corps. dope. sedative. emetic herb. Some growers have been able to produce superpotent strains that contain 20 percent THC. vomitroot. Dosage: Approximately 50 to 500 micrograms will result in altered consciousness. Cannabis indica. devil's testicle. Additional dangers include buying marijuana laced with other drugs or the herbicide paraquat. confusion. This drug does not occur naturally. Dosage: The dried leaves can be smoked as a cigarette (joint. MACE A spice produced from the outer covering of the nutmeg seed. producing a high from as little as 25 micrograms." According to the ancient "doctrine of signatures. and seizures. and which is characterized by restlessness. The residue is placed in an opium pipe and heated. sweating. Hash oil. depression. John G. particularly around the face and jaw. Lobelia cardinalis. stiff muscles resulting from brain injuries and multiple sclerosis. apples of the genie. asthma. will produce many side effects but few of the psychoactive benefits that users seek. problems with ejaculation. tremors. though there are Indians in the Brazilian and Venezuelan forests that reportedly use some species of this plant by itself.Dosage: The wild lettuce plant (or the hearts and roots of iceberg lettuce) is liquefied in a blender until about a pint of liquid is produced. a belief that has yet to be substantiated. or drug addiction. as it can enhance empathy between people. leaving only a sticky brownish-green residue. and other toxic reactions. Effects: Same as MDA. MDMA AKA: Adam. rapid heart rate.. which is produced by boiling marijuana or hashish in a solvent. hasheesh. which are caused by the potent compound scopolamine. It can be made into a drink with water or milk (bhang). LSD-25. cardinal flower. dizziness. and can last eight to twelve hours. or almost double that of naturally grown plants. dry reddened eyes. More than 15 grams may trigger sudden vomiting. The term "Indian tobacco" may refer to any number of unrelated plants. It also causes contractions of the uterus in pregnant women. rapid heart rate. lasting eight to twelve hours. stenophylla. Effects: In Brazil. grass. even today. excessive salivation. lack of energy. high blood pressure. emetic weed. Effects: Its effects. where serotonin levels in the body are too high. impotence. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high. curia. has the most extensive and bizarre history. anxiety.. The liquid is then left in a bowl under heat lamps or the hot sun until it has evaporated. and the toxic effects resulting from chemotherapy. is the processed resin from the cannabis plant. It can cause orgasm problems in men and women. the grain having been accidentally ground into flour for bread instead of being planted as seed." medicinal plants resembled that part of the human body for which it could affect a cure and. dilated pupils. Dosage: 50 to 150 milligrams. the snuff of the virola tree. Mandragora officinarum (European mandrake) is a very different plant from Podophyllum peltatum. It can also be smoked as a joint. contaminants (including other drugs) mixed in with the LSD. weed. and erection problems in men. difficult urination. Hashish. delirium. increased body temperature. kif. temporary amnesia (because of its suppression of the brain hormone vasopressin). Methyllysergic acid diethylamide (MLD-41). are very poisonous. It . It is an MAO inhibitor. the townspeople's hallucinations and temporary madness were the effects of a mercury compound used as a fungicide. may apple. Precautions: A user may experience dry mouth. a sense of well-being. which can vary widely. It does not cause brain damage. it is not known whether they are psychoactive. Effects: A trip usually begins 45 to 90 minutes after ingestion. Hash smoke. but lasting only half as long. "the mandrake . and — though marijuana is not classified as a hallucinogen — visual and auditory hallucinations for one to three hours. It is not physically addictive. insanity. nausea. LOBELIA AKA: Asthma weed. An analogue of MDA. After-effects include sluggishness. hemp. tremors. kif). The molecular structure of its psychoactive properties are unique in the plant world. LSD AKA: Acetyllysergic acid diethy-lamide (ALD-52. Side effects include a burning thirst. is addictive. This member of the nightshade family has been used as a painkiller. and releases the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine in the body. Since the resin is soluble in oil but not water. diarrhea. Socially and medically. heart damage. Cannabis indica. E. that is sometimes used to flavor cakes. loss of coordination. MDA AKA: EA-1298. with a sense of physical and mental well-being. pukeweed. it has been used in various medical preparations since ancient times and. It could lead to a condition called the serotonin syndrome. nerve damage. dilated pupils. since mandrake resembled the human form. Effects: No psychoactive property has yet been isolated from this plant. contains about 15 to 30 times the THC. Indian tobacco. gag root. and seizures. It can cause orgasm problems in men and women. and panic. and poison. the resin smoked or eaten with spices (charas) or baked into brownies (hash brownies). Both. mandragora... Lobelia inflata. It could lead to a condition called the serotonin syndrome. and Cannabis ruderalis. After-effects include a feeling of sluggishness. Satan's testicles. Methylenedioxy-amphetamine. Methylene-dioxymethamphetamine. sweating. confusion. It is one of the most powerful drugs known. The oldest and best-known of the synthetic chemical variants of the amphetamine molecule. Precautions: The dose needed to get high is close to the toxic level. perceptual distortions. increased body temperature. Precautions: William Emboden reports that at least three shamans have died from using the snuff of this plant. Precautions: Side effects include severe muscle tension. and erection problems in men. Cannabis sativa. dilated eyes. sinsemilla. consisting of one to three species: Cannabis sativa." MANDRAKE AKA: Apples of the fool. alcohol and tobacco are considerably more dangerous. or the body in general. Lethal dosage is unknown. with the result that the trip will not be longer or more intense with greater dosage. though he did not become aware of its extraordinary properties until accidentally ingesting some five years later. The resultant white smoke is held in the lungs for about half a minute. It has been used in psychotherapy and counseling. LICHENS Effects: Some varieties of Alaskan lichens are reported to be psychoactive. The effects peak at 500 micrograms. Precautions: There can be bad trips. Effects: A calm and relaxing feeling. can result in bronchitis and other respiratory ailments. Fuller's The Day of St. and causes a prickly feeling in the mouth and throat when consumed as a tea. Ecstasy.. restlessness. trance mediator. and inability to concentrate. Cannabaceae. . moodiness. the leaves are smoked as a "marijuana substitute. disorientation. cannabis. . are mainly attributable to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Effects: A high that can range from mild pleasantness to unbridled delirium. bladderpod. or dealing with assassin bugs that tend to inhabit crops. "marijuana is the least debilitating of all common intoxicants and has never accounted for a substantiated drug death. A semi-synthetic drug first made in 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann from the ergot fungus in rye.4-methylenedioxyam-phetamine. Satan's apple. MARIJUANA AKA: Bhang. even when taken on an empty stomach. though it could just as well produce a bad trip. Effects: Hallucinations. tremors. an uncontrollable fear of death. wild tobacco. red lobelia. amnesia. European mandrake. insomnia. Orange Sunshine). It is generally mixed with epena. diarrhea. reefer). Precautions: The dosage needed to produce hallucinations is also close to the toxic dose. insanity. fever. There are numerous derivatives and analogues of LSD. it is now believed to belong to its own genus. where serotonin levels in the body are too high. and habitual use could require higher and higher doses to achieve the same effects.

convulsions. Precautions: No psychoactive compounds have yet been identified in this plant. The effects of nicotine can be increased when combined with sugar. Ipomoea sidaefolia. Effects: Intoxication and hallucinations lasting four to fourteen hours. and Wedding Bells are among those that are) and. There have been reports of dependency problems. "Morning glory" actually refers to two distinct species which. They can easily be mistaken for other." It is an MAO inhibitor. Initial side effects include vomiting. shivering. sneezing. paralysis of the respiratory muscles. vomiting. or 5 to 15 mushrooms. Imapramine. Nicotiana rustica. nausea. tingling in the hands and feet. increased susceptibility to disease. which is highly toxic and has resulted in many deaths. Chewing tobacco and snuff is not believed to be as addicting. abdominal pains. sleeplessness. potentially hazardous. Mysticism and Make-Believe. increased salivation. vomiting. high blood pressure. hoarseness. crawling with bugs. reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. 'nti-si-tho. The MDMA sold on the street can often contain such additives as MDEA (a close relative of MDMA). heart damage. Precautions: Concentrated nicotine can enter the brain within seconds of smoking a cigarette. and hallucinogen by some Africans. Precautions: They should not be used by anyone with liver problems. and anorexia may also occur. Nicotiana gossei. One expert has claimed that it is "toxic. paranoia. including Acetaminophen.produces the same rundown feelings the next day as MDA does. fainting. numbness. irritability. notably Carlos Castaneda's The Teachings of Don Juan and subsequent sequels. and heart failure. heart palpitations. headache. and anxiety disorders. help schizophrenics function better. poisonous mushrooms. 3. premature aging. headache. yahutli. and severe abdominal pain. The beans are often confused with colorines. confusion. Although other members of the morning glory family in other parts of the world have higher levels of psychoactive compounds. convulsions. Jonathan Ott was offered one such sample which. cold sweats. diarrhea." or the cosmic secrets of the mushroom. Dosage: The lethal dose is 50 mg. Not everyone sees the "infinite clockwork. ye-tumutsali. especially if the individual lies on his back and breathes deeply. there are four other genera that have hallucinogenic properties: Cono-cybe. Nicotiana velutina. Dosage: Psychedelic mushrooms can be eaten. Reports of the effects of this plant vary considerably. Contains a chemical called ergine (d-lysergic acid diethylamide). smoked or snorted as a powder (it can be years before dried mushrooms lose their potency). and other. and death. weakness. and death from asphyxiation. Insulin. it is known to stimulate. Prolonged excessive use is said to result in permanent insanity. dizziness. yauhtli. Precautions: Use by borderline schizophrenics may worsen their condition irreversibly. headache. fermenting mess. It is extremely addictive.and long-term memory. a weak. the nicotine in one cigar can kill at least two people. increase tolerance to pain. diarrhea. Dosage: 100 to 300 seeds (about 5 to 10 grams) to produce the same effects as 200 to 300 meg of LSD. lightheadedness. Aside from the fly agaric mushrooms. tumutsali. visual impairment. piule. which begin one to two hours after consumption. It reacts adversely with alcohol or depressants. Common side effects of nicotine chewing gum include nausea. Mescaline is chemically similar to the hormone epinephrine and the neurohormone norepinephrine. as they will produce no results when eaten whole. and upset stomach. he said. And not all souls are the same. preventing the neurotransmission of new information. heart palpitations. a problem that increases with the age of the user. Pearly Gates. Stomach cramps may also occur. and irregular pulse. Rivea corymbosa). euphoria. It takes you where the soul wants to go. as the nicotine does not enter the brain directly. disorientation. the latter of which can be manufactured synthetically. leaving users more vulnerable to colds. caffeine. state that only 15 of the crushed Turbina corymbosa seeds in one-half cup of water will produce the desired effect." MORNING GLORY AKA: Ipomoea purpurea. panic. diarrhea. It has been used in psychotherapy and as a treatment for opiate and alcohol addiction. and other hallucinogenic plants. and confusion. herpes outbreaks. and swallowed. in their raw state. Nicotiana tabacum. The cessation of nicotine intake — cigarettes in particular—may increase the effects of many drugs. Commercially sold seeds may be coated with a poison to discourage use as a psychedelic. MESCALINE AKA: Mescal buttons. including that of former Dallas Cowboy Mark Tuinei. 10 to 15 grams of fresh mushrooms. rapid and abnormal heartbeat. cancer. Effects: Hallucinations. reduce feelings of hunger.5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine. stroke. constriction of blood vessels. Readers should not be misled by popular books that contain misleading and erroneous information. insomnia. The main psychoactive ingredients in all of these is psilocine and psilocybine. depression. tomatoes. MUSHROOMS AND PSILOCYBINE AKA: Liberty caps. they may contain methyl-hydrazines. reported on his wondrous experiences with the drug in the equally-famous books The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell. reduced appetite. Effects: A narcotic or mild psychedelic that is said to induce feelings of tranquility when smoked. Dosage: No more than one-quarter to one-half bean. stimulant. though most of it is destroyed by burning. the closest substance to LSD found in nature. and reduce stress. selegiline. and the only addictive one. shock. John Sandford's In Search of the Magic Mushroom. There is a myth that the mushrooms can be preserved in honey. nausea. and Theophylline. even faster than heroin injected into the arm. author of Brave New World. due to the uncertainties regarding this family. Zaehner. rapid. Glutethimide. and senility. 1 to 5 grams (dry weight). Psilocybe cubensis. An overdose (generally said to be in the 50 to 60 mushroom range) can result in severe poisoning. depending on the size and species. strongly disagrees with Huxley's positive assessment. and just 60 to 120 mg (a drop or two) of pure nicotine can kill the average adult if applied to the skin. schizophrenia. Nicotiana trigonophylla. Some dealers may sell ordinary mushrooms laced with LSD. prevent toxic chemicals from killing off brain cells. and may produce such symptoms as dizziness. It is the main psychoactive alkaloid in peyote. hearing and visual abnormalities. Less common side effects include dizziness. According to Mexican Mazatec healer Maria Sabina in de Rios' Visionary Vine. increased blood pressure. Side effects include over-excitement. though taking it on an empty stomach may prevent the nausea (Jonathan Ott states that side effects may be due to the fact that users eat whole ground seeds rather than filtered. it has been used by witches in ancient Greece and medieval Europe. and much chemical analysis needs to be done to determine its psychoactive properties. cooking will not remove or deactivate them. Ipomoea violacea (badoh negro seeds. Furosemide. weakness. rapid pulse. followed by fainting. chewed. anxiety. yyahitlm. According to legend. Texas mountain laurel. difficulty concentrating. Effects: Used as an aphrodisiac. Young et al. Tremors. only in Mexico is it used as a hallucinogen. In fact. in fact. red bean. Overdose symptoms include excessive salivation. Pentazocine. . convulsions. kidney dysfunction. dangerously low blood pressure. Mexican morning glory. as "the mushroom is similar to your soul. They are found all over the world. dry mouth. followed by uncontrollable bursts of emotion that may mimic schizophrenia. was not only unlikely to contain any psilocybine but was a "disgusting. salivation. of those that are. It may someday result in drugs that treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It contains the alkaloid cytisine. amphetamine. ketamine. but only in Mexico are they used in rituals. The hard seeds must be cracked or ground up to release the ergine. yyauhtli. unconsciousness. compounds similar to rocket propellants which are carcinogenic and potentially deadly. in his books Mysticism Sacred and Profane and Drugs. NICOTINE AKA: Nicotiana attenuata. Aldous Huxley. though not in dangerous levels. Nicotiana bigelovii. tey-huintli." Potency can vary widely. Nicotiana glauca. help those with Alzheimer's focus better on tasks. caffeine. magic mushrooms. Nicotine can alter the effects of any central nervous system drug. and then block. tremors. and bad trips. Common side effects of smoking are believed to include persistent cough. Psilocybe. San Pedro. It is not physically or psychologically addicting. producing nausea and vomiting. or boiled and the liquid drunk with Kool-Aid or injected. tlitliltzin). sacred mushrooms. shortness of breath. Effects: Said to induce hallucinations. substances. ololiuqui. Propoxyphene Hydrochloride. The Copelandia cyanescens fungus that is cultivated in Bali is more potent than any of these mushrooms. it is one of the most addictive substances known —even more addicting than most hard drugs. xpuhuc. high blood pressure. Oxazepam. Precautions: Common side effects include nausea. and may contribute to Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. eggplant. chills. Effects: Produces vivid hallucinations similar (though reportedly less intense) to LSD—beginning within a half hour and lasting three to six hours — muscular relaxation. NIGHTSHADE AKA: Solatium nigrum. stomach disruption. Turbina corymbosa (coaxhuitl. rash. improve the ability to perform various tasks. Religious scholar R. cold-water infusions of the ground seeds). and paralysis of the breathing muscles leading to death.4. Nicotiana megalosiphon. sensory receptors. elevated heart rate. or belladonna. NlANDO AKA: Alchornea floribunda. high body temperature. Nicotiana ingulba. dizziness. and it has been implicated in some deaths. the alkaloid nicotine is the most powerful. Nico-tiana benthatniana. MESCAL BEAN AKA: Coralillo. and they can be somewhat indigestible and mildly toxic if not cooked. sweating. nausea. Mushrooms are usually sauteed before eating as. Not all varieties of morning-glory seeds are psychoactive (Flying Saucers. Even a fraction of a bean more could result in toxicity and death. overstimulation of the central nervous system. It should not be confused with deadly nightshade. Of the over 500 compounds in tobacco. Mushrooms may also accumulate such toxins as arsenic and cesium. which is roasted. though these may pass quickly. sluggishness. and a buzzing or ringing in the ears. but goes through the bloodstream first. it may take a whole cupful to produce the desired effect. such as heroin — and one of the most toxic drugs known. or Andrija Puharich's The Sacred Mushroom: Key to the Door of Eternity. and so should not be combined with any substances contraindicated for this type of drug. Effects: Hallucinations. MEXICAN MARIGOLD AKA: Tagetes lucida. yyahutli. narcotic. frijolitos. C. irritated and damaged lung tissue. emphysema. teonanacatl. crushed. and Stro-pharia. increased bronchial secretions. vomiting. Ipomoea tricolor. Overdose symptoms may include psychotic reaction. Heavenly Blue. nausea. They are mildly toxic. tobacco. yyahhitl. though tolerance does develop rapidly. and last for approximately twelve hours. and in the Voodoo and Santeria religions. have other botanical names (see above). slightly enlarged pupils. Precautions: None of its alkaloids are known hallucinogens. Sophora secundiflora. and giddiness. peak after two hours. Effects: It is believed to improve both short. It was used by native peoples throughout the Americas to induce trance states and visions. pupil dilation. Panaeolus. vomiting. coughing. and other infections. Propranolol. Sources: Bell peppers. yia. John Allegro's The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross. numbness in the face. Overdose symptoms may include delusions and hallucinations.

garden parsley. and has been used to help cure personal problems. snorted. sami ruca). Peyote is a small cactus with white tufts of hair and no spines. then drunk after it has cooled. Precautions: Side effects include epileptic-like convulsions and severe damage to the liver and kidneys. decreased respiration. when taken orally. purple passion flower. only a tablespoon of leaves and stems are needed to achieve its effects. Dosage: It can be smoked. New Britain near New Guinea.D. double or blurred vision. Dosage: 5 to 20 drops. Lophophora williamsii (Anhalonium lewinii. encyclidine. There are numerous species of Psychotria. Effects: Though it was not known as a hallucinogen when Jonathan Ott's Pharmacotheon was published (1993). Lycoperdon mixtecorum is the more powerful of the two species. PASSION FLOWER AKA: Maypops. dry mouth and throat. loss of balance. dizziness. and memory). including LSD or mescaline. Lycoperdon marginatum (gi-i-sa-wa). intravenously. Purity can range from high (white crystals) to low (moist and yellowish) and. though one level teaspoon is said to produce euphoric effects. hog. flushing of the skin. which are moistened just before eating or. Psychotria viridis (amirucapanga. Rhynchosia phaseolides. Bovista nigrescens. it is not a depressant. a washed-out feeling for a day or two. the leaves of which are reportedly psychoactive. and violent behavior. profuse sweating. Duboisia myoporoides. peyotl. and methyleugenol. moistened. apathy. and other psychoactive plants. fuzzball. which is not psychoactive).g. rock parlsey. PlULE AKA: Rhynchosia longiraceomosa. pishikawa. Effects: It is a narcotic whose effects are similar to curare. concentration. Precautions: An overdose can be fatal. and then mixed with an alkaline plant to release the nicotine. PARSLEY AKA: Common parsley. passion vine. increased salivation. There are reportedly some 30 analogues of PCP available. peace pill. called the "Karuka madness. agitation. Medically. Effects: The oil. in the roots. A member of the coffee family that grows along the Amazon. It has been used as a surgical and veterinary anesthetic (Sernyl and Sernylan respectively) but. Effects: A mild marijuana-like high when smoked. Precautions: The seeds differ from mescal beans and colorines only in the fact that they have a touch of black on the end. and have been found to contain safrole. PUCHURI AKA: Licaria puchury-major. high blood pressure. one aspect of which is a form of hallucination. The term piule is also used to refer to morning-glory seeds. paranoia. Petroselinum crispum. PUFFBALLS AKA: Blind man's ball. dusty stars. PlSHICOL Effects: A psychoactive cactus: Research is needed to uncover its psychoactive components and effects. Dosage: The tree sap is heated with pieces of bark. the latter of which can cause excitement and hallucinations. learning. uncontrollable eye movements. schizophrenia-like delusions and mental confusion. pixiepuff. fistball. Users claim it has cured illnesses and alcoholism. t-tabs. and muscular rigidity. Called a pseudohallucinogen because its primary effect is delirium. difficulty urinating. and its use on people was discontinued when patients reported out-ofbody experiences and disturbing visual hallucinations. or more. and possible liver failure. Sderoderma citrina (earth ball). They can also be soaked in water (they dissolve quite readily) and the liquid consumed as a tea. Common side effects at moderate doses include decreased blood pressure.Precautions: Contains the alkaloid solanine — also present in green potatoes — which is somewhat toxic. constipation. OSTEOPHLOEUM AKA: Osteophloeum platyspermum (Osteophloeum platyphyllum). Generally. It contains the drug myristicin. animal tranquilizer. vomiting. fever. Dosage: 5 to 20 grams. or rectally.. bloodshot eyes. and hallucinations. and when combined with other MAO inhibitors. no hallucinogenic cactus contains strychnine. though it contains more than forty other drugs or compounds. Its association with violent behavior may be greatly exaggerated. It is often added to ayahuasca. Precautions: The psychoactive alkaloids are MAO inhibitors. The dose needed to get high is close to the toxic level. pedgery. or used as an enema. Ph. PAGAMEA MACROPHYLLA Effects: The powdered leaves are used as a snuff and are reportedly psychoactive. restlessness. Overdose symptoms (above 10 grams) include dizziness. even in small doses. batsikawa. a flushing of the skin. or plant fiber). It produces a strong high with hallucinations (mainly out-of-body experiences and perceptual distortions normally associated with sensory deprivation) lasting one to six hours. chewed dry. Dosage: The dried leaves can be smoked or brewed as a tea (one-half ounce of leaves per pint of boiled water). Contains the psychoactive alkaloids harmine and harmaline. Another species of Pandanus on New Guinea has been found to contain DMT. Common side effects at low doses (below 5 mg) include sedation. convulsions. rapid heartbeat. Taking it may produce a dangerous and nasty delirium — according to Ronald K. watery eyes. on the street. This altered state can last up to 12 hours. repetitive movements. its primary manifestations being excitability. Effects: The high can range from mild euphoria to full-blown delirium that lasts four to twelve hours. Effects: Used by Australian Aborigines to endure long journeys without suffering fatigue. pitchery. some of which are as yet unidentified (e. the white hairs do not contain strychnine (they are cellulose. Common side effects at high doses (above 10 mg) include agitation.. while the chance of negative effects is 100 percent. mescaline is its chief psychoactive alkaloid (its principal alkaloid is peyotline. a preoccupation with death. PANDANUS Effects: The Wopkaimin people of New Guinea induce an altered state of consciousness. Peyotl zacatecensis). Dosage: The leaves are roasted. It is dangerous at almost any level. it can often be passed off as mescaline or DMT. Speech and memory problems may persist for some time after use is discontinued. eugenol." by eating the nuts of this plant. puckfist. numbness of the extremities. vomiting. pix-uri. all of which are psychoactive. The psychological side effects are the same. can induce hallucinations. Some Indians eat 4 to 30. though technically it is not a psychedelic. Effects: Lycoperdon is a Mexican fungi that produces auditory hallucinations. PEYOTE AKA: Lophophora diffusa (Anhalonium williamsii). devil's pepperpot. except magnified. Myristica fragrans. It contains the alkaloids nicotine. a coma that can last for up to 12 hours. Precautions: If taken by those with any borderline psychosis. The vomiting and nausea can usually be minimized by fasting or taking Dramamine beforehand and remaining perfectly still during the visions. Dosage: The usual dose is 6 to 12 dried buttons. Effects: It produces a complex high of spectacular hallucinations involving all senses that begins three hours after ingestion and lasts up to 12 hours. chacruna. Contrary to popular opinion. PITURl AKA: Bedgery. vaginally. mushrooms. blurred vision. and can cause headaches. and rolled into a "quid." which is then smoked. resulting in a strong hangover the next day. dizziness. It reacts adversely with stimulants or depressants. however. Rhynchosia pyramidalis. and suicidal behavior. nausea. decreased heart rate. sensory input organization. matsi kawa) and some which may be devoid of psychoactive alkaloids. Lycoperdon mixtecorum (gi-i-wa). Precautions: It should be avoided by anyone with liver problems. the chance of positive effects is 60 percent. fallen stars. Effects: In low doses it can act as a stimulant. it has a greater chance of worsening the condition than any other drug. but "dissociated" from their bodies. Precautions: It has an extremely bitter taste that makes it hard to swallow and invariably induces vomiting and an hour or two of nausea. Duboisia hopwoodii. Petroselinum sativum. The tea produces feelings of tranquility and sedation. PUERARIA PHASEOLOIDES Effects: A plant in West Nakanai. mescal buttons. despair. rapid heart rate. less commonly. Effects: The seeds are used in Brazil as a sedative and tranquilizer. Calvatia utriformis. matsi kawa. nausea. kawa kui. Sernyl. Patients who received it during surgery remained aware. or thirst. shivering. It may take at least a day before a person feels normal again. The leaves and stems are also said to be ground or chewed up. and panic. it even smells like marijuana. PCP AKA: Angel dust. hunger. PSYCHOTRIA AKA: Batsikawa. Common side effects include severe nausea and diarrhea. seizures. Echinocactus williamsii. d-nor-nicotine (which is four times as toxic as nicotine) and. Effects: Contains the potent hallucinogen DMT. but in high doses it can act as a depressant. which can be converted by the body into an amphetamine-like psychedelic. hyoscyamine and scopolamine as well. or taken orally. Psychotria nitida. subsequent research has shown that it is used as a hallucinogen by the Quichua tribe of Ecuador. devil's snuffbox. Siegel. unlike most anesthetics. The level of alkaloids varies widely from plant to plant. Eating half of a Sderoderma mushroom induces . Nt7TM£G AKA: Made shaunda. it has shown promise in protecting against brain damage resulting from stroke. loss of muscular coordination. Precautions: Larger doses are fatal. vomiting and headaches will result. A peyote high is much different from a mescaline high. In fact. depression. and impairment of various mental functions (thinking. though Valium is said to counteract its effects. Passiflora incarnata. aching muscles.

Rhododendron caucasicum). and death through respiratory failure when it is eaten.5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphet-amine. SAN PEDRO AKA: Aguacolla. bakanawa. AKA (DOB): 2. SHANSHI AKA: Coriaria thymifolia. more intense auditory and visual perceptions. and DOB may produce similar results. serenity tranquility peace. Though. It may also produce intense hypnagogic imagery (hypnagogia is the half-awake. Sinicuichi can also refer to other.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine. A member of the fig family found along the Brazilian Amazon. An alkaloid found in belladonna. Senecio cardiophyllus. datura. and amnesia. or boiled in water for at least two hours and strained to make a drink. narrow-leaved Labrador tea. Precautions: They smell like fecal matter. which include hypothermia. henbane. Ledum hypoleucum. and flowers can be smoked. Precautions: Common side effects include dry mouth. In the early 1900s. leaves. wild rosemary). SCOPOLIA AKA: Scopolia carniolica. seeds. SENECIOS AKA: Peyote. SCOPOLAMINE AKA: Hyoscine. the seeds the highest. saxifrax. Precautions: The oil of any herb in any dose can be toxic. and the juice is placed in the sun to ferment. Ledum palustre. Senecio hartwegii (pey-ote de Tepic). and deafness or auditory hallucinations. and pupil dilation. or safrol(e). It can be fatal at doses of 10 to 12 grams. the main aspect of which appears to be the sensation of flight. though it does not elicit the euphoria associated with mescaline. Effects: Intoxication and hallucinations — including the sensation of flight —which are due to some as-yet-unidentified glycoside. even though its cytisine alkaloid has not been proven to have psychoactive properties. Nausea. and brilliantly colored visions. Precautions: There are cases on record of poisonings from related species Coriaria arborea and Coriaria ruscifolia. half asleep state that can occur just before or after sleep). but excessive use is said to be harmful. he oftentimes could not remember them. Senecio canicida. like peyote. Senecio toluccanus. relates how an entire army was poisoned from the honey of this plant. Its supposed hallucinogenic effects are disputed by research. the Soviets. and mandrake. Tricho-cereus pachanoi (Opuntia cylindrica). Contains the psychoactive alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. or ground up and rubbed on the skin with fat. SCOTCH BROOM AKA: Broom. . and can also be used to treat asthma. and to cause overexcitement. swamp tea. abnormal thirst. and another species is used by the Kwaikutl Indians of British Columbia as an inebriant. Reports of STP trips lasting several days may be apocryphal. nausea. Effects: Hallucinations. then ground up and rolled into a joint. it is a member of the nightshade family and a close relative to tobacco. Effects: Was once used as a narcotic and hallucinogen by people in the northern Caucasus. though DOI produces a trip that lasts up to 30 hours. fever. It has been found to impair serial learning at doses of 0. loss of appetite. STP AND RELATED DRUGS AKA: DOM. reportedly without the nausea. This maybe the same plant referred to by the Greek historian Herodotus. SHANIN AKA: Petunia violacea. The roots of plants contain the lowest amount of scopolamine. includes mental clarity. In Europe. a heavy drunken feeling. convulsions. difficult urination. dilated eyes. The exact method of preparation has apparently been lost over time. gastrointestinal spasms. a severe strain on the heart. ROSEMARY AKA: Ledum groenlandicum. inability to focus vision. bakanoa. Cytisus canariensis. Xeno-phon. Effects: Intoxication. drowsiness or euphoria. All 3 varieties (Cytisus and Genista) have about the same potency. difficult ejaculation. Spanish broom contains the toxic alkaloid spartenine. a darkening and shrinking of the surroundings. gumbo. Effects: Saffron oil. moth herb. and cold and allergy remedies.S. SlNICUICHI AKA: Heimia salicifolia. marsh tea. and feelings of terror may occur. chills. tremors. Heradea pontica. it was used as an analgesic for childbirth until it was found to cause an abnormally high infant mortality rate. The high. even though the subject may have been willing to give up secrets. It was tested as a truth serum by the Germans and U. It is used by the Yacqui medicine men of northern Mexico as a supposed hallucinogen. mitten tree. Sassafras albidum. giganton. Dosage: The slightly wilted leaves are crushed and soaked in water. herva da vida. rapid heart rate. DOB and DOI are related synthetic phenethylamines. in World War II. and a heightened sense of color for about two hours. huando. though no psychoactive property has yet been isolated from it. produces a honey that is toxic (this plant can be used as a tea. Effects: The fruits of this plant were once prepared and used as a snuff by Indians in the Pariana region of Brazil. The main psychoactive ingredient appears to be an as-yet-unidentified alkaloid.5 mg. cuchuma. which is a hallucinogen. it has been found to have an amphetamine-like stimulation on the central nervous system of rats. Ledum palustre (marsh cistus. several joints may produce the effects mentioned above. Effects: The smoke from the burning leaves is said to be a narcotic. Dosage: The lining of the inner skin wall can be chewed. Trichocereus peruvianus. sinicuiche. Heimia myrtifolia and heimia syphilitica are geographical variants. who stated that the burning smoke of the plant was as intoxicating as wine. Senecio gray anus. can be processed to make the narcotic MDA. it has been used as an ingredient in aphrodisiac drinks. Effects: Hallucinations. Effects: A peyote-like high. but not hallucinations. Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom). delirium. Precautions: The nectar may be toxic. who used it to induce prophetic dreams. Senecio praecox. and it is probably used in the hallucinogenic drink cimora. sinicuitl. Effects: Hallucinations. Precautions: It is extremely dangerous. The Tungus people of Siberia preferred this over the fly-agaric mushroom. Effects: A deep sleep accompanied by vivid hallucinations and bright colors. cardo. hot dry skin. more tranquil high. Senecio cervarifolia. SCIRPUS AKA: Bakana. 2. Precautions: Believed to be at least partly responsible for the beserker frenzies of the Vikings. Experiments by Jonathan Ott and others on eleven species of the Lycoperdon failed to discover any psychoactive effects or compounds. In high doses it can cause poisoning. Some medicine men use it for folk healing and divination. Dosage: The roots. disorientation. including the following effects: giddiness. unconsciousness. Another Greek historian. both of whom found it unreliable. constipation. pinan. are reported to be rare. Precautions: It is usually consumed over a 45-minute period to avoid sudden overstimulation. Dosage: Up to one joint of dried leaves is said to produce a relaxed feeling with no subsequent depression. and motion sickness. and. Effects: There is one report of a "visionary experience" after an ingestion of 10 ml of Brazilian oil of sassafras. experimented with it and found that. unrelated plants. Spartium junceum (Spanish broom). SASSAFRAS AKA: Ague tree. It is not addictive. which begins in about an hour and lasts for about six hours. Effects: Hallucinations. anxiety. though excessive use may cause toxicity). It is known that at least one species. intellectual clarity. cinnamon wood. Precautions: Cytisine is known to be toxic (it is related to nicotine). Sassifras variiflium. Effects: STP produces a strong intoxicating and stimulating state — similar to that induced by LSD or mescaline—which can last eight to twenty-four hours. Genista canariensis (Canary Island broom). Precautions: Side effects of STP include rapid heart rate. An overdose can lead to a bad trip. Nevertheless. as it contains several chemicals that are toxic to the liver. Precautions: It contains a poison that can affect the central nervous system and damage the kidneys. it is a cactus. hermoso.5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine. brewed into a tea. Precautions: Side effects. The blossoms of the plant are aged for about 10 days in a sealed jar until they are dry and moldy. according to William Burroughs. SAFFRON AKA: Crocus sativus. Said to induce psychic visions. sweating. RAPE DO INDIOS AKA: Maquira sderophylla (Olme-dioperebea sderophylla). A shrub in the Ecuadorian Andes that is toxic to animals. the two are not related. high blood pressure. euphoria. headaches. though no adverse side effects have been reported when the plant is properly prepared and smoked. AKA (DOI): 2. restlessness. relaxation. but psychological dependence may occur with habitual use. A species of petunia. Effects: Contains the alkaloid mescaline. and San Pedro produces a less stimulating.visual disturbances and a deep narcosis that lasts approximately two hours. The synthetic drug DOM has a chemical structure similar to mescaline. eaten. It is still used in some sleeping medications. RHODODENDRON AKA: Rhododendron ponticum (Azalea pontica.

spand. Precautions: While it may be useful in treating schizophrenia in low doses. TOAD AKA: Bufo alvarius. sold in Egypt as zitel-harmel. Effects: The dried leaves are smoked by the Mapuche Indians of Chile as a narcotic. and the oil. The effects. It is not known whether it induces hallucinations or contains any further psychoactive properties. Effects: Used as a folk medicine and intoxicant by various peoples of Turkestan. Dosage: Unless combined with MAO inhibitors at a 10 mg dose. Precautions: It has a very bitter taste. Effects: Hallucinations and narcosis. hurmur. The seeds are commonly used as a spice. though it does not appear to play a part in any religious or ceremonial rituals. licking toads can be dangerous. Effects: The fumes of the latex from this tree is said to be psychoactive. Effects: A Chinese vine said to induce visions and "communication with spirits. WATER LILY AKA: Nymphaea ampla. Wade Davis has reported that Bufo marinus was one ingredient of the Haitian zombi potion. Dosage: The leaves and stems are boiled in water to make a tea. Colorado River toad. though 5-MeO-DMT is legal. Helicostylis tomentosa. kinnikinnick. TAGLLI AKA: Pernettya parvifolia. Desfontainia hookeri. nymphaea caerulea. Precautions: It is related to a family of South American plants from which arrow poisons are made. it is four times as potent as DMT — experiments have found that smoking 6 to 10 mg of the free base can result in a high that begins within a minute. Precautions: The alkaloids are MAO inhibitors and if mixed with any other drug or food contraindicated for this substance." essentially agreeing with a colleague who compared it to "having a large elephant sitting on one's head. Sonoran Desert toad. Bufo marinus. which include auditory and visual hallucinations. the Middle East. SYRIAN RUE AKA: African rue. techepak.22 percent). TURKESTAN MINT AKA: Lagochilus inebrians. it should not exceed 1 ounce of seeds. causing seizures and resulting in hospitalization. michai bianco.5 to 3 mg. there is good evidence to suggest that it contains psychoactive alkaloids. neither of which is hallucinogenic. Dosage: 1 to 5 mg of STP. The dried leaves are used as a tobacco substitute. Precautions: Some initial unpleasant effects. though it contains andromedotoxin and arbutin as its active ingredients. can induce hallucinations. an alkaloid that is also found in some mushrooms and plants and which produces an LSD-like high. Effects: Used as an inebriant by the Hottentots. 2C-B AKA: 2. TAKINI AKA: Helicostylis pedunculata. Effects: Contains the hallucinogenic alkaloids harmine and harmaline. TUPA AKA: Lobelia tupa. wild rue. Effects: The Sonoran Desert toad of Arizona produces large amounts of 5-MeO-DMT in its venom glands — which can induce a gentle high when dried or smoked — along with small amounts of the narcotic bufotenine. UVA-URSI AKA: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. when taken orally. trautrau. take hold in about five minutes and lasts for approximately an hour. harmul. and getting the venom in the eyes or mouth can cause severe poisoning." It should be noted that. Effects: Said to induce hallucinations. Peganum harmala. tabaco del diablo. DOB is active at doses of 1 to 3 mg. Parenteral injections of 5 to 10 mg were also found to produce results. Dosage: It is active in the range of 12 to 24 mg. peaks after two. 5-MeO-DMT is not active when taken orally. Dosage: 5 to 20 drops. doses of 300 to 750 mg may cause hallucinations. A South African member of the mint species. The full extent of its effect is not yet known. heart troubles. TAIQUE AKA: Borrachero de paramo. Precautions: Jonathan Ott and others have concluded that 5-MeO-DMT has "little recreational value. harmal. it is unrelated to American or European rue. Effects: An intoxication similar to opium. TSICTA AKA: Tabernaemontana sananho. The venom can remain potent for two years. doses of 20 mg can cause long-lasting effects which may lead to panic reactions. harmel. Interestingly. bear-berry. It can be taken orally or injected. and Spain. though they may have a nicotine-like effect. it can induce psychosis in higher doses. rue. Effects: Enhances all the senses without distorting them. Dosage: Starting dose should be l/3 ounce of seeds (or 250 mg) — no more — chewed thoroughly and swallowed.5-dimethoxy-4-bromo-phenethylamine. WILD FENNEL Effects: The oil. Precautions: Side effects include epileptic-like convulsions and severe damage to the liver and kidneys. and lasts twenty. Effects: Bark extracts of this Ecuadorian tree are used by hunters to sharpen the senses. WILD DAGGA AKA: Leonotis leonurus. Effects: Used as a folk medicine and narcotic in southern Chile. but can result in drowsiness and dreaminess for an hour or two. is reputed to be an aphrodisiac.DOB produces extremely long-lasting effects. and it has caused one death due to an individual's mistaking it for MDA and taking a massive dose. None of the chemicals known to exist in tupa are hallucinogenic. VEPRIS AMPODY Effects: One of the richest sources of DMT (up to 0. It is sometimes combined with MDMA. Precautions: The term kinnikinnick can also refer to other plants and to mixtures of these plants. Some Indians of South America use it along with tobacco in shamanistic rituals. Desfontainia spinos. bufotenine is not. and DOI is active at doses of 1. among others. and by some North American Indians as an ingredient in love magic. Doses of 20 to 25 mg are mildly stimulating. Precautions: It is toxic and may adversely affect the motor nerves. may result in headaches. chapico. Native to India. since most types of toad venom are toxic. Manchuria. The venom must be dried and smoked to inactivate the toxins. A designer psychedelic which is DOB without the side-chain methyl group. YUN-SHIH AKA: Caesalpinia sepiaria. Mongolia. If dosage is increased. and death may result. kinnikinik. spend. When smoked." .

heart attack. nasal congestion. it can also worsen such gastrointestinal disorders as swallowing difficulties. Para-aminosalicylic acid. vomiting. estrogens. and other oral medications. and Terazosin. Tobacco will interfere with the drug's absorption. Erythro-mycin. or medicines toxic to the kidneys (e. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Sulfinpyrazone. Buffered effervescent tablets and sodium salicylate should not be used by those who need to restrict sodium in their diet. flushing. abdominal discomfort. muscle twitches. and more juice should be poured into the glass and drunk to insure that the complete dose has been taken. vomiting. Tiopronin. aspirin may lower the risk of colon cancer..S. reduction of white blood cells. convulsions. Ranitidine. a ringing or buzzing in the ears. headache. tingling and numbness of the hands and feet. as a side effect. Individuals who have liver problems. an increased risk of bleeding when combined with Levamisole. Furosemide. Cimetidine. and tiredness. such as arthritis medications) may cause kidney damage. and fainting. It is consumed immediately after mixing. it can be mixed with apple juice and orangejuice. Bayer. anxiety. lethargy. and doses of tetracy-clines and aspirin are taken at least an hour apart to avoid any interactions. acromegaly. There is evidence that bromocriptine may be addictive. The effects of overdosing are irregular heartbeat. Phenothiazines. and Rauwolfia alkaloids. headache. who are allergic to aspirin or tartrazine (a common food coloring). It can increase the effects of Cortisone. Those with gout should consult a physician first. The effects of bromocriptine may be diminished by oral contraceptives. Bufferin Extra Strength. A mild overdose produces symptoms which include deep and rapid breathing. heart or lung disease. frequent urination. constipation. and muscle pains. and coma. drowsiness. The effects of aspirin can be decreased when combined with antacids. nausea. severe stomach pains or cramps. Rifampin. making overdosage much more likely. which is believed to comprise about 20 percent of all cases of senile dementia. beta-blocking drugs. Any product containing aspirin that gives off a strong vinegar odor should be discarded immediately. and dangerously increase blood pressure when taken with other ergot alkaloids or MAO inhibitors. Nafcillin. rashes. Cyclosporine can cause problems with the body's ability to remove Digoxin. Lifethreatening or overdose symptoms include muscle twitches. cocaine. gum inflammation and growth. sinus inflammation. a greater susceptibility to kidney damage when combined with gold compounds. When combined with alcohol.. 2-bromo-alpha. . When combined with cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins. dark or discolored urine. Rare side effects include confusion. and stomach irritations. a form of senility in which small blood clots form in the brain. nausea. Melphalan. agitation. Haloperidol. black or bloody stools. Effects: It is an anti-oxidant and anti-depressant. jaundice. hallucinations. nausea. immuno-suppressants may increase the risk of infection. insomnia. Ethacrynic acid. Food or drink (including mineral water) should not be consumed for at least thirty minutes after taking Alendronate. facial flushing. Rare side effects include high blood pressure. adverse side effects may be more frequent and severe. irregular heartbeat. vitamin B-6. loss of appetite. thirst. hallucinations. excitement. Ketoconazole. pancreas inflammation. as aspirin can accumulate in the body over time. and it should always be used in conjunction with adrenal corticosteroid drugs. excessive drowsiness. including dental surgery. or rhinitis. Fos-amax. or who have a history of nasal polyps. Sandimmune. it can block phobic memories and projections. and Valproic acid. epilepsy. Ascriptin Extra Strength. a flushing of the skin. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). while aspirin toxicity may occur when combined with Bumet-anide. Common side effects include abdominal or stomach discomfort. Measurin. cortisone drugs. Methotrexate. tremors. high blood sugar. Carteolol. CYCLOSPORINE AKA: Neoral. heartburn. Terfena-dine can mask some symptoms of aspirin overdose. chills. nausea. marijuana and bromocriptine may result in fatigue. It is also used for the treatment of infertility (both male and female). Metoclo-pramide. vision problems. Some suggest that aspirin may be helpful in preventing Alzheimer's. caution must be exercised. diarrhea.A. For those over 60. hallucinations. liver or kidney disease. and some pituitary tumors. Dextrothyroxine (in large. a peptic ulcer. Trimethoprim-Sulfame-thoxazole. and headache. Azapropazon. and possibly Rifabutin diminish the effect. liver damage. or ringing or buzzing in the ears develops. and hair loss. plastic. calcium supplements. When combined with levodopa. Micardipine. Aspirin can decrease the effects of Acebutolol. muscle cramps. Indomethacin. and Prednisolone. throat irritation. fainting. Precautions: It elicits adverse effects in those who have severe kidney disease or an allergy to Alendronate. Effects: There are two anecdotal cases of patients who have had improved memory and mental functioning after taking it. confusion. and increased formation of stomach ulcers and stomach bleeding. Allop-urinol. and boosting immunity. mouth sores. Ecotrin Maximum Strength. nervousness. ulcers. anemia. headaches. and may play roles in enhancing memory. Taking it with food may help prevent an upset stomach. continuous doses). potassium-sparing diuretics. Aspirin can significantly reduce blood coagulation. Lisinopril. Danazol. Precautions: It should not be used by those who have liver damage. Aspirin can result in low blood sugar when combined with oral anti-diabetic medication. flushing of the face. When taken with cocaine. so the dosage of any of these drugs must be reduced when it is taken. Alzheimer's disease. increases the libido. nightmares. fluid retention. Fluconazole. Arthritis Pain Formula. sore throat. "aspirin may be the closest thing we have to a wonder drug" and "is the standard against which all other drugs are compared for pain relief and for reduction of inflammation. ASPIRIN AKA: Alka-Seltzer with Aspirin. body spasms. asthma. A physician should be consulted first if an individual has diabetes. hearing loss. or water to reduce the risk of upset stomach or bleeding. lethargy. Rare side effects include taste perception changes and vomiting. Less common side effects include dizziness. high blood pressure. Bufferin Arthritis Strength. constipation. Continued use may cause reduced kidney function and hypertension. infections. vision difficulties. Itracona-zole. Probenecid. constipation. Cyclosporine produces adverse effects when combined with a number of drugs: Itraconazole or Nimodipine increase its toxicity. sweating. a sudden drop in blood pressure when combined with Nitroglycerin tablets. It can lead to a decreased tolerance for alcohol. Ox-prenelol. and Parkinson's disease. vomiting. Phenytoin. and ulcers. Spirono-lactone. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. or kidney disease may find that cyclo-sporine aggravates their conditions. loss of appetite. and those using gold. NSAIDS. itching. Effects: According to Pearson and Shaw. which could possibly overcome brain damage caused by strokes. who have peptic ulcers or a bleeding disorder. Use should be discontinued if dizziness. and weight loss. Methylprednisolone. they may be enhanced by other anti-Parkinson drugs. It can decrease the blood pressure when taken with anti-hypertensives. As yet. vomiting. Maximum Bayer. Phenobarbital. Common side effects include kidney toxicity. nausea. male breasts that are painful or swollen. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. bloody urine. Norwich Extra-Strength. If taken on a regular basis. Lovas-tatin. The lethal dosage is 30 to 90 regular-strength tablets and 20 to 40 maximum-strength tablets. BENACTYZINE An anti-cholinergic drug used in Europe. fever. It can also interfere with the effects of some diuretics when taken by those with severe liver disease. BROMOCRIPTINE AKA: CB-154. ulcer. and virus vaccines may cause adverse reactions to the vaccines. irregular heartbeat. Ecotrin. weakness. experts strongly recommend that this combination be avoided." It has proven effective against multi-infarct dementia (MID). Tobramycin. Phenobarbitol. and bloody stools. convulsions. heartburn.ergokryptine. Overdose symptoms include upset stomach. liver or kidney failure. salt substitutes. brittle hair or fingernails. difficulty in urinating. Vancomycin may cause hearing loss or kidney damage. Less common side effects include difficulty in swallowing. conjunctivitis. Bufferin. The oral solution is mixed in a glass (paper. Cimetidine. dizziness. Stomach or intestinal problems can result when mixed with aspirin. The absorption of Alendronate can be interfered with by antacids. fainting. An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. excessive vomiting. Papaverine. hearing loss. reducing fat. Lovastatin may cause heart and kidney damage. or high potassium/low sodium foods can increase blood potassium. and tobacco. Precautions: Cyclosporine should be prescribed only by doctors who have had experience in immunosuppressive therapy and organ transplantation. bromocriptine is prescribed for the treatment of certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as muscle rigidity. diarrhea. difficulty sleeping. Diclofenac. and increase the risk of aspirin-related ulcers. intestinal bleeding. coma. thirst. A severe overdose produces symptoms which include fever. visual disturbances. Aspergum. rash. Other common substances that could cause toxic reactions include alcohol. anticoagulants. vomiting. or who have narrow-angle type glaucoma. estrogens. It should not be taken by anyone with chicken pox or herpes zoster. marijuana. bromocriptine may weaken the antiParkinson effect. and rapid heartbeat. Bromocriptine. Empirin. diarrhea. Bayer 8-Hour. and Rauwolfia alkaloids. The effects of both drugs can be enhanced when combined with Guanfacine. Rare side effects include intense headaches. spastic blinking. numbness or tingling in the hands and feet. Amphotericin B. seizures. androgens. depression. It activates dopamine in the brain and. Carbamazepine. Clarithromycin. a ringing or buzzing in the ears. sulfonamides. and convulsions. and even a few aspirin can cause the body to excrete vitamin C at up to three times the normal rate. Excessive doses of 2000 mg or more per day can lower blood sugar. Effects: According to the authors of The Pill Book. and problems with walking. chest pain. which should not be taken within thirty minutes of Alendronate. Combined with marijuana. Ticlopidine. Precautions: It should not be taken by those allergic to bromocriptine or Ergotamine. diarrhea. diarrhea. Salicylates. penicillin. The possibility of stomach ulcers and/or bleeding increases when it is taken with adrenal corticosteroids. Furosemide. Methyldopa. Propranolol. psychosis. shortness of breath. this has not been supported by clinical evidence. DONEPEZIL AKA: Aricept. Gentamicin. or who is going to have surgery within the next two months (including dental surgery) requiring general or spinal anesthesia. anti-convulsants. potassium-sparing diuretics. leg cramps. A drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Allopurinol. gas. Other possible side effects include hives. Less common side effects include fever. An ergot derivative like LSD and Hydergine. Sotalol. Ascriptin A/D. severe abdominal pain. it can aggravate any stomach irritation and bleeding caused by aspirin. loss of hearing. seizures. Minoxidil. potassium supplements. drug allergy. facial swelling. upset stomach. or Phenylbutazone. breathing problems. acne. dry mouth. muscle pain. and large doses of vitamin C. it may slow the body's recovery from injury or illness. who have taken an MAO inhibitor in the previous two weeks. and so should not be taken at least a week before — and probably some time after — surgery. Parlodel. and bleeding. Enalapril. Diltiazem. heart attacks and strokes.g. as the aspirin has started to deteriorate and is no longer effective. weakness. itching. but grapefruit juice can affect the breakdown of the drug. Aspirin should be taken with food. though studies have yet to be done to confirm this. Dosage: One tablet a day. joint pains. night sweats. Common side effects include nausea. ZORprin. and body odor. Effects: It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells. Ketoprofen. Progestins. extending life span. and styrofoam cups should be avoided). Common side effects include mood swings. the effects of bromocriptine may be decreased. and coma. Use of cyclosporine becomes life-threatening if the symptoms include wheezing and shortness of breath. It can also reduce the body's production of melatonin by 75 percent. and low levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood. A. and increased hair growth.CHAPTER 11 Medical Drugs ALENDRONATE AKA: Alendronate sodium. and render urine tests for blood sugar inaccurate. though more research needs to be done. tremors. Tacrolimus. swallowing difficulties. blurred vision. Octreotide. The effects of both drugs are enhanced when aspirin is combined with other anti-coagulants. convulsions. irregular and rapid pulse. confusion. milk. impotence. and milk may render it unpalatable. which may cause problems for diabetics. and sodium and fluid retention when combined with Terazosin. and Verapamil enhance the effect of cyclosporine. a ringing in the ears. or Ticlopi-dine. Diclofenac. Carna Arthritis Pain Reliever. Aspirin can also help prevent migraines.

Dosage: A subcutaneous injection of 8 million units every other day. diabetes. Effects: It may reverse or even prevent the deterioration of the body generally associated with aging by fully restoring the hypothalamus' ability to maintain the body's biochemical home-ostasis. and a reduction in white blood cells. changes in weight. nausea. aching in the muscles and joints. agitation. sweating. a flushing in the face. difficulty in urinating. Cimetidine. changes in mental state and sense perception. kidney disease.15mg per pound of body weight a day in 2 divided doses. TY 21 typhoid. Danazol. Interferon beta-Ib. loss of appetite. anticoagulants. voice changes. upset stomach. and body odor. stimulating the release of growth hormone. coma. B-5. vomiting. Periplum. Dosage: For the treatment of various disorders in adults. anticon-vulsants. heart palpitations. B-6 and L-dopa may have to be taken one-half to four hours apart to prevent this. bronchitis. and adverse reactions may be more frequent and severe in those over age 60. Clarithromycin. diarrhea. Overdose symptoms are not known. Molindone. Alzheimer's disease. Combining with caffeine drinks and foods containing tyramine can raise blood pressure. liver disease. Less common side effects include dream abnormalities. it can decrease dopamine levels in the brain. numbness. skin rashes. constipation. Taking it just before sleep is probably the best strategy for stimulating the release of growth hormone. memory. It is used to treat Parkinson's disease. weakness or feelings of faintness. Less common side effects include heart palpitations or irregularities. thyroid goiter. Guanethidine. headache. . When combined with Pimozide. pneumonia. and with cocaine. but may be more severe manifestations of the above side effects. it can hide the cause of tics. whereas its effectiveness can be reduced by anti-depressants and Cisapride. or Oxprenolol. Phenytoin. asthma. visual disturbances. An overdose will result in increased side effects. a history of heart attacks. Rare side effects include stomach bleeding. epilepsy. though dosage is always adjusted according to the individual. tiredness. Diltiazem. and fainting. high blood pressure. hoarseness. visual disturbances (including double vision). and dryness in the nose and mouth. measles. high fever. with Guan-facine. and seizures. and mildly elevate blood potassium. anxiety. A preliminary study has shown that interferon beta can counteract the memory loss that often occurs with multiple sclerosis. high blood sugar. blood levels of FK506 can be decreased by Carbamazepine. Methylphenidate can reduce the rate at which the following drugs are broken down in the body. urinary infection. sore throat. it has been shown to improve learning. asthma. and which is characterized by restlessness. it can lead to increased effects of both drugs. Methionine. dizziness. constipation. chills. 0. high blood pressure. Phenytoin. hormone disease. dizziness. rubella. high blood pressure. poor coordination. While B-6 can increase dopamine levels in the blood. breast pain. Pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). insomnia. sweating. convulsions. antidepressants. rapid heartbeat. loss of appetite. back pains. it can lead to fatigue. weakness. Common side effects include some form of pain at the site of injection. itching. muscle spasms. central nervous system stimulants. It may also cause tremors. it can lead to dangerously high blood pressure (individuals should cease taking MAO inhibitors two weeks before starting L-Dopa). decreasing the levels of prolactin. It is best taken 30 to 45 minutes before meals. drooling. Common side effects include headaches. pelvic pain. convulsions. Erythromycin. diarrhea. The effects of L-dopa can be increased by antacids. Effects: It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells. laryngitis. anti-hypertensives. It may increase the chance of developing a lym-phoma or other malignancy. abnormal heart rate. such as aminoglyco-side antibiotics. NlMODIPINE AKA: Nimotop. tingling in the hands and feet. high blood pressure. swallowing troubles. have a history of stomach ulcers. Common side effects include muscle spasms. agitation. Precautions: Continued or excessive use can lead to dependence or addiction. or who have had surgery within the last two months (including dental surgery) that required general or spinal anesthesia. stomach bleeding. METHYLPHENIDATE AKA: PMS-Methylphenidate. When combined with Albuterol. headache. in which serotonin levels in the body are too high. An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. stiffness. breathing difficulties. excessive salivation. hallucinations. peptic ulcer. or other anti-Parkinsonian drugs. psychotic episodes. stomach gas. Common side effects in adults include nervousness and insomnia (which are usually controlled by reducing or eliminating the afternoon or evening dose). it can aid in weight loss by suppressing the appetite and stimulating the release of growth hormone. dental infections (in the absence of good oral hygiene. high blood pressure. and yellow fever should be avoided. pain. It should be used with caution by those with glaucoma or other visual problems. and cystic breast disease. decreased frequency of urination. which could possibly overcome brain damage caused by strokes. Taking vitamin C may maintain the levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the body. can raise blood pressure and increase the risk of heartbeat irregularities.5 to 8 grams/day according to a person's individual needs. sore throat. eyelid spasms. buildup of abdominal fluid. menstruation that is painful or irregular. eyelid spasms.4 dihydroxyphenylalanine. Ritalin. 20 to 30 mg/day in two to three divided doses. Precautions: Nothing is known about the effects it might have on those without MS. rapid heartbeat. chest and stomach pains. agitation. suicidal tendencies. abnormal heart rhythms. coughing. with tricyclic antidepressants or anti-hypertensives. confusion. Overdose symptoms include muscle twitches. or Rauwolfia alkaloids. it is generally suggested that 125 to 500 mg/day be taken. skin rash. L-DOPA AKA: Larodopa. uncontrolled movements. it can lead to a higher absorption of L-dopa in the blood and a diminishing in the latter drug's effects on the stomach. with Metoclopramide. delirium. nightmares. The drug should be taken one hour before or two hours after meals to avoid absorption be food. it may increase energy without the addiction and depressive aftermath associated with amphetamines. Methylphenidate can reduce the effectiveness of antihypertensives. oral polio. the minerals selenium and zinc. flushing. convulsions. sweating. Lopar. a burning feeling on the tongue. low blood pressure. mood changes. diarrhea. There are no known food or drug interactions. When combined with cocaine. rash. and decreased by anticholinergic drugs. Methylprednisolone. hallucinations. appetite loss. have taken an MAO inhibitor in the previous two weeks. resulting in higher levels in the bloodstream: anticholinergics. reduced blood magnesium. Nitrates. fever. Blood levels of FK506 (and attendant side effects) can increase when taken with antifungal drugs. tricyclic anti-depressants. dry mouth. unusual breathing patterns. psychosis. feelings of depression and a severely compromised immune system could occur between the time the neu-rotransmitter is metabolized and the body is able to make more. dark urine. and some take Sinemet (a combination of L-dopa and Carbidopa) to keep brain dopamine levels high. phenothiazine antipsychotic medications. Dextrothyroxine can greatly enhance the effects of Methylphenidate. which allows it to cross the blood/brain barrier much more easily and allows the dosage to be reduced by as much as 75 percent. feelings of a need to urinate. especially in high doses. Pyridoxine (vitamin B-6) or a high protein diet can decrease the effects of L-dopa. high blood pressure. nausea. headaches. even though it is classified as a prescription drug. blurred or double vision. nausea. bleeding. heavy perspiration. and so should be used with caution by those driving or using hazardous equipment. or allergic to the drug. chest pain. changes in blood potassium level. and Terazosin. It is sometimes administered with Carbidopa. a viral infection related to Epstein-Barr may also occur. high blood pressure. Effects: According to Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw. leg cramps. with alcohol can result in drowsiness. the shrinking of male genitals. tremors. changes in blood pressure or pulse. liver or kidney abnormalities. fluid retention. euphoria. nausea. Rifampicin. the usual dose is 0. a yellow discoloration in the skin or whites of the eyes. confusion. L-dopa is an amino acid found naturally in the body. and social disorders. It may cause kidney damage in liver patients. glaucoma. delusions. and Parkinson's disease. eating problems arising from a loss of muscle control. cysts. anxiety. narcolepsy and mild depression in the elderly. a stuffy and runny nose. or other nervous-system problems. or those who are generally tense. vomiting. strange thoughts.075 to 0. Rare side effects encompass symptoms occurring almost everywhere on the body. hair loss. vomiting. L-3. Since it is a stimulant that causes the release of norepinephrine. sinus irritation. often adjusted to the lowest effective level to reduce side effects. fungus infection of the mouth. tremors. Rare side effects include blurred vision. and uncontrolled body movements.Effects: Increases the availability of acetylcholine in the brain. A central nervous system stimulant used to treat attention deficit disorder in children. constipation. feelings of stimulation. INTERFERON BETA AKA: Betaseron. lethargy. drowsiness. black-and-blue marks on the skin. convulsions. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are allergic to L-dopa or Carbidopa. Less common side effects include swelling. teeth grinding. flu-like symptoms. itchy skin. Excessive suppression of the immune system can occur when it is taken with other immunosuppressants. and coma. and possibly severe psychotic episodes. tiredness. Precautions: It should not be taken by transplant patients who are sensitive or allergic to FK506. speech problems. or where careless or excessive brushing and flossing causes bleeding). Amphotericin B. tremors. as will MAO inhibitors. the latter also elevating blood pressure to dangerous levels. and E. and herpes infections. pink eye. levodopa. headache. and Oxyphenbuta-zone. bloody urine. plus other psychological. Methyldopa. restless leg syndrome. and tiredness. muscle weakness. sweating). depression. chills. abdominal pain. confusion. It should be taken with food to avoid upset stomach. Minoxidil. breathing difficulties. Gua-nadrel. or who have malignant melanoma or suspicious skin lesions. muscle twitches. Phenobarbitol. B-6. or 35 to 125 mg/day in combination with Carbidopa. hand tremors. with MAO inhibitors. fainting. it can lead to lowered blood pressure and weakness or faintness when standing up. heart or lung disease. increased white blood cells count. while taking one or more of such anti-oxidants as vitamins B-l. The hazards of L-dopa may be increased for those with diabetes. mumps. liver inflammation. benzodiazepine-type tranquilizers and sedatives. calcium channel blockers. FK506 AKA: Prograf. joint pains. excessive sleep. improving memory in Alzheimer's patients for a short period of time. seizures. abdominal pains. hiccups. Food Sources: Velvet beans. Bromocriptine. anti-convulsants. which in turn is converted from phenylalanine. a ringing or buzzing in the ears. Dosage: For Parkinson's patients. stomach pain. and the pain resulting from herpes zoster (shingles). hair loss. educational. and —when taken within 24 hours of each other — Cyclosporine. sleeplessness. have narrow-angle type glaucoma. it is a powerful anti-oxidant. and information processing by releasing norepi-nephrine in the brain. weakness. epilepsy or seizures. fever. For life-extension and cognitive enhancement purposes. fever. an overall feeling of illness. It is a stimulant that can mask symptoms of fatigue. It is metabolized from tyrosine. increased libido. muscle aches. depression and suicidal feelings. weakness. severe depression. confusion. Dosage: For its use in transplant surgery. Tacrolimus. sinusitis. sweating. paranoia. reduced blood-platelet count. Rifampin. some hair loss. lung problems (including fluid in the lungs). migraine headaches. The effects of both drugs can be diminished if combined with Acebutolol. anemia. The elderly may be given a lower dosage to compensate for loss of kidney function. and live vaccines such as BCG. and it may act as a sexual aid by increasing the levels of the neurotrans-mitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. Phenylbutazone. Additional kidney damage may occur when taken with other drugs that cause kidney problems. hallucinations. bitter taste. cystitis. Cis-platin. A precursor of the neurotransmit-ter dopamine. Papaverine. and the drug Hydergine may prevent free-radical damage caused by dopamine byproducts. and fluid retention. A mild to moderate elevation in blood pressure may indicate kidney damage. and suicidal tendencies. mood swings. and pain in the upper abdomen. and reducing the levels of serotonin. hot flashes. Selegiline. and when combined with marijuana. vomiting. hallucinations. Those taking Interferon beta may experience flu-like symptoms (fever. euphoria. confusion. reducing side effects considerably. Vaccination efficacy may be reduced by FK506. itching. instability. and Metoclopramine. agitated. some loss of mental abilities. increased body temperature. and extreme tiredness. blood changes (including anemia). It should be used with extreme caution by those with a history of psychosis. Haloperidol. muscle aches. It could cause a condition called the serotonin syndrome. it can increase the risk of heartbeat irregularities. rapid or irregular pulse. dizziness. Overdose symptoms include vomiting. diarrhea. it can lead to a greater risk of heartbeat irregularity. rapid heart rate. ulcer. changes in muscle function. tiredness. dizziness when standing up.

Combining Penacillamine with gold compounds or immunosuppres-sants can damage the kidneys and blood cells. irregular heartbeat. and sexual difficulties. Effects: It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells. It should not be taken by anyone allergic to selegiline. Life-threatening symptoms include severe chest pain. Overdose symptoms include nausea. stiffness or spasms in the muscles of the neck and back. pale skin. It accumulates in the highest concentrations in the brain and spinal fluid. it can lead to changes in blood pressure. itchy skin. for brain-boosting effects. one study has shown that it may work synergistically with vitamin B-6 and phenylalanine in this regard (5 mg of selegiline. and cardiac arrest. though no documented cases have been noted. A small percentage of Caucasians and Asians are poor metabolizers of the drug because of a lack of inadequate liver enzyme to break it down. drowsiness. Car-bamazepine. muscle rigidity. It has increased the life span of rats by an average of 30 percent. Common side effects include trouble with swallowing or speaking. Life-threatening symptoms are known as the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). skin rash. It is considered a possible treatment for Alzheimer's. hyperactive reflexes. depression. Nimodipine can increase the effects (and possible toxicity) of oral anti-coagulants. dizziness. nausea. not to exceed 112. and uncontrolled body movements. irritability. and it may lead to photosensitivity in some people. the recommended dosage is 60 mg in two divided doses. possibly leading to tumors of the pituitary gland. slurred speech. stiffness or weakness in the limbs. which could possibly overcome damage caused by strokes. 100 mg of vitamin B-6. can cause bleeding. tongue. hallucinations. Common side effects include loss of appetite. swollen legs or feet. and a possible rapid heartbeat when combined with tobacco. vomiting. and involuntary movements of the lips. hand tremors. jaundice. breathing difficulties. or a previous bad reaction to selegiline. mouth sores (including ulcers and white spots). cocaine. bloody or black stools. excessive tremors.5 mg/day. Clozapine can also diminish the effects of the drug. Levobutanol eye drops. heartburn. The effects and possible toxicity of both drugs can be increased when combined with antiarrhythmics and Nicardipine. sore throat. seizures. and vitamin D (large doses). a heartbeat that is abnormally slow or fast. it can lessen the effect of penicillamine (they should be taken at least two hours apart). which could result in a depletion and feelings of depression. insomnia. An amphetamine derivative and central nervous system stimulant prescribed for attention deficit disorders in children and daytime sleepiness. it has relieved depression in 50 percent of those who suffered severely from this illness. and may also increase concentration. Quinidine. or marijuana. depression. and abdomen. Rare symptoms include hypersensitivity to the drug. headaches. it may cause the heartbeat to be dangerously fast. The effects (and possible toxicity) of Nimodipine can be enhanced by antiarrhythmics. with diuretics. muscle cramps. and with vitamin B-6. creating greater nerve stimulation and possible improvements in learning. Taking it on an empty stomach may cause stomach upset. Phenytoin. and coma. which exists in both plants and animals (and is the so-called "love chemical" in chocolate). dizziness or lightheadedness when moving from a prone or sitting position to a standing position. leg pain. paranoia. Rare side effects include weight loss. and for those who do take it. and ethanol intoxication. Depen. and swelling of the feet. Less common side effects include itching. phenylalanine. hallucinations. a swelling of the arms and legs. and taking it too late in the day may result in troubled sleep. It may be dangerous for individuals with liver or kidney disease. Those taking it should refrain from driving or piloting any craft. tardive dyskinesia. with anti-hypertensives. it can lead to high levels of potassium in the blood. dizziness. difficulty in walking or balancing. insomnia. blurred vision. fast and irregular heartbeat. as can Carbamazepine. and general mood. anemia. which increases the flow of blood in the brain and decreases the chance of oxygen deprivation to the brain cells. coughing up blood. pulse or blood pressure irregularities. Precautions: Releases vasopressin in the body. hallucinations. The molecular structure is similar to phenylethylamine (PEA). Overdose symptoms are merely more extreme manifestations of expected side effects. Juprenil. It can be taken with food or drink if stomach upset occurs. lip smacking. fever. hydantoin anticonvulsants. Life-threatening and overdose symptoms include ulcers. mental changes. for cognitive enhancement. nausea. severe nausea and vomiting. memory loss. vomiting. Jumexal. low blood pressure. It also benefits memory. weakness. the usual dosage is 120 mg/day in three divided doses. ankles. urine that is bloody or cloudy. liver inflammation or jaundice. arms.5 to 75 mg/day. jaundice. irregular heartbeat. and loss of taste. Side effects may be more pronounced in the elderly. ringing in the ears. memory. Cyclosporine. and include high fever. convulsions. additional side effects include loss of the skin's tensile strength (an effect that may be prevented by adequate nutrition) and a loss of zinc and vitamin B-6 (possibly prevented by supplementation of 100 mg/day of each). . and cause various problems when combined with levodopa. Mover-gan. constipation. One study has found that 90 mg in three divided doses over a 12-week period had a significantly positive effect on memory. and. vision problems. Effects: It can help slow the progress of Alzheimer's to a moderate degree by protecting the brain cells from the damaging effects of oxygen. Effects: Removes heavy metals from the body. drowsiness. chest pain. wheezing. nausea. and Theo-phylline. Side effects are generally mild. rapid heartbeat. changes in blood pressure. age-related degenerative diseases. and toothache. and is lifethreatening. rash. and Parkinson's disease. Less common side effects include sore throat. coughing. vivid dreams. stomach bleeding. taking five days for a steady dose to reach the blood instead of the usual one. It can strengthen the effects of anti-hypertensives. abdominal pain. Penicillamine may be dangerous for those who suffer from kidney disease or who are allergic to any penicillin antibiotics. breast. irritability. Jumex. many of them lived beyond the maximum life expectancy for that species. increased incidence of bruising. aspirin. According to John Mann. unpleasant tastes. selegiline hydrochloride. and heart disease (excluding coronary artery disease). headache. and stomachache. chest pain. or working in high places should not be undertaken while under the effects of the drug. Precautions: While some studies show dramatic improvements in those with Alzheimer's. restlessness. it is the only calcium-channel blocker known to improve neurological function after a stroke. profound dementia. Those over 60 should exercise caution. headaches. it is prescribed to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are allergic or who have severe anemia. and blood cells. others have shown no significant increase for several types of memory tasks. Prolonged use can damage the liver. Nimodipine is taken at least one hour before or two hours after meals. wandering eye. It should not be taken by those allergic or sensitive to it. difficulty in opening the mouth. fainting. It should not be taken by those who are allergic to it. Less common side effects include chest pain. It also has an intensified sedative effect when combined with alcohol. deepen the sedative effect of other central nervous system depressants. and peeling skin. muscle spasms in the neck and heel. Cimetidine. 37. norepi-nephrine. a possible irregular heartbeat when combined with cocaine and marijuana. PENICILLAMINE AKA: Cuprimine. and is usually prescribed for strokes and migraine headaches. heart failure. chills. Common side effects include increased sensitivity to ultra-violet rays from the sun. it may cause a dangerous drop in blood pressure. anxiety. fainting. dizziness. a burning on the lips or in the mouth. Dosage: For therapeutic uses. though grapefruit juice should be avoided. In doses of 15 to 60 mg a day. stuffy nose. difficulty urinating. and legs. nausea. and may have some anti-stress and anti-aging properties. fever. diarrhea. acne. drowsiness. agitation. fever. moving the tongue. severe psychosis. RAPAMYCIN An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. with iron supplements. and concentration. or who have very low blood pressure. though further research has been unable to replicate these results (it is still not fully known how the drug works). frequent and decreased urination. operating any heavy machinery. profuse sweating. anxiety. it may result in an irregular heartbeat and a worsening of congestive heart failure. A drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. impaired memory. and with Tocainide. regular liver function tests are recommended. fainting. neck. Anecdotal evidence indicates it may be an aphrodisiac. breathing problems. depression. headache. Betaxolol eye drops. increased saliva in the mouth. L-deprenyl. SELEGILINE AKA: Deprenyl. diarrhea. L-dopa. sweating.75 to 75 mg/day is said to provide 6 to 12 hours of mental stimulation accompanied by physical relaxation. a numbness or tingling in the hands or feet. Procythol. It may also increase acetylcholine levels. gas. prevent kidney stones. unusual or uncontrolled body movements. seizures. mood changes. 18. and mental stamina. The effects of Risperidone are enhanced when taken with Clozapine. When combined with Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. and diminished when combined with food. Rare side effects include general pain. a heartbeat that is abnormally fast or slow. stomach pain. Dosage: John Mann recommends 250 mg/day to start. Timolol eye drops. it may increase the risk of adverse reactions from either drug. and mild nausea. high blood pressure. high blood pressure. slow. it can increase the need for this vitamin. and joint pain. involuntary muscle movements. headaches. tinnitus. face. and drowsiness. bleeding or bruising. coughing up blood. wheezing. dementia. impotence. Overdose symptoms (which can occur in doses of more than 10 mg/day) include high (and possibly fatal) blood pressure. Effects: Increases the level of nor-epinephrine in the synapses of the brain. PEMOLINE AKA: Cylert. tiredness. loss of appetite. magnesium pemo-line. Dosage: For migraine headaches. insomnia. as side effects may be more pronounced and more frequent. This last symptom is known as torsade de pointes. joint pain and swelling. and pancreas. eyelid spasms. with Disopyramide. coughing. increased angina. and abnormal heart rhythms. Those over 60 may find that side effects may be more frequent or severe. A standard prescription drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in combination with levodopa and Car-bidopa. dopamine. loss of consciousness. Those over 60 may be able to get by on smaller doses for a shorter period of time. lowered sex drive. increasing to 1000 to 2000 mg/day in four divided doses. Rifampin. allergies to other medications. and decreased by calcium (large doses). Less common side effects include chest pain. shortness of breath. swollen lymph glands. and reaction times in those with Parkinson's. hallucinations. and uncontrolled movements of the head. and limbs. enlarged pupils. vision changes. weakness. or a history of seizures. kidneys. psychosis. unusual blood clotting. confusion. flushing of the skin. speech difficulties. more significantly. Driving or piloting any craft. puffing out the cheeks. blisters. as it could damage blood cells and kidneys. The effects of penicillamine can be enhanced when combined with alcohol. cold or clammy skin. hair loss. sweating. confusion. epilepsy. Precautions: Its memory-enhancing effects on non-schizophrenics are still unknown. and mental depression when taken by itself. constipation. tyrosine. Experts advise that all such interactions be avoided. weight loss. and tyramine. dry mouth. Alzheimer's disease. fatigue. jaw clenching or teeth gnashing. attention. it is probably the only calcium-channel blocker not used for angina or high blood pressure. an increase in weight. Overdose symptoms include agitation. joint pain. Precautions: It should not be taken by those who are sensitive or allergic to it. or irregular. vomiting. Common side effects include rash. Eldepryl. alertness. rash or other skin problems. or working in high places. dizziness. sores.Effects: Prevents the constriction of blood vessels. Rare side effects include temporary blindness. A drug modified from an amino acid in penicillin. In fact. and a stiff neck. and also resembles such compounds as amphetamine. swollen feet. constipation. and 1 to 6 grams of phenylalanine). convulsions. Nimodipine may pose risks to those who have kidney or liver disease. and weaken the effects of Lithium. difficult urination. nervousness. rash. SD Deprenyl. Rare side effects consist of such involuntary actions as smacking the lips. Effects: It is believed to improve short-term memory by about 20 percent in patients taking the drug. It may be dangerous for those with a history of peptic ulcers. with beta-adrenergic blocking agents. fever. unnatural tiredness. Nimodipine can lead to dangerously low blood pressure when combined with alcohol. Common side effects include tiredness. RlSPERIDONE AKA: Risperdal. and treat heavy metal poisoning. however. and coma. Risperidone can increase levels of the hormone prolactin. abdominal pains. Digoxin (large doses). What effects it has when combined with cocaine or marijuana are not known.

yohimbe. With Meperidine (Demerol) and other MAO inhibitors.coma. It should not be taken with any overthe-counter medications such as cough and cold medications. anxiety. diet pills. since it only inhibits MAO-B and not MAO-A. miso soup. pickled or smoked fish. or yohimbine. For Parkinson's. Dosage: Smart drug users prefer the liquid form to the pill because it is easier to calibrate into smaller doses and is more readily absorbed into the body. which may be enough to produce feelings of well-being and increased energy in the average person. or poultry.. Ward Dean. wine. convulsions. beer (including nonalcoholic beer). coma. insomnia. et al. and muscle spasms in the face. Jozsef Knoll. or soy sauce. a rapid heart rate and high blood pressure. Mark Mayell. severe headache. nose drops. Dr. it avoids this dangerous interaction. fava beans. high fever. possibly. Combined with marijuana or tobacco. an increased depressive effect may result. or caffeine. state that some individuals have taken up to 60 mg for three weeks with no significant side effects. bananas. Even less may be effective. When taken with levodopa. shock. confusion. irritability. who developed selegiline. however. vivid dreams. salami. recommends the following dosages: Age 3035 3540 4045 4550 5055 5560 6065 6570 7075 7580 80+ Dosage 1 mg twice a week 1 mg every other day 1 mg/day 2 mg/day 3 mg/day 4 mg/day 5 mg/day 6 mg/day 8 mg/day 9 mg/day 10 mg/day . figs. Discovery Experimental and Development. liver. It should not be taken with any foods that contain the enzyme tyra-mine — avocados. incoherence. laxatives. death when combined with fluoxetine (there should be at least a five-week span between the time one drug is stopped and the other is taken). With Sinemet (a combination of Carbidiopa and levodopa). cheese. there is a greater risk of side effects. and raisins.. there could be a severe drop in blood pressure — as well as potentially fatal reactions — and with narcotics. flushing of the skin. pepperoni). and liquors. one manufacturer of selegiline. especially if taken with vitamin B-6 and phenylalanine. it could result in a rapid heart rate and. yeast extracts. With Sertraline. with cocaine. bean curd. recommends 10 to 15 mg/ week for the average healthy person age 45 and over. excitement. overstimula-tion. The effects when combined with Sumatriptan are unknown. weakness. meat. nightmares. or death. there could be an increase in levodopa's side effects. fermented sausage (summer sausage. restlessness. It should not be combined with Milacemide. insists that. or vitamins without consulting a physician first. the usual dose is 5 mg with breakfast and lunch. opiates. drowsiness. heart attack. antacids. as it could result in severe toxicity or death. overripe fruit — chocolate.D. bean pods. bologna. there could be a toxic interaction that may result in seizures. M. There is an increased risk of mental instability and.

and skin rash. such as some victims of angina. and depression. among others. protect against the effects of radiation and freezing. Precautions: No side effects. Subjects have been shown to have enhanced performance on memory tests. AMPAKINE Effects: A drug developed from ampakines. ANIRACETAM AKA: Draganon. RIMSO-50. and it is always stored in its pure state. As it can carry other substances directly into the blood. in which the high-speed electrical signals that link the brain's complex neural circuits are failing. though many use it to treat arthritis and sports injuries. Because it has so many benefits. digestive disorders. FlPEXIDE AKA: Attentil. Dosage: The most effective cognitive-enhancing dose is 1000 mg/day. GEROVITAL AKA: Gerovital H3. bacteria. be a beneficial supplement to cancer therapy. When taken orally. with a 30-day interval between periods of use. dizziness. While the work of Dr. and coma. headaches. and which can cause liver damage and death. nitrogen oxides. It should be dabbed on. insomnia. remove lipofuscin deposits (it may be better than DMAE in this respect. a chemical relative to DMAE that is. it is converted by the body into GHB. a burning sensation when urinating. it imparts to the breath and skin an immediate garlic odor. reduce keloids. How it works is still unknown. along with redness. BEMEGRIDE Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. Legally. burning. Effects: Said to greatly increase the creativity in people who are already creative. meclofenoxate. but are undocumented in humans). it is not very effective. Side effects include dangerously low heart rate and breathing. Clocete. it has been used to treat reading problems. hives. never rubbed in. scars. BP 662. including three deaths. and facial swelling. it probably has no effect on Alzheimer's. tremors. and possibly nausea. or blistering on the areas where it has been applied. motion sickness. The amount needed is mixed at the time of application. mineral. unconsciousness. not rubbed in. Helfergen. motion sickness. Effects: It works. photophobia (light intolerance). thus providing a better atmosphere for learning to take place. It has been found to reduce the severity of paraplegia in cats subjected to crushing spinal cord injuries. and any excess wiped off after half an hour. insomnia (especially if taken later in the day). or contraindications known. nausea. as they are more sensitive to DMSO. and performing the various functions of the skin. and it may show promise in helping those with such disorders as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. It is not used for more than 30 days at a time. though more research is needed. and concentrations greater than 50 percent are not applied to the face and neck. stimulate wound healing. Anecdotal evidence indicates it may provide benefits to those with Down's syndrome. potassium metabisulfate. forty older people with advanced cognitive disorders improved their scores on a number of various tests after taking it. and has been used as a degreaser. vomiting. a cloudy or discolored appearance indicates impurities. has been found to enhance communication between brain cells. or who is allergic to DMSO. It also aids the intestinal bacteria in producing the vitamins folic acid. though this is based only on one study. and senile dementia. learning disabilities. Despite this. DMSO AKA: Dimethyl sulfoxide. The Gerovital product PABA helps in forming blood cells. help protect against fungus. in turn. Those with fair skin use no more than a 50 percent concentration. While this new free radical is less damaging than the one removed and can be counteracted with the various vitamin. Effects: It is believed to improve memory. hyperexcitability. it converts to a sulfoxide free radical.CHAPTER 12 Nootropics Nootropics is a term used by proponents of smart drugs to describe medical drugs and nutritional supplements that have a positive effect on brain function. Nathaniel Phillips reports that concentrations greater than 70 percent can cause the skin problems. stimulate immunity. along with headaches. toxi-city. A common side effect is a harmless garlic taste that can persist for up to three days. Cellative. Dosage: The typical oral dose is 1 to 2 teaspoons a day. though W. Effects: Can enhance dopamine to a certain degree. Proserout. It is very similar structurally to the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. and stroke). The effects appear to be cumulative. It may improve learning. procaine breaks down into the B vitamin paraminobenzoic acid (PABA) and diethylaminoethanol (DEAE). itching. When combined with any other bladder medication. side effects are also rare. and benzoic acid. Precautions: Toxicity and side effects seem minimal. discomfort. Sarpul. Rare side effects include nasal congestion. Concentrations of 40 percent or more may prolong bleeding. as well as those with other forms of brain damage and dysfunction. it breaks down into DMAE and supplies the same basic building blocks as DMAE for manufacturing acetylcholine and speeding nerve transmissions across synapses. Injections should only be administered by a physician. Vigilor. or solvent grade. Precautions: Causes convulsions. increase learning ability. hyperexcitability. not by lubricating joints or by deadening pain. seizures. which is readily carried into the blood by DMSO. it is also very controversial — its promoters claim that it can cure over 200 diseases and ailments associated with premature aging. and increases the rate of synthesis of RNA and the manufacture of new proteins. One life-threatening symptom is breathing difficulties. headaches. increase mental alertness. Precautions: It may be dangerous for those with a bladder malignancy. atherosclerotic dementia. headaches. protect animal brains from the effects of hypoxia (in this respect. Thunder Nectar. paint thinner. It is dabbed on. impurities can be carried directly into the bloodstream. GHRE. converted into choline by the cells. Precautions: Other researchers have been unable to duplicate discoverer Ana Asian's positive results. with the bottle securely capped to prevent the absorption of moisture which might deteriorate the solution. diarrhea. DlAZADAMANTOL Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. attack free radicals. it is only prescribed for interstitial cystitis and bladder inflammation. and the effects of burns. Composed of choline and acetylcholine. Dosage: Some say 1000 to 3000 mg/day. It is difficult to perform double-blind studies on DMSO. In the bloodstream.4 butanediol. By itself. as it evaporates slowly. but is about ten times stronger and treats more symptoms. pantothenic acid. though others say that such doses are unnecessarily high. macular degeneration. dimethylsufide. disodium phosphate. and is not recommended for any other use. Chemically similar to piracetam. and vitamin K. and irritability. Less common side effects are vision problems (these have occurred quite frequently in lab animals. and viruses. Effects: Has been shown to protect the brains of lab animals. depression. The drug appears crystal clear and has a very distinct sulfur or garlic odor. but produces good results when taken with procaine hydrochloride. It has been shown to increase circulation. but not recall. infertility. Toxicity is uncommon in therapeutic doses. Ana Asian has made it a very famous and popular anti-aging drug. mixed with tomato or grape juice to mask its foul taste. Dosage: Studies to date have used 600 mg/day in three divided doses. and disturbances in color vision. and useful in treating such eye problems as cataracts. cosmetics. toxicity may occur if it is inhaled. gray hair. and promote a sense of well-being. it contributes nothing to people who are not so inclined. Ro 13-5057. though some say that this is just speculative). intermittent claudication [severe pain in the calves when walking due to restricted blood flow in the legs]. No overdose symptoms are known. Precautions: Products containing BD have been associated with over 120 cases of adverse side effects. It may exacerbate the effects of some allergens. which can improve motor coordination. NRG3. GH-3. and anti-freeze. 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid 2-dimethy-laminoethyl ester. In Europe. It takes effect very fast. BD AKA: Enliven. CENTROPHENOXINE AKA: Brenal. paradoxical drowsiness. Weight Belt Cleaner. and benzene. biotin. or soaps have already been applied. Gerovital is a chemical mixture of procaine hydrochloride. proponents tout it as the wonder drug of the 21st century. Precautions: Centrophenoxine may be dangerous to those who suffer from severe hypertension (high blood pressure). as they are more sensitive to DMSO than the rest of the body. and various age-related mental problems. metabolizing protein. convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. and the San Francisco General Hospital Brain Trauma and Edema Center has used it to treat brain injuries. fatigue. protect against aging (has been shown to increase the life span of lab animals 30 percent). Marucotol. but it has not been adequately tested on humans as yet. the Gerovital product DEAE is an antidepressant. Effects: May improve memory by promoting better utilization of oxygen in the brain. solutions contain acetone. POET A substitute phenylalanine. lotions. and tremors. Precautions: Causes convulsions. It is an antidepressant as a result of it's being an MAO inhibitor. so that the dosage can be reduced over a period of time. the effects of both drugs maybe intensified. improved learning may be attributed to the higher levels of dopamine. According to Pearson and Shaw. In the body. Symptoms of deficiency include constipation. DMSO should not be applied to the skin where skin medications. bath oils. Effects: Increases energy and promotes sleep. Lucidril. sleepiness. kidney or liver problems. Most of the industrial grade. It appears to be an all-purpose solvent. 1. and amino acid antioxidants. it may be useful to those who could suffer loss of oxygen to the tissues. In addition. diabetes. a class of biochemicals. Somatopro. Methoxynal. after it has scavenged the hydroxyl radicals from the body. and glaucoma. improve mood. ETIRACETAM A nootropic drug similar to piracetam. much of the DMSO sold over the counter or by mail order contains unwanted impurities such as dimethylsulfone. but include depression. Serenity. Revitalize Plus. and that 80 mg/kg of body weight (the dosage most often used in clinical trials) is sufficient. itching. repair synapses. but by scavenging free radicals. dysfunctions in speech and motor skills. strengthen the immune system. In one study. .

Stuart Berger states that PABA is not a vitamin. and critics assert that most of the improvements are merely the result of its anti-depressant properties. but there is much evidence to suggest that they are virtually identical. It was discovered by Albert Hofmann. anxiety. Severe side effects include confusion. ISOPRINOSINE AKA: Methisprinol. Liquid X. About three-quarters to one and a half grams produces a high. Niloric. though Ward Dean. intelligence. slowed heartbeat arising from conduction problems. Side effects. GHB also increases levels of prolactin. however. Ronald Klatz. keeps a proper balance of several major neurotransmitters in the brain.5 grams). Effects: Has been claimed to be an "all-purpose brain booster. It may take at least half a year before the effects are noticeable. Some obscure French studies done in Africa may indicate it is an effective treatment for sicklecell anemia. hyperprolactinemia. Since it apparently has an inverted Ushaped dose-response curve. Food Sources: Meat. will fully dissolve in water. Two of the ingredients in isoprinosine are inosine. It is a precursor to the neurotransmitter GAB A. possibly because of its effect on growth hormone. 1 to 2 grams. It stimulates the release of growth hormone in the body and. and caffeine can block its dopamine-related effects. which is used by the body to make RNA. or even negative. A natural component of every cell in the body.. GRISEOLI£ACID Derivatives are known metabolic brain-enhancers. headaches. it is used routinely on accident victims — those suffering from shock. is 3 mg/day. electrocution.D. it often does not produce grogginess upon waking. and headache. hypothalamus. when the two are combined. and 2. M. Because it is a weak MAO inhibitor. but one study has shown that healthy young people taking 12 mg/day saw greater alertness and mental abilities after only two weeks.H. GHB is often administered with a potassium supplement in which the elemental form is equal to 10 percent of the weight of the GHB consumed. which are a combination of three substances produced by the ergot fungus. brown fat. and amnesia. a sudden drop in blood pressure. heart attacks. with feelings of bliss. Mild side effects include a numbness of the legs. and loss of appetite. vomiting. while 2. epidemiologist Ming-Yan Chin and Richard A. vomiting.. lead to overstimulation when combined with cocaine. Nor is there any evidence for physiological addiction. and increased sociability. drowning.g. barbiturates). unlike other remedies for insomnia. nausea. Unlke GABA." as it improves blood flow to the brain.g. gamma hydrate. though not common. Dr. Precautions: It is not taken by those allergic to procaine or who are taking sulfa drugs or MAO inhibitors. a prolonged. though how many of these are due to impurities. concentration. Pure GHB powder has a salty/ licorice taste. and convulsions..5 to 6 mg/day appears to produce good results. According to Prevention magazine and Dr. and sensuality. concluded. render some herpes viruses inactive. ergot alkaloids dihydrogenated. 4-hydroxybutyrate. Hydroloid. extreme ebullience. the chemist who discovered a more famous ergot derivative. It is generally prescribed to slow age-related memory loss and impaired concentration. sulfa drugs. a mild slowing of the heart. Similar in chemistry to LSD. Overdosing can cause agitation. It is believed to improve memory. and kidneys if taken internally in significant amounts. alcohol.3 A procaine formula similar to Gerovital and Vitacel. HYDERGINE AKA: Circanol. placidity. misidentification. and that it can severely deplete the body's white blood cells. It is taken on an empty stomach (preferably three to four hours after the last meal) to avoid nausea. normalizes systolic blood pressure. skeletal muscles. and may be a neurotransmitter itself. and create adverse fatty changes in the heart. euphoria. severe hypertension. 2 to 4 grams. Precautions: It should not be used by those with gout or who are predisposed to developing it. Xanax). and sleep disorders. Deapril-ST. Before it was banned by the FDA in 1990. it can cross the blood/ brain barrier. Food can dissipate or delay its effects. learning. Bodybuilders who had taken GHB switched to GABA after the ban. Gamma OH. When combined with other ergot preparations or sympathomimetics. and death. ergoloid mesylates. as ergot — a deadly poisonous dark purple or black fungus which thrives on wet grains such as rye — generally causes hallucinations. There are rare allergic reactions. It is not combined with central nervous system depressants such as benzodiazepines (e. Illicit GHB invariably contains dangerous — even toxic — impurities. with the result that it has shown extremely low toxicity. It is not combined with any MAO-B inhibitor drug. vomiting. Less common symptoms are a slow heartbeat. Dosage: In various studies doses of 6 to 8 g/day for eight to ten days. as it may have a negative effect on memory and brain function. Much more research needs to be done. Asian's research has been attacked for not being well-designed and controlled. opiates. such as deprenyl. soreness under the tongue. 4 to 8 grams — very deep sleep of three to four hours. various painkillers (e. Dosage: One tablet/day for 25 days. or over-the-counter allergy and sleep remedies. Liquid Ecstasy. strong relaxation. liver. The precautions that apply to Gerovital also apply to K. or psychosis. published the following general doserelated expectations: less than 1 gram gives rise to mild relaxation. which could be serious. GHB AKA: Alcover.3. NAFTIDROFURYL A metabolic brain-enhancer. lethargy. It may be dangerous to individuals with low blood pressure. which increases the effectiveness of procaine. etal. Cushing's syndrome. incontinence. It could result in a reduced ability of the body to adjust to cold temperatures. Additionally. Works synergistically with piracetam. LSD-25. Complete recovery from even the most severe side effects. Dr. diarrhea. convulsions. MlLACEMIDE AKA: 2-n-pentylaminoacetamide. and decrease the ergoloid effect when combined with marijuana or tobacco. which begins to break down as soon as it enters the blood. Sleep induced by GHB tends to be slightly deeper and somewhat shorter than sleep attained without the use of drugs. and disorientation.3. It may also increase the levels of some transmitters in the brain and may promote the growth of some dendrite nerve fibers. and decreased inhibition in those taking 2 to 6 teaspoons (approximately 5 to 15 grams) twice nightly over a period of several years. In a 1992 report. Some speculate it may have aphrodisiac and life-extension properties. four of those cases involved combining it with alcohol. as yet. and recall. along with a host of physical disorders. Dosage: The optimal dosage seems to be 400 to 1200 mg/day. or whose systolic blood pressure is below 100. are life-threatening: allergic reactions. GHB is found in the greatest concentrations in the kidneys. followed by a 5 day period of abstinence. increases brain cell metabolism. A review of the scientific literature seems to back these criticisms. Many doctors are not convinced of its efficacy. and blurred vision. and drug overdose can sometimes be revived by intravenous injection— and on hospital patients just before standard surgeries (it gives doctors more time to handle any medical emergencies should they arise in the course of the operation). or combinations like cotrimoxazole. weakness.some claim it is because they used straight procaine rather than GH-3. and will easily absorb water and turn liquid overnight. loss of coordination. but non-hallucinogenic. decreases the development of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain. though this is. Somatomax PM. It could greatly intensify the effect of caffeine. Stellazine). appears to occur within a few hours and with no apparent long-term side effects. followed by a period of two to four weeks of no K. a slight lowering of body temperature. Because it may deplete levels of potassium in the body. headache. nausea. it does not elicit the side effects normally associated with these types of substances. breathing difficulties. uncontrollable shaking. reduced anxiety. Precautions: It should not be used by anyone suffering from epilepsy. and uncontrollable muscle twitches. flushing in the face. sulphonamide drugs. M. it comes in gelatin capsule form. respiratory problems. very deep sleep of up to 24 hours. dizziness when arising. Common side effects include abrupt sedation. the "active ingredient" is evidently the anesthetic novacaine. which assists the inosine in penetrating the blood-brain barrier. unarousability. sleep of three to four hours. Dosage: 1 or 2 capsules a day with meals for five months. but a sunblock.S. Other physiological effects include a slight elevation of blood sugar. temporary amnesia. dihydroergotoxine. smaller doses (unless used in combination with other smart drugs) and larger doses may have insignificant. The initial dosage is small —an eighth to a fourth of a gram — and dissolved in water. hemorrhage. Effects: Allegedly improves alertness. stomach cramps. where it is coupled with hematoporphyrin. intense drowsiness.H.g. It works synergistically with piracetam. sleepwalking. Valium. who suffer from any kind of psychosis. increasing gradually to the desired dose (one level teaspoon equals approximately 2. blurred vision. it may result in decreased circulation to the limbs. gamma-hydroxy-butyrate. Precautions: It is not taken by individuals who are allergic to ergot or any of its derivatives. and decreases cholesterol levels. It rapidly metabolizes to carbon dioxide and water. Anecdotal evidence indicates it may reduce fat and help build lean muscle tissue. In Europe. a drop in blood pressure. two involved individuals with a history of epilepsy or grand mal seizures. convulsions. Thorazine. The exact method by which it works is unknown. is an immune stimulator which may have antiviral properties.5 grams induces sleep. mainly because PABA and DEAE are quickly excreted by the body. It is rather expensive. tingling fingers. or any kind of severe illness. results. phenothiazines (e. drowsiness.. diarrhea. gammahydroxybutyrate sodium. . Hydergine is one of a class of drugs called ergoloid mesylates. The dosage is adjusted according to body weight. sodium oxybutyrate. strokes. skin flushing.D. Effects: It produces a mild high. and recall. Of 10 known cases of individuals who have suffered side effects. Use of GH-3 and related formulations is avoided by anyone on MAO inhibitors. Kreutzer. heart. collapse. Precautions: Possible side effects include elevated liver enzymes. dizziness. It is also one of the most widely researched and prescribed. It promotes RNA synthesis in brain cells. Sublingual tablets are ineffective if swallowed intact. while having no effect on memory on those afflicted with Alzheimer's or schizophrenia. seizures. smaller doses of each are just as effective as a larger dose of one. but 4. vomiting. 10 to 30+ grams. It remains a popular "rave" drug. though there is no evidence of withdrawal symptoms. and two involved combining it with tranquilizers or such central nervous system depressants as Vicodin and diphenhydramine hydrochloride. nasal congestion. unlike drugs with a similar effect. and basal ganglia. in Europe. cause an excessive drop in blood pressure when combined with alcohol. "there are no documented reports of long-term [adverse] effects. nausea. with many deaths attributed to it. and brief (one to two hours) non-toxic coma.5 g/day for several years produced no adverse side effects. turns from a chalky texture to a greasy one when rubbed between the fingers. protects brain cells from free-radical damage. nausea. improves the oxygen supply to the brain. a tightness in the chest.. sodium oxybate. it is 9 mg/day in three divided doses. and a stimulation of the release of acetylcholine in the brain (which may improve memory and cognition. but otherwise no adverse effects have been reported. severe cardiovascular disease. Common symptoms include runny nose. It is chemically similar to DMAE.H. a significant decrease in cholesterol. both working for the California Department of Health Services. protects the brain from hypoxia. gangrene. 20 to 30 g/day for a week. rash. Effects: A few studies have shown it to improve certain aspects of memory in normal people. unproven). and dimethy-laminoethanol (DMAE). the dosages taken were not known. It may be useful in treating alcoholism. liver disease." Others report that there has been one documented case of addiction. coma. K. and has been shown to increase the effectiveness of Interferon. Rare symptoms include fainting. it is — paradoxically — one of the easiest smart drugs to obtain. sleepwalking. it had been studied for 25 years. Dosage: The recommended dosage in the U. and reduce the severity of some AIDS symptoms. Effects: Assists the brain in certain key functions relating to memory formation and promotes RNA synthesis in brain cells. whose heartbeat is less than 60 beats per minute. and a delayed onset of effects. and combining with other drugs is unknown.

Phenytex. but it is believed to influence the electromagnetic fields. when taken with Omeprazole. Theophylline drugs. tremors and in some cases. and facilitates the flow of information between the two hemispheres of the brain. it can increase the toxicity of the latter drug. and passivity. muscle twitches. barbiturates. there could be an increase in drug levels in the blood when taken in combination with gold compounds. as it lowers blood pressure. slow. there could be oversedation when taken with central nervous system depressants. but abrupt cessation could trigger severe epileptic seizures. fever. The anticonvulsant effect is diminished when Phenytoin is taken with alcohol (habitual use). PlCROTOXINE Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. anxiety. mild dizziness. Nitrofurantoin. dizziness. marijuana (with attendant drowsiness and unsteadiness). drowsiness.. an increased chance of bleeding or bruising. it should be taken with meals. it could result in seizures. by those with asthma. Prolonged use can weaken the heart muscles. Precautions: It is not taken by anyone with an allergy to any beta-adrenergic blocker. Methotrexate. The most commonly prescribed drug for epilepsy. There is an enhanced beta blocker effect when combined with betaxolol eyedrops or Levobunolol eyedrops. Phenytoin may deplete the body's stores of B-12. or surgery within the previous two months (including dental surgery) that requires general or spinal anesthesia. it has been the subject of at least 8000 papers. Dosage: Adult epileptics are generally given doses of 200 to 400 mg/day in two to four divided doses. Phenacemide. jaundice. NEFIRACETAM Effects: Like piracetam. Itraconazole. Mephenytoin. Mesantoin. high altitude conditions. Chloramphenicol. May contribute to the growth of more cholinergic receptors in the brain. Phenylbutazone. a neurotransmitter. cold hands or feet. balding. Nicardipine. Pyridoxine. levodopa. Less common side effects include hallucinations. bronchitis.NDD-094 Effects: A compound said to stop. nervousness. or 25 to 50 mg/day are given for cognitive-enhancing effects. rash.g. PENTYLENETETRAZOL AKA: Metrazol. benzodiazopine tranquilizers and sedatives. The severity of side effects and adverse reactions increases when taken with Felbamate. cognitive-enhancing doses are taken. liver damage. It may also interact with certain ingredients in over-the-counter cold. insulin. Common side effects include constipation. an overactive thyroid function. constant eye movements. the incidence of seizures increases when taken with cocaine or oral contraceptives. Probenecid. violent behavior. by those with hypotension. Quinidine. A severe allergic reaction could be life-threatening. and it may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia or alter the results of some medical tests. good oral hygiene is recommended). vision changes. diarrhea. when taken with Meperidine. or oral antidiabetic medications. nausea. aggravates any condition of congestive heart failure. diarrhea. it has some anti-aging effects. joint pain. Glutethimide. The anticonvulsant dose may need to be adjusted when taken with tricyclic antidepressants. which are associated with periods of creative thinking. calcium channel blockers. it can decrease the painrelieving effects of the latter while increasing its side effects. there could be an irregular heartbeat. insomnia. Effects: Protects the brain against — and helps it recover from — hypoxia. there is an increased risk of toxicity when taken with Cimetidine. comprehension. Nizatidine. anticancer drugs. insomnia. antihypertensives. a drop in blood pressure. Loxapine. It is not habit-forming. Carbamazepine. Neuromet. It has been used in the treatment of dyslexia. Mebendazole. alertness. An overdose can cause problems in maintaining balance. and Leucovorin could counteract the effects of phenytoin. irritability. steps up the rate of metabolism and level of energy in the brain cells by increasing the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and improving the blood flow within the brain. upper respiratory disease. though these also disappear as time goes on and dosage is reduced. numbness of the hands and feet. with no ill effects in doses as high as 2400 mg/day. interfere with the absorption of vitamin D and folic acid (supplements of calcium should be taken along with vitamin D and folic acid. it could result in an increased polythiazide effect. polarizing the electrically charged elements of the cells. Carbamazepine. and dryness of the eyes. Metro-nidazole. though calcium will decrease the amount of Phenytoin the body absorbs from the small intestine). coma. Less common side effects include agitation. stabilize an irregular heartbeat. with daily marijuana use. The anticonvulsant effect can be enhanced when taken in combination with Amiodarone. and when taken with Xanthines. apparently by regrowing nerve cells that create acetylcholine. cough. Sotalol. Chlorphi-ramine. Sucralfate. spastic eye movements. NOOTROPYL AKA: 2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide. Precautions: It appears to be nontoxic. tiredness. Dosage: Doses of 1200 to 2400 mg/day seem to produce the greatest improvement in cognitive function. Dicumarol. lymph gland enlargement. confusion. hay fever. fever. and vomiting. and may increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. unexplained bleeding or bruising. and staggering. slow reaction time. long-term memory. or arterial spasms. Effects: It apparently stimulates the flow of information between the two hemispheres of the brain in rats and mice. Allopurinol. Omeprazole. It is used by those who have chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (e. still. which is believed to enhance the nervous system's ability to utilize acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Ibuprofen. corticosteroids. barbiturates. there could be circulation problems in the hands and feet. Isoniazid. and curtail the effects of Amiodarone. the effects of both drugs are intensified. headaches. an increase in facial and body hair. and dairy products. Levonorgestrel. rash. including nausea. PlRACETAM AKA: Cerebroforte. including restoring the homeostasis of the neuroendocrine system. though some recommend 800 to 2400 mg/day. Other symptoms cited by some sources include anemia. a substance found in meat. with cocaine. Methadone. has had surgery within the last two months that has required general or spinal anesthesia. conjunctivitis. anger. sensitivity to bright lights. fear. there could be a rise in blood pressure if the latter is discontinued. gums that are bleeding. Quinidine. and Valproic Acid. it is derived from pyrrolidone. lead to a heightened need for thyroid hormone. Clonidine. fatigue. gum overgrowth (though this occurs mainly in children and is rare in instances where the lower. Digitalis preparations. and Warfarin. Fluconazole. oral contraceptives. If stomach upset occurs. Effects: Stimulates theta rhythms in the brain. or a blood disorder. When taken with Lithium. swollen glands. An analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid. impotence. Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Diphenylan (prompt acting). There have been reports of insomnia. slurred speech. staggering. Haloperidol. Furosemide. and a diminished beta blocker effect when combined with Dextrothyroxine or Indomethacin. Molindone. there could be an irregular heartbeat and a decreased betaadrenergic effect. and skin. salicylate drugs such as aspirin. and constipation. Disopyramide. nystagmus. with Molindone. and peak performance. Propranolol. when taken with nitrates. Phenytoin can amplify the effects of Estrogen. Gabacet. Much more research needs to be done. Carba-mazepine. there may be a changed seizure pattern when taken with barbiturates. when taken with Phenacemide. Common side effects include a pulse rate slower than 50 beats per minute. with MAO inhibitors. tri-cyclic antidepressants. corticosteroid drugs could hide any Phenytoinsensitivity reactions. it could increase the antihypertensive effect of one or both drugs. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH). has diabetes. there could be a delay in the excretion of phenytoin with a resultant excess remaining in the blood. there could be an increased tranquilizer effect. Ethotoin. influenza virus vaccine. learning. increased susceptibility to sunburn. Normabrain. OXJRACETAM AKA: CT-848. liver toxicity in the first month or so of use. Cimetidine. diabetes or hypoglycemia. when taken with MAO inhibitors. Rifampin. confusion. OXPRENOLOL A beta-adrenergic blocking agent prescribed to reduce angina attacks. Little research has been done on healthy individuals. Disul-firam. fruits. About an eighth of that. and dry burning eyes. PHENYTOIN AKA: Dilantin (extended action). Phenytoin can interact unpredictably with Clonazepam. has liver damage or impaired liver functioning. and even reverse. Peganone. Griseofulvin. and sore throat. drowsiness. Trimethoprim. chest pain. but increase its effectiveness if taken for any other medical reason. When combined with angiotensin-converting (ACE) inhibitors or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). depression. it could result in an increased risk of paranoia. Long-term effects may be weakened bones. Dopamine. vegetables. and weight gain. lack of alertness. Rare symptoms include rash. breast swelling. Precautions: Causes convulsions. Precautions: It is not taken by anyone who is allergic to hydantoin anticonvulsants. memory loss. or emphysema). and some kinds of learning in normal humans (probably by helping the brain synthesize new proteins). and an increased risk of liver toxicity when taken with Acetaminophen. or by those who have taken MAO inhibitors or other psychiatric or psychotropic drugs within the preceding two weeks. slurred speech. abdominal pain. the effects of both drugs are weakened. it increases the "good" form of cholesterol. hydroxypiracetam. Mexiletine. an important component of creativity. or Theophylline. nausea. chest pains. sedatives. Effects: Though it is mainly used as a treatment for epilepsy. mental confusion and learning disability. called high density lipo-protein (HDL). Rare symptoms include abdominal pain. patients taking NDD-094 have registered improved brain activity levels on PET scans. Those over 60 should realize that adverse reactions and side effects will occur more often and much more strongly than they do in younger individuals. Diazoxide. asthma. and reduce the occurrence of vascular headaches. Use of phenytoin may even cause liver damage. Metyrapone. Nimodipine. Phenothiazines. When taken in combination with anticoagulants or Propafenone. decreased intelligence. or Warfarin. prevents memory loss caused by physical injury and chemical poisoning. though some recommend as much as 100 mg/day in two to four divided doses. An analogue of piracetam that is about two to three times more potent. Precautions: Causes convulsions. in small doses. Methylphenidate. heart disease or poor circulation in the limbs. PHT. and when taken with Valproic acid. weakness. Dinagen. mouth. cortisone drugs. Cyclosporine. or Valproic Acid. insight. swollen glands. Effects: It has been shown to reduce phobias and eliminate anxiety. and speed of visual-motor coordination. charcoal tablets. protects against metabolic stress related to low oxygen flow to the brain resulting from intense athletic performance. ISF-2522. drowsiness. Hypoglycemics. and could include such symptoms as fever. produces tingling in the extremities. nightmares. Ditan (prompt acting). it can supposedly improve intelligence. the side effects maybe more severe and frequent. breathing difficulties. or tender. Miconazole. Nootropil. it could damage the heart muscle. and allergy remedies. hallucinations. The effects of Phenytoin can be increased when taken with alcohol (small amounts). Paroxitine. or Guanabenz. antacids. and narcotics. Oxyphenbutazone. Doxycycline. and kidney failure. and smoking. Precautions: There may be side effects. including hepatitis. kidney or liver problems. headaches. succinimide antiseizure medicines. numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes. shallow breathing. Diazoxide. and with tobacco. and light-headedness. however. depression. swollen. The exact mechanism by which it works is still not understood. and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. it could result in an excessive drop in blood pressure. pollen allergies. Phenothiazine antipsychotic medicines. It can intensify the effects of antidiabetics. It can decrease the effectiveness of Digitalis if taken for congestive heart failure. with Encainide. potassium supplements. There is an increased drop in blood pressure when taken with alcohol. Its chemical structure is very close to the amino acid pyroglutamate. lower blood pressure. For those over age 60. Neuractiv. retention of water. it can stabilize behavior by suppressing obsessive thoughts. there is a greater chance of bone disease when taken with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Sulfa drugs. and can lessen the effects of antihistamines and beta-agonists. . it has a number of other various effects: it can normalize electrical activity in the cell membranes. improves memory. sore throat. concentration.

it also reduces the oxygen requirements of the heart and reduces the contractions of the blood vessels in the heart. testes. Clonidine. sinus inflammation. bronchitis or emphysema). vascular walls. RlVASTIGMINE The first in a new class of drugs known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. a coldness in the hands and feet. diverticulitis. vein irritation. chills. it could lead to an irregular heartbeat. Use is discontinued by decreasing the dosage gradually over a period of two weeks. difficult breathing. PROPANIRACETAM A nootropic drug similar to piracetam. dry mouth and throat. or by those who have taken MAO inhibitors or other psychiatric or psychotropic drugs within the preceding two weeks. vomiting. or that it reduces free radicals. while still others a more modest dose of 500 to 600 mg/day for a healthy person and 1000 to 2000 mg/day for an elderly person with mild to moderate memory impairment. inflamed tongue swollen gums. and kidneys). heart palpitations. Effects: In use in Italy as a treatment for Alzheimer's and memory disorders. Women are likely to retain more of this drug in their blood and suffer side effects. fights fatigue. have a rejuvenating influence on the human body. bronchitis. produces tingling in the extremities. Precautions: More than three 200 mg tablets a day may result in severe headaches. asthma. or Guanabenz. When combined with angiotensin-converting (ACE) inhibitors or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). weakness. choline. Inderal LA (long acting). barbiturates. DMAE. insomnia. Developed by Hans J. spasticity. It is not believed to be toxic or addictive. the combination of Piracetam and choline is particularly effective. and weight gain. chest pain. vertigo. Deaner. it may cause gastrointestinal distress. a tingling in the hands and feet. STRYCHNINE SULFATE Effects: May increase learning ability and slow the advance of senility. for improving memory. Less common side effects include loss of appetite. A compound similar to Hydergine. blood clots in the lung. bloody stools. though the usual prescribed dosage is 5 to 10 mg. Prolonged use can weaken the heart muscles. with MAO inhibitors. with Molindone. sore throat. upset stomach. It may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia or alter the results of some medical tests. slow heart rate. Overdose symptoms include a drop in blood pressure. it could damage the heart muscle. difficulty swallowing. and Hydergine. Others recommend 2400 to 4800 mg/day in three divided doses. insomnia. kidney or liver problems. the exact mechanism by which it works is still not fully understood. impotence. and sickle-cell anemia. fever. Propranolol could increase the antihypertensive effect of one or both drugs. improves reaction time. hallucinations. and known side effects are few. headaches. There is some evidence that it increases the number of receptors in the brain. hyperactivity. memory.stroke. eyes that are dry or itching. and broken bones. hiatal hernia. conjunctivitis. loss of bowel control. anxiety. but increase its effectiveness if taken for any other medical reason. lack of coordination. indigestion. insomnia. SABELUZOLE Effects: Preliminary evidence indicates that it may prevent Alzheimer's from progressing. deafness. headache. rash. Effects: Said to double the life span of dwarf mice. liver disease. RN-13 AKA: Regeneresen. and with tobacco. Precautions: Most studies have been short term (six weeks or so). nervousness. sties. migraines. hypertension. ringing or buzzing in the ears. joint pain. Common side effects include headaches. It may also interact with certain ingredients in overthe-counter cold. but it also seems to increase blood flow to the brain. It may also increase the effects of such drugs as amphetamines. and has no contraindications. SYGEN AKA: GM1 ganglioside. specific tremors. Less frequent symptoms include abdominal pain. it may promote circulation problems in the hands and feet. esophagus and stomach irritation. or surgery within the last two months (including dental surgery) that requires general or spinal anesthesia. For those over age 60. Common side effects include a slow pulse rate (fewer than 50 beats per minute). and may improve memory and learning in normal individuals. Toxic psychosis will occur when the dosage is high (i. Taking it a half hour before an anxiety. double vision or other vision problems. and can lessen the effects of antihistamines and beta-agonists. and nightmares. it is a mixture of RNA from twelve organs (placenta. There is an enhanced beta blocker effect when combined with betaxolol eyedrops or Levobunolol eyedrops. pollen allergies. convulsions. fatigue. heavy sweating. mouth sores. nausea. In rare cases. scalp. blood pressure changes. fainting. it could lead to an irregular heartbeat and a decreased beta-adrenergic effect. a flushing in the face. with cocaine. Dosage: 75 to 1500 mg/day. especially when taken with deprenyl and lecithin. but not the psychological ones. senile dementia. eyes. as abrupt cessation could damage the heart. PROPRANOLOL AKA: Inderal. and other areas. angina pains. drowsiness. and psychomotor agitation. Kugler. heart failure. bronchial muscle spasms leading to breathing difficulties. liver. It could be hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver) and should only be taken under a physician's guidance. it could increase tranquilizer effect. or lecithin. strengthens long-term memory. Effects: Promotes alertness. alcoholism. along with yeast-derived nucleic acid. There is also evidence that it controls the physical symptoms of anxiety. ROLZIRACETAM Effects: Like piracetam. with Encainide. dizziness. and paranoia. glaucoma. ovaries. cerebral cortex. diarrhea. muscle aches. lowers anxiety. greater chance of tiredness or weakness. fever. It is most effective for those whose memory problems are the result of too little acetylcholine. a sickly appearance. a dryness of the mouth. facial swelling. Works synergistically with centrophenoxine. A beta-andrenergic blocking agent medication prescribed for high blood pressure patients and used in the treatment of angina. bleeding or ulcers in the stomach or intestines. and light-headedness. as it lowers blood pressure. eyes that are dry and burning. PRAMIRACETAM AKA: CI-879. but at much lower doses (it is approximately 15 times stronger than piracetam). TACRINE AKA: Cognex. stomach gas. stroke. by those with asthma. so a choline supplement may be needed. and certain cardiac arrhythmias. constipation. and skin. abnormal heart rhythms. confusion. antihypertensives. It may result in acetylcholine's being used up more rapidly in the body. Diazoxide. Precautions: Causes convulsions. visual disturbances. A doctor should be consulted first if any one of the following conditions are present: heart rhythm problems. A variant of piracetam. SULBUTIAMINE AKA: Arcalion. THA. and more recent evidence does not support the claim that it works consistently over the long run. nausea. propranolol hydrochloride. Neupramir. Effects: Has a good track record for improving memory in Alzheimer's patients. and weakness. pituitary. with daily marijuana use. It is prescribed for those who have chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (e. convulsions. and improves resistance to stress. hypothalamus. difficulty breathing. earache. diarrhea. ulcers. but stronger. adrenal cortices. cold and sweaty skin. diabetes or hypoglycemia. Rare side effects include excessive bleeding and bruising. eye pain. It can decrease the effectiveness of Digitalis if taken for congestive heart failure. the side effects may be more severe and frequent. heart disease or poor circulation in the limbs. though it does not help other damage caused by this disease. or arterial spasms. changes in taste. among other conditions. cough. It is avoided by those with severe kidney failure and those taking anticoagulant drugs. sore throat. excess saliva. thalamus. joint pain and inflammation. as it is the only drug proven to raise levels of acetylcholine in the brain. RlBAMOL AKA: 2-hydroxytriethylammo-nium ribonucleate. Precautions: Toxicity is rare. asthma. elevated blood cholesterol.. Precautions: Though piracetam is derived from pyrrolidone. tacrine hydrochloride. swelling in the legs and feet. dehydration. dizziness. enabling them to perform normal activities again. depression. an overactive thyroid function. and improve learning. hemorrhoids. and narcotics. fainting. difficulty urinating. cataracts. and numbness or tingling in the fingers and toes. Hydergine. gingko biloba. Other possible side effects include short-term memory loss. Still other theories suggest that it improves protein synthesis in the brain. a slow or weak pulse. or a previous reaction to tacrine that has caused jaundice or elevated bilirubin. liver inflammation. seizure disorders. upper respiratory disease. Effects: May enhance memory and learning. Propranolol will have a greater effect if taken with meals. There is an increased drop in blood pressure when taken with alcohol. and a diminished beta blocker effect when combined with Dextrothyroxine or Indomethacin. stomach pain. and allergy remedies. heart attack. drowsiness. Dosage: 800 to 1600 mg/day after an initial daily dose of 1200 to 2400 mg/ day taken in the morning for the first two days. PRL-8-53 Effects: An experimental drug that has been shown to increase recall in subjects by as much as 150 percent. aggravates any condition of congestive heart failure. diarrhea. impacted . Dosage: Some recommend 10 to 30 mg a half hour before the trauma-inducing event. rash. it could raise blood pressure if the latter is discontinued. Effects: A study has shown that it may improve the brain functioning of those with mild to moderate forms of Alzheimer's disease. Precautions: It is not taken by those allergic or sensitive to Tacrine or acridine derivatives. a loss of alertness. it is derived from pyrrolidone.g. it stimulates the functioning of the cholinergic system. insulin. which is believed to enhance the nervous system's ability to utilize acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. It is not as fully tested and researched as piracetam. Effects: Reduces fear and stress by blocking the muscle's receptor sites for adrenaline. runny nose. improves the function of nerve fibers in the corpus callosum (thereby assisting the flow of information between the two halves of the brain). infections of the middle or inner ear. bladder disease. Dosage: 400 mg/day with breakfast for 20 days. It is not taken by anyone with an allergy to any beta-adrenergic blocker. psychotropics.or fear-inducing event may help an individual overcome his or her aversion to that situation. a substance that is believed to enhance the nervous system's ability to utilize acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. sweating. heart failure. Tetrahydroaminoacridine. cardiac insufficiency. It can intensify the effects of antidiabetics.. and emotional instability. and general brain function. and even then it loses its effectiveness after only a few months. thousands of milligrams a day).e. by those with hypotension. calcium channel blockers. It is used as a "smart drug" only by those with Alzheimer's. pneumonia. vomiting. spleen. skin rash.

furuncles. skin rash. In rare cases. changes in stool color). urinating at night. neurosis. Precautions: May actually shorten the life span if a very high dosage is combined with a very high dosage of vitamin E. paranoia. and disturbances or inflammation of the inner ear. B-6. . heightened sex drive. paralysis. Precautions: See the entries under Gerovital and Royal jelly. muscle disease. and certain ear problems. increased salivation. nosebleeds. genital itching. skin ulcers. convulsions. It bolsters the immune system and may increase life span. speaking difficulties. chest congestion. Side effects. and weakness. it causes gastrointestinal problems. duodenal ulcer. blindness. tachycardia. kidney stones and infections. and mercury from the body. asthma. It is used as a treatment for radiation sickness in the former Soviet Union. herpes zoster (shingles). psychosis. It could also strengthen the effects of muscle relaxants during surgery. cold sores. VlNCAMINE AKA: Oxicebral. are rare. skin cancer. but improvements in memory and the ability to think and reason lasted for only 24 weeks. according to creator Dr. tendinitis. respiratory infection. vaginal bleeding. dry skin. lung cancer. Users claim it improves memory and cognition. urinary obstruction. drooping or inflamed eyelids. slow muscle movements. Effects: A vasodilator (improves blood flow to the brain and enhances the brain's utilization of oxygen). cysts. muscle weakness (leading to respiratory failure and death). suicidal thoughts. but sufficient scientific research is lacking for normal. kidney failure. and anticholinergics could diminish the effect of this drug. eczema. Vitacel 7 has replaced the bisulfite and benzoic acid with vitamin-complexing agents to prevent allergy problems. skin inflammation. hair loss. hysteria. bladder or kidney tumors. severe uncontrolled movements of the face. blood infection. nerve inflammation or disease. A close relative of vincamine believed to elicit more benefits and fewer side effects. VlTACEL 3 The tablet form of GH-3. Dosage: Subjects with Alzheimer's showed the best improvement when given doses of 120 to 160 mg/ day. bowel obstruction. Precautions: No toxicity or contraindications. fluid in the lungs. which include dry mouth. Cimetidine can increase the amount of Tacrine in the blood. breast pain. rapid breathing. inflammation of the brain and possibly the central nervous system. ovarian cancer. frequent urination. acne. very abnormal heart rhythms. cystitis. macular degeneration. twitching. gallbladder irritation or stones. and can remove heavy metals such as cadmium. sudden choking. loss of muscle tone. Dosage: 60 mg/day in two divided doses. Dosage: John Mann recommends 200 mg/day for life extension. Effects: An antioxidant. such as stroke. Dosage: 5 to 10 mg/day. melanoma. Rare side effects include heat exhaustion. herpes infections. Overdose symptoms include a decrease in blood pressure. changes in liver function (resulting in yellow skin or eyes. Made from an extract of the periwinkle plant. Parkinson's-type movements. increased appetite. blood and puss in the urine. VlNPOCETINE AKA: Cavinton. some loss of the senses (particularly touch). impotence. convulsions. skin peeling. Effects: Reportedly a strong enhancer of memory and concentration.colon. Robert Koch. It is particularly effective for disorders caused by poor or impaired circulation. oily skin. and improving the use of glucose and oxygen in the brain. Tacrine is taken at least one hour before or two hours after eating. and C. breast cancer. Theophylline could intensify the effect of this drug. 2-mercapto-ethylamine. bursitis. diabetes. decreased heartbeat. inflammation of the male reproductive tract. 2-MEA AKA: Cysteamine. vomiting blood. osteoporosis. recurring dizziness. hypotension. this last formulation helps the procaine hydrochloride stay active in the body for several hours. healthy people. lack of coordination. psoriasis. anemia. after which the decline in mental abilities resumed. collapse. severe nausea and vomiting. thyroid changes. abnormal dreams. delirium. headaches. sugar in the urine. Vitaeel 4 has the addition of bee propolis for its antibacterial and antiviral qualities. Precautions: It may cause a reduction in white corpuscles and a degeneration of muscle tissue. Bell's palsy. and heavy sweating. it has the active PEN ingredient as Gerovital. a reduction in white blood cell and platelet counts. It takes a year for the drug to reach its peak efficiency. speeding up the rate at which ATP is produced by the brain cells. and tobacco can increase the rate at which it is broken down in the liver. lead. It improves the brain's metabolism by increasing the blood flow. and royal jelly for its high levels of vitamins B-5. apathy. and prostate cancer. loss of memory.

Dosage: John Mann recommends no more than 100 mg per meal. NDGA AKA: Nordihydroguaiaretic acid. M. no one has isolated the brain-enhancing component for safe commercial use. According to Pearson and Shaw.. TBHQ AKA: Monotertiary butyl hydro-quinone. Pettis Memorial Veterans Hospital and the Loma Linda University School of Medicine asserts that 2 grams is very close to the lethal dose. DDC AKA: Ammonium diethyl-dithio-carbamate. and profuse sweating. it may not be fully assimilated by the body and could irritate the stomach. the oil is returned to the refrigerator until needed.D. According to Jane Brody. Those taking it have follow-up tests for liver function. Dosage: Doses high enough to result in measureable improvements in brain functioning (2 mg or more) carry a very high risk of rapid heart rate. It is said to improve memory. In humans. THIODIPROPIONIC ACID AND DILAURYL THIODIPROPIONATE A food preservative and its dilauryl derivative. and a lower incidence of obesity than rats in the control group. Laboratory rats fed ethoxyquin had a longer life span. Effects: An anti-oxidant. it may not be fully assimilated by the body and could irritate the stomach. or alcohol when combined with these drugs. It works synergistically with most other anti-oxidants. ETHOXYQUIN AKA: Santoquin. serum lipids. Dosage: John Mann recommends 200 mg/day. their life extension properties are severely curtailed. intense pain (consciousness is maintained until death). particularly vitamins A and C. When taken in gelatin form. It is not to be taken by those with a diseased or damaged liver. PROPYL GALLATE A food preservative similar to BHA and BHT. Effects: An anti-oxidant which may have some life-extension properties. and a complete blood count. Ph. Precautions: The few studies conducted have yielded contradictory results or have had flaws. doses small enough to avoid these risks do not produce any measureable improvements. Effects: An anti-oxidant. It is considered a possible carcinogen and. Precautions: It was banned by the FDA in 1968 when high doses were found to cause kidney damage in rats. Dosage: Pearson and Shaw take 2 to 6 g/day for its free radical-fighting and life-extending properties. BHT has been proven to protect the body against certain carcinogens. It can intensify the effects of barbiturates. Effects: An anti-oxidant. excessive body heat. particularly vitamins A and C. Precautions: It is considered a possible carcinogen and. though contrary to popularopinion. Llaurado.. It is not used for frying. changes in the structure of liver cells. when both BHA and vitamin E are taken together in very high doses. An initial side effect is hypotension and lightheadedness when getting out of bed in the morning. After cooling for a few minutes. it produces definite improvements in maze learning and visual and spatial discrimination. The oil is used within a week or two so that it does not become oxidized. A resinous substance extracted from a variety of plants (such as the creosote bush and Guaiac gum trees) that was once used as a preservative in pie crusts. A food preservative added to prevent oxidation and reduce rancidity in oil-containing foods. for that reason. butter.CHAPTER 13 Other BHA AKA: Butylated hydroxyanisole. which maybe avoided if nutrition is adequate. which maybe avoided if nutrition is adequate. with the dosage slowly increased over time. for that reason. The oil is used within a week or two so that it does not become oxidized. John Mann recommends 200 mg/day. tertiary butyl hydroquinone. and provide some protection against carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Effects: An anti-oxidant. Precautions: It is a suspected carcinogen. Precautions: It destroys vitamin B-l. it has a stimulating effect on the spinal cord. most nutritionists warn that it should be avoided. and canned whipped cream. It may cause a mild dermatitis due to an allergic reaction. It is not used for frying. but some research suggests that. It is still in the experimental stage. SODIUM BISULFATE A food additive that prevents discoloration and inhibits the growth of bacteria. since rat urine is much more concentrated than human urine and rats urinate infrequently. which goes away after a few days. it has been proven to protect the body against certain carcinogens.D. Effects: An anti-oxidant. the oil should be put back in the fridge until needed. Effects: An anti-oxidant. It has also been linked to liver tumors in mice. Precautions: It is extremely toxic. and possible damage to the thyroid. It is more quickly metabolized by the body and less likely to cause kidney problems than BHT. . or who have had a liver test that is abnormal. Precautions: Albino rats given 1000 to 4000 mg of ethoxyquin per kg of food showed signs of kidney fibrosis. of the Nuclear Medicine Service at the Jerry L. SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE Effects: An anti-oxidant. this problem may not extend to humans. but some research suggests that when BHT and vitamin E are taken together in very high doses. This problem can usually be avoided if a quarter gram is taken at bedtime. most nutritionists warn that it should be avoided. though any long-term effects are not known. Effects: Both are anti-oxidants. Effects: In rats. A food preservative. fewer tumors. Individuals have taken as much as 1000 to 3000 mg/day. There may be possible harmful interactions with steroid hormones or oral contraceptives. More studies are needed to evaluate the safety of this substance. Precautions: More testing is needed. a dangerously high heart rate. It can produce a painful erection. 2-tertiary butyl hydroquinone. It works synergistically with most other anti-oxidants. though Joseph G. not in most hallucinogenic ones. ice cream. Mann recommends lightly warming 16 ounces of safflower oil in a pan and stirring in 2 level teaspoons until all the crystals have dissolved. and death from respiratory paralysis. other downers. Dosage: John Mann recommends 200 mg/day. to inactive some viruses. especially in combination with citric acid. Mann recommends lightly warming 16 ounces of safflower oil in a pan and stirring in 2 level teaspoons until all the crystals have dissolved. STRYCHNINE An alkaloid found naturally in various plants. A food preservative added to prevent oxidation and reduce rancidity in oil-containing foods. kidney disease. As yet. convulsions. A food preservative. opisthotonus (a condition where the head is bent back as far as it will go). According to Jane Brody. When taken in gelatin form. Effects: An anti-oxidant. BHT AKA: Butylated hydroxytoluene. candy. After cooling for a few minutes. their life-extension properties are severely curtailed. it can also extend life and be used as a treatment for herpes. It has been shown to prevent vitamin E deficiency in the diets of animals (the metabolic activity of the two are identical). lard. They are highly synergistic with anti-oxidant vitamins. It may cause a mild dermatitis resulting from an allergic reaction.

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