ICT Junior Camp 2007 @ Mahidol University

Image Matting and Composition
Dr. Rawesak Tanawongsuwan ccrtw@mahidol.ac.th
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Outline
• • • • • Image Composition Matting Process Blue Screen Matting Environment/Shadow Matting Recent Matting Techniques (Knockout/Bayesian/Grabcut/Poisson) • Interactive Matting Techniques (Robust matting/Easy matting/Closed-form matting) • Flash Matting • Video Matting (Video cutout/Video defocus/Camera Array matting)
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Digital Image Composition

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Digital Image Composition

Matte

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How does Superman fly?

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Pulling a matte
Problem Definition: • The separation of an image into
• A foreground object image • A background image • An alpha matte

Hard problem
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Matte creation
• From digitized images
– Blue-screen matting – Video or chroma-keying – Image processing

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Blue Screen

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Nothing special about blue

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Digital Matting Equation
• For each pixel C = αF + (1- α)B

• C: Rendered Color • F: Foreground color • B: Background color α: Amount of light passing through the foreground – called the Alpha-Channel
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Challenges to Matting & Compositing • • • • Extracting the Matte (alpha channel) from natural scenes Handling the occluding contour? Foreground has color of background • Refracted and reflected light • …
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What about semi-transparent mattes?

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We want a semi-transparent matte

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Solution…

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More example…

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Problems with Matting
• Images do not look realistic • Lack of Refracted Light • Lack of Reflected Light

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Environment Matting and Composition

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Process of environment matting
• Learn how light is reflected and refracted from a backdrop and from various sidedrops

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Process of environment matting

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Results of environment matting

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Results of environment matting

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Movies of environment matting

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Shadow matting and compositing

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Shadow matting and compositing

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Shadow matting
• Show clip ShadowMattingDivXS.avi

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Natural image matting
• Beyasian approach

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Natural image matting

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Level of user interaction

Trimap GrabCut
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Robust matting tool
• Demo

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Interactive matting
• Easy matting

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Interactive matting
• Closed form matting

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Interactive matting
• Soft Scissors

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Flash matting
• Extract mattes using a pair of flash/no-flash images

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Image Matting is Difficult

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Image Matting is Easy with FLASH

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Flash Matting

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Flash matting
• Show clip FlashMatting.wmv

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Video
• Let’s understand the nature of video clip • A sequence of image frames

• Show

videoCubism.avi

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Video matting
• Easier or more difficult? • Issues… • Show VideoCutout.avi

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Special hardware/cameras
• Need more than a single camera

• Defocus video matting • Multiple cameras matting

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Defocus video : Capture Hardware

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Capture Hardware

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Preview: Input

Everything in Focus

Actor in Focus

Background in Focus

IP

IF

IB

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Defocus video • Show clip DefocusMatting.avi

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Multi-cameras system

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Using a Camera Array

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4500

2500

500

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Multi-camera system
• Automatic matte extraction • Toward real-time performance • Show clip CameraArrayMatting.mp4

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