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PORIFER - (Parazoa)
CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Multicellular - mesenchymal origin 2. Pores - ostia 3. All aquatic - mostly marine 4. Radial or asymmetrical 5. Skeleton - calcareous - siliceous - spicules or protein (spongin) 6. No organs or tissues 7. Reaction to stimuli - local 8. Adults sessile 9. Epidermis - mesoglea 10. Asexual - gemmules - sexual - free swimming ciliated larvae CLASSES: 1. Calcispongiae - calcium carbonate spicules - marine 2. Hyalaospongiae - siliceous spicules - marine - deep water 3. Demospongiae - siliceaous and spongin - fresh or salt (bath sponge)
COLENTERATA (CNIDARIA) (Eumetazoa) - (Radiata)
CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Entirely aquatic - mostly marine 2. Radial to tetra symmetrical 3. Oral - aboral axis 4. Polyps (asexual) - medusae (sexual) 5. Exo- or endoskeleton - chitin - calcareous or protein 6. Body - 2 definite layers - epidermis, gastrodermis and mesogles - thus diploblastic 7. Gastrovascular cavity - incomplete digestive system 8. Nematocysts - stinging cells 9. Nerve net 10. Muscular system - epitheliomuscular type 11. Asexual by budding (polyps) sexual by gametes (medusae or some polyps) 12. Planula larvae 13. No excretory - respiratory or coelomic cavity
thuds mainly medusae Cubozoa . 4. sea anemones . Nervous system . Muscular system of a sheath form and of mesodermal origin 7. Primary bilateral symmetry 2. Bilateral symmetry 3. Bilateral Mesoderm .polyps and medusae . Organ system level of organization CONTRIBUTIONS: 1.polyp stage reduced . Sense organs . Acoelomate 3.solitary or colonial .primitive circulatory system Parasitic . eyespot . 5. 8.e.triploblastic 2.thus many specialization’s associated with parasitic habit CHARACTERISTICS: 1. 3.solitary and colonial e.CLASSES: 1.rhabdites .corals PLATYHELMINTHES: (Eumetazoa . 3.no medusae . Acoelomate 8. Body dorsoventrally flattened 5.protonephridia . Hydra Scyphozoa .posterior orientation 4.all polyps . Anterior .Bilateria .polyp stage reduced or absent .g.g. 2. 2.triploblastic Cephalization Nervous system .ladder type Excretory system . 6.square cross section Anthozoa .mesenchymal One group . 3 germ layers . 4. Hydozoa .Acoelomate) POSITION IN ANIMAL KINGDOM: 1.flame cells Muscular system . Epidermis with specialized cells .tegument 6.(medusae reduced) e. 7.solitary .g. Incomplete digestion 9.solitary .pair of anterior ganglia w/ longitudinal cords 10.
parasitic Body vermiform . CLASSES: 1.flame cells .g. ganglia .tapeworms . 3.male usually smaller 11.thus excretory. 13.various sense organs. Internal fertilization Development direct or indirect in parasitic forms.gonads and ducts .circumentric ring connected to anterior and posterior nerves . Mostly monecious . ducts. etc.with sensory pouches or phasmids . 9. Ascaris . reproductive and possible digestive functions. 4.well developed gonads. Nervous system of cerebra.body with cellular epidermis w/ thickened cuticle Mostly longitudinal fibers Digestive system complete . 6. Cestoda .tube wit in a tube arrangement .11. Turbellaria .unsegmented . Development direct in free living .beginning of segmentation PHYLUM NEMATODA-ROUNDWORMS (Eumetazoa . Bilateral . 5.may have cloaca .mostly separate sexes .Bilateria . 10.liver etc. Excretory system . 8.parasitic . 7.e. Free swimming or parasitic CLASSES: 1. PHASMIDIA .flukes .triploblastic Pseudocoel Mostly marine .Pseudocoelomate) CHARACTERISTICS: 1.parasitic 3. .but no muscle layer Circulatory and respiratory systems lacking Excretory system canals and protonephridia .usually complicated in parasitic forms. Reproduction .protonephridia 12.free swimming .free or parasitic .typical form = planaria 2. Trematoda . 2.
ANNELIDA .but few with differences between somites Well developed organ systems CONTRIBUTIONS: .e. 2. 2.Ingestion of contaminated food or unhygenic habits FILARIAL WORMS .g.segmented worms .ingestion of embryonic egg in contaminated foods TRICHINIA .9. Protostome branch True coelom Primitive metamerism .burrow into skin PINWORMS .inhalation of dust ASCARIS .Protostome) POSITION IN ANIMAL KINGDOM: 1. 4.without phasmids TYPES OF PARASITIC FORMS: 1. APHASMIDA . 4.g. 5.Coelomates . elephantiasis GUINEA WORMS .2.Bilateria . 3. HOOKWORMS .000+ species (Eumetazoa . 3.ingestion of infected pork WHIPWORM . 7. "firey serpent" of biblical times believed to be a Guinea worm.soil . PHYLUM .e. 6.ulceration of skin .
4.inner longitudinal muscle layers . 4.with clitellum .eyes with lenses 11.segmentally arranged 6.coelomic fluid thus gives turgidity (hydrostatic skeleton). Respiratory exchanges . Sensory .clitellum absent .g.e. Closed circulatory system . POLYCHAETA . 2.ARTHROPODA (Eumetazoa .g. Excretory . Hermaphroditic or separate sexes .larval (if present) trochophore.with chitellum .closed . Introduction of metamerism True coelom . 8. fireworm 2.photoreceptors .respiratory and locomotor function .tactile .parapodia Coelom .divided by septa .double nerve cord . gills or parapodia 8.Coelomate .suckers .marine . OLIGOCHAETA . 2.g.brain dorsal .no setae . Metamerically segmented . 5. Leeches HIGHER INVERTEBRATES MOLLUSCA .bilateral Outer circular .setae .two .well developed .Protostome) . 7.skin.aortic arches Parapodia .e.high stage of development Specialization of head region into different organs Centralization of nervous system .statocysts .Bilateria .taste .key equals clitellum: 1. HIRUDINEA .thus introduces paired appendages Well developed nephridia Highest animal with complete regeneration CHARACTERISTICS: 1. CLASSIFICATION .ganglia/segment Complex circulatory system .ANNELIDA .paired nephridia per metamere 9. Complete digestive system with specialized areas 7. 3. 3. Nervous . 5.cord ventral 10. earthworm (Lumbricus) 3.1.moist cuticle Chitenous setae .e. 6.parapodia .
body in coiled shell .encloses mantle cavity .respiratory pigments. Internal and external ciliary tracts of functional importance CLASSES: actually (8) but 4 major ones as noted below 1. Sensory organs . 10. 2.unsegmented and definite head Ventral body wall specialized as muscular foot .gills . pleural.modified into gills or lungs Epithelium ciliated . 3.equilibrium and vision 12.dorsal plates .heart Larger body size because of 1 and 2 Mantle Radular and muscular foot Eye .nerve cords subepidermal plexus .opening into pericardial cavity and emptying into mantle cavity. Respiratory organ .paired cerebral. pedal and visceral ganglia .lungs .2 lobed mantle . 4. 4.touch .taste . Gas exchange .mucous gland .smell . 2.various modifications for movement Dorsal body wall . 3. 7.3 chambered heart .PHYLUM MOLLUSCA: POSITION IN ANIMAL KINGDOM 1. 8.skin derivative not brain derivative CHARACTERISTICS: 1. POLYPLACOPHORA . 1 or 2 metanephrous kidneys .chitons 2.clams . Coelomate Protostome Organ system Trochophore larvae . 6.similar to that of vertebrates but not as to development .ganglia centralized in nerve ring in some. 5.similar to annelids and some turbellarians BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. 4. 2. 6.limited to area around heart Complex digestion .mantle . 5.mostly closed in cephalopoda . Nervous system .snails 3. BIVALVIA (PELECYPODA) .mantle .rasping organ (radula) Open circulatory system .gills or lungs Open circulatory system .body surfaces 9. 3. Bilateral symmetrical .sensory nerve endings Coelom . GASTROPODA . 11.
etc. Share with annelids .g. 3. Respiration .4. Separate sexes usually .hemocoel in most 6. Complete digestive system 7. 8. External segmentation 2. metamorphism CHARACTERISTICS: 1.(like annelida in some) also malpighian tubules 10. Jointed appendages .squids and octopuses.metamorphosis . CEPHALOPODA .more efficient breathing mechanism 7.arteries . Fixed number of somites Usually lack of intersegmental septa Tagmatization Coelomic cavity reduced . Somite specialization .dorsal contractile heart .one per somite 3. Open circulatory system .striated muscles 5. 2.greater adaptability 4.division of labor. Cephalization . Social organization . tracheae.organ systems 3. thorax.rapidity of movement 5. jointed appendages .well developed head and eyes . Specialization of alimentary canal . PHYLUM ARTHROPODA .body surfaces. Bilateral .even more advanced . Jointed appendages .teeth .hemocoel 8.head.tracheae .shell reduced or absent . CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. 4.triploblastic . Metamerically arranged nervous system with dorsal cerebral ganglia DIFFERENCES: 1. Protostome branch 2. Metameric body divided into tagmata . Paired excretory glands .thus fused ganglia and sensory organs 2. Chitin .compartments . gills. Segmental arrangement of muscle 3. book lungs 9. functional groups of somites called tagmosis 3.like annelida 11.coelomic cavity . Gills . Complex muscular system . Nervous system . Striated muscle .hemocoel .000+ species POSITION IN ANIMAL KINGDOM: 1.conspicuous segmentation but somites greater variety of specialization e.parthenogenesis in some COMPARISON OF ARTHROPODA AND ANNELIDA SIMILARITIES: 1.chitin 4.etc. 2. Exoskeleton of cuticle .g. Reduced coelom .behavior advancements 9.e.exoskeleton 6. trunk.900.
4. spiders. ticks. pentamerous symmetry No head or brain Nervous system . 2. Special respiratory mechanism (gills.6. 3. 2.enterocoeious coelomates . 5.TRILOBATA (extinct) SUBPHYLUM . Major group but "strange" End of aside branch to evolution Embryonic relationships Water vascular system Dermal skeleton Metamorphosis .000 living and 20.5.CHELICERATA .bilateral larva to radial adult CHARACTERISTICS: 1. DIPLOPODA. Social behavior CLASSIFICATION OF ARTHROPODA: SUBPHYLUM . Jointed appendages 9. Metamorphosis 12. Deuterostomia Branch . Radial.1 or 2 pair antennae . etc. Unlike any other group due to evolutionary trends BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS: 1. INSECTA PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA: .first pair of appendages modified to form chelicerae e. CHILOPODA. Open circulatory system 6. Compound eyes 10. 5.major classes = CRUSTACEA.1 pair of mandibles . horseshoe crab .major class = ARACHNIDIA SUBPHYLUM .embryological features .anus developing from blastopore.circumoral ring and radial nerves Endoskeleton of dermal calcareous ossicles with spines Water-vascular system of coelomic origin . 6.Deuterostome) POSITION IN ANIMAL KINGDOM: 1. Absence of cilia 11.chitin 8. 3. coelom buds off from archenteron (enterocoel) 2.Coelomate .head appendages .g.MANDIBULATA . 4. Exoskeleton .000 extinct (Eumetazoa .) 7.Bilateria .
sea cucumbers PHYLUM HEMICORDATA (Eumetazoa .radial symmetrical. Autotomy and regeneration of lost parts CLASSIFICATION: SUBPHYLUM HOLMALOZOA . A tubular dorsal nerve cord .sea lilies .star shaped CLASS ASTEROIDEA .locomotion 7. globoid.brittle stars .podia .Deuterostome) POSITION IN ANIMAL KINGDOM: 1.especially in the collar area 2.Bilateria .tube feet . Blood vascular system .ancient fossil SUBPHYLUM CRINOZOA . Deuterostome branch Both chordate and echinoderm characteristics Gill slits and a restricted dorsal tubular nerve cord Echinoderm similarity = larval (bipinnarian) BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS: 1.basket stars SUBPHYLUM ECHINOZOA . Digestive tube complete 8. without arms CLASS ECHINOIDEA .sand dollars CLASS HOLOTHUROIDEA . oral surface directed upwards CLASS CRINOIDES . No excretory organs 12. Extensive coelom 9. Respiration by dermal branchiae . Sexes usually separate 13. perihemal sinuses 10. 3. 4.6.metamorphosis 14.filter feeding and respiratory surface .radial symmetrical . 2.Coelomate .unattached.feather stars SUBPHYLUM ASTEROZOA . Gill slits in the pharynx .sea stars CLASS OPHIUROIDEA . discoid.respiratory tree in Holothuroids 11.sea urchins . Tube feet . bilateral larval stages .hemal system much reduced. Development of free swimming.
segmented . 2.Bilateria .wormlike Body divided into proboscis.single glomerulus connected to blood vessels Subepidermal nerve plexus .dorsal nerve cord . trunk Some free swimming .thickened to form dorsal and ventral nerve cords .Coelomate . collar. 7. 3.well developed coelom .others sessile Circulatory . Soft bodied. 4.Deuterostome) CHARACTERISTICS: 1.ring around collar .acorn worms CLASS PTEROBRANCHIA .collar hollow in some 8.CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Sexes separate CLASS ENTEROPNEUSTA .dorsal heart Respiratory system .thus has a notochord (Eumetazoa . 6. 5. 1 to 7 mm in length PHYLUM CHORDATA . Bilateral .gill slits No nephrida .small.dorsal and ventral vessels .3 germ layers .
with jaws . dorsal.UROCHORDATA . rays Osteichthyes . PHARYNGEAL GILL SLITS AND POSTANAL TAIL GROUP PROTOCHORDATA .fish and tetrapods CLASSES: 1.lampreys SUPERCLASS .VERTEBRATA . 4. 3. tubular nerve cord . DORSAL TUBULAR NERVE CORD.Tunicata .notochord through life GROUP CRANIATA SUBPHYLUM .bony fishes Amphibia .tetrapoda .AGNATHA .lancets .ACRANIA SUBPHYLUM . Chondrichthyes . 3.backbone either bony or cartilaginous SUPERCLASS . Notochord Single.2.amphioxus .tetrapoda .may or may not be functional Postanal tail Ventral heart Complete digestive system Cartilage or bony endoskeleton FOUR CHORDATE HALMARKS = NOTOCHORD.amniotic egg Aves . 2. 6. 8.anterior end enlarged to form brain Pharyngeal gill slits . 7.amniotic egg .hagfish .GNATHOSTOMIA .cartilaginous fishes .tetrapoda . 4. 5. 5.sea squirts: key = free swimming larvae SUBPHYLUM .tetrapoda Reptilia .amniotic egg Mammalia .CEPHALOCHORDATA .PLUS .jawless fishes .sharks. 6.
scales dermal . Note probable development of the lung via the swim bladder and osmotic regulation of fresh water and salt water fishes 4.Bony fishes .most parasitic CONDRICHTHYES: .fertilization internal . thus lobe fins have comparable bone development of the 1-2-5 pattern of all higher classes 3.no paired fins porelike gill openings digestive system without stomach .air has 210 ml of oxygen per liter .key equals movement to land and the development of the YOLK EGG .fins medial and paired .fin rays .development external mostly but (oviparous.class Amphibia .skin with mucous glands . rays and skates. OSTEICHTHYES .thus aquatic organisms must spend considerable energy to extract oxygen from the environment. ovoviparious.no swim bladder separate sexes .swim bladder 1.olfactory sacs do not open into mouth cavity .lack jaws and internal ossification . Modern fishes have radiated into nearly 20.modern day = Coelacanth.also bony variations PHYSICAL COMPARISONS BETWEEN AQUATIC AND LAND HABITATS 1. viviparous) sharks.water 3 to 9 ml of oxygen per liter .skeleton bony .OVERVIEW OF GROUPS AGNATHA.heterocercal tail .Crossopterygii (lobefinned fishes) Dipneusti (lungfishes) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes 2.(TELEOSTOMI) .000 species AMPHIBIANS . Three main groups .Phylum Chordata .terminal mouth operculum .placoid scales .end line of evolution . Most probable early amphibians are an offshoot of early Crossopterygii in the Devonian .no operculum .minimum of 20 times . . Greater oxygen content of air . .endoskeleton cartilaginous .
Earliest amphibians . 2.all evidence from lobe-fins .lobe-fins also similar skull and tooth structure as to Labyrinthodontia a distinct salamander like group in Devonian period. Development of limbs .toads and frogs . Variety of land habitats .thus buoys up in aquatic. Appearance of lung .greater diversity available 5. Opportunities for breeding on land . Constancy of temperature .safer shelter than water ORIGIN AND RELATIONSHIPS OF AMPHIBIANS 1.500 species Approximately 350 million years of evolution and still not completely land adapted.probably from lobe-finned stock .6th pair of aortic arches modified and hence now systemic and pulmonary circulation.double life . Contributions to vertebrate evolution: (a) gills to lungs (b) limbs (c) Strengthening skeleton .approximately 1000 times more dense and 50 times more viscous . SALIENTIA . Greater density of water .approximately 350+ million years ago .land varied thus need to develop thermal factors on land . Non Amniotic egg – But with much yolk CLASS AMPHIBIA . GYMNOPHIONA . 3.water constant . 4. ORDERS: 1. land needed top develop support 3.highest = homeothermy 4.most successful .mostly aquatic 2. Appearance of lung 2.travel on land . Development of limbs 3.newts and salamanders .skeletal elements and early pectoral and pelvic girdles.closest to higher tetrapods 3.outgrowth of pharynx . URODELA .2.earthworm like tropical caecilians ORIGIN AND RELATIONSHIPS OF AMPHIBIANS 1.new frontiers .Devonian .2.
4. With development of reptiles in Paleozoic era thus amphibian era began to fade.crocodiles .(d) sense shift from lateral line to smell and hearing. 8.mostly oviparous with mesolecithal eggs with jellylike membrane coverings.some ribs Head. 2.now only 4 (four) orders -. neck trunk and tail Limbs .Mesozoic era = to the age of the great ruling reptiles.still ectothermic and most aquatic reproduction or need moist area. 7. Bony skeleton .vertebrae . 7.usually with 5 toes Skull with one occipital condyle All lungs 3 chambered heart .(some) with 4 chambers Ectothermic Internal fertilization Amniotic egg (KEY TO LAND SURVIVAL) . 6. 6.usually 4 (tetrapod) Moist skin . 8. CLASS REPTILIA .000 species Transition from certain Labyrinthodont amphibians in late Paleozoic . 5. AMPHIBIAN CHARACTERISTIC: 1. 4.no scales Nostrils open to mouth cavity Various mechanisms of respiration 3 (Three) chambered heart Ectothermal Separate sexes . CHARACTERISTICS: 1.great explosion . 3. 9. 6. 5.amniotic eggs . Even with modifications . Amniotic egg of reptiles freed them from aquatic environment. 7. Body covered with an exoskeleton of horny epidermal scales Limbs paired . 5. 3.7. 2.
4.snakes and lizards TESTUDINES . yolk sac. chorion. 3.BIRDS .thus internal fertilization More efficient circulatory system and higher blood pressure Better developed lungs Advanced kidney of metanephros type with passageway to exterior . 8. and allantois Copulatory organs . 2.ORDERS: 1. 2.turtles and tortoise CROCODILIA . epidermis and dermis Amniotic egg . earliest known fossil from the Jurassic or approximately 150 million years ago.approximately 8. CHARACTERISTICS: .Sphenodon .shell. Tough dry scaly skin. 7.600 living species Probably evolved from thecodont reptiles. Modern birds exploded in the late Cretaceous and Tertiary periods.crocodiles. 6. amnion.CLASSIFICATION . alligators and caimans RHYNCHOCEPHALIA . 5.ureters Better skeletal support and limb development More advanced nervous system with 12 pairs of cranial nerves .only species CHARACTERISTICS OF REPTILES THAT DISTINGUISH THEM FROM AMPHIBIANS 1.rather than 10 pairs as in amphibian CLASS AVES . SQUAMATA . 3. 4.
BEHAVIOR: . FOUR (4) CHAMBERED HEART: . A developing feather actually looks like a scale in the beginning.endothermic 7.no bladder 10. water.epidermal structure that probably evolved from reptilian scales.females with left ovary and oviduct only 9. 3.thus they have exploited virtually every habitat on earth . Fertilization internal . 4 chambered heart . Excretory system .one occipital condyle 5. 4 major regions but neck disproportionately long .air. etc.thus endothermic . Muscular partition .no sweat glands but oil gland at root of tail . sebaceous and mammary glands Moveable eyelids .metanephric kidney . 2. scent.pinna of ear is rudimentary.mammary glands .for balance and food gathering 2. etc.migrations . 4.systemic and pulmonary totally separate .eggs to placenta Mammals have filled every niche .care of young .pouched mammals = marsupials (c) highest .1.only organism with ability to modify its habitat . Birds also have scales on feet but intermediate stage of feather and scale has been found.voice box (syrinx) 8.ureters open to cloaca . (a) most primitive = monotremes (egg laying) (b) next . Epidermal covering feathers .endothermic at 35 to 37 degrees C. 12 pairs of cranial nerves 6.individual and social for most .temperature range from 40 to 42 degrees C.diaphragm Internal fertilization .origin approximately late Jurassic and exploded in Cretaceous and Tertiary periods.amniotic egg with much yolk and calcareous shell FEATHER: . Hair .fleshy external ears 4 chambered heart . Lungs . 5.4.nesting etc. Separate sexes . 4.sweat.600 living species Mammals origin from the therapsid reptiles which were possibly warm blooded .horny beak .air sacs .placental mammals CHARACTERISTICS: 1. and land . Limbs paired with forelimbs modified for flight 3. CLASS MAMMALIA . Ossified skeleton with air cavities .
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