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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. Please help improve it by removing unnecessary details and making it more concise. (July 2011) This article is about the novel by William Faulkner. For other uses, see The Sound and the Fury (disambiguation).
The Sound and the Fury
First edition cover Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher William Faulkner United States English Southern Gothic novel Jonathan Cape and Harrison Smith Print (hardback and paperback) 336 0-679-73224-1 21525355 813/.52 20
Publication date 1929 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal
the Modern Library ranked The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century Contents [hide] 1 Plot introduction o 1. 1928 o 2. and the events leading up to his suicide. Benjy's section is characterized by a highly disjointed narrative style with frequent chronological leaps.4 Part 4: April 8. is written from the perspective of Benjamin "Benjy" Compson. 1928. In 1931. Quentin's cynical younger brother. set a day after the first.A86 S7 1990 The Sound and the Fury is a novel written by the American author William Faulkner. Benjy's older brother. and was not immediately successful. April 6. Faulkner .1 Explanation of the novel's title 2 Plot summary o 2. In 1998. The novel is separated into four distinct sections. and Faulkner began to receive critical attention. 1928. when Faulkner's sixth novel.5 Appendix: Compson: 1699–1945 3 Characters in The Sound and the Fury 4 Literary significance and reception 5 Adaptation 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 External links  Plot introduction The Sound and the Fury is set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County. on April 8. including the technique known as stream of consciousness. was published — a sensationalist story which Faulkner later claimed was written only for money — The Sound and the Fury also became commercially successful. Faulkner writes from the point of view of Jason. The Sound and the Fury was Faulkner's fourth novel.3 Part 3: April 6. a 33-year-old man with severe mental handicaps. 1928 o 2. 1928. It employs a number of narrative styles. focuses on Quentin Compson. 1910 o 2. Sanctuary.LC Classification PS3511. 1910. former Southern aristocrats who are struggling to deal with the dissolution of their family and its reputation. pioneered by 20th century European novelists such as James Joyce and Virginia Woolf.1 Part 1: April 7. Published in 1929. The second section. April 7. The novel centers on the Compson family. 1928 o 2. however. The first. In the fourth and final section.2 Part 2: June 2. In the third section. June 2.
Over the course of the thirty years or so related in the novel. Also in this novel. This interweaving and nonlinear structure makes any true synopsis of the novel difficult. The general outline of the story is the decline of the Compson family. the . but Faulkner presents glimpses of the thoughts and deeds of everyone in the family. in this case Benjy. a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more: it is a tale Told by an idiot. whose narratives display their own varieties of idiocy. scene 5 of William Shakespeare's Macbeth: "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow. And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. "the way to dusty death".S. these time shifts can often be jarring and confusing. The last line is. avarice. Jason is also a focus in the section. full of sound and fury. each from a different point of view and therefore with emphasis on different themes and events. The idea can be extended also to Quentin and Jason. brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow. Otherwise they signify nothing." Immediately obvious is the notion of a "tale told by an idiot". More to the point. The use of these italics can be confusing. selfishness. out. however. whose view of the Compsons' story opens the novel. especially since the narrators are all unreliable in their own way. Out. The last section primarily focuses on Dilsey. Faulkner said in his speech upon being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature that people must write about things that come from the heart. as time shifts are not always marked by the use of italics. "universal truths". The family falls victim to those vices which Faulkner believed were responsible for the problems in the reconstructed South: racism. Signifying nothing. Civil War hero General Compson.  Explanation of the novel's title The title of the novel is taken from Macbeth's soliloquy in act 5. and require particularly close reading. making their accounts not necessarily trustworthy at all times. Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time.  Plot summary The four parts of the novel relate many of the same episodes. one of the Compson's black servants. and periods of different time in each section do not necessarily stay in italics for the duration of the flashback. Thus. and the psychological inability of individuals to become determinants[clarification needed]. the novel recounts the decline and death of a traditional upper-class Southern family. the most meaningful. Faulkner uses italics to indicate points in each section where the narrative is moving into a significant moment in the past.introduces a third person omniscient point of view. a once noble Southern family descended from U. perhaps.
At the time the children were aged 9 (Quentin). Benjy. a servant boy. necessitated by Benjamin's Autism. a source of shame to the family due to his autism. Moreover. a matriarchal servant. Originally Faulkner meant to use different colored inks to signify chronological breaks. His narrative voice is characterized predominantly by its nonlinearity: spanning the period 1898–1928. T. the marriage and divorce of Caddy (1910). and Benjy seems to have a "sixth-sense" in that he moans (he is unable to speak using words). 7 (Caddy). Jason and Benjy—looked up and noticed that her underwear was muddy.P.family falls into financial ruin. Benjy's caretaker changes to indicate the time period: Luster in the present. Quentin is appalled.  Part 2: June 2. 1928 The first section of the novel is narrated by Benjamin "Benjy" Compson. while not chronologically coherent. Other crucial memories in this section are Benjy's change of name (from Maury. and Dilsey. accompanied by Luster. Faulkner said afterwards that he wished he had written the history at the same time he wrote The Sound and the Fury. 5 (Jason) and 3 (Benjy). 1910 . Benjy's narrative is a pastiche of events presented in a seamless stream of consciousness. This nonlinearity makes the style of this section particularly challenging. When one of them calls for his golf caddie. watches golfers on the nearby golf course as he waits to hear them call "caddie"—the name of his favorite sibling. In order to see what was going on inside. Caddy climbed a tree in the yard. But by 1928 Caddy has been banished from the Compson home after her husband divorced her because her child was not his. and while looking inside. The presence of italics in Benjy's section is meant to indicate significant shifts in the narrative. and many of them die tragically. Readers often report trouble understanding this portion of the novel due to its impressionistic language.  Part 1: April 7. resulting from an attack on a girl that is alluded to briefly within this chapter when a gate is left unlatched and Benjy is out unsupervised. Benjy's mind embarks on a whirlwind course of memories of his sister. and his sister Caddy. and the family has sold his favorite pasture to a local golf club in order to finance Quentin's Harvard education. the four Compson children were forced to play outside during the funeral. in Benjy's teenage years. the golf course on land that used to belong to the Compson family. as if sensing the symbolic nature of Caddy's dirtiness. but Benjy's style develops a cadence that. loses its religious faith and the respect of the town of Jefferson. her brothers—Quentin. the only characters who evidence a genuine care for him are Caddy. provides unbiased insight into many characters' true motivations. and Versh during Benjy's infancy and childhood. his older sister. How each of them reacts to this is the first insight the reader has into the trends that will shape the lives of these boys: Jason is disgusted. In 1898 when their grandmother died. and its frequent shifts in time and setting. and Benjy's castration. which hints at her later sexual promiscuity. Caddy. after his uncle) in 1900 upon the discovery of his disability. focusing on one critical scene. The reader may also wish to look in The Portable Faulkner for a four-page history of the Compson family. In the opening scene. In this section we see Benjy's three passions: fire.
and to care for her by finding her home. He supports his mother. if they "could just have done something so dreadful that they would have fled hell except us" (51). 1928 The third section is narrated by Jason. these same readers often find Quentin's section to be near impossible. Quentin spends much of his time trying to prove his father wrong. for Quentin's sake. he calls her "sister" and spends much of the day trying to communicate with her. He also tells Quentin that time will heal all. of Quentin at Harvard on the one hand. but the pragmatic Mr.Quentin. We see him as a freshman at Harvard. as he cuts classes. phrases. gives the novel's best example of Faulkner's narrative technique. he could protect his sister by joining her in whatever punishment she might have to endure. wandering the streets of Cambridge. are clearly discernible. Benjy. Significantly.  Part 3: April 6. on Good Friday. Pregnant and alone. and remembering his family's estrangement from his sister Caddy. Quentin tells his father that they have committed incest. whom Quentin finds repulsive. it is often the one most extensively studied by scholars of the novel. He turns to his father for help and counsel. and of his memories on the other. Caddy becomes pregnant with the child of Dalton Ames. The two fight. The section is therefore ironic in that Quentin is an even more unreliable narrator than his brother Benjy was. Herbert finds out that the child is not his and sends mother and daughter away in shame. he commits suicide. but Caddy is resolute: she must marry before the birth of her child. Quentin's main obsession is Caddy's virginity and purity. Quentin's idea of incest is shaped by the idea that. never to speak to Dalton again. Compson tells him that virginity is invented by men and should not be taken seriously. Caddy then marries Herbert Head. its narrative is not strictly linear. though the two interweaving threads. He thinks sadly of the downfall and squalor of the South after the American Civil War. Because he can't deal with the amorality of the world around him. and sentences that have no separation to indicate where one thought ends and another begins. follow the pattern of his heartbreak over losing Caddy. but his father knows that he is lying: "and he did you try to make her do it and i i was afraid to i was afraid she might and then it wouldn't do any good" (112). While many first-time readers report Benjy's section as being difficult to understand. but often (especially at the end) Faulkner completely disregards any semblance of grammar. Of the three brothers' sections. as well as the family's servants. He is obsessed with Southern ideals of chivalry and is strongly protective of women. or punctuation. he feels a need to take responsibility for Caddy's sin. whom Quentin confronts. to no avail. It takes place the day before Benjy's section. the third son and Caroline's favorite. Jason is the economic foundation of the family after his father's death. Quentin is horrified. contemplating death. reflecting his single-minded desire for material wealth. Because of the staggering complexity of this section. His role makes him bitter and . instead writing in a rambling series of words. the most intelligent and tormented of the Compson children. Not only do chronological events mesh together regularly. For instance. In his mind. When Caddy engages in sexual promiscuity. he meets a small Italian immigrant girl who speaks no English. but is unable to. with Quentin losing disgracefully and Caddy vowing. Like the first section. Quentin's wanderings through Harvard. This confusion is due to Quentin's severe depression and deteriorating state of mind. especially his sister. spelling. By 1928. Jason's is the most straightforward. Shortly before Quentin leaves for Harvard in the fall of 1909. and Miss Quentin (Caddy's daughter).
a day in which Jason decides to leave work to search for Miss Quentin (Caddy's daughter). and Benjy suddenly becomes silent. but loses her trail in nearby Mottson. but nevertheless remains loyal. Miss Quentin's recklessness and passion." . Dilsey is mistreated and abused. which Jason had stolen) and her money-obsessed uncle's life savings. then uses that role to steal the support payments that Caddy sends for her daughter. Jason slaps Luster. which she is now witnessing. outside of one's self for support) while the Compsons grow weak by looking inward. She. draws a great deal of strength from her faith. Dilsey takes her family and Benjy to the 'colored' church. Luster turns around to look at Benjy and sees Benjy drop his flower. He therefore sets off once again to find her on his own. and gives her up as gone for good.e. Jason calls the police and tells them that his money has been stolen. 1928. Meanwhile. the powerful matriarch of the black servant family. The novel ends with a very powerful and unsettling image. It follows the course of Good Friday. in contrast to the declining Compsons. This section also gives us the clearest image of domestic life in the Compson household. who understands how best to placate his brother. Here we see most immediately the conflict between the two predominant traits of the Compson family. seemingly in pursuit of mischief. Luster. the tension between Jason and Miss Quentin reaches its inevitable conclusion.. This section. inherited from her grandfather and. with the help of her grandson Luster. is Easter Sunday. the only one without a single first-person narrator.  Part 4: April 8. It can be said that Dilsey gains her strength by looking outward (i. standing as a proud figure amid a dying family. turns the carriage around. on the other. having found the hidden collection of cash in Jason's closet and taken both her money (the support from Caddy. 1928 April 8. The preacher's sermon inspires her to weep for the Compson family. After church. ultimately.cynical.empty and blue and serene again. drawn from his mother's side. not caring that Benjy is so entrenched in the routine of his life that even the slightest change in route will enrage him. reminding her that she's seen the family through its destruction. cares for Benjy. He goes so far as to blackmail Caddy into making him Miss Quentin's sole guardian. focuses on Dilsey. who has run away again. of all people. The family discovers that Miss Quentin has run away in the middle of the night with a carnival worker. with little of the passionate sensitivity that mark his older brother and sister. as she takes him to church and tries to bring him to salvation. which Jason's mother Caroline attributes to the difference between her blood and her husband's: on the one hand. which for Jason and the servants means the care of the hypochondriac Caroline and of Benjy. Benjy's hysterical sobbing and violent outburst can only be quieted by Jason. Dilsey allows her grandson Luster to drive Benjy in the family's decrepit horse and carriage (another sign of decay) to the graveyard. drives the wrong way around a monument. Through her we sense the consequences of the decadence and depravity in which the Compsons have lived for decades. the Compson side. On this Easter Sunday.. She. Jason's ruthless cynicism. but since it would mean admitting embezzling Quentin's money he doesn't press the issue. Benjy's eyes are ". This is the first section that is narrated in a linear fashion.
fired the black servants. the servants' entries are simple and succinct. consists of two words: "They endured. It is also revealed that Jason had himself declared Benjy's legal guardian many years ago. and moved into an apartment above his farming supply store. without their mother's knowledge. and told with an omniscient narrative perspective. including events that transpired after the novel (which took place in 1928). however. Dilsey simply understands that Caddy neither wants nor needs salvation from the Germans."  Characters in The Sound and the Fury See also: Compson Family . the appendix presents some textual differences from the novel. but serves to clarify the novel's opaque story. because nothing else remains for her. After marrying and divorcing a second time. Appendix: Compson: 1699–1945 In 1945. beginning with the arrival of their ancestor Quentin Maclachlan in America in 1779 and continuing through 1945. Caddy moved to Paris. last seen in the novel when her daughter Quentin is still a baby. Jason. detailed. At Faulkner's behest. it is sometimes referred to as the fifth part. upon which Jason had Benjy committed to the state asylum. subsequent printings of The Sound and the Fury frequently contain the appendix at the end of the book. In particular. In 1943 the librarian of Yoknapatawpha County discovered a magazine photograph of Caddy in the company of a German staff general and attempted separately to recruit both Jason and Dilsey to save her. the appendix reveals that Caroline Compson died in 1933. and used this status to have Benjy castrated. while Dilsey pretended to be unable to see the picture at all. which are lengthy. Faulkner wrote an appendix to the novel to be published in the then-forthcoming anthology The Portable Faulkner. Dilsey's entry. The appendix also reveals the fate of Caddy. The appendix concludes with an accounting for the black family who worked as servants to the Compsons. The librarian later realizes that while Jason remains cold and unsympathetic towards Caddy. denied that it was she after realizing the librarian wanted his help. Having been written sixteen years after The Sound and the Fury. at first acknowledging that the photo was of his sister. sold the last of the Compson land. the final in the appendix. The appendix is presented as a complete history of the Compson family lineage. Unlike the entries for the Compsons themselves. where she lived at the time of the German occupation.
racist third child who is troubled by monetary debt and sexual frustration. who insisted on his name change to Benjamin. Benjy's only real caregiver and Quentin's best friend. bears a plaque to commemorate the character's life and death. Jason Compson IV (1894–?) — the bitter. The . Caddy is the only family member who shows any genuine love towards him. Quentin. he commits suicide as the tragic culmination of the damaging influence of his father's nihilistic philosophy and his inability to cope with his sister's sexual promiscuity. In her old age she has become an abusive hypochondriac. Candace "Caddy" Compson (1892–?) — the second Compson child. Absalom!. Benjamin ("Benjy". Caroline Bascomb Compson (?–1933) — wife of Jason Compson III — a self-absorbed neurotic who has never shown affection for any of her children except Jason. whom she seems to like only because he takes after her side of the family. Absalom!. He works at a farming goods store owned by a man named Earl and becomes head of the household in 1912. especially his mother. He is also a character in Absalom. born Maury) Compson (1895–?) — the mentally disabled fourth child. Quentin Compson III (1890–1910) — the oldest Compson child — passionate and neurotic. He also narrates several chapters of Absalom. Caddy never develops a voice. According to Faulkner. where he commits suicide in the novel. Has an almost animal-like "sixth sense" about people. strong-willed yet caring. but rather allows her brothers' emotions towards her to develop her character. as he was able to tell that Caddy had lost her virginity just from her smell. The bridge over the Charles River. a lawyer who attended the University of the South — a nihilistic thinker and alcoholic. Has been embezzling Miss Quentin's support payments for years.The genealogy of the Compson Family Jason Compson III (?–1912) — father of the Compson family. the true hero of the novel. who is a constant source of shame and grief for his family. with cynical opinions that torment his son.
Often referred to as Quentin II or Miss Quentin by readers to distinguish her from her uncle. Many of the characters also draw upon classical.  Adaptation A film adaptation was released in 1959 directed by Martin Ritt and starring Yul Brynner. Benjamin may derive his name from the brother of Joseph in the Book of Genesis. unappealing but competently pragmatic. It was an essential development in the stream-of-consciousness narrative technique. She is very wild and promiscuous. An observer of the Compson family's destruction. Jack Warden. It played a role in William Faulkner's receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. and eventually runs away from home.P. The movie bears little resemblance to the novel. Frony.  Literary significance and reception The novel has achieved great critical success and a prominent place among the greatest of American novels. the decline of the Compson family might be interpreted as an examination of the corrosion of traditional morality. Miss Quentin Compson (1911?–?) — daughter of Caddy who goes to live with the Compsons under Jason IV's care when Herbert divorces Caddy. Seen in this light. There are also echoes of existential themes in the novel. Dilsey Gibson (?–?) — the matriarch of the servant family. Faulkner was very much preoccupied with the question of how the ideals of the old South could be maintained or preserved in the post-Civil War era. to maintain the status quo. model for Benjy's character may have had its beginning in the 1925 New Orleans Times Picayune sketch by Faulkner entitled "The Kingdom of God". Ethel Waters. as illustrated by the novel's ending.  See also Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century . — and her grandchild Luster (Frony's son). The Sound and the Fury has been read as typifying the South as a whole. The novel's appreciation has in large part been due to the technique of its construction. and it is left to Jason. Joanne Woodward. and T. only to be replaced by a modern helplessness. as Caddy and Quentin cannot survive within the context of the society whose values they reject as best they can. Biblical and literary sources: Some believe Quentin (like Darl in As I Lay Dying) to have been inspired by Hamlet and Caddy by Ophelia. Like much of Faulkner's work. Stuart Whitman. and Albert Dekker. Faulkner's ability to recreate the thought patterns of the human mind. for whom she was named. they serve as Benjamin's caretakers throughout his life. Margaret Leighton. as Sartre argued in his famous essay on Faulkner. which includes her three children — Versh. The most compelling characters are also the most tragic.
Brooks. Donald M. "The Concept of God in Faulkner's Light in August. (August 2009) Anderson. Dahill-Baue. N. NY: Cornell UP. Bloomington: Indiana UP. John T. 1990. The Ink of Melancholy: Faulkner's Novels from The Sound and the Fury to Light in August. Bleikasten. William Faulkner: The Yoknapatawpha Country. 1968. David (2005). Bleikasten. Hein. Abadie. Howe. 1979.3. "Insignificant Monkeys: Preaching Black English in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury and Morrison's The Bluest Eye and Beloved". Twentieth century interpretations of The sound and the fury: a collection of critical essays. Ed.311. ed. André. Shegog's Easter Sermon: Preaching as Communion in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury". Englewood Cliffs. John T. William (1996). Kartiganer." Faulkner and Religion: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha. 1976.. Bibliography This article includes a list of references. 177–192. and Absalom. South Central Bulletin 34: 142– 46. Palumbo. Chicago: U of Chicago P. (1992). doi:10. 1991. Mississippi Quarterly 49: 457–73. William Faulkner: A Critical Study. Mississippi Quarterly 58: 559–80. related reading or external links. Irving. Cowan. CLA Journal 36: 24–30.: Prentice-Hall. Studies in the Novel 24: 423–33. Castille. 1991. Doreen Fowler and Ann J. Modern Fiction Studies 13: 45–55. 44–64. Matthews. 1989. Robert E. Faulkner's "Negro": Art and the Southern Context. Fleming. Giles.1093/litthe/4. John V. "Nihilism in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury". III. "Faulkner's Heterodoxy: Faith and Family in The Sound and the Fury. The Fragile Thread: The Meaning of Form in Faulkner's Novels. Ed. André. 1989. "Through Days of Easter: Time and Narrative in The Sound and the Fury". (1967). The Most Splendid Failure: Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury. 1963. 1982. 1975. 1991. As I Lay Dying. 1983. Matthews. Ithaca. The Sound and the Fury: Faulkner and the Lost Cause. Philip D. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP. Marshall. Abadie. Deland (1990). New Haven: Yale UP. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. Literature and Theology 4 (3): 311–24. Absalom!". Michael H. (1992). The Sound and the Fury. Davis. but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Donald (1979). Amherst: U of Massachusetts P. . Cleanth. "Dilsey's Easter Conversion in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury"." Faulkner and Religion: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha. Hagopian. 3d ed. Bloomington: Indiana UP. "James Weldon Johnson's God's Trombones as a Source for Faulkner's Rev'un Shegog". Boston: Twayne.. Thadious M. The Play of Faulkner's Language. Doreen Fowler and Ann J. Jackson: UP of Mississippi. Jackson: UP of Mississippi. Gunn. Alexander J. "The Reverend Mr.J. "The Dream Deferred: William Faulkner's Metaphysics of Absence.
1993. Noel. As I Lay Dying (First ed." New Essays on The Sound and the Fury. 1964.com/files/time-space-faulkner-sartre.pdf. William Faulkner: The Sound and the Fury. Fiction's Inexhaustible Voice: Speech and Writing in Faulkner. quotes William Faulkner quotes Succeeded by As I Lay Dying Preceded by Novels set in Yoknapatawpha County Sartoris or Flags in the Dust [hide]v · d · eWorks by William Faulkner Biography · Bibliography Soldiers' Pay (1926) · Mosquitoes (1927) · Sartoris / Flags in the Dust (1929 / 1973) · The Sound and the Fury (1929) · As I Lay Dying (1930) · Sanctuary (1931) · Light in Novels August (1932) · Pylon (1935) · Absalom. Ross. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP. Joseph R. 2009. Sartre. ISBN 978-0-231-12189-7. Tredell. themes. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Shegog's Sermon in William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury". Urgo. "The Unity of Time in The Sound and the Fury". teaching guide. Absalom! (1936) · The Unvanquished (1938) · If I Forget Thee.com/?id=WV8b1JoaLN8C&pg=PA7&dq=faulkner+sound+fury+sun dquist#v=onepage&q=faulkner%20sound%20fury%20sundquist&f=false. Hoffmann & Olga W. Olga W. Reading Faulkner: "The Sound and the Fury. The Faulkner Journal 1: 56–68. Ross. Bruce A. Vickery. William Faulkner. 1989. Jean-Paul. Radloff. Polk. pp.).. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Athens: U of Georgia P. Jerusalem (1939) · The Hamlet (1940) · Go Down. http://books. Noel Polk. Moses (1942) · Intruder in the Dust (1948) · Requiem for a Nun (1951) · A Fable (1954) · The Town . "A Note on Reverend Shegog's Sermon in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury.  External links Hypertext edition of The Sound and the Fury The Sound and the Fury: A Study Guide Cliffs Notes A comprehensive guide to Faulkner.1 (1984): item 4. ed." Jackson: UP of Mississippi.google. 1996. Bernhard (1986)." NMAL: Notes on Modern American Literature 8. "Trying Not to Say: A Primer on the Language of The Sound and the Fury. Retrieved August 28. 225–233. "The Oral Quality of Rev. Stephen M. Vickery. Stephen M. 1983. Patrick J. The Sound and the Fury study guide. New York: Columbia University Press. 139–175. including chronologically organized breakdowns of Benjy and Quentin's sections. Ed. Faulkner: The House Divided. Eric J. (1969). The Novels of William Faulkner: A Critical Interpretation. Literatur in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 2: 73–88. New York: Harcourt. and Noel Polk. Sundquist.typepad. Three Decades of Criticism. http://lavachequilit. Nicholas. Rosenberg. ed (1999).
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