Investigation of the Relationship between Ill-Conditioned Power Flow and Voltage Collapse

Y. Wang, L.C.P. da Silva, Wilsun Xu
Author Affilidtioi1:Deparlrnent of Hlcclrical niid Compuler Engineering, Uiiivcrsity of Alberta, Edinonlon, Alberta, Canadn Abstract: Ill-conditioned powcl- flow prohlcins h a w been widcly investigatcd kind discussed in the literature. Typical approtichcs are to dcvclop cnhanced soliilion algarilhms whcn a power Slow casc i s f w n r l L divcrgc using the conventional Newton mcthad. I1 i s known that ii o gcnuint: ill-conditioiicd pl-oblcm i s causcd hy the prescncc of ii large condition number in tlic power Slow Jacohiaii Iiitilrix. Sincc a ltirge cornclition number i s associatcd with sinnll singolx values and thc voltage collapse i s relatcd ti, small eigciivalucs, we therciorc spccolate lliat an ill-conditioncd [power Slow problem i s actually a voltagc collapse problem. The objective of this letter i s to ileiiionslrate tlic relationship bctween powcrflow ill conilitiiming zind vollagc instability. Casc studies of Fivc classical ill-conditioned cases havc confirmed that thc ill colidtioiiing of power Slow indccd irccurs-and only iiccLirs-at tlic voltage collapic point. Introduction: Many clsorts liavc bccii inade to deal with so-called ill-cimlitioned power flow problems 111-141. The coininr~ii praclice is to dcfinc a case as ill cniidiliiinetl i S the ciinvcnlioniil Newlon method does not convergc. Efforts are then dircclcil lowards dcveloiping enhanced algorithiiis to solve the case.

Therc i s a strict delinilion for ill-crmditioned prohleiiis in millheniatics 151. A imilrix is ill conditioncd iSit has asuSficiently largecondiLion Iiumbcr. Sincc ii large colidition inumber i s generally associated with siilall singular values or cigeiivalues oS the Jacobian inatrix and the voltagc collapse i s iilso relatcd to small eigenvalues 161, we LhereSore suspect tllat an ill-condifioned powcr IInw problem i s actually a voltegecoll;ipseprrihlem. Theobjcctivcuilhis Ielleris Lodeterminelhe validity of this poslulation. I)efiniiig Ill-Condltionccl Power Flow: Mathematical theory dcfines ill-conditioned matrices as those that liave suflicicntly ltirge coilclition numbers. For powcr syslem analysis, tlic matrix o l concern is the pnwcr flow Jacobian matrix . Accordiog to 15 1. a condition nuinhcr i s I . dcfincd :is COlIil(./J =1~./1~.l~J-'/~


whcrc 11*11 represenls iniitrix i i r ~ m 2-norm i s used, the condition IS iiumbcr can he calculated using tlic Sollowing eqiiation 151 Cond(.O=o

,,,,, ( . l l / a,,,,,,J l x (



Type2 T




where 5,,,,,A a,,,,,, represent thc maximum and minimum singular aiid valucs of thc lacobian matrix, rcspectively. Equati(in (2) suggests that tlicre ;ire L W Opossihlc causcs leading to a Iargc condition number. Onc i s a vcry large 5,,,;,x thc other i s a vcry and small a,,,,,,, Since the values of tlic .nniitrix elemenls arc comparahlc I with that OS tlie network Y matrix, tlie probahility fora,,,,, to cause ii large candilion nuinher i s siiiiill. On the other hand, voliage stahilily kiiriwlctlge shows that a,,,,,,cdn be very small or 7,crn at the vollagc c d hpse point. O m can, thererore, postulatc that tlic only causc for :I large Coiitlilioii nuinher to L)CCLII would bc a,,,,,, going to zero at thc PV ciirvc iiosc piiinl. Thus thc ill-conditimed powcr flow problem could he ii inere vollegc stability prohlem, causcd by operating the systcin at i l s inaxiniiini loialing IcvcI. To vcrify this postoletion, wc iise the PV ciiive inetliod to ~ S S C S Srive widely publicized ill-condiiioiicd power flow cases [ I 1-13),As shown in Figurc I,Lhcrc are three possible scenarios for powcr flow tlivergencc. I>pc I : A soliition poinl exisls, and i t i s no1 close to the PV curvc nose Ipuiiit. Whether tlic problem i s ill coinditiuncd or 1101 be easily caii chcckcd using the condition number at the solutim point. Tspe 2: There i s a possible solutioii point hut il i s very close Lo the PV curvc nose point. Iflhccundilion number i s iiidccd vcry large in this casc, thc Iproblein should hc cl;issilied as ill conditioncd The Newton method i s known to have difficulties solving such a casc. 7ip1" 3: A s o l i i t i o i i point does lint cxist, In other words, the loading IcvcI [iltlie cine lias gaiic heymd tlie systciii cepability. Such ciiseh llave nolhing todo with the ill condilionine ofthcJ;aobiaii matrices.

5 z

. 0.6 .... _ -0.7

I .

omin C " i fl.ox102




5 0.5 5 0.4 5 0.3 m





# 2




0 w -



................I ___----,,--I, 0.8






*.. the hase case loadiiig level is about 42% higher tliiin the imaxiiniini load ahility of tlic system.8 1. 43-Dus System: This ciisc rcprcscnts a typical distrihutian system...! 1. 11-DusSystem: This ~ a s c reported a s ill conditi~ineili n 131.... shown in Figorc Zia). condition nurnher is observed at the solution point..1 v) P .. ~O-DIIS.I. I f C I 0. Thc 13-bus syitcm dcscrihed iii 131 can also be solved with the Ncwtoii iiictliod.... siiicc is it was found to diverge using the Newton method..8 tiincs nf thc hase casc loading IcvcI. since it does 1101 Our results show that tlic case is ciinvcrgciit iifter tlirce iteriitioiis. indicaling a large margin lroni ihe base case to the nose poinl.58.0. Thc PV curvc inethod is tlicti applied to dctcrminc thc location of tlic solution poiiits..~... .. There is no feasible solulioii to the Iproblem This casc... whilc o...incl is rcportcd a s ill caoditioned in I I]..2 1. gocs to zcru at the nose point.. I . such EIS :in iozidequ:ite sfiil-ting [point fkr itclatioiis. It is only near the nose point thiit thc conditirm number becomes very large. 20... I I I ' . we Ibund that the ciise convcigcs aftel...ti network . Thc singular valucs aiid condition numbers are inonitored in the process.... Our lesl resiilis confirm that tlie case cannot converge usiiig the conventinrial Newton mcthod.55 0. the Ncwtoii power flow converged after 4 iterations.c 0. .. When (lie Izip sctting is corrected...8 O-------.... . ..ible...-c..> a.z . rciiiains atafinitc wluc inrrlicciitirccurvc.. I I . Howcvcr. Results sliuwn i n Figure 4(b) also cunfirm the pustulation thiit $1 very large c u i i ~ ditiiin niinibci occurs only at thc nixe point.. ...6 L 1 _ . the case is a genuine ill-crinditioncd CHSC... 1 is cleiir and while 1 thato..024 times of the base-c level.. number. only Ciirc 1 is LI 0. we frwnd errors in the transformer tap data listed i n 13 I.. o.8 I F oading level \ 5 $ 0 . Our studics cunlirm that the case is divcrgctit.6 .. Tlierelore.. Thc maximum system load ability is 2.4 0. The condition number Sur the sdotirm point is 495..---.... ...... is not ail ill-coiiditioned is 3.. This case is therefore nut ill conditioned . it iis Type 2. classificd as Typc 3.S m w itcriitims with thc Newtnn incthod. Summary: Table 1 suininiirizes the results ohtaincd f h all systcms. r c v c ~ lthat tlic e Iniaximum lox1 abiliiy ~ F t h system is 9 9 3 % o f t h e base ciisc lotiding level. Figiiic 2(b) shows the behavior nf tlic condition aaaity .. In I I 1-13] it is reported as "specially i l l conditioned" and divergent iiftcr SO itcratioiis of Ncwtoii inictbod. Flowever.4 1..Case Studies: A conventional Newton i i i e t h d is first used 10 solvc thc cases dcscribed i n 1 I j-131. This casc aiid tlic 13-bus case belong to 'L'ype I ancl tire not ill condilimiecl.6 44 ... 1- *.. c I 7 I I I I - 5 2 .mrl cmi be cltissified iis Typc 1.6 Loading Factor 2 2 .------.. 13-Dus. Thc divcrgencc problcins iburid in [ I ] inight hc rclatcd to otlicr iiiiincrical problems.. I I. We cl. According to the cmtliiioii iiunibers shuwn i n the t. The 69-bus system is a portion o f a distl-ibutir...21 tiincs the h loading. Figure 3 shows the PV C L I W ~itnil condition number r ~ s u l t s No Iwge . I I O"C0 0. Thc PV-curvc rcsiilts..... . and 69-Dus Systems: The 30-hos case is ii riiiliiil distribulinn system. ilic system loading is increesed.45 Loading Factor 0... PV curve results show that the nose point occurs at 6.. Delailed results lor each case are premitccl as liillows. thc PV curvc results shown iii Pigure4ia) reveal that the nosc poitii iiccurs frir a lo:iding fiictor uf 0.. Aiter analyzing the system.. In oilier words.. 0.This ineans that thc cBsc is vcry clnsc to voltagc collapsc.--. .. Thc PV curvc shows that the Iiose poiin hiis a lozidiog th.. Relerence [I]considers tlie case ill condiiioned converge after SO iteratioiis willi the Newton method.... Figorc l i b ) furtlicr coiilirnis that a large condiiion number only exists iieiir the vrrltagc collapse pnint. a I**.5 0.

I. pt.ilions of this finding arc twofold: I) Vdlage slabilit es~inciit lechiiiqucs should he tisctl to nnaly7. i t i s suggcslcrl thal iniiltiple coiitriillcrs be ai'plied iiithe UPFC with ciicli oflhcm being ilcsigiicd f<.r a single control lunction 141. "Vrill~ipeslabilily cwiliiiilion using iiiodal an. liisr.9XIO' 6. "Load-Iluw solutions for ill-condilioncd ~ m w c r syslciiis hy a Ncw- Author Affiliation: Dcpurliiicnt of Elcctrici aiid Elzclroiiic Hngineering. and 1'.ieee. Malik. I. lpp. G d u b . Abstract: This lcttcr invesligalcs tlic dynamic iiitcrwlinns ninong dillereiit c ~ i i i t r o li'uiictions ol II siiiglc uiiificd ~powcrfluw coiitrdler (UPPC) a n d hctwcen ~iiullipleIIPFCs instzillcd iii power systcms. Tlic tahle als(r shows that llic conililinii Iiuiiibcrs iirc 11111 large when llic solulion poiins .in. thnl ~ r Study cascs pucsctiled in this Icttcrdctii~~~~srl.IXlO 69-bus 580000 I. C. O. Kefercoces: I I1 A.M.0244 160011 5.P. as necessary: Guide for Presenter. 131 S. I~lowcvcr. Conclusions: This lettcr lias tleinonsLl.2116 3. 14. I ." /+.c ~ ~ ~ i ~ l i lcasc.G. Mar. X ..ilysis. Anr.T. Mot." //?/?E Tinri. ~ n dC.K. Wdng.iitctl tlial ii large [perceiitegc ofso-c.~. p w c r system coiilrd. Johns Test 11-bo. vol.10. p. Guide for Slides." P. 1999. M. "Dccouplcd Ix'wer llow solution inielliotl lnr wcll-crinditionr[I acid ill-ci~iditimetl power systcms.illed ill-conditioned prnblcms liail nothing to do wilti Ihe ill coliditioiiing iiflacobiaii iiiatris. Study C ~ S C S presenled in this leller sliow that thcrc csisl dynamic iiileriictioiis among rliffe. i t i s i n effecting a volmge collapsc casc. Prcss.r. [SI C.K.oc.~.Table 1. vol. Co. 'l'ripaltiy. 19x3.ire far away lroiii the iiiisc Ipuints. Jazaeri. 2) It i s uiiprifitahlr 10 research iicw algorithms dedicalcil to "ill-condilioncd" power flow Iprohleins. Lollding Investigation into the Dynamic Interactions of Multiple Multifunctional Unified Power Flow Controllers N.F. I99 I. The versatiliry of the U P I T lie5 in the Aict that i t caii he equippcd willi iiiiilliple coiitrol ftiiictions 121-131. Mol-iiixi.. Van Lr. 7.Y. Kuiidor. 78-88.M. i s tluc l o prnhlems other than large Coiitlitioii iiuiiihcrs. dynaiiiic intcracrioiis Introduction: A iinificd p w c r ilnu' coiitrollcr (UPFC) wiis 11roposed [ I I tu achicve llie Ileiiblc iic traiisiiiissioii syslems (FACTS).5846 3.9XI01 43-bus Divcl-gcnl 0. O. http://www. ibnd G. To iinpiciiicnt tlic multiple coiitrol fiinclions ni' llie UPPC. "Dircct soIuIioii of distribution systems. I m t .er . 1J. These Lechniqucs can rcvc~il Inuch iiiore iiifririnalion. 140. since the probleins iirc i d l y voltagc instability problems. UPFCZ m u Sta mna 8111 Guidelines for a Good PosterlPaper Session Helpful guidelines for running a good oral or poster session and for making a good presentation (including slide preparation) are available on the Web.6X 10 geiiuiiic i l l .ilislactal-ily. Prnsad. vol. iirraiigeiiicnt 01iiultiplc controllers to i n the pleiiiciil llic UPFC iiiultiple cninrd fuiiclions poscs the problem of poisiblc dynamic iiileractioiis iiot imly ainong [lie coiilrol functions o f a singlc UPFC bit1 also betwccii dii'fcrciil IJPFCs. A.pp. G. Enpdsito and l i l < . Eizg.IC.. University of Bath. If a cine i s a geriuiiic ill-condilioiied e m . no.D. 1993. lip 1063-1068.vt.New York: Johns Hopkins Univ. [pp. I?X. 476..11.P. C. The divergence ofothcrciises. 121 M. or Guide for Session Chair. The guidelines should help the chair in running a smooth session and the presenter in effectively conveying the desired message to the audience. I61 B. E l e o . P I . At the bottom of tliis page find. Itelation Divergcnt 2.K."lEEE 7 k i m /'owri-Syst. Iinp1ic.c tlic "ill-coiitlitioiieil(i ~powcr llnw problciiis. Keywords: Uirilied pnwcr f l r i w cunlroller (UPPC). Rainos.unr L41 S. Ilopc. Goswami iind S.i. Case studies su Condition Namber Max..M. Ele<.y. . "Reliable power flow rcchnique for radial dislributioii ictworks.iitt: hexistciicc o I ~ h e dyniimic iiileriiclioiis caii Icad l o lhc inslahilily of wliolc claszd-loop con1ro1 syslciiis wlicii iill UPljC conlrol Iiinctioiia arc in joint uperalion even though ciicli UI'FC controller lias Ihccn designed a. Start at the PES home page. NII. mi. iTlic l ciisc act~ially i~~ iei opcwtcs ill (he voltagc collapse point.iipirliirion. El-Arini. 1992.S. I'ow. vol. then go to: PES Author's Kit. 1529-1542.C. as reporlcd in (lie relereiiccs.