# AICHA EUGENE

EN292-0662/2009
ENGINEERING MECHANICS PRACTICAL 2

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley and to check the effect
of lap angle on the grip of the belt.
2. To investigate the relationship between belt tensions, angle of wrap and coefficient of
friction for Flat & V belts. Then, to determine the effect of the angle of wrap to the power
that can be transmitted for belt drive mechanism.
3. To determine the effect of the belt tensions to the power that can be transmitted for belt
drive mechanism.
4. Lastly, to compare the power transmission capability of flat and V belt.

INTRODUCTION
Pulley drive systems depend on friction to enable the belt to grip the wheel and pull it around with
it. To enable this, the belt must be tensioned, even when the wheels are stationary. This is unlike
positive chain drive systems where teeth mesh with the chain and slip is not possible so no initial
tension is required. Pulley drives are most often used to produce speed reduction between a motor
and the machine being driven (e.g. a motor driving an air compressor). Many other applications
exist from small rubber band drives in video recorders to large multi belt systems on heavy
industrial equipment. On many modern systems, toothed belts are used (e.g. timing belt on a car
engine) to prevent the belt slipping. Belt drive machinery makes up significant portions of
mechanical system. Belt drive is used in the transmission of power over comparatively long
distances. In many cases, the use of belt drive simplifies the design of a machine and substantially
reduces the cost. Belt drive employs friction for the transmission of power. The coefficient of
friction for belt drive depends on the type of material used for the belt and the pulley. Table 1
gives the average coefficient of friction values for various belt and pulley material combination.

BELT
Power is transmitted from one to another by means of belts. Belts are used where the distance
between the shafts is large. Belts are flexible type of connectors.
• The flexibility of belts and ropes is due to the property of their materials.
• Belts transmit power due to friction between them and the pulleys. If the power transmitted
exceeds the force of friction, the belt slips over the pulley.
• Belts are strained during motion as tensions are developed in them.
• Owing to slipping and straining action, belts are not positive type of drives.
Types of belts :-
a. Flat belt
b. V-belt
Material for belts: - Usual materials are leather, canvas, cotton and rubber.

PULLEY
Pulleys are mounted on the two shafts. The speed of the driven shaft can be varied by varying
the diameters of the pulleys. Types of pulleys :-
a. Idler pulleys
b. Intermediate pulleys
c. Loose and fast pulleys
d. Guide pulleys

FORMULAE USED:-
1
2
T
T
=e
µu

; Where
1
T = Tension at the slack side of the belt ( N/m
2
)
2
T = Tension at the tight side of the belt ( N/m
2
)
μ = Co-efficient of Friction between belt and pulley
θ = Arc of contact ( radians)

THEORY
Let's look at a flat belt passing over a drum
Let's take a look at a differential element
Motion is assumed to be impending.
dN dF
s
µ =
The normal force is a differential force because it acts on a differential element of area.

0
2
cos ) (
2
cos
0
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= E
u
µ
u d
dT T dN
d
T
F
s
x

0
2
sin ) (
2
sin
0
= +
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= E
dN
d
dT T
d
T
F
y
u u

For small angles
cos(θ) = 1
sin(d θ) = d θ
0 = + + ÷ ÷ ¬ E dT T dN T F
s x
µ
T
1
P P'
|
u
du
P
1
P
2
O
dN
du
µ
s
dN
T+dT T
du/2 du/2
x
y
r
dN dT
s
µ =
0
2
) (
2
= + |
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ ¬ E dN
d
dT T
d
T F
y
u u

0
2 2 2
= + |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ dN
d
dT
d
T
d
T
u u u

0
2
= |
.
|

\
| u d
dT (2 small numbers squared = 0)
Thus: u d T dN =
Substituting:

u µ
u µ
d
T
dT
d T dT
s
s
=
=

Integrating:
u µ
|
d
T
dT
O
s
T
T
} }
=
2
1

B T T
S
µ = ÷
1 2
ln ln
Thus:
B
T
T
s
µ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
ln
OR

B
s
e
T
T
µ
=
1
2

The equation that relates the coefficient of friction, the tensions, the angle of wrap
and the angle of groove is;
sin
2 2
1
T
e
T
u µ
o
=

T2 is the initial tension on the tight side.
T1 is the initial tension on the slack side
μ is the coefficient of friction
o is the total angle of groove in degrees (θ = 90
0
for flat belt, θ= 20
0
for Vee belt)
θ is the angle of wrap in radians measured from the point of tangency of T1 and
T2;θ is the angle of wrap in radians measured from the point of tangency of T1 and T2
These formulas apply to:
1). Flat belts passing over fixed drums.
2). Ropes wrapped around a post or capstan.
3). band brakes- the drum is about to rotate while the band remains fixed.
4). Problems involving belt drives. Both the pulley and belt rotate; determine whether the
belt will slip/move to the pulley.
- Should only be used if the belt, rope, or brake is about to slip.
- In the equations
2
T will always be larger than
1
T . So
2
T represents the tension which pulls and
1
T is the resisting tension.
- θ must be in radians. θ may be larger than t 2 . If a rope is wrapped around a post n times,
n t | 2 = .
- If the belt, rope is actually slipping,
k
µ should be used.
-If no slipping occurs and is not about to slip, none of these formulas should be used.

V-belts
Consider a VEE section belt with an included angle of 2β.Vee belts grip on the side and not on the
bottom. The wedging affect increases the reaction force between the pulley and the belt from R to
R'. Since the friction force is increased, greater power can be transmitted before the belt slips.
o
Resolving R' vertically gives an upwards force of R'sin β on each side of the belt.

Balancing vertically R = 2 R' sin β

In the original derivation we had dF = μR but this time we must use dF = μR', hence

Completing the derivation by integrating between limits as before we get the following
result.

APPARATUS:
Belt & Pulley System, marked weights.

PROCEDURE:
1. The angle of arc of contact was noted.
2. Some weight was set on one side of the belt & some put weight on other side of the belt, till
the belt just slides.
3. The values of T1 & T2 were also noted initially.
4. T1 was varied to set values and correspondingly, T1 adjusted by adding and reducing weights
to determine its balancing value.
5. The same procedure was repeated for both the flat belt and the V-belt and the value of μ
for each of the belt pulley combinations determined.
Precautions
1. Tapping of pulley should be done after increasing the weight.
2. Weight should be increased in small step.
3. Add weights slowly without jerks.

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Conversion

30 0.52359878

60 1.04719755

90 1.57079633

120 2.0943951

150 2.61799388

180 3.14159265

Using the flat belt

T1(N/m^2) T2(N/m^2)
μ Average μ
30 degrees
25 18.5 0.00435894 0.249749
0.00608966 0.34891177
20 14.5 0.0046554 0.2667348
15 10.5 0.0051634 0.2958409
10 6.5 0.00623622 0.3573092
5 2.5 0.01003433 0.5749249
60 degrees
25 21.5 0.00109169 0.0625494
0.00358987 0.20568443
20 12.5 0.003402 0.1949202
15 8.5 0.00411121 0.2355547
10 5.5 0.00432729 0.2479354
5 2.5 0.00501717 0.2874625
90 degrees
25 11.5 0.00374714 0.214695
0.00471865 0.27035873
20 8.5 0.00412901 0.236575
15 5.5 0.00484143 0.2773934
10 3.5 0.00506591 0.2902553
5 1.5 0.00580976 0.3328749
120
degrees
25 7.5 0.00435732 0.2496562
0.00443135 0.25389793
20 6.5 0.00406764 0.2330585
15 4.5 0.00435732 0.2496562
10 2.5 0.00501717 0.2874625
5 1.5 0.00435732 0.2496562
150
degrees
25 7.5 0.00348586 0.199725
0.00387661 0.22211318
20 5.5 0.00373778 0.2141591
15 4.5 0.00348586 0.199725
10 2.5 0.00401373 0.22997
5 1 0.0046598 0.2669869
180
degrees
25 4.5 0.00413737 0.2370541
0.00407283 0.23335592
20 4 0.00388317 0.2224891
15 3 0.00388317 0.2224891
10 1.5 0.00457727 0.2622583
5 1 0.00388317 0.2224891

Using the V belt

T1(N/m^2) T2(N/m^2)
μ Average μ
30 degrees
25 11.5 0.01124141 0.6440851
0.01312018 0.75173067
20 9 0.01155958 0.6623153
15 6.5 0.01210593 0.6936187
10 4 0.01326467 0.7600094
5 1.5 0.01742929 0.9986248
60 degrees
25 6 0.01032981 0.5918547
0.0109919 0.62978938
20 4.5 0.01079696 0.6186201
15 3.5 0.01053372 0.6035377
10 2 0.0116495 0.6674672
5 1 0.0116495 0.6674672
90 degrees
25 3 0.01023132 0.5259428
0.01093515 0.56212349
20 2 0.01111111 0.5711687
15 1.5 0.01111111 0.5711687
10 1 0.01111111 0.5711687
5 0.5 0.01111111 0.5711687

.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Errors in the experiment may have been due to the weights oscillating while experiment is being
performed. Some friction may also be present in the compression spring or the spring balance
attached to the pulley on one end.There could also have been errors while making the scale
diagram and vector diagram may occur as human errors. Parallax error, though avoided as much
as possible could have come in while noting the readings.

References
[1] Mechanical Experiments and Workshop Practice - Page 25 G S Sawhney - 2009
Experiment 8 Belt and Pulley Experiment 1.
[2] Design Of Machine Elements - Page 130 Babu & Sridhar
[3] A manual of practical physics, for students of science and engineering: Volume 1 Ervin
Sidney Ferry – 1908
[4] Theory of Machines Singh – 2006
[5] Mechanical laboratory methods: the testing of instruments and ...Julian Chase Smallwood –
1922
[6]

Many other applications exist from small rubber band drives in video recorders to large multi belt systems on heavy industrial equipment. Then. even when the wheels are stationary. .g. timing belt on a car engine) to prevent the belt slipping. To enable this. To investigate the relationship between belt tensions. a motor driving an air compressor). 3. 4. Belt drive employs friction for the transmission of power. BELT Power is transmitted from one to another by means of belts. The coefficient of friction for belt drive depends on the type of material used for the belt and the pulley. the belt slips over the pulley. • Owing to slipping and straining action. This is unlike positive chain drive systems where teeth mesh with the chain and slip is not possible so no initial tension is required. Belt drive machinery makes up significant portions of mechanical system. If the power transmitted exceeds the force of friction. to determine the effect of the angle of wrap to the power that can be transmitted for belt drive mechanism. Lastly. Belt drive is used in the transmission of power over comparatively long distances. In many cases. To determine the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley and to check the effect of lap angle on the grip of the belt.OBJECTIVES 1. • The flexibility of belts and ropes is due to the property of their materials. • Belts are strained during motion as tensions are developed in them. Belts are used where the distance between the shafts is large. 2. On many modern systems. Table 1 gives the average coefficient of friction values for various belt and pulley material combination. Belts are flexible type of connectors. angle of wrap and coefficient of friction for Flat & V belts. the belt must be tensioned. Pulley drives are most often used to produce speed reduction between a motor and the machine being driven (e.g. belts are not positive type of drives. INTRODUCTION Pulley drive systems depend on friction to enable the belt to grip the wheel and pull it around with it. toothed belts are used (e. To determine the effect of the belt tensions to the power that can be transmitted for belt drive mechanism. to compare the power transmission capability of flat and V belt. • Belts transmit power due to friction between them and the pulleys. the use of belt drive simplifies the design of a machine and substantially reduces the cost.

Where T1 = Tension at the slack side of the belt ( N/m2 ) T2 = Tension at the tight side of the belt ( N/m2 ) μ = Co-efficient of Friction between belt and pulley θ = Arc of contact ( radians) THEORY Let's look at a flat belt passing over a drum .Types of belts :a. Intermediate pulleys c. cotton and rubber. canvas. Idler pulleys b. PULLEY Pulleys are mounted on the two shafts. Loose and fast pulleys d. Guide pulleys FORMULAE USED:T1 = e  T2 .Usual materials are leather. Types of pulleys :a. The speed of the driven shaft can be varied by varying the diameters of the pulleys. V-belt Material for belts: . Flat belt b.

Fx  0  d   d   T cos    s dN  (T  dT ) cos 0  2   2  Fy  0  d   d   T sin   (T  dT ) sin    dN  0  2   2  For small angles cos(θ) = 1 sin(d θ) = d θ Fx   T   s dN  T  dT  0 .P d P1 P' P2   O T1 y  sdN d T dN r d d T+dT x Let's take a look at a differential element Motion is assumed to be impending.  dF   s dN The normal force is a differential force because it acts on a differential element of area.

. the tensions.dT   s dN  d   d  F y   T    (T  dT )   dN  0  2   2   d T  2   d  T   2   d   dT    2    dN  0   d  dT    0 (2 small numbers squared = 0)  2  Thus: dN  T d Substituting: dT   s T d dT   s d T Integrating:  T2 T1  dT    s d O T ln T2  ln T1   S B Thus: T  ln  2    s B T   1 OR T2  e s B T1 The equation that relates the coefficient of friction. the angle of wrap and the angle of groove is. T2 e T1  sin  2 T2 is the initial tension on the tight side.

 V-belts Consider a VEE section belt with an included angle of 2β.  k should be used.In the equations T2 will always be larger than T1 . band brakes. determine whether the belt will slip/move to the pulley. 3). So T2 represents the tension which pulls and T1 is the resisting tension. Both the pulley and belt rotate.θ is the angle of wrap in radians measured from the point of tangency of T1 and T2 These formulas apply to: 1).θ must be in radians.If the belt. or brake is about to slip. Problems involving belt drives.   2n . θ= 200 for Vee belt) θ is the angle of wrap in radians measured from the point of tangency of T1 and T2. Flat belts passing over fixed drums. 4). If a rope is wrapped around a post n times. . none of these formulas should be used. -If no slipping occurs and is not about to slip.T1 is the initial tension on the slack side μ is the coefficient of friction  is the total angle of groove in degrees (θ = 900 for flat belt. The wedging affect increases the reaction force between the pulley and the belt from R to R'.the drum is about to rotate while the band remains fixed. . θ may be larger than 2 .Should only be used if the belt. 2). Ropes wrapped around a post or capstan. . rope is actually slipping. Since the friction force is increased. . rope. greater power can be transmitted before the belt slips. .Vee belts grip on the side and not on the bottom.

The same procedure was repeated for both the flat belt and the V-belt and the value of μ for each of the belt pulley combinations determined. 3. T1 was varied to set values and correspondingly. The values of T1 & T2 were also noted initially. APPARATUS: Belt & Pulley System. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS . hence Completing the derivation by integrating between limits as before we get the following result. till the belt just slides. Some weight was set on one side of the belt & some put weight on other side of the belt. 4. 2. Balancing vertically R = 2 R' sin β In the original derivation we had dF = μR but this time we must use dF = μR'. Tapping of pulley should be done after increasing the weight. The angle of arc of contact was noted. Add weights slowly without jerks. PROCEDURE: 1. 3. T1 adjusted by adding and reducing weights to determine its balancing value. 2. marked weights. Precautions 1.Resolving R' vertically gives an upwards force of R'sin β on each side of the belt. Weight should be increased in small step. 5.

003402 8.57079633 120 2.00413737 4 0.00407283 0.2773934 0.5 0.30 degrees 60 degrees 90 degrees 120 degrees 150 degrees 180 degrees T1(N/m^2) 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 Conversion In degrees In radians 30 0.0046554 10.00411121 5.5 0.00457727 Average μ Per radian Per degree Per radian 0.2330585 0.5 0.2874625 0.22211318 0.5749249 0.5 0.00109169 12.00412901 5.00406764 4.00435732 7.2622583 0.236575 0.5 0.5 0.25389793 0.00388317 1.00443135 0.5 0.199725 0.04719755 90 1.00388317 3 0.5 0.0625494 0.5 0.2496562 0.00501717 11.00608966 0.3573092 0.5 0.34891177 0.01003433 21.2355547 0.2496562 0.0046598 4.23335592 .61799388 180 3.00623622 2.00401373 1 0.0051634 6.5 0.00471865 0.249749 0.5 0.27035873 0.2669869 0.20568443 0.2224891 0.5 0.5 0.00358987 0.00435732 2.00506591 1.22997 0.00348586 2.0943951 150 2.5 0.2958409 0.00348586 5.2496562 0.5 0.2902553 0.2224891 0.00501717 1.5 0.5 0.52359878 60 1.5 0.2479354 0.00432729 2.14159265 Using the flat belt μ T2(N/m^2) Per degree 18.5 0.5 0.2141591 0.00435894 14.00435732 6.5 0.5 0.00387661 0.2370541 0.1949202 0.3328749 0.00484143 3.5 0.2874625 0.214695 0.00374714 8.00580976 7.2667348 0.5 0.199725 0.00373778 4.5 0.

though avoided as much as possible could have come in while noting the readings.7600094 0.01742929 6 0.5711687 0.01111111 0.01053372 2 0.6674672 0.0116495 1 0.5 0. Some friction may also be present in the compression spring or the spring balance attached to the pulley on one end.00388317 Using the V belt μ T2(N/m^2) 11.01079696 3.6674672 0. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Errors in the experiment may have been due to the weights oscillating while experiment is being performed.5 0.56212349 .6936187 0.6035377 0.2224891 Average μ Per degree Per radian 0.01111111 0.01210593 4 0.6623153 0.5711687 0.5 0.There could also have been errors while making the scale diagram and vector diagram may occur as human errors.5711687 0.01023132 2 0.5918547 0.01111111 1 0.75173067 0.6186201 0.5 30 degrees 60 degrees 90 degrees T1(N/m^2) 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 5 25 20 15 10 5 1 0.01326467 1.5 0.6440851 0.0109919 0.5 0.0116495 3 0.5 0.01312018 0. Parallax error.01111111 1.01032981 4.01155958 6. .01093515 0.5711687 0.5259428 0.62978938 0.9986248 0.01124141 9 0.5 0.

.Page 130 Babu & Sridhar [3] A manual of practical physics. [2] Design Of Machine Elements .References [1] Mechanical Experiments and Workshop Practice .2009 Experiment 8 Belt and Pulley Experiment 1.Page 25 G S Sawhney .. for students of science and engineering: Volume 1 Ervin Sidney Ferry – 1908 [4] Theory of Machines Singh – 2006 [5] Mechanical laboratory methods: the testing of instruments and .Julian Chase Smallwood – 1922 [6] .

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2)  % .

2)          /07008                   /07008                   /07008                       /07008                    /07008               /07008                  .07.3 !07/0700 !077./.0  !07/0700 !077.3                                                                                                           ./.

   &8390'-09     % .

2)  % .

0-003/:0949009848. .22.9432.84.0/94905:04343003/ %070.3077478 !.0-00307747802.82:.3./38                  ..4.7.99..4203034939070..4/0/.0./..0  !07/0700 !077.4:/.2.7.07..2)                /07008                                /07008                            /07008                   .930050720398-03 50714720/ \$42017.:7.0..84-05708039390.8:2..7...3908.4:/.85488-0..07747 94:.425708843857347908573-.3/.0 ..947/..0 /.3            \$&# &\$ \$ 77478390050720392.

3.-47.3.308\$3   ( 0.3:.3/ 47845 !7. 50720398 .9472094/89090893413897:20398.3.0  !.30020398 !.3/ :.0 .3/!:05072039  ( 083 1.. 41 57...3 \$/30077   ( %04741.7 (  2..-: \$7/...03...0   \$ \$.08 ( 0.80\$2.30    507203909.         #010703. 58.8  147 89:/0398 41 8..44/   (    .9.3/ 0330073 '4:20  7.9.0 ..