Present status of the Insurance industry

Global overview

Insurance awareness has led people to save in policyholders` and pensioners`
Iunds in Iinancial markets, which thereby not only protect them, but also lead to
overall development oI the country. Countries with a robust insurance sector,
higher capital base and more diverse products deem to have generated long term
Iunds Ior investment in their debt and capital markets. Further, it has been
observed that these countries have also released resources Ior investment,
particularly Ior the inIrastructure sector.

With a relatively young and well educated population oI 1.1billion people, the
insurance market in India appears more than Iavorable and can generate suIIicient
long-term Iunds Ior the development. The domestic insurance industry has been
growing at a CAGR oI 28.1° during FY03-07 with the entry oI many new players
both domestic and Ioreign, Iormulation oI new regulations and the introduction
oI newer products.

The emergence oI segments such as health insurance and micro insurance has
opened new growth avenues Ior specialized services. But still there are gaps such
as concerns over product, distribution and penetration (India`s penetration was
only 0.6° oI GDP in FY07, as compared to 2.7° in Australia and 3.8° in South
Korea during the same period), which need to be addressed. Hence, there is an
unIinished agenda on the reIorms and industry compliance Iront, particularly in
terms oI exploring alternative ways to manage and oversee both risk and capital
management issues in the insurance industry in India.

Accordingly, in order to achieve exponential growth in various segments oI
insurance, the need to view the present state and Iuture course oI action has
becomes imperative. This will play a crucial role in setting the right expectations,
learning Irom the experience oI other countries as well as delineating strategies,
thereby positioning India as a regional insurance hub and an international Iinancial
center.

The global insurance industry is Iacing increasing competition, which has put
signiIicant pressure on companies to become more eIIicient, enhance their
technology-related processes and alter their business models.

Globally, most insurance companies are trying to enhance the eIIiciency oI their
underwriting process, cut their overheads and reduce claims leakage since returns
Irom investment are shrinking. Net operating gains in the insurance sector are
expected to increase globally in 2008. With high competition in the insurance
industry, companies will need to strengthen their product lines, investment
strategies and corporate inIrastructure.
%he following have been identified as challenges that may affect the global
insurance industry in 2008.
1. Climate change: Climatic changes due to global warming have increased
windstorms, Iloods and heat waves. These result in an increase in mortality and
health problems, the spread oI environment-related litigation and political risk
linked to conIlicts Ior control oI resources. Climate changes can aIIect an
insurance company`s pricing structure, solvency and corporate viability.
2. Demographic change: The proportion oI the population over the age oI 60 years
is expected to rise Irom 20° in 2005 to 33° in 2050 worldwide, increasing the
demand Ior Iinancial products to meet post-retirement needs. Moreover, estimates
suggest that around 10,000 people will become eligible Ior social security Indian
insurance industry: The task ahead 7 beneIits every day over the next two decades,
with 70 million baby boomers crossing the retirement threshold over the next 10
years. Hence, insurance companies are stepping in as social welIare providers.
3. Emerging markets: Most companies grow organically to meet their strategic
objective oI being global players, but insurers Iace a challenge in developing
cultural knowledge (Ior product design and sales) and eIIective distribution
channels. Russia, China and India are among the countries where local insurers
have been more successIul than in other countries.
. Regulatory intervention: The shiIt Irom rule-based to principal-based regulations
has increased regulatory scrutiny, the complexity oI rules and sophisticated
underlying methods oI insurance business. Regulatory changes include the
International Financial Reporting Standard, Sarbanes-Oxley, the proposed
adoption oI Solvency II norms in the UK, principal-based reserves in the US,
among others. These regulations are driven by political Iactors and can result in a
change in underwriting practices and the selection criteria.
5. Distribution channels: Technological advancements are edging out traditional
agent based distribution models. Today,insurance companies are reaching their
clients directly, either through phone or via the internet. However, insurance
brokers and intermediaries are still preIerred channels Ior selling commercial lines
and complex products. ThereIore, insurance companies need to look Ior innovative
distribution channels.
6. Legal risks: SigniIicant and unexpected changes in the legal environment can
result in serious implications Ior the insurance business. These changes can be
either through government legislations or case law decisions. To remain
competitive, insurance companies are concentrating on upgrading their products,
developing new ways to manage and oversee risk and capital management, and
Iormulate new regulations that may revolutionize the industry in the next decade.
The Iollowing section illustrates the insurance scenario oI the three most important
geographic regions oI the world.

merica
The insurance market in the US is currently in its best phase, since US
property/casualty insurers are expected to record net proIits Ior the third
consecutive year. The industry`s proIitability is related to a Iavorable insurance
pricing environment that began in 2002.

A Iavorable claims experience and comparatively benign catastrophe situations
have considerably improved accident and healthcare operational earnings.
Operating earnings also beneIited Irom the improved mortality experience in the
traditional liIe and reinsurance lines. However, sales oI Iixed income annuities
have been aIIected by diIIicult market conditions associated with uncertainty over
the regulatory environment. New business margins Ior some insurers Iell, partly
due to the eIIect oI rising interest yields, which resulted in a higher discounting oI
Iuture proIits. However, insurers with innovative product oIIerings within variable
annuities have showed a stronger perIormance.
Some challenges
Insurance companies Iace increasing complexity in the highly
regulated and reporting environment oI the US. Lawsuits,
regulations and quasi-regulatory issues are still a concern Ior
insurers/distributors as they increase uncertainty in the industry.
Some key regulatory issues include international supervision, US
regulation oI primary insurers, the implementation oI Sarbanes-
Oxley processes, and the extension oI the %errorism Risk
Insurance ct (%RI.
Most insurers now sell their products via unaIIiliated distributors,
including banks, broker/dealers, insurance brokers and independent
marketing organizations. To maintain their market position and sales
without resorting to aggressive pricing, liIe insurers need to manage
distribution relationships and compensation incentives. Hence,
product distribution continues to remain a challenge.
Lastly, the biggest challenges currently Iacing the insurance industry
are in the health coverage sector, where increasing costs and a
rapidly aging US population maket it extremely diIIicult Ior insurers
to Iorecast Iuture costs and appropriately price their products.
Europe
This region encompasses relatively mature insurance markets, including Germany
and the UK, as well as the emerging markets oI the Central Eastern European
(CEE) region. Many oI the top insurers have seen a strong perIormance in the UK
market in the liIe and pension sectors, which are expected to continue as high-
growth markets. The rise in the equity markets has also increased the sale oI bonds
and investments. Fiscal and regulatory changes in some Central European
countries have created diIIicult conditions Ior insurers. In Germany, investment
bond volumes have been aIIected by the Ilattening yield curve. In Belgium, sales
were generally lower aIter the introduction oI a 1.1° insurance tax levy on liIe
insurance premiums at the beginning oI 2006.

In Spain, there has been an overall decline in the sale oI savings products, which
were adversely aIIected by the tax changes announced Ior 2007. The Netherlands
has also been aIIected by competitive pricing and regulatory and Iiscal changes.
For example, new legislation adversely aIIected the sickness beneIits market.
Interest rate changes, however, had a positive impact on guarantee provisions and
related hedges, which helped to increase the operating earnings oI several insurers
in this area.

The Eastern European region has proved to be more promising. There has been
signiIicant growth in pensions in Eastern Europe, partly due to continuing
regulatory reIorms in several countries, including Poland, the Czech Republic and
Hungary. A change to the tax regime in Hungary in 2006 led to a Iall in the sales
oI the top insurers in the region. Several oI the top insurers have continued to build
the size oI their businesses within the CEE region during 2006, reIlecting growth
expectations.

Big insurance players in the UK are strongly capitalized and are under pressure
Irom investors to deliver Iurther growth. As the existing markets are generally
mature, companies have become more willing to explore acquisitions, particularly
in the emerging high-growth European and Asian markets. Overall, Iurther
consolidation seems likely, especially on a cross-border basis, as the industry still
has the scope Ior global consolidation.

Super specialization is the hallmark oI the US and UK markets. There are insurers
and re-insurers who specialize in a particular product and are regarded as the best
in their respective segments.

A recent initiative has been to oIIer incentives to customers Ior demonstrating a
healthy liIestyle. The Iirst oI its kind in the UK, Prudential`s private medical
insurer, PruHealth, has tied up with Sainsbury`s to oIIer rewards to people Ior
buying healthy Iood products. Under this scheme, a policyholder can collect what
are known as ¨vitality¨ points Ior buying Iresh Iruit and vegetables, which will be
used at the end oI the year to oIIset his/her Iuture premiums.
An interesting innovation in the Iield oI motor insurance has been in the Iorm oI
telematics motor policies. For instance, Norwich Union launched a Pay As You
Drive (PAYD) scheme in November 2006, under which premiums are calculated,
based on how, when and where the car is used. This is done through GPS
technology and a telematics box Iitted into the policyholder`s car.
%he sia-Pacific region
Rapid economic expansion and the rising aIIluence oI the middle classes in most
countries in the Asia-PaciIic region have driven the development oI this region`s
insurance industry. The relaxation oI regulatory controls in Asia has led insurers
worldwide to increase their reach into Asian countries that were once considered
impenetrable to outsiders. Continuing liberalization has made the Asia-PaciIic
region more attractive as an investment destination. Many Asian countries have
removed, or are in the process oI removing, the limits on Ioreign equity
participation in the insurance sector.

The domestic insurers in the region are Iacing increasing competition Irom global
players such as AIG, Allianz and ING, among others. This is particularly so in
India, where LIC`s market share reduced by 13° in three years Irom 95.3° in
FY04 to 81.9° in FY07.

Japan has the largest insurance market in the Asia-PaciIic region. However, it is
slowly losing its competitiveness to Asia`s two Iastest growing markets China
and India. With the speed at which China is liberalizing, it remains the most
preIerred investment destination in this region.

The insurance markets in Southeast Asia, as those in Singapore and Thailand, have
great potential to be among Asia`s insurance powerhouses. According to Swiss
Re, the agricultural insurance sector in Asia is at a very nascent stage with a very
low penetration rate. However, growing government participation and the level oI
commitment shown by private insurers is spurring the development oI this sector.
Due to a rise in shipping activities, marine insurance in Asia is gaining
momentum. Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan are currently the main marine
insurance markets in Asia, with China in the race as well.

For the purpose oI distribution, the use oI insurance brokers is becoming more
prevalent in Asia due to the lower costs involved. With the increase in the number
oI insurance companies and the rising demand Ior insurance products, more
insurance brokers are expected to enter this market.

Indian general and liIe insurance premiums have been very low as compared to
other developing countries, including China and Taiwan. In addition, the insurance
penetration rate is low in India, primarily due to low premiums and higher GDP.
Per capita insurance premiums are also low, mainly due to a large population. The
Iollowing table shows insurance premiums in various countries in 2007.







India

India`s insurance industry recently underwent major structural changes. Both the
liIe and general insurance sectors, which were nationalized in the 1950s and
1960s, respectively, saw an across-the-board liberalization process in 2000. Since
then, the Indian insurance sector has enjoyed rapid growth. In terms oI total
premiums, the Indian insurance sector is the IiIth-largest insurance market in Asia
as oI FY07. The liIe insurance sector is slated to grow at 30° in FY08, as
compared to 95° in the last Iiscal. The total income Irom liIe premiums is
expected to exceed INR 2,000 billion (USD 50 billion) by the end oI FY08, as
against INR 1,500 billion (USD 40 billion) in the previous Iiscal. The general
insurance segment, on the other hand, is expected to grow at 15° to INR 290
billion by the end oI FY08 Irom INR 256 billion during the corresponding period
last year.

The current Ioreign shareholding limit in India is Iixed at 26° in the liIe and
general insurance sectors. There have been negotiations to increase this limit to
49°, as Ioreign partners want to be more proactive in running their businesses
using diIIerentiated strategies. Indian regulators will however take some time to
take a decision on increasing the FDI limit as this will reduce the stake oI local
promoters.

The Government introduced reIorms in the insurance sector in 1990s, primarily to
encourage more domestic investments to increase insurance coverage and create
an eIIicient and competitive insurance industry. The Government`s monopoly
came to an end in 1991 when restrictions on the entry oI private and Ioreign
companies were liIted. The Iollowing table summarizes some oI the signiIicant
milestones in the introduction oI insurance reIorms in India.

The eIIect oI insurance reIorms has been positive on the insurance industry. There
has been positive growth in all the segments, with investments Ilowing in the right
direction. ReIorms have helped to achieve rapid growth in critical areas and
sustain them over a period oI time through channelized strategies.


Post reIorms, the number oI players have increased Irom Iour in liIe insurance and
eight in general insurance in 2000 to 21 liIe players and 20 general insurance
players, including one reinsurer, in 2008. The biIurcation oI players across
industry segments over the years is provided below:


The strong growth in recent years has increased penetration levels substantially,
but India is still scarcely penetrated as compared to other economies and global
standards. The premium income in the country as a percentage oI its GDP
increased Irom 3.3° in FY03 to 4.7° in FY07.

This remarkable increase has been a result oI the growing contribution oI the liIe
insurance sector as compared to the general insurance sector. The contribution oI
liIe insurance premiums to the GDP has increased Irom 2.7° to 4.1° during the
same period. However, the contribution oI the general insurance sector has
remained almost constant.
The growth oI the insurance sector in the last Iive years has made it one oI the
promising sectors in the economy. %he following graph depicts premium
income as a percentage of GDP (life and general:


On observing the premium per capita oI liIe and general insurance, and the total
premiums, it is clear that with the growth oI the population at a CAGR oI 1.4°
during FY0307, premiums per capita have also increased substantially.




Number of poIicies soId in the Iife insurance sector
(first year premiums)

When we look at the Iirst year premium contribution by the private and public
sectors, LIC still holds a monopoly. However, the share oI premiums Irom private
companies has increased Irom a mere 6° in FY03 to approximately 36° in FY08.
LIC is losing market share to the private sector as private players are oIIering a
larger variety oI products. Additionally, these companies are pursuing aggressive
marketing and distribution growth strategies, thereby increasing their consumer
reach. On comparing the total premiums oI the private and public sectors, the
contribution oI the private sector has increased Irom 2° in FY03 to approximately
18° in FY07. The share oI the public sector, which was 82° in FY07, is on a
gradual decline.

Regulatory framework and need for a
conducive environment



In the near Iuture, the insurance industry is expected to grow both in stature
and strength. Insurers shall be less Iinancially vulnerable to the vagaries oI
the market because oI the adoption oI a prudential regulatory regime, which
has set very high solvency requirements and capital adequacy norms.
Domestic institutions both insurers and intermediaries are expected to
catch up with their international counterparts with respect to eIIiciency,
innovation and customer services. Productivity levels are expected to be as
per international best practices. The level oI market penetration is also
expected to improve substantially. Most regulations become obsolete
almost as soon as they are Iormulated.

With evolving industry dynamics, it is essential to step up regulations to
keep pace with the exponential growth in the industry. Regulators in
emerging markets should be in tandem with product innovations,
alternative distribution channels, electronically-linked payment systems, e-
commerce, investment avenues and alternative risk transIers etc. It has
become imperative not only to Iormulate or update regulations, but also Ior
the industry to adhere to these regulatory compliance policies and
procedures. A more sophisticated approach to risk management, Iinancial
reporting and corporate governance will be necessary Ior insurance
companies to meet these requirements. This would ensure sustenance in
growth, which augurs well Ior the insurance industry in India over the long
term.

The government regulation can either promote or hinder insurance
provisions. A conducive regulatory Iramework is essential Ior achieving
sustainability and at the same time needed Ior the expanding insurance
services (Ior instance, large-scale, cost-covering and long-term provision)
to all income segments oI the society. Regulations have proven vital Irom
the stage oI having a new player in the industry. It is necessary to gauge the
Iinancial strength, track record and reputation oI promoters, particularly
with regard to compliance with regulations and the strength oI internal
control systems. IRDA has also been keen to see the industry develop in
terms oI product innovation and the use oI alternative distribution channels.

Applicants with a strong record in these areas, or in specialist and niche
Iields, and those with experience in the health insurance business have
received Iavorable consideration. In addition to strict scrutiny at the point
oI entry, regulators also provide Ior constant monitoring oI the perIormance
oI the companies as a check against lax management practices, which may
result in loss to policyholders. Regulators protect policyholders against
excessive insolvency risk by requiring insurers to meet certain Iinancial
standards and act prudently in managing their aIIairs.

The statutes require insurers to meet minimum capital and surplus standards
and Iinancial reporting requirements and authorize regulators to take other
actions to protect policyholders` interest.

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