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Introduction

The term metro sexual, first defined in 1994 by Mark Simpson. Defined as, a straight man who is in touch with his feminine side (Wordspy, 2004). Also Metro sexual: Twenty- first century trendsetter; straight urban man with heightened aesthetic sense; man who spends time and money on appearance and shopping; a man willing to embrace his feminine side (Flocker, 2003, p.1). Heterosexuals have been identified as men who enjoy shopping, fashion and beauty products. This is a new subculture of men that are going main stream with their lifestyle which includes excessive grooming and interest in fashion, which have typically been regarded as feminine behaviors. The topic has been the focus of extensive media attention in America and European countries. Articles have appeared in a variety of periodicals, ranging from the Economist to the cover of the New York Times Sunday Style section (St. John, 2003). Television programs have helped popularize this trend, with television programs such as Queer Eye for the Straight Guy helping men adopt the metro sexual lifestyle through proper grooming and shopping trips (Veith, 2003). There is now even a book titled, Metro sexual Guide to Style (Flocker, 2003). Thus, the importance of appearance, once mainly a womens issue, has now come to the forefront for men and women. In Pakistan, as militant Islamists wage war on anything smacking of Western culture, "metro sexual" man is quietly on the rise. Confusing expectations in a country where most street scenes are filled with men wearing the traditional shalwar kameez, a simple cotton tunic, and male grooming salons are springing up in the main cities. Despite Pakistan's terrible economy and widespread poverty, rich urbanites have more disposable cash than ever and are now spending it on their image.

Rise of the metro sexual, or "metropolitan heterosexual" man, is a result of a liberalized banking sector and a massive explosion of media in a country that 15 years ago had just two television channels and no FM radio. "Now people have a much greater disposable income because of all the banking reforms we've had over the past 10, 15 years where all of a sudden we have people being able to take loans, which was not a possibility in Pakistan before. And the other major influence is the fact that we now have a flourishing media industry. Advertising campaigns have rushed in to play to the desire for an improved image, pushing Western beauty trends among men. Now you see more and more products, personal hygiene products, being targeted at men, which is something quite new. Metro sexuality is definitely on the up in Pakistan. Hair transplants are one sign of the trend. In the eastern city of Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital, hair transplant business is booming, with clients up by one third last year. The past five years has seen a trebling of profits. It's due to awareness that have been created by advertising. Business would be even better without the security threats throughout the terrorism-hit country. Hair transplant Business is growing more and more but when there's political instability or some explosions then there's a down. People are afraid to travel to Lahore or even to Pakistan. Beauty treatments traditionally associated with female pampering, such as facials and manicures, are also increasingly popular among Pakistani men and women. Women are catching up with the (Western) fashion. Everyone wants to look good; everyone wants to feel good about them when it comes to their hair and nails.

Effects of Metro sexuality


In the West, culture changes have begun to bring the worlds of men and women together in ways they never have been before. While gender equality is an unquestionable advancement, one of the unfortunate side effects is that distinctiveness of each gender is sometimes blurred, leading to a bland androgyny.

One of the key differences between men and women has been their attitudes towards sex. For men, having sex is more important than being sexy. The traditional masculine attitude is that sex appeal is a means to an end.

For women, it is the reverse. For females, having sex appeal, being sexy, is of greater importance than actually having sex. Traditionally, sex is one source of power open to women when other avenues of influence were closed.

A metro sexual is different from the traditionally well-groomed male in that the traditional male looks good in order to advance his sexual agenda. A certainly careless air surrounds the well-coiffed gentlemen, as if he hadn't noticed his own sartorial sophistication.

The metro sexual, by contrast, is acutely aware of how well his nails are

pared, how well his hair is trimmed and gelid, and how pungent his cologne is.

Research Questions: Is there a relationship between Self-esteem factors and the metro sexual? Is there a relationship between the Role of the Media and the metro sexual? Is there a relationship between Demographic Characteristics and the metro sexual? Is there a relationship between social expectations and the metro sexual? What People think of personal care and metro sexuality? Is Metro sexuality is the wastage of time & money?

Background
Although the metro sexual appears to be a new trend, history proves otherwise. Historically, mens clothing has been at least as decorative and elaborate as womens attire, and men have had a strong interest in fashion, grooming and appearance (Steele, 1989). Thus, the current trend of men interested in feminine areas of fashion and grooming is really not so modern. Throughout history there have been times in which fashion and grooming were of the utmost importance and interest to men. As late as the 17th and 18th centuries, men wore silk stockings, cosmetics, long curled and perfumed hair (Steele, 1989 p.15). Men were very attentive to their appearance at this time and grooming rituals included the use of rouge, heavy perfume oils and skin lighteners (Tortora & Eubank, 2000). Fashions for men at this time included high-heeled shoes and stockings. Clothing was usually elaborately decorated with embroidery in bright colors and ribbons (Nunn, 1984). At the beginning of the 19th century, Dandies exemplified a trend quite similar to the current metro sexual phenomenon. Dandies were a group of men who were very interested in fashion. They were, overt and active consumers of appearances and related products (Edwards, 1997, p.92). Dandies were very concerned with the fit and fashion design of their clothing as well as with the richness of their neckwear, namely stocks and cravats (Laver, 1969). They were extremely concerned with their appearance and, some dandies were supposed to spend a whole morning in the arrangement of their cravats (Laver, 1969 p.160). Therefore, the extreme fashion interest of this group of men is clear and quite similar to the current trend of mens fashion interest. Therefore, it seems what we are witnessing today is not so

much a new phenomenon, but a revival of traits that were once part of the male personality.

Theoretical Framework

Self-Esteem Self-esteem has been defined as, our feelings of self worth (Kaiser, 1985, p.118). It is how we feel about who we are. One of the ways our self-esteem is affected is by the way we are perceived by others (Kaiser, 1985). Clothing and personal appearance are important factors in how others perceive us, therefore they indirectly impact our self-esteem (Kaiser, 1985). Research has indicated that self-esteem is related to fashion consumption (Rosenfeld & Plax, 1977), and that clothing may provide an important social function in enhancing ones evaluation of self (Kaiser, 1985, p.119). Research on self-esteem and body image has previously focused primarily on women (Garner, Garfinkel, Schwartz, & Thompson, 1980). In recent years, self-esteem studies have brought attention to the fact that this is not a gender specific issue. The Role of the Media Cultivation theory states that the media provides images of normative behavior (Gerbner, 1999). Thus, this can aid in our understanding of how ideas of gender role norms are shaped and continuously changing in society. In the case of men, images of gender in the media become texts on normative behavior, one of the many cultural shards we use to construct notions of masculinity(Kimmel, 1987, p.20). Our ideas of what is masculine and what is feminine are greatly shaped by this powerful vehicle encompassing among other things, television,

advertising and print. Research has recently begun to focus on men as there has been an increase in the objectification of men in advertising (Bordo, 1999; LaFrance, 1995). In a study on the medias representation of gender roles, Sommers-Flanagan, Sommers-Flanagan & Davis (1994) analyzed MTV videos and found that men and women were equally subjected to objectification. As gender role exclusions have eased, many advertisers are including unclear gender behavior in their advertisements (Bordo, 1999). As a result, through advertising and marketing, men and women are increasingly subjected to the same appearance standards as women (Bordo, 1999). The effect of this on men has led to a growing dissatisfaction with their bodies and behavior including, manicures and facials, dyeing their hair, concealing blemishes and spending millions on plastic surgery (Rohlinger, 2002, p.70). Thus, as the media is emphasizing the importance of appearance for men as well as women more women are paying attention to their looks. Social expectation Social others is seen as important interpreters of the meaning of consumption choices to consumers (Margaret et al., 1998). Social expectation is pressuring contemporary men to want to look better and stay vibrant (Nickel, 2004). Men are seeking to improve their appearance, through body movement, body decoration, hair and clothes (Wienke, 1998). In Japan, it is a social norm to be fashionable (McCracken, 2003). When consumers buy a product, social environment does have influence over the type of products that they purchase (Nizar & Mariam, 2009). Changing attitudes and dress-down casual Friday in social setting also contributes to mens consumption of grooming products (Cardona, 2000). As women are becoming more empowered, in the competitive workplace, men are concerned and

consume grooming products to keep up with the expectation (Saurabh, 2008). Thus the hypothesis created from all the study is as follows: H1: There is a relationship between self-esteem factors and the emergence of the metro sexual man, women and teenagers. H2: Media play role in emergence of metro sexual men, women and youngsters. H3: There is a link between certain demographic characteristics and the metro sexual man and woman. H4: Social expectations lead men, women and teenagers towards Metro sexuality. H5: People think personal care is metro sexuality. H6: Metro sexuality is the wastage of time & money.

Methodology
Survey method was carried out to collect primary quantitative data. Quantitative method is useful for this research as it affectively answers the research questions and is in line with the research strategies. The sampling frame for this study is limited to men and women aged 1540 (one of the highest income spender) in University of South Asia and other areas of Lahore. Additionally we collected the data from several shopping centers in these areas. These malls include Mall of Lahore and Pace. Also for secondary research, articles were searched and studied related to metro sexuality, metro sexual males, and factors affecting metro sexual men. We were unable to find much data about Metrosexuals in Pakistan. Therefore we observed articles from different countries. Twelve articles were searched from different sources. All the articles were thoroughly studied to get the best data about the concerned topic. Different newspapers and magazines were also observed and studied for further research on this topic. The survey comprised of 17 questions, which were related to the participants level of self-esteem, the role of the media in their lives, their social expectations as well as questions used to identify participants revealing metrosexual behaviors. included demographic questions. Variables Demographic Self esteem Social Expectations Metrosexuals Role of media Questions 1, 2, 3, 4 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 10, 12, 14 15, 16, 17 13 The survey also

Results
Our sample size of 300 was defined to obtain a broad set of data. To achieve the objectives of the research, sampling methods were used. The main factor of conducting non probability sampling is the need of respondents with specific characteristics and requirements. We went to 321 persons in our university, different areas and malls of Lahore to collect data. Out of 321 respondents 283 responded to the questionnaire. 21 questionnaires were not filled correctly or had not been responded appropriately. Therefore we got 262 properly filled questionnaires. Excel was used to analyze the collected data and in building graphs.

Table

shows

summary

of

the

participants

demographic This was

characteristics. All of the respondents were male, females.

assured by the fact that surveys were only distributed and collected from both male and female participants. Most of the respondents were college students, which was determined by the fact that the survey was distributed and collected in university. Most of the respondents (81%) were between the ages of 15 25. Almost all of the respondents (84%) were students. The source of income of most of the respondents (77%) was pocket money. As we were collecting data from different areas, so we have respondents from varied areas of Lahore.
Age 15-20 21-25 26-30 30+ Occupation Student Employee Business Other Source of income Pocket Money Salary Revenue from Business Other Area Cantt DHA Model Town Other 37% 24% 17% 22% 77% 13% 3% 7% 84% 6% 3% 7% 34% 46% 12% 7%

Table 1

The data for the variables of Self-esteem, the Role of the Media and Social expectations were condensed by taking the average score of all items measuring each variable. We see from the results all the three variables affect the emergence of metros sexual men and women The results are given in fig 1.1.

Fig 1.1

The questions used to measure Self-Esteem were divided into two scales after beginning analysis. From the fig 1.2 we can see that 85% of the respondents have a positive effect of self esteem on emergence of metro sexual. This shows that there is a strong relationship between Self Esteem Appearance and Metro sexual behavior.

Fig 1.2

The questions used to measure Self-Expectations were divided into two scales after beginning analysis. From the fig 1.3 we can see that 73% of the respondents have a positive effect of self Expectation on metrosexual behavior. This shows that there is a positive but weak relationship between Self Expectation and Metrosexual behavior.

Fig 1.3

The results revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between the Role of the Media and the Metrosexual. In fig 1.4 we can see that 79% respondents are positively affected by the role of media. Therefore, the variable of the Role of the Media is a significant predictor of Metrosexual behavior.

Fig 1.4

We also try to find out that what the general public thinks about the personal care and metro sexuality. The results in the fig 1.5 revealed that 91% of the respondents think that personal care is not metro sexuality.

Fig. 1.5
We also try to investigate that is personal care is the wastage of time and money. The results were very interesting. Although almost all the respondents were spending there major time and money on the grooming but at the same time they feel that it is the wastage of money.

Fig 1.6 Discussion


Regardless of Pakistan's dreadful economy and extensive poverty, rich urbanites have more disposable cash than ever and are now spending it on their image. Businessman and provincial politician Yousuf Ayub Khan, goes to Michael K salon every three months for a facial. His voter base is in the northwest province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a conservative region rife with Islamic militancy. But Khan says male pampering is surprisingly socially acceptable, even among the tribal cultures of the lawless border region, where traditional dyes such as henna are popular for dying hair and beards. "It's a very traditional conservative society in Pakistan, but traditionally it's not a problem over here if you tell someone you've been to a salon, and had a facial or pedicure, none will laugh at you".

Advertising man Hassan Kilde Bajwa, of Synergy advertising agency, cautions there is a limit to this trend -- few Pakistanis are likely at this stage to adopt famed English footballer David Beckham's penchant for sarong skirts and piercings. One thing that still isn't acceptable, even among metro sexuals, is accessories. It's a very common thing for men in Europe to wear a wristband or something, the Beckham thing. That's not something you ever see in Pakistan. Earrings, in fact piercings anywhere, socially is unacceptable. It's still a social taboo.

Conclusion
Men are noticeably taking an interest in their appearance. Through fashion and grooming and even for plastic surgery men are spending more time and more money on how they look. The term metrosexual has become a popular term to describe this phenomenon, and it has been considered a phenomenon because society does not expect men to focus on their appearance. Results of this study indicate that this trend has a strong connection to the role of the media. This is not surprising, considering the strong body of knowledge on the effects of the media on male appearance ideals. The metro sexuals are at a rise in Pakistan. Rise of the metrosexual, is a result of a liberalised banking sector and a massive explosion of media in a country. All the factors, Self-esteem, social expectations, and massive media positively affect the metros sexual are. It was also found that rich people are more into this because of availability of disposable cash. Students were also spending more time and money on their personal care and grooming but at the same time they think that this is the wastage of time and money. Hence we concluded that self esteem, social expectations and media is forcing men towards metro sexual behavior.