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reversible process B. Then 1A2B1 is a reversible cycle. Therefore, the Clausius inequality gives:

1 A 2 B1

dQ / T =

1A2

dQ / T + dQ / t = o

2 B1

If the system is restored to the initial state from 1 to state 2 by an irreversible process C, then 1A2C1 is an irreversible cycle. Then the Clausius inequality gives:

1 A 2 C1

dQ / T =

1 A2

dQ / T + dQ / t = o

2 C1

2 B1

dQ / T

>

2C1

dQ / T

2 B1

dQ / T = dQ / T

1

or ,

dS

1

>

2 C1

dQ / T

In general, dS dQ / T

Where the equality sign holds good for a reversible process and the inequality sign holds good for an irreversible process. Now let us apply the above result to evaluate the entropy change of the universe when a system interacts with its surroundings and exchanges energy as heat with the surroundings. Let Tsur and Tsys be the temperatures of the surroundings and the system such that Tsur >Tsys. Let dQ represent the energy transfer as heat

from t he surroundings to the system during the given irreversible process. dSsys = dQ/Tsys dSsur = -dQ/Tsur dSuni = dSsys + dSsur = (dQ/T)sys (dQ/T)sur >0 Suni >0 (since Tsur>Tsys) If the system is isolated, there is no change in the entropy of the surroundings and S 0, for an isolated system Therefore the entropy of an isolated system either increases or, in the limit, remains constant. The equality sign holds good when the process undergone by the system is reversible, the inequality sign holds good if there is any irreversibility present in the process. This statement is usually called the principle of entropy increase.

Irreversible or spontaneous processes can occur only in that direction for which the entropy of the universe or that of an isolated system, increases. These processes cannot occur in the direction of decreasing entropy. For an isolated system, S > 0, for irreversible processes S = 0, for reversible processes S < 0, the process is impossible Example: One kg of superheated steam at 0.2MPa and 2000C contained in a piston cylinder assembly is kept at ambient conditions of 300K till the steam is condensed to saturated liquid at constant pressure. Calculate the change in the entropy of the universe with this process. Solution:

Initial state of the steam: superheated at 0.2 MPa and 200oC h1= 2870.4 kJ/kg; and s1 = 7.5033 kJ/kgK Final state: saturated liquid at 0.2 MPa. h2 = 504.52 kJ/kg and s2 = 1.5295 kJ/kgK Hence Ssteam = s2 s1 = 1.5295 7.5033 = -5.9738 kJ/kgK For a constant pressure process: q = h Therefore, q = h2 h1 = 504.52 2870.4 = -2365.68 kJ Entropy change of the surroundings = Ssur = Q/Tsur = 2365.88/300 = 7.886 kJ/K Hence, Suni = Ssys + Ssur = -5.9738 +7.886 = 1.9122 kJ/K Suni > 0 and hence the process is irreversible and feasible.

Temperature-Entropy diagram Entropy change of a system is given by dS = (dQ/T)R. during energy transfer as heat to the system from the surroundings is given by dQ = TdS. Hence if T and S are chosen as independent variables, then the integral TdS is the area under the curve.

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