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A Critique to the Psychoanalytic Perspectives: Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Jungs Analytical Psychology Adlers Individual Psychology

Submitted by: Floralice Hope S. Servano

I. DESCRIPTION The Psychoanalytic Perspective is an orientation towards understanding behavior in terms of unconscious motives stemming from sexual and aggressive impulses. The sexual impulse of the psychoanalysis was first developed by Sigmund Freud. Another psychoanalytic theorists, who rivals Feuds idea was Carl Gustav Jung. Jung believed that sexual impulses are not the only foundation of the psychoanalysis. That is, an individual has with him, innately, the person that is still about to be developed. That developed person will not only be the result of the sexually fixated experiences in the past but is also a result of moral integration of the present. He developed the Analytical Psychology as a result. On the other hand, Alfred Adler believed that an individual cannot attain his individuality alone. He needs the society to help him in molding his creative self. Subsequently, he developed the Individual Psychology. Individual Psychology states that a dreamed goal directs individuals actions and thoughts.

II. ANALYSIS To Freud, everything an individual does in the present, may it be positive or negative, is a result of past experiences. The positivity or the negativity of such action is not the mere basis of fixation from past experiences, but the degree of its positivity or negativity. Too much and/or too little of such action can be considered as not normal. The basis of fixation is found in the Psychosexual Stages of Development. During these stages different personality types may develop. Odd personality types are results to parents under-indulgence and/or over-indulgence. Past experiences are also factor in

developing personality types. Traumatic experiences can become repressed thoughts. It has become part of the unconscious because the individual wants to avoid or totally forget it. Some individual unintentionally forgets it because of its unpleasantness. It has then become part of the id. The id is the storehouse of those unwanted impulses. Since these impulses are not accepted to the society, another unconscious storehouse of the society-wanted-actions was developed, it was called the superego. The superego always combats the id because of their difference. The ego then becomes its moderator. As for Jung, an individuals action is taken by his past and present experiences in terms of morality. These actions are directed to one destination, the so-called self. This self is the innate personality of an individual that is yet to be developed through the integration of the past and present experiences. Just like in Freuds view, past unwanted experiences, in Jungs view, are kept in the unconscious, the personal unconscious. Again, it is stored in the unconscious because of its unpleasantness. Individuals create their own world, the world that is different from the world in reality. It still is lying in the individuals unconscious, the collective unconscious. The persona compromises the demands of the society and the impulses of the individual. On the other hand the shadow keeps the unwanted, unconscious and unpleasant side of the individual. According to Adler, an individual can fully determine its individuality with the help of the society. Without a bigger body to compare with, the individual will not be considered as an individual entity. For him, a perceived or imagined goal is set by the individual, the fictional finalism. It directs the individuals actions and behavior. The

creative evolution is the part of the individual that adapts to different external stimuli. Innately, an individual experiences the feelings of inferiority that would make him strive for superiority as compensation. This striving may result to a constructive or destructive path, depending on how the individual reacts on it. Another result of the feelings of inferiority is to struggle for perfection the will not only help the individual but also to help the society.

III. SYNTHESIS For Freudian belief, one of the egos roles is a moderator between the id and the superego. That is to make the socially unaccepted actions into socially accepted ones. As a result different defense mechanisms were developed. These defense mechanisms were operated by the ego to make bad things, conscious or unconscious, appear good. For Jung, the ego functions as the integrator of past and present experiences that would help the individual in attaining his ultimate goal, the self. The self, in Jungs view is innate. But in Adlers view it is something that the individual has a freedom of imagining, the way they want it to be. Adler called it the fictional finalism. It directs the individuals behavior, thus directing the individuals personality. Whereas in Freuds view personality is the reflection of past experiences may it conscious and more on the unconscious; and in Adlers view the personality of an individual will determine the self that is to be realized in the future. Unconscious thoughts are thoughts that are repressed because of

unpleasantness. To Freud, it is stored in the id that will be manifested in the individuals actions. As the individual grows, societys norms will be taught to him. These norms are

the opposite of the impulses of the id, making the ego operates. To Jung these unconscious thoughts are repressed to the personal unconscious and hidden as the individuals shadow. To meet the expectation of the society, the individual creates the persona. It is somewhat like a mask worn by the individual to appear the best way that he could to meet what the society demands. The difference between Jungs self and Adlers fictional finalism is that, the Self is something that is already written and fictional finalism is something that the individual dreams. The self is innate into all individuals. Personality would help in determining what the self is. On the other hand the fictional finalism is a freedom for all individuals. It would give direction to the individuals personality. It is the vice versa of the self. The Fictional finalism would help in determining the individuals personality.

IV. EVALUATION Freuds theory is something that gives us idea that because of what happened to us in the past, this is us in the present. Jungs view gives us the idea that we have something within us right now that needs to be realized. Adlers stand gives us the idea that we have to work for our future to obtain it. The difference and similarity of the three theories is the choice. Different choices on how to change our lives; change to cope with the fixations of the past, change for the self to be realized and changed for the future set goals, respectively. But the same goal, the choice to change for the better. One theory cannot stand alone. The integration of the three and more of the Psychoanalytic perspective is needed to, if not fully, understand to best extent human diversity and individuality.