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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
“Reading is a process by which we make sense of text” In simple word reading means looking at the written words and understanding the message. It consists of two steps, recognizing the letters of the alphabets and Comprehension. Understanding of a written text means extracting the required information from it as efficiently as possible. Reading serves an important tool in every part of life. The reading texts present a wide range of topics related to real-life issues, such as travel, fashion, health, and education. Such topics encourage understanding and critical thinking about the students’ worldview and also bring more excitement and interest to the learning. Aside from offering high-interest reading passages, the text also has a well-designed cover and visual imagery that is attractive and likely more appealing to students The intention of this textbook is to cultivate more active readers and encourage learners to engage in both bottom-up and top-down reading processes and help them make full sense of and interact with different reading texts. Another noteworthy feature of this book is that skills for reading and vocabulary learning are fully and clearly incorporated to enable teachers to help their students build reading fluency and broaden their vocabulary levels more precisely and enjoyably. According to the Edmund Burke “To read without reflecting is like eating without digesting." It’s the heart of four language skills which are available to all language users. One such important skill is reading which is essential to declare a person’s learning. According to the Gustavo Flaubert (1821-1880)"Read in order to live." According to the W. Fusselman Today a reader, tomorrow a leader."

2 In other words reading is a magical key which opens the door of knowledge. Reading without a purpose is like driving without destination. Our purpose will determine how fast to read, whether to read carefully or slowly for minute detail, or to skim for an overview of material. Reading habit affects the educational achievements of the students and it can provide the learners general competence. Language learning becomes more and more difficult when a student starts to learn another language as a second language because his mind is already set in certain linguistic groves and his ear is accustomed to hear sound of mother tongue. English is an international language, spoken in many countries both as a native and as a second or foreign language. It is taught in the schools in almost every country on this earth. It is a living and vibrant language spoken by over 300 million people as their native language. Millions more speaks it as an additional language. So people tend to filter out other speaking sounds. Thus affecting the new language. The use of English language has spread through out the world. It became very popular in international organizations’, media, music industry and technology. According to the "Joseph Brodsk". There are worse crimes than burning books. One of them is not reading them. Reading is a process by which we identify the ideas words and detail. It gives us interpretation, motivation, instruction and entertainments. It creates critical thinking in the mind of readers. Due to the increase of the information volume, it’s necessary in order to read to know about the things and to improve reading habits. According to the Elizabeth Hardwick” The greatest gift is the passion for reading. It is cheap, it consoles, it distracts, it excites, and it gives you knowledge of the world and experience of a wide kind. It is a moral illumination. "If we terminate these problems then we can improve reading habits e.g. lack of comprehension ability in students, lack of adequate English teaching facilities and

3 lack of effects of meta linguistic problems. Such as reading is a visual and mental process. It improves your vocabulary, memory, disciplines creativity, reasoning skill and decrease boredom and mistakes and helps to get rid of faulty habits. Reading keeps one’s minds busy assimilating ideas that could broaden learning of a person who has limited knowledge. His mind is like a barren land but that person who reads a lot of time, his mind does not stop collecting and storing information and ideas that comes through reading. Reading is like traveling and looking at things with your own eyes. Good reading will prove a ladder for the success of the students. It’s an activity in which the individual seeks to identify, interpret and identify the ideas and point of views expressed by the writers.

1.1 Statement of the Problem
Strategies to Improve Reading Habit in Learning English Language as Second Language at Secondary Level.

1.2 Objectives of the Study
Students will extend their ability to read fluently and confidently variety of text for a variety of purposes to build strength goals for future growth: • • To identify problems faced by secondary level students in reading. To give suggestions to solve the problems faced by secondary school students. • To improve their reading competency vocabulary and pronunciations to use various reading skills appropriate as per situation. • • To enhance their reading abilities while using effective activities. To make them able to use enormous strategies regarding different text so text they enjoy reading and will not be bored by it.

4 • To make some recommendation and suggestion about effective reading habits., and to find out the significance of reading.

1.3 Significance of the Study
This study aim to research and examine reading habits in learning English language and to explore strategies which are used for reading habits and reading activities and methods which are used in classroom. The significance of the study is as follows. For language teacher who intends to conduct reading activity for the achievers in the class room, the design of the reading activity in the study could serve as framework. Teachers could revise the reading activity and avoid the possible drawbacks in the study, designing a reading activity suitable for their pupils. From the result, teacher will be aware whose activity is suitable for students. (Extensive or intensive etc).So teacher can use that activity or strategy to enhance reading habit. Most important the result of the study could provide.

1.4 Research Questions
• How to identify the problems faced by secondary level students in reading? • How to improve English reading habit and reading skill to learn English language at secondary level? • • • How to improve their comprehensive reading? How to enhance their reading abilities while using effective activities? How to make them able to use enormous strategies regarding different text so that they enjoy reading and will not be bored by it?

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
A literature review is a description of the literature relevant to a particular topic. It gives an overview of what has been said, who the key writers are, what are the prevailing theories and hypothesis, methodologies are appropriate and useful. As such it is not in itself primary research but rather it reports on other field. Second a literature review seeks to describes summarize, evaluate, clarify and to integrate the content of primary reports. (Cooper h.m.1988) “The structure of knowledge synthesis”----It is a paper the main purpose of which is to annotate and critique the literature in a particular subject area .It can be a selective bibliography providing advice on information sources .Comprehension, covering the main contributors to the field with an exploration of their views. Reading is necessary for good language skill .It is generally agreed that to get main aim of information and pleasure. It has great importance for student to develop reading habit is a way to the vastness of knowledge. Reading is the process by which we can identify the words ideas and details. Reading habit promotes critical thinking in the mind of reader reading is the purpose full process of identifying and interpreting the terms and content .Reading is decoding process involving much physical intellectual and often emotional reaction .Reading is a respect language process of reorganization interpretation and perception of written or private material.

Jr. for different kinds of material and purposes: 2.1 Definitions of Reading • • • • Reading is to provide information and entertainment.2 Reading Skills 2. 2. • A particular way of thinking about a situation. The process of recognizing written or printed words and understanding their meaning. Illiteracy is not having the ability to derive meaning from the symbols used in a writing system.2 Skill Development Both the Lexical and the Sub-lexical cognitive processes contribute to how we learn to read. To be able to interpret the information symbols represent." (Charles Scribner. • "Reading is a means of thinking with another person's mind. and to be able to re-create those same symbols so that others can derive the same meaning.6 2.2. Ability to examine words and absorb the information.) 2.2. There are several types and methods of reading. it forces you to stretch your own.1 Reading Skills Acquisition Literacy is the ability to use the symbols of a writing system. statement or event. (By Macmillan dictionary) • Reading skill is a specific ability which enables a reader to read the text with independency comprehension and fluency.2.3 Sub-Vocalized . with differing rates that can be attained for each. To interpret information and human experience.

7 Reading combines’ sight reading with internal sounding of the words as if spoken. he becomes habituated to gaining knowledge. 2. nor any pleasure so lasting.3 Benefits of Reading Reading is considered one of the best habits that one can inculcate in him. Advocates of speed reading claim it can be a bad habit that slows reading and comprehension. 1689: “No entertainment is so cheap as reading. except when needed to select among several possible words that a suspected typographic error allows. According to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.4 Speed Reading It is a collection of methods for increasing reading speed without an unacceptable reduction in comprehension or retention. but other studies indicate the reverse. while they may largely suspend comprehension while doing so. lets one to go deep into each word he reads and gets fed into the brain. gets more information. It is closely connected to speed learning.5 Proofreading It is a kind of reading for the purpose of detecting typographical errors. One can learn to do it rapidly. faster for some kinds of material than for others. If one reads consistently.2. It keeps the brain in constant vibration gaining things and learning art of discipline.” The best Benefits of reading Diversity in reading habits can further increase the knowledge based on cultures round the globe. 2.2. and professional proofreaders typically acquire the ability to do so at high rates. particularly with difficult texts. Vigorous reading has a kind of chain reaction. Drastically improves concentration and focus. gets more . 2. There are a lot of advantages linked with it and to realize it here are some benefits of reading described.

one needs to understand the physical factors involved in the reading process Eye Movement . Builds selfesteem Improves your discipline and creativity. With enormous store of knowledge. Brings in lot of discipline and makes us consistent with the habit. In short reading gives following benefits. We will be able to stretch out memory limit and hence accelerate the learning process. It is a fundamental skill builder. We are able to build self esteem. Like it. By reading. Improves your reasoning skills. It is inevitable that one with reading habit will seldom feel bored with so many benefits of reading. Reading is an active mental process-Unlike TV. 2. Reduces the feeling of boredom. There is a lot of increase in our capability of being creative.4 Process of Reading In order to maximum rate. and one can notice the improvement in terms of memory. You can learn at your own pace. The thinking process improves a lot. as we tend to retain a lot in Inculcating this habit induces makes out brain more active and ready to absorb more. Builds your expert. books make you to use your brain. it Gives you something to talk about Books are inexpensive entertainment.8 confident. and in turn would have an urge to know more and find more solutions to different queries. We develop habit of learning that brings in scheduling and good management of time. it is needless to say that we should develop this habit that has wide advantages with absolutely nothing to lose from our side. vocabulary and focus Gives you a glimpse into other cultures and places. you think more and become smarter. new mental associations. it becomes easy for us to bring in a flow of natural way of writing and spontaneous expression. Improves concentration.

it isn’t just about translating the word.5. And by seeing the text meaning of the words. throw that bilingual dictionary away (or give it to a friend who is a beginner) and get yourself a dictionary that is English. Lip Movement Reading is a visual and mental process. . It is also about understanding what type of word you are comparing: verb. Therefore lip movement is seldom necessary and in fact it will interfere with your rate of reading. 2. 2. It is not easy learning a second language. Remember though. noun. (Ophelia H. 2001) 2..Hancock. This allows you to study most days of the week.1 Get a Good Dictionary If you are a beginner. for five days a week is a good study routine. you may want to start off with a bilingual dictionary. when using a bilingual dictionary. how it’s pronounced and so on.5 To Learn English as a Second Language The following tips are designed to help you learn English as a second language. and also gives you a break from learning.2 Making Time For Learning Thirty minutes per day. but with dedication and a passion to learn you will be fluent in English.9 In this process the reader reads the text from left to right.5. Once you are past the beginner stage of learning English as a second language. The mind is capable of perceiving the message directly from the contact with the printed page. Bilingual dictionaries are useful for comparing certain words to your own language.

make sure to practice areas such as basic grammar. even if you are wrong. If you are thinking of what you want to say in your own language. Take the time to explore your particular interests in English. pronunciation and other aspects of the English language. at least you will be able to learn the correct word.10 Taking time to study English is very important. Don’t just concentrate on one specific area of English. phrase or pronunciation. read movie reviews in English. you won’t become fluent in the language.5. 2. Practice. 2. It’s much easier to learn English if you can teach yourself to ‘think’ in English. have a go anyway. You may just surprise yourself! And. then translating it in your head.5. If you are a movie fan. The Internet is full of amazing resources for you when you are learning English. you are much more likely to succeed. If you are not sure of the answer. chances are you are not going to learn to your full potential. we make the mistake then we learn from it and improve. 2. so make sure to make the most of it. Constructing the sentence in English first is a good way to make fewer mistakes.4 Don’t Worry If You Make Mistakes Mistakes are how we learn. if you don’t study. If you are interested in learning English. go to your team’s website.5 Practice.5. you may get confused. Practice The key to being able to speak read and write better English is to practice the skills you have acquired through learning. If you are a football fan. but view it in English. .3 Show Interest If you are not interested in learning English as a second language.

but it can be interesting if approached in the right way. For example.5. you will probably lose it! A language isn’t just something you can learn and forget about. remember that learning a language is a skill that needs constant use.9 Finding a Good Teacher Using a qualified teacher that understands English is a step in the right direction.6 Second Language Acquisition a Process. 2. finding out how you learn best will help you learn quicker. Not an Event .5. however. different cultures and different perceptions of life.6 Remember To Learn English Grammar English grammar may seem boring at a first glance. go to the cinema to watch English movies. You can do lots of things together to help you learn like: go for coffees together. seeing or listening? The majority of us learn by using a combination of all of these skills. 2. do you learn better by reading. another language helps you understand the world. 2. 2. A teacher can set your goals and timelines for learning. and share your experiences. and sharing your learning experience is a great way to progress further.5. as well as making you more fluent.8 Learning How to Learn All of us have different ways to learn that work better for us as individuals.11 2. if you don’t use it. doing. swap notes. The important thing is to find out how you learn best.7 Find a Friend to Practice With Finding a friend who is also learning English as a second language. Finally. speak only in English. Remember that learning English grammar will help you understand the language.5.

lots of new vocabulary.) “Students acquire a second language (and learn academic Content) when they receive understandable messages. When learning a new language. a new grammar. Good Apple. many different functions of the language (disagreeing. and their new environment. It is filled with highs and lows. Put Reading First: the Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read 2.1Phonemic Awareness It is the ability to hear. their first language. how to say things appropriately in different social contexts. identify and manipulate the individual sounds— phonemes-in spoken words”. Lehr and Osborn (2001) in their work. their personal experiences.12 Learning a language is like: a roller coaster ride.” (Adapted from Maitland. filled with surprises. learners use everything they have: Their culture. When learning a new language. They need comprehensible input.7 Elements of Reading The elements of reading are defined by Armbruster.7. 2. complaining. Going on a Journey-The path is like new train. K. Becoming a New Person You try new ways of behaving. (1997). arguing. learners must learn: New sounds. ISBN 1-56417-903-6. Swimming in the Ocean-One minute you’re floating and the next you’re overwhelmed by a wave. sometimes it is comfortable and sometimes it is not. their educational background. dizzying twists and turns. Adding English: Helping ESL Learners Succeed.2Phonics . etc.) 2.7. social and academic language Strategies to mend communication breakdowns.

4 Fluency Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. The work of Palmer (1921) notes that “intensive reading” means that the readers take a text. It’s also kind of careful work that a student may do when studying for in exam. they are not really reading. they recognize words automatically." 2. 2.7. In general.1 Intensive Reading It refers to the kind of work done in reading during the class. When fluent readers read silently. Their reading sounds natural. They group words quickly to help them gain meaning from what they read. Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening.5 Comprehension Comprehension is the reason for reading. study it line by line. If readers can read the words but do not understand what they are reading. as if they are speaking.8.3 Vocabulary Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. . Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. 2.13 Phonics is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language)" 2.8 Types of Reading 2. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. and refer at very moment to the dictionary about the grammar of the text itself.7. vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary.7.

extensive reading is also termed as “supplementary reading” e. overview and survey. Method of skimming is preview. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time.e. Procedure for scanning.g.4 Scanning Reading It refers to quickly going through a text to find a particular piece of information. keep in mind only the specific information to be . In most cases. so you're concentrating on finding a particular answer. you're probably not reading it word-by-word. Novel reading for pleasure. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. instead you're scanning the text.8. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading.3 Skimming Reading It refers to quickly running one’s eye over a text to gist of it. but for general information and ideas as well as for pleasure. 2. the latest marketing strategy book. Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. Palmer (1964) also concludes that both types of the reading are important because the main goal of reading is to comprehend the printed pages. Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. managing articles in which you have interest. 2.14 To sum up.8. You search for key words or ideas. an insurance claim.8. you know what you're looking for. 2. He or she may become so absorbed in material that he actually loses awareness of the fact that he is reading.g.2 Extensive Reading In these readers does this king of reading not to remember detail for an exam. When you read the newspaper. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research. A book keeping report.

9. Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly.9. 2.9. hypothesis. model building. 2. If word recognition is difficult. 2. magazines and books.9. read the section containing the clues to get the information needed.2 Develop a Broad Background We can broaden our background knowledge by reading newspapers. Become interested in world events. phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. move your eyes as quickly as possible down the page to find the clues. look for transitional words. 2.5 Anticipate and Predict . 2. Here are some suggestions.4 Identify the Type of Reasoning Does the author use cause and effect reasoning. mental frameworks for holding ideas.15 located. Often. the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details.3 Know the Structure of Paragraphs Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning. which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read. concentration and good study techniques. students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words. Decide which clues will help to find the required information. Also. induction or deduction.9 Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of writing.9. systems thinking? 2.1 Improving Comprehension Reading comprehension requires motivation. middle and end.

2. 2. you have to highlight.6 Look for the Method of Organization Is the material organized chronologically. and discuss ideas with classmates.8 Pay Attention to Supporting Cues Study pictures.9.9. serially. Concentrate on roots. graphs and headings.9. prefixes and endings. this is a lifetime project. logically.9.11 Monitor Effectiveness . you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day.9.9. spatially or hierarchical? 2.10 Build a Good Vocabulary For most educated people. you make adjustments quicker. Summarize and Review Just reading a book once is not enough. To develop a deeper understanding. If you're wrong. summarize and review important ideas. ask questions. 2. functionally. or the first sentence in each section. 2. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. the greater your comprehension.7 Create Motivation and Interest Preview material.16 Really smart readers try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions. If you're right. this reinforces your understanding. The stronger your interest. Or. The best way to improve your vocabulary is to use a dictionary regularly. Read the first and last paragraph in a chapter. 2.9 Highlight.

but rather as one unit. "th" is not pronounced as t + h. It will keep your eyes focused on the line you are reading. .2 Keep Reading Try to read as much as you can on your free time. If you develop good reading skills. Reading will help you in lots of ways.10. and the issues and ideas at stake. and your mind sees the patterns of characters and understands the meaning in them. Have fun reading. improving your understanding. Some letters fit together. Reading is a process of the brain where you look at symbols on a page. 2. it'll be very helpful.10. Try reading the words out loud to yourself. ask a good reader nearby to explain the sentence to you. your vocabulary will become larger and more sophisticated and you will notice your grades change for the better in school. concentration and effectiveness. From start to finish. For example. This is called a 'phoneme'ul to your future. the author. Feel free to use your finger as a pointer. 2.10 To Improve Reading Habit Many people have trouble with reading. If you still don't understand something. Annotating: “Dialogue” with you. or simply pick up a book that is easier to read and more appropriate to your reading level.1 Reread If you don't understand what you are reading. They quickly recognize if they've missed an idea and backup to reread it.17 Good readers monitor their attention. 2. Sound out each letter as best you can and you will notice they form some sort of word. read over the sentence again.

or how many books you want to read over time. notes about things that seem important to you. you might set higher goals. your marginalia will be useful memory triggers. Develop your own symbol system: asterisk a key idea. This kind of interaction keeps you conscious of the reason you are reading and the purposes your instructor has in mind.10. Later in the term.10. 2. or it might be to read 30 minutes a day. in actual fact.4 Set a Reading Goal Determine how much time you want to spend reading. Always have something in your briefcase to read. First of all: throw away the highlighter in favor of a pen or pencil. .3 Always Have a Book Around Don't go anywhere without reading material. Start out with something attainable but still a stretch. when you are reviewing for a test or project. It only seems like an active reading strategy. Highlighting can actually distract from the business of learning and dilute your comprehension. Compare and Contrast: Fit this text into an ongoing dialogue At what point in the term does this reading come? Why that point. reminders of how issues in a text may connect with class discussion or course themes. Having things available makes it easier for you to steal otherwise lost moments. Mark up the margins of your text with Words: ideas that occur to you. it can lull you into a dangerous passivity. Your goal might be a book a month.18 make your reading of any text thinking-intensive. one per week. Keep magazines or short stories in your bathroom. do you imagine? How does it contribute to the main concepts and themes of the course? 2. Keep a book by your bed. Setting a goal is the first step towards reading more. As your habit builds.

Ask your friends and colleagues what they are reading. names. or keep track of how much time you read each day.10. My list and log are kept on my computer. You might keep these lists in your journal or your day planner. By knowing what great stuff you want to read.10. Once you start looking for good books.6 Keep a List Make a list of things you want to read in the future. This is a great way to keep your enthusiasm up. My son's log is on our refrigerator. 2. and continue reread the material.5 Keep a Log Keep a list of the books you have read. Watch for recommendations in the newspaper and magazines. don't force it. you'll find them everywhere.8 Read as Much as you Can When you start getting bored or need a break. Start with titles. 2.19 2.10. take one. or other larger print items that you may know or ever thought about. 2. return to where you were.7 Find a Place to Read This may be some place secret where no one will bother you or simply your home at a time when it is quiet. just do it.10.10. After your break. It doesn't matter where you keep it.9 Join a Reading Group or Book Club . Reading should be fun and enjoyable. you will reinforce your reading habit. 2. It is okay to reread something if you do not understand it fully the first time.

and gives you a great forum for discussion and socialization around the book's themes. the pessimist. Committing to the group provides a bit more impetus to finish the book. no matter what your age. Instill the positive habits you have learned in yourself and others.10. 2. 2. Pick books depending on your reading level. 2.10. use the dictionary! If you want to save time and the hassle of turning pages. experienced readers always use context clues! If you find a word that you're totally stumped on. So from the sentence. Good. but this is definitely not true.10 Visit the Library or Bookstore Often Go to the library and pick up lots of books. so pessimist means being moody and angry.10.20 Reading groups typically meet once a month to discuss a book they have all decided to read.11 Read the Page Carefully Don't rush.12 Use Context Clues to Find Out a Word's Meaning Context clues are when a person figures out the meaning of a word by seeing how the word was used in a sentence. go to the online dictionary 2. the total opposite of my brother. Most people think that skimming the page (skimming means to just scan the whole page and hardly take in a couple of words) is a way of fast reading.13 Read Every Day Practice makes perfect. The best way to improve your reading habits is to read consistently. Make your practice fun by choosing a piece of literature that you enjoy. you can gather that 'pessimist' means the opposite of happy. you were reading the following sentence and wanted to know what 'pessimist' means: My mother is always happy and optimistic.10. take your time. For example. You can practice by .

Try to grasp the sense and do not stick to difficult words. . ideas. and imagination that reading a book can. ReviewSQ3R will help you build a framework to understand your reading assignment. Recite. He will gradually improve his vocabulary. and Read. The SQ3R method has been a proven way to sharpen study skills. The student should rapidly read the content material as he will read a Rapid Reader. 2.11. Fix up the target of time and content and then start reading. The eyes should take the next line of the content as soon as one has been read. Don't get locked into the idea that you have to read it. The student may mark out the way new words and try to have a mental picture about them. Question. Listening to the book still gives you the experience.14 Listen when you can't Read Use your commute and other time spent in the car to listen! There are great audio versions of all sorts of books. it is probably available on tape. 2. The student should start regular practice everyday for short period. Whether you want to "read" fiction. The student should start reading easy books first and difficult later on. Eyes should not be allowed to go back after a sentence or a line is read.10. the latest selfhelp or diet book. The eyes of the student should move more quickly on the lines of the content material. A slow reading will not serve the purpose.21 reading easier or shorter pieces of text such as magazine articles or short stories and then working towards more involved or longer stories and books.1 SQ3R Reading Strategies SQ3R is a reading strategy formed from its letters: Survey.11 Reading Strategies 2.

Questions should lead to emphasis on the what. Recite. studying a map is the best way to begin. Also. Question. Survey Get the best overall picture of what you're going to study before you study it in any detail. The authors intend that this material receive special emphasis. graphs and illustrations. you will help to make sense of the material and remember it more easily because the process will make an impression on you. when. who and where of study content. Question Ask questions for learning. It's like looking at a road map before going on a trip. or wherever it makes sense. when you read. As you answer them. If you don't know the territory. read actively.22 SQ3R stands for Survey. be sure to read everything. Read. Read Reading is not running your eyes over a textbook. how. why. The important things to learn are usually answers to questions. and therefore more easily remembered. . It is a good slogan to commit to memory to carry out an effective study strategy. graphs and illustrations can convey an idea more powerfully than written text. When you read. Those things that make impressions are more meaningful. Read to answer questions you have asked yourself or question the instructor or author has asked. Don't be afraid to write your questions in the margins of textbooks. including tables. Often times tables. and Review. Ask yourself questions as you read or study. on lecture notes. Always be alert to bold or italicized print.

you stop reading periodically to recall what you have read. do a final review. Don't wait until just before an examination to begin the review process. not what you are going to do. During review. Try to recall main headings. it's a good time to go over notes you have taken to help clarify points you may have missed or don't understand.11. the learner is required to reflect on what he or she know about the topic and then create a list. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish. Thousands of high school and college students have followed the SQ3R steps to achieve higher grades with less stress 2. Try to develop an overall concept of what you have read in your own words and thoughts. Try to connect things you have just read to things you already know. the final review can be thought of as a "fine-tuning" of your knowledge of the material. If you manage your time. Before an examination. important ideas of concepts presented in bold or italicized type. charts or illustrations indicate. Rereading is an important part of the review process. When you do this periodically.23 Recite When you recite. essays and objective tests. The . The best time to review is when you have just finished studying something.2 Reading Strategies-KWL Know The Know is the first stage of the KWL Reading Method. In the step. Review A review is a survey of what you have covered. the chances are you will remember much more and be able to recall material for papers. and what graphs.

the learners are required to ask a series of questions on what they need to know about the subject. After completing the study. The students have to discuss what they want to learn before proceeding with any other step. .24 learners are therefore required to brainstorm on the target topic that they are about to start studying. Want The next step is identifying what you want to know. Learn The final step in the KWL Reading Method is to answer all the preset questions. Referring back to the ‘Know’ column. The students should also list added information learned during the study. the students are required to list all the new things that they have learned.

4 Skimming and Scanning . 2. settings. building on prior information to create new and fuller meanings. section headings.12 Strategies For Developing Reading Skills Using Reading Strategies Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their reading behavior to deal with a variety of situations. Summarize-bring meaning forward throughout the reading. 2. ideas.2 Previewing Reviewing titles. using knowledge about the author to make predictions about writing style. Strategies that can help students read more quickly and effectively include. types of input.12. and photo captions to get a sense of the structure and content of a reading selection.12.3 Predicting Using knowledge of the subject matter to make predictions about content and vocabulary and check comprehension.12. Visualize-see characters. using knowledge of the text type and purpose to make predictions about discourse structure.25 2.1 Activate Prior Knowledge Activate prior knowledge and connect the applicable prior experiences to the reading (if students don't have the requisite background knowledge about a topic. they will be unable to comprehend) Decode Text-identify word and sentence meanings. and content. 2.12. vocabulary. and reading purposes. situations. 2. mental model. They help students develop a set of reading strategies and match appropriate strategies to each reading situation.

. instead of stopping to look them up Paraphrasing. Skimming small sections. The aim of speed-reading is basically to increase the reading speed without compromising on the understanding or retention.5 Guessing From Context Using prior knowledge of the subject and the ideas in the text as clues to the meanings of unknown words. Stopping at the end of a section to check comprehension by restating the information and ideas in the text.12. 2. 2. Not sub-vocalizing some phrases. For the highlights or important points you can skim through the summary or the preface of the book or the beginning and the ending chapters. Speed reading is thus actually not precisely defines by specific guidelines and rules but is actually just a process that increases the speed of reading without compromising on the retention of the content.12. Some of the strategies used in speed reading are Identifying words without focusing on each letter Not sounding out all words. confirm or question predictions scanning: Scanning through the text is a reading strategy that can be used if you are particularly looking at the text through a set perspective in mind.26 Using a quick survey of the text to get the main idea. identify text structure.6 Speed Reading Speed-reading is actually a combination of various reading methods. Spending less time on some phrases than others. You can only scan for portions that interest you.

27 2.7 Active Reading There are times when you just cannot afford to skim through or scan through the text but need to get an in-depth understanding of the text that you read and hence you need to make sure you're actively involved with the text while reading it. You can even use different colors to highlight diverse aspects of the text. 2. Later. Questions Before you start reading prepare for your reading by writing down all the questions you want the material to answer. Note Key-words Jot down the headings as you read and detail using one or two keywords for each point.12. Summaries After you've read one complete section of the text. summarize that portion in your own words. There are four important points that you need to keep in mind during active reading which are as follows: Underlining/ Highlighting Identify the most important parts of the text according to your own understanding and highlight or underline them using a pencil or a marker while you are reading. This helps you to read accordingly and ensures you get the answers to all your questions and don’t get distracted while reading.12.8 Structure-Proposition-Evaluation . go through the text again to check how accurate your summary is and modify / upgrade it in case you’ve left out any details.

11 Before Reading This step activates a knowledge base upon which students can build and establishes a purpose for reading. The more important details you can identify.28 This is an interesting reading technique suggested by Mortimer Adler in his book. How to Read a Book The reading technique is mainly for non-fiction genre and elaborates about how a written piece can be read in three passes. This reading method advocates suspended judgment of the work or its arguments until they are fully understood. 2. the easier it will be to review for examinations because you have made a link between an idea and information that supports it. 2. You must learn what the author's central idea is. Before reading: Plan for the reading task. and understand it in your own way. 2. the more powerful will be the efforts of your study. • • • Studying the structure of the work Studying the logical propositions made and organized into chains of inference.12.12.9 Getting the Main Idea Getting the main idea in reading is central to effective studying. as well as ideas themselves. Set a purpose .12. The more links you can make between details and ideas.10 Extracting Important Details Extracting important details means that you locate in your reading the basis for main ideas. Every paragraph contains a main idea. Make it a habit to find the main idea in each paragraph you read. There is usually one important detail associated with every main idea. Evaluation of the merits of the arguments and conclusions. Main ideas are perfect for outlining textbooks.

Decide what is and is not important to understand . Decide if more linguistic or background knowledge is needed. skimming.12. Evaluate comprehension in a particular task or area.12 During Reading This step allows students to measure comprehension.12. previewing headings. Evaluate overall progress in reading and in particular types of reading tasks. and deepens understanding.Ask for help. learning of crucial vocabulary. and build connections. clarify. visualize. 2.Reread to check comprehension .13 After Reading This step expands prior knowledge. Determine whether to enter the text from the top down (attend to the overall meaning) or from the bottom up (focus on the words and phrases) 2.12. inference. builds connections.16 After Reading Strategies .29 or decide in advance what to read for.12. In addition following should be exercised by teacher like Prediction. questioning. 2. During and after reading: Monitor comprehension Verify predictions and check for inaccurate guesses.15 During Reading Strategies Rereading. assesses prior knowledge. Modify strategies if necessary. support predictions and summarizing should be kept in mind while reading 2.12. Decide if the strategies used were appropriate for the purpose and for the task. 2. Apply any of the following simple reading strategies to aid students during each portion of the reading assignment.14 Before Reading Strategies Brainstorming should be provided by teacher.

It should ensure they should not stumble on every difficulty or get discouraged from the outset. Most of the technique dealt in this part. 2.13. and then the whole class can guess about them. If the word is repeated any where else? . summarizing. reflecting quest. There are some techniques to improve reading. 2. verb or adjective? Look at the context. • • Look at what can be guessed from the world itself.2 Inference It means making use of syntactical logical and cultural clues to discover meaning of unknown elements. If there are words then word formation and derivation will also play an important part. Its a noun. 2.1 Sensitizing The aim of this section is to provide exercise that well developed the strategies that this student needs to cop unfamiliar words and complex or apparently obscure sentence. They don’t understand. are already familiar to the students in their native language but it’s necessary to retrain them.30 After reading consider following aspects in mind like Rereading. One useful exercise involves giving the class a short passage to read and asking them to underline all the words. Some students have difficulty in applying them in second language.13 Reading Techniques Throughout your career as a Curtin student you will be required to read a variety of texts and to gather material from them for assignments. following steps can be taken to help the students during exercise. confirming. predictions.13.

• Span: reading one word at a time.31 • Is there any contrast or analogy that can help you derive the meaning of the word try to make a guess even if it’s a vague one. . These factors are mostly the habits we developed when we first learned to read. Linking Sentences and Ideas Link-Words To train the students to understand the values of link words: Understanding relations between parts of a text through the use of logical connectors. To understand the relation between parts of a text. Understanding relations with in the sentence. Factors Involved in Speed Reading Aside from eye movement. there are a number of other secondary factors that influence our reading. • Sub-vocalizing: speaking the words as we read limits our reading to the fastest we can speak. • Regression: flicking back-wards over words already read. Linking Sentence and Ideas To prepare the students to recognize the relation within the sentence or between the sentences. we are able to do much better than this. To understand the relations between parts of a text through reference. Understanding Relation With in the Sentence To help the student to recognize the structure of complex sentences. this reduces speed by 20%. Linking Sentence and Ideas: Reference To train the students to recognize and understand reference.

Anything which might occupy your mind waters down your concentration — even occupying your “mind-inbackground. 2.14 Speed-Reading Techniques Getting Ready to Read So. why hurry through it at all? Like a leisurely meal. I know many of my readers are college students who claim they “study better” with music in the background. eliminate distractions. Go ahead and claim it — but you are wrong.14.32 • • • • Boredom: because we read too slowly and the mind wanders. Concentration: mostly a product of boredom. 2. we’re ready to read. Recall: relaxation improves memory recall. 2. Is there conversation? Activity? TV? An uncomfortable seat? Music in the background? (OK.1 Eliminate All Distraction Get rid of anything your mind could think about besides the reading material.2 Ask: What is My Purpose? Why are you reading this? And what kind of literature is it? Is it a classic or fiction work you are reading for fun? Then. You might “like it” better. But don’t read the book yet. but you do not study better. Comprehension: This depends on the text and our vocabulary. There are a few steps to take first. right? Or maybe you are reading collateral where you will be tested on the content? Or maybe collateral .14. sit back and taste each bite — turn over the delicious phrases in your mind.” If you wish — but if you really are serious about reading faster. Or is collateral reading for a course where you are must be familiar with the central notions? Then finding the notions is why you are reading.

See how different your purpose might be for each? Before you open the book. Move to the Table of Contents and see if you can figure out the whole book from this page. diagrams (especially). page by page and glance through all summaries. of course) “A book is simply one great chapter with a dozen other filler chapters.” If this is so.33 reading where you will be required to say. 2. In order from the front to the back. “I read every single word?” Or is this a book where you will be tested on the terms and dates therein? Or. We should go ahead and gets the central idea before you start! Once you have read the key chapter you are ready to read the rest. Page through the entire book. maybe you are just reading the book searching for some new ideas for your own situation. Go ahead and try this if you’ve never done it before. or in some other order which better suits your purpose. Or maybe you plan to teach it to others. Read the dust cover and any cover reviews. pull-out quotes.14. Then look through the author blurb. find that chapter.3 Do a Ten Minute Pre-Read Take ten minutes or less and pre-read the entire book. and then organize all the pieces first before putting it together. and scan through all the section titles and you go. as if you must eat your green beans before the ice cream. You are not obligated to wait until you have read all the chapters before this one. Some publishers say (off the record. Chances are you’ll find the KEY CHAPTER while you are doing this.14. Or you have to write a review. Dump it out. tables. Treat a book like a jigsaw puzzle.4 Read the Key Chapter Start using the rapid reading techniques mentioned later to read this Key chapter through. Now for some actual reading tips. It will largely determine how you read the book. . take a minute to state your purpose to yourself. 2.

Back-skip habit. E = factors primarily in the environment of the second culture. F = factors primarily in the family. Raise your speed.5 Rapid Reading Techniques Rapid reading means when you are reading for pleasure or entertainment. Quit Sub vocalizing. to the family or to the environment of the second culture. Consider drawing a “Mind Map” of the content. There are some methods which we can use rapid reading techniques. These are.14. 2.15 Factors Affecting on Second Language Learning The following factors affect second language acquisition. Use the following code. circle. Determine whether each factor is related mainly to the student. Socioeconomic status can be affected on second language learning. Literacy level can be affected on L2 learning. Underline. Break the Use your peripheral vision. Use your finger. S = factors primarily in the student. Age can be affected on second language learning.34 2. Family support can be affected on second language learning. Maintenance of home . whether school environment provides language use opportunities. Background of students where few homes are conducive to read and lack of English reading materials. Cognitive development in home language can be affected on second language learning. Classroom culture can be affected on second language learning. Set a time goal. and make margin notes. you do not pay attention to every word.comfort level. whether environment provides adequate L2 input. Take breaks.

Preferred learning styles can be affected on L2 learning. But there is no specific . Literacy in home language can be affected on L2 learning. Sense of identity in the classroom can be affected on L2 learning.1 Role of Teacher A teacher that already has experience in English teaching as second language can exploit her background in language teaching.16 Problems Faced by Secondary Students to Learn the Second Language There are some problems which faced by secondary students to learn the second language.35 language may be affected on L2 learning. although students show willingness to read more broadly. If it does not provide to the students it can be affected to learn English language. Teacher’s expectations may be affected on L2 learning. language teachers and shortage of equipment and resources for teaching reading skills. e. 2. newspapers and novels.16.g. Role models in the community can be affected on the language learning. Facility with English and ability if these are not providing to the learner it is affected on the students learning. Motivation can be affected on L2 learning such as it is said that motivation is the food of mind. Personality may be affected on L2 learning whether student has enough opportunities to use English. the lack of functional libraries in most of the schools surveyed and a similar lack of trained librarians or teacher librarians. Highlights the following inhibiting factors: the family background of students where few homes are conducive to reading owing to noise and lack of English reading materials. 2. She could recognize the ways in which her teaching skills can be adopted for teaching English. and a heavy reliance on school texts. the failure to provide library periods in schools. Expectations of child can be affected on L2 learning.

It’s the teacher who must create the word of reading in a particular class. People learn language when they have opportunities to understand and work with language in a context that they comprehend and find interesting. There is shortage of teachers. Those available have little idea of their reading.2 Role of Students Students don’t motivates by the teacher and remain passive in the classroom.16. Students will acquire English as they work with material which they find interesting and which they can use in their study or professional work.36 reason to teach English and no practice of phonics because there is lack of motivation and poor environment about learning English.) 2. 2004. the more they are successful and the more they have to focus in the linguistic input or isolated language structures the less they are motivated to attend their classes. (Singh.3 Lack of Competent Teachers All the teacher of English is not fully competent to do full justice to their assignments.16. 2. 2. It’s the teacher who must stimulate interest in reading who must project her enthusiasm for books and who must help students in the reading. Most of them are unwilling to work hard at school and home . The more learners pay attention in the meaning of language they hear or read. English language suffers the neglect at the secondary level.Some of them uses unfair means to pass in English. p33. In this way English is a powerful way for such opportunity.4 Teaching Methods The use of mother tongue for explaining the meaning of words provide we get back in to English a quickly as possible but in our secondary schools the grammar . Because the students are already too busy neither doing their major subject because neither time nor aptitude for English. p.16.

p. tape recorders.16. text-books.7 Over Crowded Class Room A main problem which is faced by the student is the overcrowded class room that is why attention does not pay each and every student.16.6 Lack of Professionalism There is lack of professionalism in our English reaching.37 translation method is used which is not suitable because oral work is ignored and students don’t get opportunity to hear English language. television. blackboard. 2. Mega phones. radio. patience and self reliance in them.2005. black board. pictures. According to educational psychology the task of teacher is not only to teach the students but to motivate them towards learning to awaken the spirit of inquiry and develop the habit of industry. These devises are called teaching aids or audio visual aids.16. 2. film script should be used but teachers hardly take pain to use them and make their teaching interesting and effective.8 Shortage of Time . wall charts. flash cards. lingua phones.16. The most common audio visual aids are. for their appeal to the ear and the eye. (Singh.6) 2. overhead projector the audio visual aids are essential part of good teaching. class room objects. pictures.5 Lack of Audiovisual Aids To make the lesson interesting and affective teacher use various devices in the classroom. tape recorder. There is complete lack of even simple visual aids like flash cards. and aids into our school. By audio visual aids we mean the devises which can be used in teaching. 2.

Reading to learn . Vocabulary. There are some skill which required for proficient reading. Grammar translation method. Pre reading. Confirmation. and does not provide whole information to the students. in the short time teacher don’t pay attention properly to each students. Initial reading. These are following.Multiple view point. Reading comprehension.38 Another problem is shortage of time. . Wrong pronunciation . There are further problems which are discussed above in detail. Phonemic awareness. Phonic awareness.

3. 3.39 CHAPTER III METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY To explore the Strategies to improve reading habits in learning English language at secondary level. The purpose of this was to improve reading habit. All the students gave the individual response to the question. This information was collected from students about strategies to improve English which they felt needed. This data has been taken from internet.4 Tool of Research .3 Sample 150 students were selected as samples. The responses of each statement list in the form of percentage. The whole information is collected in yes or no form. 3.1 Nature of Description Method used for analysis and data was descriptive. different books and websites and UE library. A representative sample was drawn for research. Six secondary school of Lahore cities were selected as a sample of the study. Previous researchers were also studied. Questionnaire consisted on yes or no. 3. it has been taken from the students of secondary level through survey method.2 Population This study was concerned with the strategies to improve reading habit in learning English Language at secondary level. Research reviewed about the strategies to improve reading habits in learning English at secondary level.

3.40 Questionnaire was used as a tool of research question. It consisted of 15 questions with two options “Yes” or “No”. questionnaire was prepared under the instruction of supervisor and advisor. .5 Preparation of Questionnaire In the light of objective of study.6 Data Collection 150 copies of questionnaires were handed over to each responder individually. I explained the purpose and significance of the study to motivate the responder to give the correct answer of the question carefully. 3. Students were told to select the appropriate answer. questions and review of related literature.

41 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA The data obtained from the students. questionnaire survey was hand tabulated and analyzed in terms or frequency. counts and means. This chapter discusses the result of data analysis. .

42 Table No.1 Sr. Statement Yes 80 110 % 53% 73% No 70 40 % 46% 26% No 1. students? Do you think that teacher’s behavior and home background affect the students in developing skills? 120 135 80% 90% 30 15 20% 10% 145 96% 5 3% Analysis of Table No. • Seventy three percent students agreed that reading can help to build vocabulary that help listening comprehension While twenty six percent students disagreed about this statement. English books? Do you agree that reading can help to build vocabulary that help listening comprehension? Do you think that unfamiliarity of language is a condition of poor reading? Do you think that techniques or styles play an important role to enhance the reading skill of 5. 4.4. • Ninety percent students agreed that teacher’s behavior and home back ground effect the student in developing skill while three percent students did not agree about this point of view.1 • Fifty three percent students agreed that the Teacher can enhance student’s ability to read English books while forty six percent students disagreed about this statement. Does the teacher enhance the student’s ability to read 2. 4. 3. . • • Eighty percent students agreed that unfamiliarity of language is a condition of poor reading while twenty percent did not agree about this statement. Ninety percent students agreed that teacher’s techniques and style can play an important role to enhance the reading skill of students while only ten percent only students did not agree about this statement.

novels and stories? Do you think that motivation is a factor which is helpful for developing reading skill? 20 149 13% 99% 130 1 86% 0% Yes % No % 110 100 145 73% 66% 96% 40 50 5 26% 33% 3% Analysis of Table No. Statement Does the teacher check the reading speed of the students? Do the teachers give different activities to improve reading habit? Do you think that A. • Ninety percent students agreed that motivation is a factor which is helpful for developing reading skill while there is no any student who is disagreed about this statement.3 . 4. • Thirteen percent students agreed that they have the habit of novel and story while eighty percent students did not agree about this statement.2 Sr. 3.4.4.43 Table No. 1. • Ninety six percent students agreed that audio visual aids increase interest to improve reading habit while thirty three percent students do not agreed about this statement.2 • Seventy three percent students agreed that their teacher check their reading speed of the student while twenty percent students disagreed about this statement.4. No. • Sixty percent students agreed that teacher give different activities to improve reading habit while thirty three percent students disagreed about this statement. Table No. 2. 5.V aids ‘flash cards /play cards increase interest to improve reading habit? Do you have the habit of fictions.

4.3 • • Ninety three percent students agreed that they skip the difficult words during reading while six percent students disagreed about this statement. through text books. newspapers stories? Do you think that reading habit is developed when we read it for the sake of fun? Do you think that reading competition should be organized by the teacher? Do you think that libraries should be enriched with the books of student’s interests? 140 145 140 145 140 93% 96% 93% 96% 93% 10 5 10 5 10 6% 3% 6% 3% 9% Analysis of table No. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 1. FINDINGS. stories while three percent students disagreed about this statement.44 Sr. Do you skip the difficult words during reading? 2. newspapers. Ninety three percent students agreed that libraries should be enriched with the books of student’s interest while nine percent students disagreed about this statement. • • Ninety six students agreed that reading competition should be organized while three percent students disagreed about this statement.4. CHAPTER V SUMMARY. • Ninety three percent students agreed that reading habit is developed when we read it for the sake of fun while six percent students disagreed about this statement. Ninety six percent students agreed that reading skill improve through text books. Statement Yes % No % No. Do you think that reading skill improve 3. 5.

Different strategies should be used by the teacher. lack of audio-visual aid.SQ3R. containing a set of questions asks about students’ reading habits and can be easily utilized to raise learner awareness of reading strategies. KWL. And they are not accustomed to listen English language. influence of mother tongue. Through the survey of different secondary schools we came to know that the most of the students don’t have the habit of reading English stories and novels. and motivate the learners to read. Skills for . active reading. creative thinking and language skills.Different factors which are affecting on language learning should be abolished like shortage of collection. skimming and scanning. age and interest play an important part to learn and improve English reading habit. The first section of the thesis introduces the general concept of reading and vocabulary learning skills and also discusses their usefulness in the classroom.g. guessing paragraph.45 Summary The objective of the study was to know the strategies to improve English reading habit. discussion and questioning during reading activities . That’s why they don’t get better chance to improve reading habit. vocabulary. lack of competent teachers. sensitizing. attitude. The introductory section can also be used to conduct a one-time strategy training session. As English learning a second language is very crucial in learning in every field of life so reading habit of English has enhanced learner’s life and general language competence. and previewing and drill. brain storming. prediction. home background. Remedial measure should be used for accuracy and fluency in reading exercise e. inferences. lack of professionalism. Therefore we cane say that motivation. It increases the vast knowledge. A short survey.

46 vocabulary learning and reading are presented in another two parts that are “Tips for comprehension Reading” and “improving reading skill”. grouping words." (Lady Bird Johnso) . At your library. books have been a life-long resource--to learning. underlining. and scanning. solace. "For me. The reading skills offered in the text. learning affixes and roots. inspiration. excitement. The vocabulary learning skills highlighted in the book include making inferences by using context clues. and creating sentences using new words. skimming small sections. also help learners to improve their reading comprehension. creating word webs. identify words without focusing on each letter. such as predicting. We can improve reading habit by adopting comprehensive reading. For example highlighting. selected skills and strategies to improve reading habit in learning English are emphasized with detailed explanations and examples. free for the asking. extensive reading. These sections allow students to reflect on their own learning strategies and introduce the students to specific useful skills that are available for them to use subsequently. skimming. Students can take the opportunity to become familiar with these skills by practicing them using the guided exercises or suggested activities. laughter. Some methods should be used by teachers about increasing reading speed. the world awaits you. questioning and summarizing. These practice examples help learners to associate and recall vocabulary. not sub-vocalizing some phrases. spending less time on some phrases than others. in each chapter.

• Most of the student agreed that the teacher check the reading speed of the students. newspapers stories.47 Findings • Most of the student agreed that the teacher enhance the student’s ability to read English book. novels and stories. • Most of the student agreed that reading can help to build vocabulary that help listening comprehension. . play card appendix and charts increase interest to improve reading habit. Most of the student agreed that reading skill improve through text books. • Most of the student agreed that techniques or styles play an important role to enhance the reading skill of students. • Most of the student agreed that have not the habit of fictions. • Most of the student agreed that unfamiliarity of language is a condition of poor reading. • Most of the student agreed that teacher’s behavior and home background affect the students in developing skills. • Most of the student agreed that give different activities to improve reading habit. flash card. • Most of the student agreed that Motivation is a factor which is helpful for developing reading skill • • Most of the student agreed that they skip the difficult words during reading.V aids. • Most of the student agreed that A.

• Most of the student agreed that reading competition should be organized by the teacher.48 • Most of the student agreed that reading habit is developed when we read it for the sake of fun. The respondents agree that reading can help to build vocabulary . Mostly teachers enhance the student’s ability to read English books. s feedback through questionnaire. • Most of the student agreed that libraries should be enriched with the books of student’s interests. Conclusions Based on the finding from the student. the following conclusion can be drawn.

Libraries should be enriched with the books of student’s interest. Most of the students read to acquire new skill and knowledge and to improve their present. implementation and different strategies. reading stories and newspaper. Different techniques play an important role to enhance the reading skill of students. • Better environment should be provided in reading English Language. Reading skill improves through text book. Recommendations From the findings. Most of the students don’t have habit of reading English stories and novels at secondary level. During the reading they skip the difficult words. Motivation is a factor which is helpful for developing reading skill.49 that help listening comprehension. Reading habit is developed when we read it for sake of fun. the following recommendations are being made for teachers. . There are three main purposes for reading are to obtain information and knowledge on specific subjects of interest for general information on current affairs and for pleasure. Mostly Teachers give differ reading activities to improve reading habit. Teacher’s behavior and home back ground affects the students in reading developing skill. Unfamiliarity of language is a condition of poor reading. Student like reading competition should be organized by the teacher. parents and students. data analysis. • Parents should set aside regulars time for children so that they can read on daily basis. AV aids increase interest to improve reading habit.

and acquire reading skill. . And create the English reading habit. • Different interesting reading activities and techniques should be provided by the teachers.50 • Parents should be knowledgeable about your children’s progress. • Student should they make habit to improve English reading. • Teachers should check the reading speed of the students. • AV aids should be provided to the school for practicing different drills. • Reading competition should be organized by the teacher and Libraries should be enriched with the books of student’s interest. • There should be main purposes for reading are to obtain information and knowledge on specific subjects of interest for general information on current affairs and for pleasure. Reading habit is developed when we read it for the sake of fun. Force them to improve reading speeds and to read in block of words. • Motivation should be provided because it is a factor which is helpful for developing reading skill. Students should adopt the habit of reading English stories and novel.

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com/blog/7-pleasurable-ways-toimprove-your-reading-ability/ • Platinum Prep .blurtit.htm? articleid=859382&show=html • Steve Kaufmann.54 http://www.ctl.com/journals. 2006.edu/CTLStudyAids/StudySkillsFlyers/Reading/badreadi nghabits.(24 Oct 2010).Pleasurable Ways to Improve Your Reading Ability . http://www.emeraldinsight.pickthebrain.ua. from http://www. What Are The Different Types Of Reading Skills? . Retrieved on 25/8/2011/available at.com/doc/19755488/Analysing-Reading-Skill • Factors affecting the reading habits of secondary school students.scribd.com/best-sat-prep-books/?p=41 • Carisma Dreyer and Charl Ne(2006): Reading strategies and reading comprehension within a Technology-enhanced learning environment / retrieved on 12/8/2011.Retrieved on 18/8/2011 from http://testprofessors.com/q4578671.retrieved on 5/8/2011 from http://www.html .htm • Reading Comprehension Skills: How to Approach and Analyze Reading Passages. Retrieved on 14/8/2011 from http://www.

Currently I am conducting a research as a preliminary work for my intended thesis. Removing the Word "Reluctant" from "Reluctant Reader":The English Journal Vol. pp.htm APPENDIX – A Respectable Madam: I am a student of University of Education Bank Road Campus Lahore. 4.com Guide): How to Spot Early Signs of a Reading Problem What to look for in a child who's having trouble reading. 2003).jstor.55 • Sharon A. retrieved on 27/8/2011 from http://www. 71-76 Published by: National Council of Teachers of English . (About.org/stable/3650460 • Katherine Lee. Stringer and Bill Mollineaux. http://childparenting. No. Retrieved on 22/8/2011 from. 92.com/od/schoollearning/qt/readingprobtip.. . 2004. Teaching for Exceptionality (Mar.about.

2011 .A. Asma Khan.07. I am thankful for your cooperation and time spared for this activity. You are requested to give your responses in the appropriate columns below. English. Bank Road. M. I assure you that the information collected through this questionnaire will only be used for research purpose and will not be provided to any other person or agency for any other purpose.56 This questionnaire is prepared for identifying “Strategies to Improve Reading Habit in Learning English Language a Second Language At Secondary Level”. (Eve) University of Education. Lahore. dated July 15. Campus. Roll No. Researcher.

5. 9. 6. novels and stories? Do you think that motivation is a factor which is helpful for developing reading skill? Do you skip the difficult words during reading? Yes No . 11. Statement Does the teacher enhance the student’s ability to read English books? Do you agree that reading can help to build vocabulary that help listening comprehension? Do you think that unfamiliarity of language is a condition of poor reading? Do you think that techniques or styles play an important role to enhance the reading skill of students? Do you think that teacher’s behavior and home background affect the students in developing skills? Does the teacher check the reading speed of the students? Do the teachers give different activities to improve reading habit? Do you think that A. 7. 10. 8.57 APPENDIX – B QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS Sr. 3. 2.V aids ‘flash cards /play cards increase interest to improve reading habit? Do you have the habit of fictions. 4. 1. No.

newspapers stories? Do you think that reading habit is developed when we read it for the sake of fun? Do you think that reading competition should be organized by the teacher? Do you think that libraries should be enriched with the books of student’s interests? Yes No . No. 13. 14. Statement Do you think that reading skill improve through text books.58 Sr. 12. 15.

59 .

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