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What is Shot peening ?

Shot peening is a cold working process used to

produce a compressive residual stress layer and modify mechanical properties of metals. It entails impacting a surface with shot (round metallic, glass, or ceramic particles) with force sufficient to create plastic deformation. It is similar to sandblasting, except that it operates by the mechanism of plasticity rather than abrasion: each particle functions as a ball-peen hammer. In practice, this means that less material is removed by the process, and less dust created.

Shot Peening Media


In this time has 5 Media of shot peening that used in

markets. There are


Cut wire shot Cut wire shot heat treatment Steel shot Ceramic shot Fine particle shot

Cut wire shot


Cut wire shot is created by cutting drawn steel wire to

lengths approximately the same size as the width of the wire. The resulting wire is then rounded to remove the sharp edges. It has many shape such as Cylindrical, Rounded , Spherical.

Cut wire shot (Cont.)


Advantages
Tends to wear down into smaller diameter rather than fracture into

particles with sharp edges. Produces uniform results due to its consistency in size, shape, and hardness. More durable (longer life) than cast steel, glass, and ceramic shot. Available in carbon steel and stainless steel. Ability to achieve the highest intensity. Easiest to maintain spherical particles.

Disadvantages
High material cost Limited sizes

Cut wire shot heat treatment


It is created like cut wire shot but bring it to heat

treatment before used.


Advantages
It has advantages same cut wire shot but it has more durable

(longer life) than cut wire shot.

Disadvantages
It has prepared difficult more than cut wire shot. High material cost and Limited sizes.

Steel shot
Steel shot are created by atomizing molten steel, then

heat treating and sieving the resulting material. Such as Cast steel beads, Hi-Carbon steel beads, Stainless steel beads, etc.

Steel shot (Cont.)


Advantages More durable (longer life) than glass and ceramic shot Available in carbon steel and stainless steel Ability to achieve the highest intensity Easiest to maintain spherical particles Disadvantages More difficult than cut wire shot to maintain spherical particles Less durable than cut wire shot High material cost

Ceramic shot
In this days have 2 type that used, there are Glass shot Zirshot
Glass shot Zirshot

Glass shot
Glass shot is created by atomizing molten soda lime, then

sieving the resulting material. Advantages


Available in wide range of sizes

Low cost material


Inert material, will not cause ferrous contamination or leave

residue on work piece . Environmentally friendly

Disadvantages More difficult than steel media to maintain spherical particles Less durable than steel and ceramic media

Zirshot
Zirshot is ceramic shot that have compound between

ZrO2 , SiO2 and Al3O2 Advantages


Density in the middle of the range between glass and

steel : process versatility. Smooth surface : not abrasive Round shape : high peening ability Chemically inert : no contamination High mechanical strength and hardness level : high impact efficiency, weak consumption rate

High impact strength versus glass beads and steel beads

Zirshot (Cont.)

Zirshot (Cont.)
Glass beads explode generate dust which is sticking to

the beads.
After 10 cycles, only glass dust is remaining.

In the meantime, this dust is sticking to the beads, and

they become aggressive.

Steel shot is wearing and breaking according to its

hardness, generating dust. Hardness, shape, hardness and smoothness. Ceramic beads are breaking into pieces, but not wearing. They produce no dust and keep their initail size, shape, hardness and smoothness.

Zirshot (Cont.)
Disadvantages High material cost Can not distort close-tolerance parts.

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Fine Particle Shot Peening (FPSP)


Fine particle shot peening is fine, powder like spherical media

(20-200 m in diameter) thrown against metal surfaces at speeds of more than 100 m/sec. The typical hardness of FPSP media, which can be metallic, ceramic or glass, is 750-1000 HV. The machine used in the process is a modified pneumatic shot peening system. Like conventional shot peening. FPSP improves fatigue strength and stress corrosion fracture resistance. Its greatest additional benefit is that it produces a very smooth surface finish.

Fine Particle Shot Peening (Cont.)


Shot peening advantages
Greatly improves strength and fatigue resistance. Well-known process that is relatively inexpensive to implement. Has substantial research and quality controls to enhance its value. Media and equipment are readily available. Creates a pebbly surface that is advantageous in certain

applications.

Shot peening disadvantages


Pebbly surface finish isnt suitable for all

applications Can distort close-tolerance parts

Fine Particle Shot Peening (Cont.)


Fine particle shot peening advantages
Improves surface hardness and wear resistance Ultra-smooth surface is ideal for bearings,seals,

or close-tolerance areas Will not distort close-tolerance parts Will not damage soft or fragile parts

Fine particle shot peening disadvantages Limited availability in U.S. and Europe. Media can be difficult to use and few equipment and media manufacturers are experienced with it. Limited depth of compression might make it unsuitable for some applications.

Fine Particle Shot Peening (Cont.)


In present Fuji Kihan Company and Fuji Seisakusyo

Company have patented a fine particle peening process that they market to the Japanese automotive. They have licensed this technology to over 130 companies and 80% of these are Japanese auto and auto part manufacturers. Japan also has a FPSP Society. It has several papers for research and development FPSP such as Fatigue Property Enhancement by Fine Particle Shot Peening for Aircraft Aluminum Parts by A. Inoue,T. Sekigawa and K. Oguri with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries presented According to the abstract :

Fine Particle Shot Peening (Cont.)


Fatigue life of conventional shot peened aluminum parts was

increased by several times, while that of FPSP aluminum was increased by more than 10 times compared with that of asmachined. The compressive residual stress on FPSP surface covered adequately with uniform dimples is higher than that on shot-peened surface. Fracture surface observation revealed that the fatigue crack of FPSP samples originate at the subsurface layer, which shows the high compressive residual stress at very near the surface and the lessroughened surface prevents crack initiation from the surface. FPSP can improve fatigue life more than shot peening, which shows fatigue crack initiates from small flaws and laps on the surface created by shot peening.

Fine Particle Shot Peening (Cont.)

Life Cycle / cycle S-N Data (63 in finish)

Reference
Gillespie,R.D. Shot peening media,Its Effect on Process Consistency and Resultant Improvement in Fatique Charateristics.Premier shot

company,Cleveland,Ohio,USA. Kathy Levy . The Shot Peener Winter 2010, Special Application Review: Fine Particle Shot Peening. Page 4-6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shot_peening http://www.indmetfin.com/Services/ShotPeeningMedia.aspx http://szhlda.51ev.org/group-Abrasive-Tools/544157/Ceramic-shot-peeningsurface-treatment.html http://www.zirpro.com/