You are on page 1of 44

Page | 1

AutoNEX Courseware

www.emanagineer.com

info@emanagineer.com

List of Contents
S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Topic What is Automotive? Chassis Suspension Unit Braking System Steering Transmission Page 3 3 5 8 11 18
Page | 2

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

The IC Engines Engine Layouts Spark plugs Ground Electrodes Carburetors Valves & Valve Mechanisms Feedback form & Website links

33 33 34 36 36 38 44

www.emanagineer.com

info@emanagineer.com

What is Automotive?
Automotive is that branch of engineering which deals with anything which is automatically in motion. Automotive engineering is the combination of mechanical engineering, vehicle dynamics, drive train engineering and engine design to form a subject that deals with all aspects of vehicle.

Page | 3

CHASSIS
TYPES OF CHASSIS
• LADDER FRAME CHASSIS: Its construction, indicated by its name, looks like a ladder - two longitudinal rails interconnected by several lateral and cross braces. The longitude members are the main stress member. They deal with the load and also the longitudinal forces caused by acceleration and braking. The lateral and cross members provide resistance to lateral forces and further increase torsional rigidity. TUBULAR SPACE FRAME CHASSIS: As ladder chassis is not strong enough, motor racing engineers developed a 3 dimensional design - Tubular space frame. Tubular space frame chassis employs dozens of circular-section tubes (some may use square-section tubes for easier connection to the body panels, though circular section provides the maximum strength), position in different directions to provide mechanical strength against forces from anywhere. These tubes are welded together and forms a very complex structure, as you can see in the above pictures. For higher strength required by high performance sports cars, tubular space frame chassis usually incorporate a strong structure under both doors (see the picture of Lamborghini Countach), hence result in unusually high door sill and difficult access to the cabin. MONOCOQUE FRAME CHASSIS: Monocoque is a one-piece structure which defines the overall shape of the car. While ladder, tubular space frame and backbone chassis provides only the stress members and need to build the body around them, monoque chassis is already incoporated with the body in a single piece, as you can see in the above picture showing a Volvo V70. In fact, the "one-piece" chassis is actually made by welding several pieces together. The floorpan, which is the largest piece, and other pieces are press-made by big stamping machines. They are spot welded together by robot arms (some even use laser welding) in a stream production line. The whole process just takes minutes. ULSAB MONOCOQUE : Hydroform is a new technique for shaping metal to desired shape, alternative to pressing. Conventional pressing use a heavy-weight machine to press a sheet metal into a die, this inevitably creates inhomogenous thickness - the edges and corners are always thinner than surfaces. To maintain a minimum thickness there for the benefit of stiffness, car

www.emanagineer.com

info@emanagineer.com

designers have to choose thicker sheet metal than originally needed. Hydroform technique is very different. Instead of using sheet metal, it forms thin steel tubes. The steel tube is placed in a die which defines the desired shape, then fluid of very high pressure will be pumped into the tube and then expands the latter to the inner surface of the die. Since the pressure of fluid is uniformal, thickness of the steel made is also uniformal. As a result, designers can use the minimum thickness steel to reduce weight. Sandwich steel is made from a thermoplastic (polypropylene) core in between two very thin steel skins. This combination is up to 50 percent lighter compared with a piece of homogenous steel without a penalty in performance. Because it shows excellent rigidity, it is applied in areas that call for high bending stiffness. However, it cannot be used in everywhere because it needs adhesive bonding or riveting instead of welding. BACKBONE FRAME CHASSIS: Backbone chassis is very simple: a strong tubular backbone (usually in rectangular section) connects the front and rear axle and provides nearly all the mechanical strength. Inside which there is space for the drive shaft in case of front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout like the Elan. The whole drivetrain, engine and suspensions are connected to both ends of the backbone. The body is built on the backbone, usually made of glass-fibre. It's strong enough for smaller sports cars but not up to the job for high-end ones. ALUMINIUM SPACE FRAME: ASF consists of extruded aluminum sections, vacuum die cast components and aluminum sheets of different thicknesses. They all are made of high-strength aluminium alloy. At the highly stressed corners and joints, extruded sections are connected by complex aluminum die casting (nodes). Besides, new fastening methods were developed to join the body parts together. It's quite complex and production cost is far higher than steel monocoque. • CARBON-FIBER MONOCOQUE There are several Carbon-fibers commonly used in motor industry. Kelvar, which was developed by Du Pont, offers the highest rigidity-to-weight ratio among them. Because of this, US army's helmets are made of Kelvar. Kelvar can also be found in the body panels of many exotic cars, although most of them simultaneously use other kinds of carbon-fiber in even larger amount. Production process:Carbon-fiber panels are made by growing carbon-fiber sheets (something look like textile) in either side of an aluminium foil. The foil, which defines the shape of the panel, is sticked with several layers of carbon fiber sheets impregnated with resin, then cooked in a big oven for 3 hours at 120°C and 90 psi pressure. After that, the carbon fiber layers will be melted and form a uniformal, rigid body panel.

Page | 4

www.emanagineer.com

info@emanagineer.com

com . Page | 5 • Weight Transfer The total amount of weight transfer is affected by 4 factors: • • • • the distance between the wheel centers the height of centre of gravity mass of the vehicle acceleration experienced Two types of weight transfers: www.5625) times the spring rate. Critical in accurately balancing the handling of a vehicle. Briefly. The wheel rate is calculated by taking the square of the lever arm ratio (0. in roll. The magnitude of the spring force increases as deflection increases according to Hooke's Law. This is as opposed to simply measuring the spring rate alone. SPRING RATE Spring rate is a ratio used to measure how resistant a spring is to being compressed or expanded during the spring's deflection.SUSPENSION UNIT Suspension is the term given to the system of springs. Commonly adjusted through the use of anti-roll bars or by use of different springs. this can be stated as F = -kx Wheel Rate • Wheel rate is the effective spring rate when measured at the wheel. Squaring the ratio is because the ratio has two effects on the wheel rate.emanagineer. Roll couple percentage • • • Roll couple percentage is the effective wheel rates. The ratio applies to both the force and distance traveled. shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels.com info@emanagineer. of each axle of the vehicle.

A tire wears and brakes best perpendicular to the road.• • Un sprung Weight Transfer Sprung weight transfer Page | Jacking Forces • Jacking forces are the sum of the vertical force components experienced by the suspension links. you can't see the shock absorber because it is encased in the black gaiter inside the gaiter. Camber Control • Camber changes with wheel travel and with body roll. lower arm.emanagineer. In the picture here. Small changes in camber.com . front and rear. At the top end there is a needle roller bearing on some more sophisticated systems. Simple. Depending on the tire. 6 TRAVEL Travel is the measure of distance from the bottom of the suspension stroke (such as when the vehicle is on a jack and the wheel hangs freely). it physically twists the strut and shock absorber housing (and consequently the spring) to turn the wheel. without doubt. If the www.com info@emanagineer. the most widely used front suspension system in cars of European origin. Anti-dive and Anti-squat • • Anti-dive is front diving under braking Anti-squat is the rear squatting under acceleration Macpherson Strut or McPherson strut This is currently. it may hold the road best at a slightly different angle. The spring is seated in a special plate at the top of the assembly which allows this twisting to take place. The steering gear is either connected directly to the lower shock absorber housing. which pivots on a ball joint on the single. or to an arm from the front or back of the spindle (in this case). When you steer. The strut itself is the load-bearing member in this assembly. are used to tune handling. to the top of the suspension stroke (such as when the vehicles wheel can no longer travel in an upward direction toward the vehicle). with the spring and shock absorber merely performing their duty as oppose to actually holding the car up. The system basically comprises of a strut-type spring and shock absorber combo. It is simplicity itself.

The lower arm in this instance becomes a control arm.com . It's currently being used in the Audi A8 and A4 amongst other cars. Steer and camber are the ones which wear tyres. it alters the geometry of the suspension by torquing all four suspension arms. This transfers the load-bearing capability of the suspension almost entirely to the upper arm and the spring mounts. with huge differences in the numbers and complexities of joints. They have complex pivot systems designed to allow this to happen. If you look head-on at this type of system. or lean angle. Car manufacturers claim that this system gives even better road-holding properties. The only real difference between this and the previous system mentioned above is that the spring/shock combo is moved from between the arms to above the upper arm. they also have a slight side-to-side motion caused by the arc that the wishbones describe around their pivot points. The first and most important is a toe angle (steer angle). but the one which produces most pub talk is the camber angle. The second and least important.emanagineer. The wheel spindles are supported by an upper and lower 'A' shaped arm. In this type. The basic principle of it is the same. When they do this. numbers of arms. This particular type of system isn't so popular in cars as it takes up a lot room. Coil Spring type 2 This is also a type of double-A arm suspension although the lower arm in these systems can sometimes be replaced with a single solid arm (as in my picture). because all the various joints make the suspension almost infinitely adjustable. what you'll find is that it's a very parallelogram system that allows the spindles to travel vertically up and down.spring or this plate are worn. Multi-link suspension This is the latest incarnation of the double wishbone system described above. This is sometimes confused for CV joint knock. The super-weird thing about this is that as the spindle turns for steering. Page | 7 www.com info@emanagineer. you'll get a loud 'clonk' on full lock as the spring frees up and jumps into place. Double wishbone suspension systems Coil Spring type 1 This is a type of double-A or double wishbone suspension. each 'arm' of the wishbone is a separate item. but instead of solid upper and lower wishbones. There are two other types of motion of the wheel relative to the body when the suspension articulates. but they are all fundamentally the same. positioning of the parts etc. There are a lot of variations on this theme appearing at the moment. These are joined at the top and bottom of the spindle thus forming the wishbone shape. Unless the links are infinitely long the scrub motion is always present. Note that in this system the spring (red) is separate from the shock absorber (yellow). Click on the image for a reverse view of the same system (this will popup a separate window). This side-to-side motion is known as scrub. the lower arm carries most of the load.

com .emanagineer. When you apply the brakes. ADVANTAGES  Often applied to the rear wheels since most of the stopping happens in the front of the vehicle and therefore the heat generated in the rear is significantly less.com info@emanagineer. This creates friction. it forces against the brake shoes and in turn forces them to expand outwards. which reduces the hydraulic pressure being applied to the brake shoes. this means the brakes shoes have to move farther and the brake pedal has to be depressed more.  Occasionally fitted as the parking (and emergency) . wear on braking systems is greatly reduced by energy recovering motor-generators DISADVANTAGES  When the drums are heated by hard braking. the diameter of the drum increases slightly due to thermal expansion of the material. The return spring is what pulls the shoes back away from the surface of the brake drum when the brakes are released. As that is twisted. which transfers kinetic energy.[ www.  Excessive heating of the brake drums can cause the brake fluid to vapourise.BRAKING SYSTEM TYPES OF BRAKING SYSTEM      Drum brakes Disc brakes Pneumatic braking system Hydraulic braking system Anti locking braking system Page | 8 Drum brakes Two semicircular brake shoes sit inside a spinning drum which is attached to the wheel. which creates heat. The example below shows a simple model. which slows you down.  If the surface overheats to the point where it becomes glazed the reduction in braking efficiency is more permanent.  In hybrid vehicle applications. the shoes are expanded outwards to press against the inside of the drum. The actuator in this case is the blue elliptical object.

clamping them together around the spinning rotor. an ABS computer and a number of pressure-management circuits in the brake lines. which means more heat. (This all happens in milliseconds. The harder they clamp together. the wheel rotation starts to slow down. since there is no spring to pull the pads away from the disc.com info@emanagineer.see the image to the right.DISC BRAKES Disc brakes are an order of magnitude better at stopping vehicles than drum brakes. They look like a notched ring . It was first introduced in the 1980's and has been undergoing constant refinement ever since.emanagineer. Also. Sportier vehicles with higher speeds need better brakes to slow them down. If the brake pistons retracted into their cylinders. or more often. which slows you down. The ABS rings are attached either to the wheels. That's the premise of ABS. The pulsing field tells the ABS computer that the wheels are spinning. and instead of the brake shoes. by the way). Disc brakes are again a two-part system.com .the precursor to the wheel locking up. This is important because the pistons in the brakes are much larger in diameter than the ones in the master cylinder. to the brake discs. Anti locking braking system Stop without skidding. 4 sensors. and how fast they're spinning. and maintain control of the vehicle. so you'll likely see disc brakes on the rear of those too. which is why you'll find disc brakes on the front of almost every car and motorbike built today. the more friction is generated. When the computer detects this condition. Instead of the drum. which means more kinetic energy transfer. The caliper is able to slide from side to side so it will move to the center each time the brakes are applied. When you brake. Page | 9 Self-Adjusting Brakes The single-piston floating-caliper disc brake is self-centering and self-adjusting. you have a disc or rotor. a pressure regulator in the brake circuit interrupts the pressure in the brake lines by momentarily reducing it so that the brakes release just enough to give the wheels a chance to keep spinning rather than locking www. you now have brake caliper assemblies. it might take several applications of the brake pedal to pump enough fluid into the brake cylinder to engage the brake pads. The ABS computer "listens" to the input from the sensors and can detect if one wheel is slowing down much quicker than the others . The system is typically comprised of 4 ABS rings. The caliper assemblies contain one or more hydraulic pistons which push against the back of the brake pads. the pads always stay in light contact with the rotor (the rubber piston seal and any wobble in the rotor may actually pull the pads a small distance away from the rotor). The sensors are magnetic field sensors which are held very close to the ABS rings and can detect the slight change in magnetic field as the teeth on the ring pass them.

up. Bad Things can happen.The advantage to this system is that as long as you have battery power. The problem with it being hygroscopic is that if it does start to take on water.com info@emanagineer. no engine means no assistance. Most cars use vacuum suspended units (vacuum boosters). With vacuum-assist brakes. Power Brakes Power brakes (also known as power assisted brakes) are designed to use the power of the engine and/or battery to enhance your braking power. This extra vacuum suction helps you to produce more force at the pedal end of the brake system. This on/off/measure cycle happens around 15 to 30 times a second. This allows vacuum pressure (normally from the intake manifold) to "suck" on a diaphragm inside the vacuum assist unit. and electrohydraulic booster. This is why it comes in sealed containers when you buy it. and why when the crazy guy four doors down offers you some of the 15 gallons of brake fluid he's had in his garage since the war.emanagineer. This is the power assist which is making it easier for you to depress the pedal. Brake fluid is hygroscopic . Electrohydraulic booster systems use an electric motor to pressurize the hydraulic system downwind of the brake pedal which has the effect of amplifying the internal pressure in the whole system. Whilst you can generate a fair amount of force using your foot. step on the brakes. you'll feel it through the brake pedal as a vibration because the pulsing in the brake circuit affects all the components.com . using systems from elsewhere in the car to help you apply even more force means that you get more powerful brakes as a result.if you put your foot on the brake pedal and it went all the way to the floor.that means it attracts and soaks up water. But that's exactly what can happen if you disregard the "health" of your brake fluid. you should turn him down. The computer then instructs the regulator to re-apply full pressure and again measures the wheel rotation. hydraulic booster. almost wooden feel to them. you'd be worried. Brake fluids Brake fluid does not compress. If the ABS kicks in. Page | 10 www. Pull up a chair and allow me to explain. The four most common types of power brakes are: vacuum suspended. you have power brakes even if the engine fails.If you're curious about how power brakes work. Turn the engine on and do it again and you'll notice a lot less back-pressure on the pedal. air suspended. They'll have a slightly solid. go out to your car and with the engine off. Hydraulic booster systems usually utilise pressure from the power steering system to augment pressure on the master brake cylinder. It's a good job too . In this type of system. when you press the brake pedal. the push rod to the master cylinder opens a vacuum control valve.

the boiling point of a liquid goes up with its pressure (Physics 101). The symptoms are slightly different now. This is great. So when you step on the brake.a compressible gas. Next time you put your foot on the brake. STEERING Rack-and-pinion Steering Rack-and-pinion steering is quickly becoming the most common type of steering on cars. the water boils out of the brake fluid and forms steam . there aren't any survivors. the temperature of the brake components might get up over the boiling point of water. the boiling point of the 11 brake fluid might actually go up to 500°F (260°C) and the boiling point of the water content might raise up to 250°F (121°C). connects to each end of the rack.emanagineer. you might think. It is actually a pretty simple mechanism. If that happens. If this has happened to you. Your brakes go out. the brakes work the first one or two times. with each end of the rack protruding from the tube. rather than braking.com . At least it is until you take your foot off the brake again. because now the boiling point is higher than the temperature of the brake fluid. but on the third or fourth press. they stop working because now the temperature and pressures have conspired to boil the water. The worst possible scenario is brake-fade (see right at the top) combined with air in the system.Your typical DOT 4 brake fluid (see later for DOT ratings) boils at about 446°F (230°C). small trucks and SUVs. Now the pressure in the system returns to normal. all the pressure in the brake system is taken up with Page | compressing the steam. Under this scenario. A rod. Water boils at 212°F (100°C). then you're likely reading this page from beyond the grave.com info@emanagineer. www. you don't stop. A rack-and-pinion gearset is enclosed in a metal tube. because in most accidents where weak brakes become no brakes. Imagine your brakes are getting hot because of a long downhill stretch. Getting a little more complex. called a tie rod. Whilst the brake fluid is quite OK. the boiling points revert to normal and instantly the water boils off into steam again.

which engage a gear that moves the pitman arm (see diagram above). The first part is a block of metal with a threaded hole in it. this bolt is held fixed so that when it spins. When the steering wheel turns. moving the rack. that sticks into the hole in the block. The tie rod at each end of the rack connects to the steering arm on the spindle (see diagram above). www. similar to a bolt.The pinion gear is attached to the steering shaft.com . The recirculating-ball steering gear contains a worm gear. it moves the block. the gear spins. It provides a gear reduction. The steering wheel connects to a threaded rod. The rack-and-pinion gearset does two things:   It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion needed to turn the wheels. When you turn the steering wheel. The linkage that turns the wheels is slightly different than on a rack-and-pinion system.com info@emanagineer. You can image the gear in two parts. making it easier to turn the wheels. Page | 12 Recirculating-ball Steering Recirculating-ball steering is used on many trucks and SUVs today. Instead of twisting further into the block the way a regular bolt would. This block has gear teeth cut into the outside of it. which moves the gear that turns the wheels. it turns the bolt.emanagineer.

com . they reduce friction and wear in the gear. Slop would be felt when you change the direction of the steering wheel -.without the balls in the steering gear. making the steering wheel feel loose.com info@emanagineer. The balls actually serve two purposes: First. the teeth would come out of contact with each other for a moment. second.Page | 13 Instead of the bolt directly engaging the threads in the block.emanagineer. all of the threads are filled with ball bearings that recirculate through the gear as it turns. Power Steering There are a couple of key components in power steering in addition to the rack-and-pinion or recirculatingball mechanism. www. they reduce slop in the gear.

The torsion bar is a thin rod of metal that twists when torque is applied to it. It contains a set of retractable vanes that spin inside an oval chamber. This pump is driven by the car's engine via a belt and pulley.Pump The hydraulic power for the steering is provided by a rotary-vane pump (see diagram below). The device that senses the force on the steering wheel is called the rotary valve. and the bottom of the bar is connected to the pinion or worm gear (which turns the wheels). The pump must be designed to provide adequate flow when the engine is idling. so the amount of torque in the torsion bar is equal to the amount of torque the driver is using to turn the wheels. the pump moves much more fluid than necessary when the engine is running at faster speeds. www.emanagineer. The pump contains a pressure-relief valve to make sure that the pressure does not get too high. especially at high engine speeds when so much fluid is being pumped. they pull hydraulic fluid from the return line at low pressure and force it into the outlet at high pressure. The amount of flow provided by the pump depends on the car's engine speed. As a result.com info@emanagineer. the more the bar twists. The top of the bar is connected to the steering wheel. When the driver is not exerting force (such as when driving in a straight line). Page | 14 As the vanes spin. Rotary Valve A power-steering system should assist the driver only when he is exerting force on the steering wheel (such as when starting a turn). The more torque the driver uses to turn the wheels.com . The key to the rotary valve is a torsion bar. the system shouldn't provide any assist.

Since the inner part of the spool valve is also connected to the steering shaft (and therefore to the steering wheel). The bottom of the torsion bar connects to the outer part of the spool valve.com info@emanagineer. telling the sensors that a crash has occurred.  The sensor is the device that tells the bag to inflate. Airbag Inflation The goal of an airbag is to slow the passenger's forward motion as evenly as possible in a fraction of a second. As the bar twists. It also connects to the top end of the torsion bar. www. the seat or door.Page | 15 The input from the steering shaft forms the inner part of a spool-valve assembly. The torsion bar also turns the output of the steering gear. There are three parts to an airbag that help to accomplish this feat:  The bag itself is made of a thin.  The airbag's inflation system reacts sodium azide (NaN3) with potassium nitrate (KNO3) to produce nitrogen gas. Inflation happens when there is a collision force equal to running into a brick wall at 10 to 15 miles per hour (16 to 24 km per hour). it rotates the inside of the spool valve relative to the outside. The sensors receive information from an accelerometer built into a microchip. connecting to either the pinion gear or the worm gear depending on which type of steering the car has.com . the amount of rotation between the inner and outer parts of the spool valve depends on how much torque the driver applies to the steering wheel.emanagineer. Hot blasts of the nitrogen inflate the airbag. which is folded into the steering wheel or dashboard or. A mechanical switch is flipped when there is a mass shift that closes an electrical contact. nylon fabric. more recently.

See more airbag images.com .emanagineer. Early efforts to adapt the airbag for use in cars bumped up against prohibitive prices and technical hurdles involving the storage and release of compressed gas.Page | 16 The airbag and inflation system stored in the steering wheel. Researchers wondered:    If there was enough room in a car for a gas canister Whether the gas would remain contained at high pressure for the life of the car How the bag could be made to expand quickly and reliably at a variety of operating temperatures and without emitting an ear-splitting bang They needed a way to set off a chemical reaction that would produce the nitrogen that would inflate the bag. www. Small solid-propellant inflators came to the rescue in the 1970s.com info@emanagineer.

Page | 17 The inflation system uses a solid propellant and an igniter. starting in 1998. The powdery substance released from the airbag. the additional time is enough to help prevent serious injury. the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 1997 issued a final rule to allow auto manufacturers to use lower-powered airbags. The bag then literally bursts from its storage site at up to 200 mph (322 kph) -. In addition.4 cm) back from the center of the driver airbag cover www. Vehicle owners could now be authorized (by the NHTSA) to get on/off switches installed for one or both airbags in their car if they (or other users of their car) fell into one or more of these specific risk groups:   For both driver and passenger sides . thus deflating the bag so you can move.com .being killed or seriously injured by malfunctioning or overly powerful airbags. by the way. especially smaller people -.Individuals with medical conditions in which the risks of deploying the airbag exceed the risk of impact in the absence of an airbag For the driver side (in addition to medical conditions) . repair shops and dealers were allowed to install on/off switches that allow airbags to be deactivated.and others. The inflation system is not unlike a solid rocket booster (see How Rocket Engines Work for details).com info@emanagineer. This rule permits airbags to be depowered by 20 to 35 percent. which burns extremely rapidly to create a large volume of gas to inflate the bag. Even though the whole process happens in only one-twenty-fifth of a second.Those who cannot position themselves to properly operate their cars at least 10 inches (25. The airbag system ignites a solid propellant.faster than the blink of an eye! A second later. Airbag Deactivation In response to concerns about children -.emanagineer. the gas quickly dissipates through tiny holes in the bag. which is used by the airbag manufacturers to keep the bags pliable and lubricated while they're in storage. is regular cornstarch or talcum powder.

emanagineer. it looks something like this: www. the rear seat is too small to accommodate a rear-facing child seat or because it's necessary to constantly monitor a child's medical condition For the passenger side (in addition to medical conditions) . Internally. (b) the vehicle owner must carry more children than can fit into the back seat or (c) because it's necessary to constantly monitor a child's health . Page | 18 Transmission Types of Transmission system     Manual transmission Automatic transmission Semi automatic Transmission Continuously variable transmission Manual transmission A Real Transmission The following animation shows you the internal workings of a four-speed transmission with reverse.com .Individuals who need to transport a baby in a rear-facing child restraint in the front seat because the car has no rear seat.com info@emanagineer.  For the passenger side (in addition to medical conditions) .Individuals who need to carry children between one and 12 years old in the front seat because (a) the car has no rear seat. The five-speed manual transmission is fairly standard on cars today.

Page | 19 There are three forks controlled by three rods that are engaged by the shift lever.com . they look like this in reverse. Looking at the shift rods from the top. first and second gear: www.emanagineer.com info@emanagineer.

the flywheel. Page | 20 Reverse gear is handled by a small idler gear (purple).com info@emanagineer. When you push the knob forward to engage first gear.the clutch. it would be impossible to throw the transmission into reverse while the car is moving forward -. and sit at traffic lights without stopping the engine. www. You can see that as you move the shifter left and right you are engaging different forks (and therefore different collars). You need someway to disconnect this constantly-spinning crank from the gearbox.com . The clutch is what enables you to change gears. the pressure plate and the clutch plate(s). the blue reverse gear in this diagram is turning in a direction opposite to all of the other blue gears. they will make a lot of noise! . Moving the knob forward and backward moves the collar to engage one of the gears.) So here we go. Therefore. You'll need to look at my diagrams to understand the next bit because there are some other items involved in the basic operation of a clutch. At all times. Before the gearbox . The flywheel is attached to the end of the main crank and the clutch plates are attached to the gearbox layshaft using a spline. You need a clutch because your engine is running all the time which means the crank is spinning all the time.emanagineer.Keep in mind that the shift lever has a rotation point in the middle. both to allow you to stand still as well as to allow you to change gears.the dog teeth would never engage. The clutch is composed of three basic elements. you are actually pulling the rod and fork for first gear back.the clutch So now you have a basic idea of how gearing works there's a second item in your transmission that you need to understand . However. (I've rendered the clutch cover in cutaway in the first image so you can the inner components.

This release of pressure allows the clutch plates to disengage from the flywheel. The friction material on the clutch plate is what grips the back of the flywheel and causes the input shaft of the gearbox to spin at the same speed. The ends of the diaphragm springs are hooked under the lip of the pressure plate.com info@emanagineer. in turn pushing them against the flywheel again.Page | 21 In the diagram above.com . Burning your clutch You might have heard people using the term 'burning your clutch'. Do this for long www. This is when you hold the clutch pedal in a position such that the clutch plate is not totally engaged against the back of the flywheel. the clutch is firmly pressed against it. The clutch pedal is connected either mechanically or hydraulically to a fork mechanism which loops around the throw-out bearing. The diaphragm springs are connected to the inside of the clutch cover with a bolt/pivot arrangement that allows them to pivot about the attachment bolt. clutch cover. the flywheel is spinning and brushing past the friction material which heats it up in much the same was as brake pads heat up when pressed against a spinning brake rotor (see the Brake Bible). the flywheel. Springs inside the clutch plate absorb the initial shock of the clutch touching the flywheel and as you take your foot off the clutch pedal completely. These in turn pivot on their pivot points against the inside of the clutch cover.emanagineer. pressure is released on the throw-out bearing and the diaphragm springs begin to push the pressure plate back against the back of the clutch plates. diaphragm springs and pressure plate are all spinning together. The flywheel keeps spinning on the end of the engine crank but it no longer drives the gearbox because the clutch plates aren't pressed up against it. As you start to release the clutch pedal. the fork pushes on the throw-out bearing and it slides along the layshaft putting pressure on the innermost edges of the diaphragm springs. When you press on the clutch. So as the engine turns. the clutch cover is bolted to the flywheel so it turns with the flywheel. pulling the pressure plate away from the back of the clutch plates. At this point.

There is no gear shift in an automatic transmission car.a burned out clutch.emanagineer. the clutch will disengage slightly and spin at a different rate to the flywheel. In either case.   www. everything else is automatic. or more likely the friction material is wearing down on the clutch plates. but they do it in totally different ways. the automatic transmission's primary job is to allow the engine to operate in its narrow range of speeds while providing a wide range of output speeds. Once you put the transmission into drive.enough and you'll smell it because you're burning off the friction material. Page | 22 A slipping clutch The other term you might have heard is a 'slipping clutch'. then you know that there are two big differences between an automatic transmission and a manual transmission: There is no clutch pedal in an automatic transmission car. Either the diaphragm spring has weakened and can't apply enough pressure. Both the automatic transmission (plus its torque converter) and a manual transmission (with its clutch) accomplish exactly the same thing. That slight pressure can be just enough to release the diaphragm spring enough for the clutch to occasionally lose grip and burn.com info@emanagineer. like accelerating in a high gear or up a hill. or you'll see it as the revs in the engine go up but you don't accelerate. This can also happen unintentionally if you rest your foot on the clutch pedal in the course of normal driving.com . Automatic transmission If you have ever driven a car with an automatic transmission. Do this for long enough and you'll end up with the above . You'll feel this as a loss of power. the clutch is not properly engaging against the flywheel and under heavy load. It turns out that the way an automatic transmission does it is absolutely amazing! Just like that of a manual transmission. This is a clutch that has a mechanical problem.

com info@emanagineer. The planetary gearset is the device that makes this possible in an automatic transmission. and that ratio would have to be selected to allow the car to travel at the desired top speed. and at high speeds. You've probably never tried driving a manual transmission car using only third gear. the engine would be screaming along near the red-line. A car like this would wear out very quickly and would be nearly undriveable. and to keep the engine operating at an appropriate speed. while in an automatic transmission. the same set of gears produces all of the different gear ratios. The key difference between a manual and an automatic transmission is that the manual transmission locks and unlocks different sets of gears to the output shaft to achieve the various gear ratios. then the gear ratio would be similar to third gear in most manual transmission cars. cars would be limited to one gear ratio. cut-away model Without a transmission.com . you'd quickly find out that you had almost no acceleration when starting out.Page | 23 Mercedes-Benz CLK. www.emanagineer. So the transmission uses gears to make more effective use of the engine's torque. If you wanted a top speed of 80 mph. automatic transmission. If you did.

and two sun gears The figure below shows the planets in the planet carrier.Page | 24 Compound Planetary Gearset This automatic transmission uses a set of gears. but it has two sun gears and two sets of planets. called a compound planetary gearset.com info@emanagineer.emanagineer. Only the planet on the left engages the ring gear.it engages the other planet. planet carrier. Notice how the planet on the right sits lower than the planet on the left. It has one ring gear that is always the output of the transmission.com . Let's look at some of the parts: How the gears in the transmission are put together Left to right: the ring gear. that looks like a single planetary gearset but actually behaves like two planetary gearsets combined. www. The planet on the right does not engage the ring gear -.

com info@emanagineer. the turbine and the stator. A torque converter consists of three basic elements. To do this it uses a torque converter which is a viscous fluid coupling (because it's full of hydraulic fluid).Page | 25 Planet carrier: Note the two sets of planets. As the flywheel spins. Inside the planet carrier: Note the two sets of planets Automatic transmission uses torque converter instead of clutch Just like a manual gearbox.it's like a ships's propeller in www.emanagineer. so does the impeller and the vanes take the fluid from the central part of the torque converter and fling it to the outside creating a pumping action. The shorter gears are engaged only by the smaller sun gear. an automatic gearbox needs a method of decoupling the constantly-spinning engine from the gearbox components. The impeller is attached to the torque converter housing which itself is attached to the engine flywheel. The fluid then circulates around the outer edge of the torque converter and back into the turbine. The turbine is basically the opposite of the impeller . The impeller is basically a centrifugal pump. The impeller.com . The longer planets are engaged by the bigger sun gear and by the smaller planets. Next you can see the inside of the planet carrier.

the impeller speeds up and creates larger forces on the turbine which in turn spins more quickly and with more torque.the engine can rev up and down without the car actually changing speed too much. (Without the stator. It's because of this viscous liquid coupling that automatic gearboxes have a certain amount of 'slop' in them . Because it's connected to the input shaft of the gearbox. The fluid passes through the turbine from the outside towards the inside. In the image below I've rendered the various parts of an example torque converter taken apart 26 so you can see the internal construction. it passes through the stator which is designed to help redirect the flow into the inner vanes of the impeller.com . this feeds more rotational speed and torque into the gearbox and the car starts to move forwards.emanagineer. the whole system would be a lot less efficient) With this mechanism. the fluid is pumping around without a lot of force and the amount of torque on the turbine is minimal. It's also the reason automatics are less fuel efficient because the torque converter uses up energy from the engine simply in its design by spinning the hydraulic fluid. as the fluid reaches the central core. the fluid is constantly being Page | circulated. As you accelerate.that the fluid passing through it causes it to spin. The turbine is connected to the input shaft of the gearbox via a splined shaft so as the turbine spins. www. Finally. so does the input shaft to the gearbox.com info@emanagineer. When the engine is idling.

the action of moving the gearstick out of the gate for one of the gears (for example pulling it back from first) passes a hall effect sensor which tells the clutch to disengage. Because the system takes inputs from load. and because it's all computer controlled. When you push the gearstick into the gate for the new gear. Up/down gearsticks or paddleshifters can both control sequential manual. they use layshafts.and torque-sensors as well as road speed.) The third type has a pure manual gearstick. With this type. Semi-automatics do not use planetary gearsets and torque converters. another hall effect sensor detects the final position of the gearstick and tells the clutch to re-engage. (This begins to explain why you cannot simply look at a gearstick or paddle-shifter and tell what the gearbox is.emanagineer. www. They come in three flavours. it can shift more quickly and more smoothly that you or I ever could. these are actually an advanced type of manual gearbox.com info@emanagineer. all of which have the same internal mechanisms. or press one of the paddleshifters. clutches and selector Page | forks just like a manual. None of the three types have a clutch pedal though so how do they work? Well in the case of the first type. The third type uses the same hydromechanical system underneath but has additional sensors coupled to the gearstick. a hydromechanical system disengages the clutch and then moves the gearbox selector forks into the position for the next gear before re-engaging the clutch.Semi-automatic Gearboxes Despite the name. It's better to refer to them clutchless manual gearboxes because that more accurately describes what they are. throttle position and engine demand sensors. output shafts. when you click the gearstick up or down.com . Effectively it's identical to driving a manual car only without a clutch pedal. clutchless manual or TipTronic® type gearboxes. Two 27 of those use the familiar paddle-shifters or up-down gearstick for changing gears.

As the car gets up to speed.com info@emanagineer. the geometry of the pulley is governed by a hydraulic piston connected to the ECU.emanagineer. the two pulleys are adjusted together so that they present an infintely changing series of radii to the belt which ends up with the flywheel pulley having the largest radius and the output pulley having the smallest. The pulley itself is basically a splined shaft with a pair of sliding conical wedges on it. the larger the radius 'loop' the belt has to make to get around them. the more it opens out. www. the pulleys change geometry simply by rotational forces .the faster the engine pulley spins.com . then the transmission is essentially in low gear. the more it closes up and the faster the output pulley spins. In automotive applications. The further they are apart. This first image shows the basic layout of a pulley-based CVT with the two sliding pulleys and the drive belt. A belt loops around between the two. the smaller the radius 'loop' the belt has to make. The closer the wedges are together. On then to the pictures. Based on the principles established right at the top of the page when I was talking about intermeshing gears. One pulley is connected to the flywheel and the other to the gearbox output shaft.the drive pulley spins two or three times for each rotation of the output pulley. This is the equivalent of 'low gear' . On simple scooter-type CVTs. It's the equivalent of a small gear meshing with a large gear in a regular manual gearbox.CVT (continuously variable transmission) Page | 28 The most basic CVT has two variable pulleys and a steel-core rubber belt. if the flywheel pulley has a small radius and the output pulley has a large radius.

It's the equivalent of a large gear meshing with a small gear in a regular manual gearbox.e. At the same time. the output pulley now spins two or three times. Advantages of CVT  It increases the pick up of the vehicle.This image shows the same system in 'high gear'. The difference here is that to get from the low gear to the high gear.emanagineer. vehicle runs on CVT will take 7. i.5 secs for 100mtrs while the vehicle with manual transmission will take 10 secs. the infinite adjustment of the position of the pulleys Page | basically means an infinite number of gears with no point where the drive is ever disconnected from the 29 output.  It improves the mileage of vehicle as it has infinite gear ratio’s.  Noise cut off. The drive pulley has closed up forcing the drive belt to travel a larger radius. The result is that for each turn of the drive pulley. the output pulley has pulled apart giving a smaller radius.com info@emanagineer.com . www.

Attached to the ring gear is the cage. that means the outer wheels need to turn more times than the inner ones every time you go around a corner. (As well as allowing the wheels on the same axle to turn at different rates. and they supply the same amount of torque to each output. Have a look at the diagram below to see what I'm talking about. being larger. is what gives that final gear reduction I mentioned. is the crux of the matter. the further away from the centrepoint of the arc. the differential also acts as the final gear reduction in the driveline. the larger the distance that gets travelled. Differentials basically allow two wheels on the same axle to turn at different rates. The first thing you'll notice is that the rear wheels take a different path to the front wheels. It drives the ring gear which. This was a great surprise to an insurance adjuster I spoke to a few years back when he came to process a claim.emanagineer.com .Differentials With one or two exceptions.) Open Differentials We'll deal with open differentials first because they're the easiest to explain. In car terms.com info@emanagineer. The brighter ones amongst you will now have figured out that if the outer and inner wheels were joined together with a solid axle. the outer wheels travel further than the inner wheels. He eloquently informed me that my claim was Page | being rejected because my car didn't have a differential to replace. every car has a differential. That. illustrated below. one of them could not turn more times than the other they'd have to turn at the same rate. because they're describing a larger arc. containing two captive pinion gears that www. In the following few paragraphs you'll 30 learn why that loss adjuster was talking bollocks. Open differentials have a few essential components. So how best to begin to talk about differentials? I suppose to start with you need to understand a very simple concept to do with circles. but the other thing to notice is that because the car's wheels are describing different radius arcs. The input pinion gear is the gear that is driven from the drivetrain . When you make a car go around a corner. dear reader. they're the most common.typically the output shaft from the transmission.

At this point.emanagineer. allowing the two drive pinions to spin at slightly different speeds whilst still transmitting torque to them. These are connected to the driveshafts to the wheels. the wheel on the ice spins and the wheel on the road doesn't. Imagine the same scenario on a four-wheel-drive vehicle that has open differentials on the front and rear. so effectively. and the other wheel on the axle spins the other way around. When the vehicle starts to turn a corner. This also explains why a two-wheel-drive vehicle can get into trouble when one wheel has less friction with the ground than the other. neither drive pinion is trying to spin any differently from the other. it holds the ring gear solid.com info@emanagineer. spinning the cage and the two captive pinions. When the vehicle is travelling in a straight line. the ring gear spins the wheels at the same speed that it is turning. Clever. When you do. one of the wheels is going to want to spin more quickly than the other. Page | 31 As the input pinion spins. it meshes with the ring gear. The open differential cannot compensate for this. because the gearbox is stationary. you're stuck. The captive pinions are free to rotate how they wish.the one on the ice. You don't go anywhere because all the engine power is directed to the wheel with least resistance . the captive pinions spin in opposite directions. so the captive pinions don't spin and the turning of the ring gear is translated directly to both drive pinions. That leads us nicely on to the next topic : www. You can tell if your vehicle's differential is working properly by jacking the driven axle up off the ground and spinning one wheel. If you're off-roading in such a vehicle and get it into a situation where one front wheel and one rear wheel are off the ground. the captive pinions come into play. If one drive pinion is held solid compared to the other. This is why when you gun a two-wheel-drive car with one wheel on ice and the other on the road. one connected to each axle.are intermeshed with the two output pinion gears. The ring gear spins. then all the input gets redirected to the drive pinion that has the least resistance. The differentials will spin the airborne wheels and send no torque to the ones on the ground.com .

when a car with a limited-slip differential goes into a corner. the wheel on the road will get enough spin to move the vehicle forwards. This means that the clutch is always going to try to behave as if the car was moving in a straight line by attempting to make both output pinions spin at the same speed as the ring gear and cage. thus allowing them to turn at different speeds again. The stiffness of the spring pack coupled with the friction of the clutch pack together determine the amount of torque required to overcome the clutch. the differential is going to attempt to spin both drive pinions at the same speed. The first are spring pressure plates which are a pair of springs and pressure plates nestled in the cage between the two drive pinions. because of the spring. It still has all the components of an open differential but there is two crucial extra elements.that gives the limited-slip differential a chance to do its job. If the engine is revved hard though. To get around this.and clutch-packs. it's a good idea to try to pull away in second gear .emanagineer. With a limited-slip differential.Limited-slip differentials Physically there's not a lot of difference in the design of a limited-slip differential. However. The 32 backside of the drive pinions have friction material on them which presses against clutch plates built into the cage.com info@emanagineer. The render below shows the generic open differential from above modified to be a limited-slip differential. With low engine revs and steady throttle control.clutch packs. www. So lets go back to our hapless driver stuck with one wheel on the ice and another on the road. there are enough forces at play that the drive pinions begin to slip against the clutch material.com . it can still generate sufficient torque to overcome the clutch pack and once again. only the wheel on the ice will spin. Page | These push the drive pinions outwards where the second extra element comes into play . even though one wheel is on the ice.

emanagineer. V-twins are also found 33 in motorbikes. did you? www. as well as being found in some motorbikes too such as the BMW K1200S.IC ENGINES Engine layouts Below are some illustrations of the most common types of cylinder layout you'll find in engines Page | today. The V6 has the benefits of being smoother than an inline-four but without the fuel economy issues of a V8. snowblowers. The triple is almost unique to Triumph motorbikes where they call it the Speed Triple. or the 675. chainsaws etc.com info@emanagineer. Inline-fours are the mainstay of car engines. The V5 is something you'll find in some VWs. Inline fives used to be used a lot in Audis but have found a new home in current Volvos. Singles are typically used in motorbikes.com . Boxer engines are found in BMW motorbikes (twins) and Porsches and Subarus (fours and sixes). You had no idea.

com info@emanagineer. Some are more equal than others. Having the spark ignite the fuel-air mixture too soon is basically the same as detonation and is bad for all the mechanical components of your engine. at that point. the ignition timing needs to advance because the spark needs to get to the cylinder more quickly due to the engine running faster. the engine effectively sends a signal to the coil to discharge into the high voltage system.com . All spark plugs share the same basic design and construction though. be it a mechanical trigger (points). In older systems. Timing the spark nowadays is usually done with the engine management system. So why spend time talking about it? Well with apologies to George Orwell not all spark plugs are created equal. So how does your ignition system Page | work. the more advanced the timing became. is the timing of the spark in relation to the position of the piston in the cylinder. Duh. Hence ignition timing. it does this about 100 times a second. The engine will have a trigger for each cylinder. in a 4 cylinder engine. they fire slightly before TDC. takes input from knock sensors and literally dozens of sensors all over the engine. ambient temperature.it's a plug that generates a spark. That charge travels into the distributor cap and is routed to the relevant spark plug where it is turned into a spark. The key to this. It then has an ignition timing map built into its memory and it cross references the input from all the sensors to determine the precise time that it should fire the spark plug. It measures airflow. electronic module or crank trigger. The electrical system in your car supplies voltage to your coil and ignition unit. On older mechanical system. that point is known as Top Dead Centre or TDC. and what is ignition timing all about? 34 Well generating the spark is the easy part. It does exactly what it says on the tin . Whatever it is. so that the more vacuum generated in the intake manifold (due to the engine running quicker). Spark plugs And engine without a spark plug is useless. Typically as an engine revs quicker. based on the ignition timing map. the spark timing was done using simple mechanical systems which had nowhere near the ability to compensate for the all the variables involved in a running combustion engine.emanagineer. In modern systems. But we're talking about regular petrol engines here so the next topic to get to grips with is the spark plug. They'll all do the job but the more you pay. which is inefficient and loses power. www. though. the better the plug.Top Dead Centre (TDC) and ignition timing When a piston in an engine reaches the top of its travel. unless it's a diesel engine in which case it uses a glowplug instead. Having the spark come along too late will cause it to try to ignite the fuel-air mixture after the piston has already started to recede down the cylinder. At 3000rpm. This is important to know because I don't think any engine actually fires the spark plug with the pistons at TDC. More often than not. they used mechanical or vacuum advance systems. this is all taken account of in the ignition timing map.

The insulator basically keeps the high-tension charge away from the cylinder head so that the spark plug doesn't ground before it gets a chance to generate the spark. because the tip extends below the bottom of the spark plug itself.Page | 35 The high voltage from your vehicle's high-tension electrical system is fed into the terminal at the top of the spark plug. it helps keep the screw threads under tension to stop the spark plug from shaking loose or backing out. and as such.emanagineer. It travels down through the core of the plug (normally via some noise-suppression components to prevent electrical noise) and arrives at the centre electrode at the bottom where it jumps to the ground electrode creating a spark.com info@emanagineer.com . The other main type of spark plug has the centre electrode recessed into the plug itself and merely grounds to the collar at the bottom. The crush washer is designed to be crushed by tightening the spark plug down when it's screwed into the cylinder head. www. The advantage of the projected nose type is that the spark is better exposed to the fuel-air mixture. The type of plug I've illustrated here is known as a projected nose type plug.

Gapping a spark plug is the process of ensuring the gap between the two electrodes is correct for the type of engine the plug is going to be used in. It's normally made of brass and has a miniscule hole in the end of it which determines the flow of fuel through it. Generally speaking. Gapping a spark plug. more reliable spark. The shape of the tube is designed to swirl the incoming air and generate a vacuum in a section called the venturi pipe (or just the venturi). this is an adjustable needle valve where a screw on the outside of the carburettor can screw a needle in and out of the valve to give some tuning control over the fuel flow. Heat ranges. for example. The fuel is pulled through the jet by the vacuum created in the venturi.com info@emanagineer. Feeler gauges are used to measure the gap. A cold plug can get rid of heat very quickly and should be used in engines that run hot and lean. and to that end. Something that is often overlooked in spark plugs is their heat rating or heat range. Titanium plugs. have better electrical conductivity than brass and steel plugs. Page | They're all designed to try to get a better spark.There are plenty of different types of grounding electrodes kicking around in spark plug designs nowadays. At the bottom of the tube is a throttle plate or throttle butterfly www. Too small and the spark might jump across the gap too early.emanagineer. Carburetors A carburettor is basically a shaped tube. A hot plug takes longer to cool down and should be used in lower compression engines where heat needs to be retained to prevent combustion byproduct buildup. or a highly tuned engine. The term "heat range" refers to the relative temperature of the tip of the spark plug when its working. but if you're running an older engine. Too large a gap and the spark will be weak. In the side of the venturi is a fuel jet which is basically a tiny hole connected to the float chamber via a pipe.Ground electrode (ground strap) types. and the theory is that they'll generate a stronger. specifically its ability to dissipate heat into the cooling system. then you need to pay attention to the gap. you'll now find all sorts of exotic 36 materials turning up too. and a gapping tool is used to bend the outer electrode so that the gap is correct. The term actually refers to the thermal characteristics of the plug itself. The hot and cold classifications often cause confusion because a 'hot' spark plug is normally used in a 'cold' (low horsepower) engine and vice versa. the factory-set spark plug gap is just fine.com . In more complex carburettors. from 'Y' shaped electrodes (like SplitFire plugs) to grooved electrodes like you'll find on Champion plugs all the way up to triple-electrode plugs like the high-end Bosch items.

To make sure a carburettor has a good. It is connected mechanically to the accelerator pedal or twist-grip throttle via the throttle cable. This is why carburettors don't work too well when they're tipped over .something you don't get with injectors.com . the outside air pressure forces the diaphragm down. as the diaphragm is sucked inwards. As the fuel drops in the float chamber. The more you push on the accelerator or twist open the throttle. The quicker the level tries to drop. the float drops with it which opens the valve and allows more fuel in.which is basically a flat circular plate that pivots along its centreline. another type of chamber is used where carburettors can't be guaranteed to be upright (like in chainsaws). To combat this. the more the throttle butterfly opens. To allow the engine to idle without shutting off completely. it has a float chamber or float bowl. These use diaphragm chambers instead. This is a reservoir of petrol that is constantly topped up from the fuel tank. the throttle butterfly in the carburettor is also closed. resulting in acceleration. a second fuel jet known as the idle valve is screwed into the venturi downwind of the throttle butterfly. This means that the level in the float chamber is kept constant no matter how much fuel the carburettor is demanding through the fuel jets. As the fuel level drops in the chamber. Because it's connected to an intake valve in the same way that the float is in a float chamber. Float and diaphragm chambers. which draws more fuel through the fuel jet and gives a larger fuel-air charge to the cylinder. www. the float goes up and the valve is restricted. As the level goes up. The principle is more or less the same though.com info@emanagineer. This allows just enough fuel to get into the cylinders to keep the engine ticking over. The chamber is full of fuel and has a rubber diaphragm across the top of it with the other side exposed to ambient air pressure. Believe it or not. Diaphragm chambers are normally spill-proof.the float chamber leaks or empties out resulting in a fuel spill . A simple lever connects to the float and controls a valve on the fuel intake line. This means the engine is trying to suck fuel-air mix and generating a vacuum behind the butterfly valve so the 37 regular fuel jet won't work. it opens the intake valve and more fuel is let in to replenish the chamber. This allows more air in which creates more vacuum. A sealed plastic box is pivotted at one end and floats on top of the fuel. Page | When the throttle is closed. constant supply of fuel to be sucked through the fuel jets. this is called the float.emanagineer. the more the intake valve is opened and the more petrol comes in to keep the fuel level up. Petrol goes through an inline filter and a strainer to make sure it's clean of contaminants and is then deposited into the float chamber.

but the cam lobes operate rocker arms. The image here shows the three derivatives in their most basic form so you can see the differences between them. The rocker arms shown here are also called fingers.Valves and valve mechanisms. With some of these designs. The camshaft is actually directly geared off the crank at the bottom of the engine and the cam lobes push on pushrods which run up the sides of the engine. Think of a fat bloke bouncing in the middle of a diving board whilst the tip of the board hits a swimmer on the head and you'll get the general idea. Spring return valves are about the most commonly-used and most basic type of valvetrain in engines today.com info@emanagineer. The second more complex type still has the camshaft at the top of the engine. and valve return springs force them closed. www. Note that the pushrod type shows the camshaft in the wrong place simply for the purpose of getting it into the image. hopefully you understand that the valves are what let the fuel. Seems simple enough. The cam lobes either operate directly on the top of the valve itself.Page | air mixture into the cylinder. Spring-return valves. on a rocker arm which pivots and pushes on the top of the valve. which in turn pivot and operate on the tops of the valves. The top of the pushrod then pushes on a rocker arm. The basic premise here is that the spinning camshaft operates the valves by pushing them open. or in some cases. the rocker arm is pivoted in the middle (as shown below) and with other designed.com . If you've got this far down the page. but there are some 38 interesting differences in the various types of valve mechanism. Their operation is simplicity itself and there are only really three variations of the same style. The third type which you'll find in some motorcycle engines and many boxer engines are pushrodactivated valves. and let the exhaust out. or followers depending on who you talk to. which finally pivots and operates on the top of the valve. it's pivoted at one end and the cam lobe operates on it at the midpoint. The most basic type has the camshaft at the top of the engine with the cam lobes operating directly on the tops of the valves.emanagineer. The three variations of this type of valve-train are based on the combination of rocker arms (or not) and the position of the camshaft. In reality the camshaft in this system is right at the bottom of the engine near the crank.

Ducati valves are forced closed by the camshaft. It's normally filled with oil through a small hole when the engine is pressurised. I've rendered the tappet slightly transparent so you can see the return spring inside. and the top of the tappet gives a more uniform surface for the cam lobe to work on.com info@emanagineer. That's right. but rather on an oil-filled tappet. The tappet is basically an upside-down bucket that covers the top of the valve stem and contains the spring. The marketing people www. From the Ducati website: The word 'desmodromic' is derived from two Greek roots. Desmodromic Valves Desmodromic valve systems are unique to Ducati motorbikes. It refers to the exclusive valve control system used in Ducati engines: both valve movements (opening and closing) are 'operated. but what does it mean.com . For the most part." Classy. track). The purpose of tappets is two-fold. the closure mechanism on the valve relies on mechanical springs or hydraulics. the direct spring return valve described above wouldn't act directly on the top of the valve itself.Page | 39 Tappet Valves Tappet valves aren't really a unique type of valve but a derivative of spring-return valves. linked) and dromos (course. tappets are the items which wear and are a lot easier to swap out than entire valve assemblies. There's nothing to actually force the valve to close. With the Ducati Desmodromic system.emanagineer. From a maintenance point of view. and the only spring is there to take up the slack in the closing system. The oil in them helps quiet down the valvetrain noise. desmos (controlled. The image on the left shows a simple tappet valve assembly. the camshaft has two lobes per valve. Well in both the above systems.

closing it.com . hot traffic jams though.the fins act as heat sinks. As the cam spins. rods. You can see the basic layout of a desmodromic valve on the right. In truth. both systems.fins (lots of them) and good airflow. Air-cooled engines don't work particularly well in long. The idea is that with springs especially. once you get to a certain speed. you need two things . They are good in the winter when the air is coldest. As the cam continues to spin. so the temperature tends to swing up and down depending on engine load. This is a fairly simple layout for the purposes of illustration. Engine Air cooling You don't see this much on car engines at all now.it can no longer expand to full length in the time between cylinder strokes and so you get 'valve float' where the valve never truly closes. the closing lobe hits the lower rocker arm which pivots and hooks the valve back up. This is why F1 cars use such a small stroke and pneumatic valves springs. The idea is simple . Air cooled engines can't regulate the overall temperature of the cylinder heads and engine. air temperature and forward speed. that never happens because a second closing rocker arm hooks under the top Page | of the valve stem and jams it upwards to force the valve closed. An aircooled engine is normally easy to spot because of the fins built into the outside of the cylinders. The red return spring is merely there to hold the valve closed for the next cycle and doesn't provide any springing force to the closing mechanism. and pistons all play their part in valve timing and maximum engine speed . Karmann Ghia. because obviously there's very little air passing over the fins.will tell you it's one of the reasons Ducati motorbike engines have been able to rev much higher than their Japanese counterparts. With Desmodromic valves. The real engines have Desmo-due and Desmo-quattro valve systems in them where pairs of valves are opened and closed together via the same mechanism. getting hot with the engine but transferring the heat to the air as the air passes through and between them. A famous problem with air-cooling is associated with V-twin motorcycles. The most famous cars it was used on were rear-engined boxers like the original VW Beetle. Because the rear www. you're bound by the metallurgy of the spring .it's not just the springs and 40 valve float. but that illustrates a weak spot in the whole design. It is still used a lot on motorbike engines because it's a very simple method of cooling.emanagineer. the opening lobe hits the upper rocker arm which pivots and pushes the valve down and open. Newer Japanese bikes have engines that can rev to the same limit as a Ducati just using spring-return valves. In fact. and Porsche Roadsters. For air cooling to work. spring or Desmodromic only work well up to a limit. the stroke length.com info@emanagineer.

the water in the cooling system can get over 100°C without boiling which is why it's never a www.cylinder is tucked in the frame behind the front cylinder. For a quick primer on how the radiator itself works. its supply of cool. But for some engines. so even in the warmer months of the year. It's a good example of modern air-cooled design and you can see the fins on the engine are all angled Page | towards the direction of travel so the air can flow through them freely.emanagineer. the oil system itself is designed to be a more efficient cooling system. a coolant mixture is pumped around pipes and passageways inside the engine separate to the oil. The water needs to be distilled because if you just use tap water. Water cooling This is by far and away the most common method of cooling and engine down. BMW 'R' motorbikes are known for this (their nickname is 'oilheads'). all the minerals in it will deposit on the inside of the cooling system and mess it up. before passing out to a radiator. The antifreeze is in the mix. The antifreeze mix normally also has other chemicals in it for corrosion resistance too and when mixed correctly it raises the boiling point of water. uninterrupted air is extremely limited and so in these designs. as a byproduct of the water pump and the expansion that water undergoes as it heats up.to transfer heat away from the moving parts and back to the sump where fins on the outside of the sump can help transfer that heat out into the air. The radiator itself is made of metal. obviously to stop the liquid from freezing in cold weather. in the case of the 'R' motorbikes. a cooling system always needs a water / antifreeze mix in it. they're air.com info@emanagineer. The coolant itself is normally a mixture of distilled water and an antifreeze component.com . It's one of the functions of the engine oil . which in turn transfers the heat into the surround air through the fins . you'd have no cooling at all and the engine would overheat and weld itself together in a matter of minutes. From there it goes to an oil radiator placed out in the airflow to disperse the heat into the air before returning into the core of the engine. all engines have oil-cooling. 41 Oil cooling To some extent. and it forces the coolant to flow through long passageways each of which have lots of metal fins attached to the outside giving a huge surface area. As the oil moves around the engine. If it froze up. The coolant system in a typical car is under pressure once the engine is running. The coolant transfers its heat into the metal of the radiator. at some points it's directed through cooling passageways close to the cylinder bores to pick up heat.essentially just like the air-cooled engine fins. The image on the right is ©Ducati and shows the engine from the Monster 695 motorbike. Actually.and oil-cooled as they have the air-cooling fins on the cylinders too. Because of the coolant mixture. With water cooling. the rear cylinder tends to run extremely hot compared to the front.

Water cooling is the most common method of cooling and engine down. the thermostat begins to open and the coolant is allowed to pass out to the radiator where it dumps heat out into the air before returning to the engine block. the engine would take a long time to come up to operating temperature which causes issues with the emissions systems. most water cooling systems are so efficient that if the coolant flowed through the radiator at startup. Once the engine is fully hot. For example you don't want the coolant flowing through the radiator as soon as you start the engine. but it's also the most complicated. car radiators had belt-driven fans that spun behind the radiator as fast as the engine was spinning.com . the thermostat can dynamically alter the flow of coolant depending on engine load and air temperature to maintain an even temperature. It has a much smaller surface area and its cooling effect is nowhere near as great. If it did. This www. The thermostat is a small device that normally sits in the system in-line to the radiator. the thermostat is cold and so it's closed. As the coolant heats up. a superheated mixture of steam and coolant will spray out and you'll spend some quality time in a burns unit. you can see the representation of the coolant flow in a cold engine. If you look at the second of the two diagrams on the right. In layman's terms. If you look at the first of the two diagrams on the right. So this is where the thermostat comes in to play. In the good old days. redirecting almost all the coolant flow through the radiator.com info@emanagineer. The only problem with the old way of doing it was that the fan ran all the time the engine was running.good idea to open the radiator cap immediately after you've turned the engine off. Page | 42 The complexities of water cooling. the drivability of the engine and the comfort of the passengers. If you do. Unlike an air-cooled engine. This allows the engine to build up heat quite quickly. the engine would literally never get warm. It is a springloaded valve actuated by a bimetallic spring. the coolant is at operating temperature and the thermostat is permanently open. The fan is there to draw the warm air away from the back of the radiator to help it to work efficiently. The radiator fan. you can see the representation of the coolant flow in a cold engine. When you start the engine. In truly cold weather.emanagineer. It's the action of the thermostat that allows a water-cooled engine to better regulate the heat in the engine block. the hotter it gets. the coolant is allowed to flow through it. and stopped when the engine stopped. the wider open the valve is. This redirects the flow of coolant back into the engine and bypasses the radiator completely but because the cabin heater radiator is on a separate circuit.

meant that the radiator was having air drawn through it at the same rate in freezing cold conditions as it was on a hot day. When you select warm air with the heater controls. the radiator fan is electric and is activated by a temperature sensor in the coolant.emanagineer. the fan comes on and because it's electric. www. This is why Page | sometimes on a hot day. this can happen even once you've stopped the engine. you can park up. When the temperature gets above a certain level. Most water-cooled car engines actually have a second. It's all these combinations and permutations of plumbing in a water-cooled engine that make it so relatively complex. So nowadays. It's also the reason there are big stickers around it in the engine bay because if you park and open the hood to 43 go and start messing with something. you will either be allowing the coolant to flow through that radiator via an inline valve in the cooling system (the old way of doing it) or moving a flap to allow the warm air already coming off that radiator to mix in with the cold air from outside. smaller radiator that the coolant is allowed to flow through all the time for in-car heating. and hear the radiator fan still going. The rendering below shows the basic elements a water-cooled engine. turn off. The cabin heater. It's a small heat-exchanger in the air vent system. the radiator basically cooked because it had no airflow while it was cooling down.com info@emanagineer. the fan might still come on and neatly separate you from your fingers.com . and when you parked the car.

emanagineer.com/mobibotics. Please Visit Our Website & Fill the form available at undergiven address www.emanagineer.com or just fill the form given at the following link www.htm www.htm Page | 44 IF YOU WANT TO ORGANISE THIS WORKSHOP AT YOUR CAMPUS.com/contactus.htm www.com info@emanagineer. 1 Ethical Hacking & Information Security Workshop MobiBOTICS Mobile Robotics Workshop AnimaTOR 3D Designing & Animation Workshop IYeBOTICS Image Processing Based Robotics Workshop 5 6 Computer Forensics & Investigation Workshop Aeromodelling www.emanagineer.emanagineer.emanagineer. www.com/workshops We Also Provide Sponsorships in Campus Events like Technical Festival & Cultural Festivals.emanagineer.com/hacknex.htm www.emanagineer.com/contactus.com We also deliver workshops in following fields.emanagineer.com/iyebotics.com/cfi. get their information & details by clicking on the corresponding hyperlink.emanagineer.Reach Us & Feedback For any suggestions & queries you can mail us at info@emanagineer.com/aeromodelling.htm www.htm 2 3 4 www.com/animator.emanagineer. Visit Our Website www.com .emanagineer.htm For Our New Workshops Always keep updated with www.com for more details.htm Or mail us at info@emanagineer.