The Instructional Design Process

Presentation by:

Joe Ciliberto

The ISD Process

A systematic approach for designing, developing and delivering strategic instruction focused on improving the learners' performance and the elimination of performance gaps that are the result of a training problem.

ISD Steps
Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

ISD – Bringing all the pieces together
Analysis

Forecasting Planning
Design

Follow-up

Evaluation

Reporting Executing
Development

Gathering

Implementation

Forecasting

Planning
Identify audience Determine time table Identify support resources Define learning objectives, measurement indicators and level of evaluation Prioritize training needs

Assess know skill deficiencies Identify process changes Identify equipment changes Understand organizational changes Assess business needs & define strategic objectives.

Executing

Develop training program Deliver pilot training program Practice skills Administer Assessment Modify existing training programs

Gathering
Compare actual vs. planned Learning outcomes Retention level, training effectiveness Determine business impact before, during & after Calculate R.O.I. Provide feedback for upgrades

Reporting

Measure learning

Pre/Post training results

Communicate results

Performance improvement, behavior shifts

Communicate status

Follow-up

Minutes, newsletters, special announcements

Document skill levels

Update skills matrix

Document follow-up findings

Observe behavior application of knowledge/skill shifts in attitude Audit participation reviews, sign-offs, training etc. Audit performance result yield, efficiency, quality Assign accountability

Benefits of the ISD Process

The learner’s knowledge and performance are increased. Training time and cost per student are reduced.

ISD helps keep training targeted and effective!

The Analysis Step
Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

Analysis includes:

Performance analysis

Goal analysis

Task analysis

Without a roadmap, who knows where you’ll end up.

Instruct on the “need to know” not the “nice to know.”

Are You A Pain ADDICT?

Or … Why spend time “up front”?

Think it through now…
Design Development Implementation Evaluation

Analysis

Analyze the Issues

Determine Desired Outcomes

Implement

Critique
…or think it through later

Tryout Improvements

Analysis

Design

Development

Implementation

Evaluation

Performance Analysis

Reveals the gap between actual employee performance and the desired employee performance. Determines if the gap can be eliminated through an effective training program.

Goal Analysis

Goal analysis turns abstract statements into concrete tasks that can be taught.
It’s a task!

Employees should be safety conscious. How do I know if someone is safety-conscious?

Operators should be problem-solvers. What does a problem-solver do?

Task Analysis

A sequenced description (or flowchart) of:

the step by step actions; the tools, equipment, materials, and supplies; any associated safety concerns; required prerequisite knowledge; acceptable standards of performance; and key points required to complete a task.

A task analysis ensures the need to know information is taught.

The Design Step
Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

Design includes:

Audience Analysis

Learning Objectives

Skill Hierarchies

Course Prerequisites

Audience Analysis

…a key to making instruction work!

A description of the people who will receive the training. This might include: the number of learners their experience level their reading ability their attitudes and interests

Learning objectives

Statements that define what the learner must do to demonstrate learning has been accomplished. Contain 3 distinct components:

Performance States what a learner is expected to be able to do. Conditions Describes the important conditions under which the performance is to occur. Criteria States the specific standard of performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable.

Skill hierarchy

A skill hierarchy is a diagram showing the relationships between the skills in the training. Helps you determine what to teach first.

Keeps you from getting the cart before the oxen!

Course prerequisites

Gives you a starting point. Describes what knowledge and skills the learners must have before taking your course.

Everything between the course prerequisites and terminal objectives = course content.

Understanding what’s do-able?
Good

Fast

Cheap

Pick any two!

If you want it fast and good – don’t expect it to be cheap. If you want it fast and cheap – don’t expect it to be good. If you want it good and cheap – don’t expect it to be fast.

The Development Step
Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

Development includes:

Criterion tests Relevant practice Content derivation Delivery system selection Module development Sequencing Tryout

Criterion testing

Evaluating Learning

Criterion testing evaluates whether the learner has met the objectives. A test may have a learner:

provide a correct answer from alternatives (multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc.) do or produce something to demonstrate the objective has been met

Content derivation

Content promotes complete understanding and successful completion of test items.
Objectives

Content

Test

Delivery system selection

Sometimes referred to as “media selection.” You decide how the training will be presented to the learners. Delivery system examples: stand-up

training, text-based instruction, computer-based instruction, OJT, simulator based, instructional videos.

Module development
Objective(s) – stated in terms learners can understand
Skill Check Description demonstrate mastery of objective

A basic floor plan

Big picture orients learners

Instruction gives information needed for objective

Demo - shows what performing the objective looks like

Relevance tells why it’s important to them

Practice - gives practice in doing the objective

Feedback gives information on performance

Self check allows learners to see if they can perform the objective

Sequencing

Sequencing--determining the most efficient order to present the modules to learners.

Logical sequences

Organize information in one of these ways: Hierarchically (from easy to difficult, from simple to complex) Chronologically Spatially (left to right, top to bottom, outside in) Spirally

Tryout

A tryout can save time and money.

Back to the drawing board!

The Implementation Step
Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

During implementation...

…the training system is put in place and persons are trained on how to use it properly.

The best training can fail if it is not properly implemented.

The Evaluation Step
Analysis

Evaluation

Design

Implementation

Development

Evaluation

Focus on Continuous Improvement This step tells you: whether or not the training solved the original training problem what you can do to improve the training how training impacts the bottom line

Four Levels of Evaluation
Methods of Obtaining
1. Course Survey 2. Pre & Post Test and/or
Sample Output

Evaluation Levels

1. Learner Reaction

2. Measure Learning

3. Application of Skills

3. Job Observation/Checklist
and/or Sample Output

4. Results Analysis

4. Cost vs. Benefit Analysis

Was it worth it?
vs.
• training coordinator time • SME time away from job • costs of developing training material • time for learners to take training

Calculate Return On Training Investment (ROTI)
Cost of solving problem

Cost of training problem

• lost time • equipment losses • poor productivity

Thank You for your attention!
Please email me for a copy of the presentation or with any questions:
philippa.bean@qmark.co.uk

Attend a Question Mark web-seminar and learn about computerizing assessments:
http://www.questionmark.com/uk/seminars/

Visit the Question Mark web site for more information on deploying assessments:
http://www.questionmark.com/uk/learningcafe/

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