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College of Science

PHYSICS 73

1st Long Problem Set B 1st semester 2011-12

INSTRUCTIONS: Choose the best answer and shade the corresponding circle in your answer sheet. To change your answer, cross-out and sign your original answer and then shade your new answer. USEFUL CONSTANTS: ideal gas constant: R = 8.314 J/molK = 0.08206 Latm/molK Boltzmann constant: k = 1.38110-23 J/moleculeK Stefan-Boltzmann constant: = 5.6710-8 W/m2K4 1 atmosphere = 1.01105 Pascal 1000 liter = 1 m3 Avogadros number: NA = 6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol INFORMATION ABOUT WATER: normal freezing point = 273.15 K = 0.00oC normal boiling point = 373.15 K = 100.00oC triple-point temperature = 273.16 K = 0.01oC specific heat (liquid water) = 4.19103 J/kgK specific heat (ice) = 2.10103 J/kgK latent heat of fusion = 3.34105 J/kg latent heat of vaporization = 2.256106 J/kg

Chapter 18

Hour 2

1. (Pacho) Which of the following is false? A. Temperature is manifested by many properties of matter that can be directly measured. B. The temperature of an object is related to the kinetic energies of the constituent particles. C. Two systems with the same temperature that are isolated from each other and from the surroundings are in thermal equilibrium. D. A change in temperature corresponding to a Fahrenheit degree is larger than a Celsius degree. E. The Kelvin scale in the context of a gas thermometer can be defined using a single reference temperature.

i. 9 F ii. 6.5 C iii. 5.5 K A. i. 2

3. (Villanueva) Two ideal gases A and B are each in a sealed container of volume V. There is

1 mole of gas A, and 2 moles of gas B. The two containers are placed in thermal contact and then left alone. The setup is otherwise isolated. Which of the following statements are TRUE after revisiting this setup after a sufficiently long time? A. pressure pAof gas A = pressure pB of gas B B. temperature TA of gas A = temperature T B of gas B C. density of gas A = density of gas B D. A and B E. B and C

Hour 3

4. (Buo) To determine the component of a material, it was heated to increase its temperature by 25.0 C. The material expanded, linearly, by 0.500% of its initial length. What is its coefficient of linear expansion? A. 2.00x10-4 K-1 B. 1.68x10-5 K-1 C. 1.68x10-3 K-1 D. 2.00x10-2 K-1 E. 6.67x10-5 K-1 5. (Buo) Which of the following is false? A. Expansion coefficients are temperature-dependent. B. Apertures or holes in a material expand with increasing temperature. C. In general, coefficient of volume expansion for liquids are smaller compared to solids. D. Thermal expansion is an example of thermometric property. E. Water has a special case of expansion with decreasing temperature. 6. (Villanueva) A copper cylinder is initially at 273 K. At what temperature is the volume of the copper cylinder larger by 1%? The coefficient of linear expansion of copper is 1.7 x 10 -5 K-1. a. 65 K b. 196 K c. 338 K 3

d. 469 K e. 19900 K

Hour 4

7. (Pacho)An insulated beaker with negligible mass contains 0.250 kg of water at a temperature of 75.0oC. How many kilograms of ice at a temperature of -20oC must be dropped into the water to make the final temperature of the system 30.0 oC? a. 94.0 g b. 107 g c. 595 g d. 281 g e. 141 g 8. (Buo) A 5.00-kg sample is heated until its temperature rises by 17.5 C, absorbing an amount of heat equal to 2.75 kJ. What is its specific heat? A. 1.89 J/kgK B. 31.4 J/kgK C. 157 J/kgK D. 550 J/kgK E. 9.5 J/kgK 9. (Pacho)A glass vial containing a 16.0 g of a sample enzyme is cooled in an ice bath. The bath contains water and 0.120 kg of ice. The sample has specific heat capacity 2250 J/kg K; the glass vial has mass 6.0 g and specific heat 2800 J/kg K. How much ice melts in cooling the enzyme sample from room temperature (19.5oC) to the temperature of the ice bath? A. 6.0 g B. 16.0 g C. 45.0 g D. 96.4 g E. 3.08 g

Hour 5

10. (Villanueva) One end of a metal rod is maintained at 100oC and the other end is maintained at 0 oC. The rod is 60.0cm long and has a cross sectional area of 1.25cm2. Find the thermal conductivity of the metal if the heat conducted by the metal melts 8.50g of ice in 10.0min. A. 0.0285 W/m K B. 227.12 W/m K C. 13627.2 W/m K 4

D. 9858 W/m K E. 4.73 W/m K 11. (Villanueva) The operating temperature of a tungsten filament in an incandescent 150-W light bulb is 2450 K and its emissivity is 0.35. If all the electrical energy consumed by the bulb is radiated by the filament the surface area of the filament must be _____square centimeter. a. 2.1 b. 3.1 c. 4.1 d. 5.1 e. 6.1 12. (Pacho)Which of the following statements is true? a. Heat transfer via conduction can occur even in vacuum. b. Heat transfer via radiation is dominant for fluids. c. Heat transfer via convection occurs even if there is no medium between the materials. d. The rate of heat transfer via conduction is proportional to the distance between the two interacting bodies. e. The emissivity of a black body is larger than that of a shiny body.

Hour 6

13. (Ibanes) A welder using a tank of volume 0.0750 m3 fills it with oxygen (molar mass 32.0 g/mol) at a gauge pressure of 3.00 x 105 Pa and temperature 37.0 C. What is the mass of the oxygen inside the tank? A. 374 g B. 279 g C. 3 129 g D. 2 341 g E. 12 g 14. (Solis) Carbon monoxide (assumed to be an ideal diatomic gas) is placed inside a piston with volume of 3.0 liters, and pressure 200 kPa. Suppose the piston is allowed to expand at constant temperature so that the final volume is 9.0 liters. What will be the final pressure of the gas? A. 32.0 kPa B. 15.4 kPa C. 200 kPa D. 66.7 kPa E. 600 kPa 5

15. (Solis) 8.30 moles of Neon, a monatomic gas, is placed in a container. If the pressure on the walls of the container is 2.50 atm, and the volume is 0.750 m3, what is the temperature of the gas? A. 2.75 x 103 K B. 0.0272 K C. 2.75 K D. 129 K E. 27.2 K

Hour 7

16. (Pacho)You have a quantity of ideal gas in a cylinder with rigid walls that prevent the gas from expanding or contracting. If you double the rms speed of molecules in the gas, the gas pressure a. increases by a factor of 16. b. increases by a factor of 4. c. increases by a factor of 2. d. increases by a factor of 21/2. e. remains the same. 17. (Buo) Find the total translational kinetic energy of gas held at standard temperature and pressure ( 273.15 K and 1.00 atm) in a 1.00-L volume container. A. 33.6 J B. 3.41 kJ C. 101 J D. 152 J E. 1.50 J 18. (Pacho) Which of the following is false for ideal gases? a. The greater the temperature, the greater the translational kinetic energy of the gas molecules. b. The average speeds of the molecules of two different ideal gases with the same temperature are the same. c. The average translational kinetic energies of the molecules of two different ideal gases with the same temperature are the same. d. The masses of two different ideal gases with the same temperature may be different. e. Two different ideal gases with molecules of the same mass and average speeds have the same temperature.

Hour 8

19.(Ibanes) Perfectly rigid containers each hold n moles of ideal gas, one being hydrogen (H2) and other being neon (Ne). If it takes 100 J of heat to increase the temperature of the 6

hydrogen by 2.50 C, by how many Celsius degrees will the same amount of heat raise the temperature of the neon? Assume that the heat capacities of H2 and Ne follow the equipartition theorem. A. 4.17 B. 1.50 C. 1.90 D. 8.01 E. 4.81 20. (Solis) What amount of heat is needed to isobarically increase the temperature of 1.79 moles of oxygen (a diatomic gas) from a temperature of 25.0 C to 80.0 C? Assume that oxygen may be treated as an ideal gas inside a cylinder with a piston. A. 1.23 kJ B. 2.05 kJ C. 2.86 kJ D. 12.2 kJ E. 17.1 kJ 21.(Pacho) Calculate the molar heat capacity at constant volume of water vapor, assuming that the nonlinear triatomic molecule has three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom and that vibrational motion does not contribute. a. 12.5 J/mol K b. 24.9 J/mol K c. 20.8 J/mol K d. 29.1 J/mol K e. 49.9 J/mol K Chapter 19

Hour 9

22. (Solis) 3.25 moles of Helium (a monatomic ideal gas) is placed inside a cylindrical container with a piston at 300 C. The piston is allowed to move slowly so that the volume occupied by the gas increases from 0.15 m3 to 0.25 m3. The cylinder and piston is insulated so that there is no heat exchange between the gas and environment. What is the work done by the gas? A. 16.2 kJ B. 10.3 kJ C. 5.4 kJ D. 6.7 kJ E. 20 kJ 23. (Ibanes) Two moles of an ideal gas are compressed in a cylinder at a constant temperature of 85.0C until the original pressure has tripled. Calculate the amount of work done. A. -6.54 kJ 7

B. 6.54 kJ C. 1.55 kJ D. -1.09 kJ E. -32.7 kJ 24. (Pacho)Which of the following pV diagrams represent the greatest positive work? a. b.

c.

d.

e.

Hour 10

25. (Pacho) Which of the following statements is false? A. An isochoric process is represented by a horizontal line in a pV diagram and has W = 0. B. An isobaric process is represented by a straight line in a pV diagram and has constant pressure. C. An isothermal process is represented by a hyperbola in a pV diagram and has constant temperature. D. An adiabatic process is represented by a curve in a pV diagram and has Q =0. E. The initial and final states of a cyclic process are the same. 26. (Solis) When work W is done on an ideal gas of N diatomic molecules in thermal isolation the temperature increases by: A. W/2Nk B. W/3Nk C. 2W/3Nk D. 2W/5Nk 8

E. W/Nk 27. (Pacho) Which of the following physical quantities is dependent on the thermodynamic path taken between initial and final states? a. Q b. U c. S d. V e. T

Hour 11

28. (Villanueva) Which of the following statements are TRUE for heat capacities of an ideal gas? a. Cp < CV. b. Cp = CV c. = CV/Cp. d. CV = Cp + R. e. dU = nCV dT 29. (Solis) An ideal gas of N monatomic molecules is in thermal equilibrium with an ideal gas of the same number of diatomic molecules and equilibrium is maintained as the temperature is increased. The ratio of the changes in the internal energies Edia/Emon is: A. 1/2 B. 3/5 C. 1 D. 5/3 E. 7/5 30. (Villanueva) Consider 7.2500 mol of an ideal gas which is expanding isothermally, causing its pressure to drop by half. If the temperature of the ideal gas during the expansion is 300.15 K, what is U? a. W, where W is the work done b. Q, where Q is the net heat absorbed. c. 0 d. -W e. -Q

Chapter 20

Hour 12

9

31. (Buo) A heat engine with efficiency 0.36 rejects 2.5 kJ of heat. How much work is done by the engine? A. 3.9 kJ B. 0.90 kJ C. 6.9 kJ D. 1.6 kJ E. 1.4 kJ 32. (Buo) Theoretically, which type of gas has the highest efficiency when used as a working substance for an Otto cycle engine? i. monatomic ii. diatomic iii. polyatomic (Assume all other factors being equal.)

33. (Villanueva) Which of the following statements are TRUE for heat engines? A. All heat engines absorb heat from a heat source, perform some mechanical work, then reject some heat at a lower temperature. B. The net heat flowing into the engine in a cyclic process equals the net work done by the engine. C. The efficiency of a heat engine can be equal to 1. D. A and B E. B and C

Hour 13

34. (Ibanes) A freezer has a coefficient of performance of 2.40. The freezer is to cool 1.80 kg of water at 25C to 5C in one hour. What is the power input required? The specific heat of water is 4.19 x 103 J/kg K. A. 1.75 x 101 W B. 1.51 x 105 W C. 6.29 x 104 W D. 1.05 x 103 W E. 5.70 x 10-2 W 10

35. (Buo) Determine the heat current that an air-conditioner extracts if its coefficient of performance is 4.50, and requires a power input of 955 W. A. 4.30 kW B. 212 W C. 3.34 kW D. 743 W E. 995 W 36. (Ibanes) A window air-conditioner unit absorbs 9.80 x 104 J of heat per minute from the room being cooled and in the same time period deposits 1.44 x 10 5 J of heat into the outside air. What is the coefficient of performance? A. 2.13 B. 1.47 C. 0.68 D. 0.47 E. 3.13

Hour 14

37. (Solis) An inventor suggests that a house might be heated by using a refrigerator to draw energy as heat from the ground and reject energy as heat into the house. He claims that the energy supplied to the house as heat can exceed the work required to run the refrigerator. This: A. is impossible by first law B. is impossible by second law C. would only work if the ground and the house were at the same temperature D. is impossible since heat energy flows from the (hot) house to the (cold) ground E. is possible 38. (Buo) Which of the following is true? A. The second law of thermodynamics is a generalized energy conservation statement. B. Heat can never be used to do work. C. All natural processes are reversible. D. The engine and refrigerator statements describe the same principle. E. Heat transfer from a cold to a hot reservoir can be done with no work. 39. (Ibanes) A copper pot at room temperature is filled with room-temperature water. Imagine a process whereby the water spontaneously freezes and the pot becomes hot. This process violates: A. the first law of thermodynamics only. B. the second law of thermodynamics only. C. the first and second laws of thermodynamics. D. the conservation of energy. 11

Hour 15

40. (Villanueva) Which of the following processes are parts of the Carnot cycle with an ideal gas as the working substance? a. Adiabatic compression until the ideal gas temperature increases to T H. b. Compression at constant pressure until the ideal gas temperature rises to T H. c. Isothermal compression at temperature T H. d. A and B. e. A and C. 41. (Solis) The temperatures T C of the cold reservoirs and the temperatures T H of the hot reservoirs for four Carnot engines are: engine 1: TC = 400K and TH = 500K engine 2: TC = 500K and TH = 600K engine 3: TC = 400K and TH = 600K engine 4: TC = 600K and TH = 800K Rank these engines according to their efficiencies, least to greatest A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 1 and 2 tie, then 3 and 4 tie C. 2, 1, 3, 4 D. 1, 2, 4, 3 E. 2, 1, 4, 3

Hour 16

42. (Solis) Let Sirrev denote the change in entropy of a sample for an irreversible process from state A to state B. Let Srev denote the change in entropy of the same sample for a reversible process from state A to state B. Then: A. Sirrev > Srev B. Sirrev = Srev C. Sirrev < Srev D. Sirrev = 0 E. Srev = 0 43. (Buo) What is the total change in entropy of a 3.0 kg ice at 0C after melting is completed? A. 12.5 kJ/K B. -12.5 kJ/K C. 3.7 kJ/K 12

Hour 17

44. (Solis) The thermodynamic state of a gas changes from one with 3.8 1018 microstates to one with 7.9 1019 microstates. The Boltzmann constant is 1.38 10 23 J/K. The change in entropy is: A. S = 0 B. S = 1.04 1023 J/K C. S = 1.04 1023 J/K D. S = 4.19 1023 J/K E. S = 4.19 1023 J/K 45. (Ibanes) Two moles of an ideal gas occupy a volume V. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly to a volume 3V. What is the change in entropy? A. 18.3 J/K B. 11.5J/K C. 23.1 J/K D. 34.6 J/K E. 0 J/K

END OF EXAM

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