# ABSTRACT.

The main focus of this experiment is to determine the coefficient of linear expansion of a metal rod and also to determine factors affecting the change in length in thermal expansion. To do so, two metal rods made from different materials were examined and tested for that principle. The length and the temperature of the rods were initially recorded using the resistance of the metal rods. Afterwards, the rod is heated by passing a steam in it using a steam generator. The change in length is measured using a micrometer. The post resistance and temperature were also recorded. After experimentation, we found out that temperature affects the dimension of an object. We also found out that aluminum has larger numerical value of coefficient of linear expansion than copper which means aluminum expands greater than copper. Apart from this, the obtained coefficient of linear expansion is compared to the actual value of each rod. We had obtained an error of 37% and 38% for aluminum and copper metal, respectively. INTRODUCTION Perhaps, in examining the strength of a bridge, civil engineers consider the temperature of the surrounding where bridge is to be constructed. For some time, its length might be shorter or longer than its actual length. Temperature can affect materials’ dimension. With relatively few exceptions, all objects expand when they are heated and contract when they are cooled, including the materials used in bridges. Once it is not considered, the project may lead to accidents and disaster especially when it is done in a extreme hot or cold place. This is the reason for putting expansion joints in the bridge. One of the basic properties of matter is the temperature. In lay man’s term, it is the measure of the hotness or coldness of a certain body and is somewhat in line with the sense of touch. But by formally defining it, it is related to the thermal energy held by an object, which is the kinetic energy of the random motion of the particles composing it. Among other physical property of a material, temperature is said to be one of the most fundamental. Temperature affects the dimensions of a certain material. When an object is heated or cooled, it expands or contracts in all dimensions. It is known as thermal expansion. However, for practical reasons, scientists and engineers often focus on two different kinds of expansion – on one and two dimensions. For one dimension, it is linear expansion while for two and three dimensions, that is area and volume expansion. This expansion or contraction (negative counterpart of expansion) is caused by a change in the mean interatomic spacing due to a change in the amplitude of vibration of the atoms. For this experiment we are focusing on the one dimension expansion for simplification purposes. In the three first states of matter, gases are the simplest and the most easily affected by temperature. It is easily expands and compressed in a small variance in temperature unlike on liquids and solids upon comparison. It is due to the orientation of the molecules containing the matter. Gases can be easily affected because its molecules are far away from each other leading it to move easily. On the other hand, solid is the least affected. Most solids, like a metal rod expand when heated and this expansion always occurs in three dimensions. However, the thermal expansion of solids is usually too small to be seen, but since the expansion is proportional to the length of the object, the expansion will be considerable if the object is large. This can be attain by using the formula

Where: is change of length is change in temperature is the initial length The formula is obtained from the principle that is the change in length of solids is proportional to the original length times the change temperature. As we had learned, the expansion is a function of temperature. The proportionality constant is represented by the Greek letter, alpha. This constant represents an individual

The thermistor is get in touch with the metal rod which tells resistance using the temperature of the object.. To use the multitester.e. The formula originally came from two observations. Also. It is increase in length per unit of length at initial temperature per degree change in temperature. it gave us the chance to determine the factors affecting the change in length in thermal expansion. The two metal rods used are made from aluminum and copper for the other. These are the metal rods. we are to use a digital multitester for a more convenient measuring. The gathering of the data must be done before heating the rod. rubber tubing and steam generator. we just use it since it doesn’t affect much the result. First thing we should do in the experiment is to record what type of rod is to be use. The steam for heating the rod is supplied by a boiler which is connected by a rubber hose to the inlet.material which makes it as an identifier when dealing with this type of matter. to L (b) Temperature is raise. For this experiment. can be found in the expansion base). Equipments Used in Experiment 301 So.. It is found experimentally that the increase in length of rod is directly proportional to: (a) Original length i. foam insulator. For this particular experiment. makes contact with a device design to indicate the change in length as the rod expands (with the gauge). to ∆T Combining (a) and (b): Figure 1. ∆L is prop. the two pointers is to be placed in the holes found in the expansion base. The expansion of metal rod is proportional to its length and the change in temperature. The rods are locked in the expansion base using an adjustable stop at one end. Instead of using highly accurate measuring equipment.e. While on the other . The multitester is then be used to read the resistance told by the thermistor. ∆L is prop. the initial length of the rod and the temperature of the system using its resistance. The initial length of the rod is measured using a meter stick. Micrometer Thermistor Steam Generator Hose Rod Expansion Base and Meter Sick Multitester For simplification purposes. i. The two pointers (red and black) can be interchanged. expansion base with built in gauge and thermistor. In either form. METHODOLOGY The type of apparatus to be used in this experiment may be one of the forms illustrated in the figure found on Figure 1. The resistance is showed in the multitester. the metal rod to be studied is placed in the expansion base with built-in gauge and thermistor. the data we had obtained allows us to determine the coefficient of linear expansion of a metal rod. The steam generator which produces the steam is covered by a foam insulator. digital multitester. The resistance n the multitester has a counterpart temperature found in the table (still. we can rearrange the formula in such a way that the constant is to be determined given the other variables known. side.

respectively. a dial gauge. linear coefficient of expansion.38 x 10-5 and 1. we will use a steam generator. If desired. the rod expands which is measured using the dial gauge. expansion base. As temperature of the rod increases due to steam.” As well as the thermometer was used along with the “thermistor” as shown in the diagram. The micrometer form was referred to as the “dial gauge. we could perform another trial but make sure that the rod to be used is at room temperature.The adjusting end where the gauge is located must be pushed until the pointer is not moving to make sure that there is no space. Similarly to the diagram above we proved the theory of the coefficient of thermal linear expansion. . But before doing that. It is filled with water of about half of its full capacity. One complete revolution of the pointer means one millimeter. we will wait for about half of a minute until the steam come out. It is covered by the foam insulator. Also. The method is to be repeated from the start for the second rod. thermistor and the rods being studied. We must remember that carefulness is to be observed in using this equipment. The obtained data will be used in getting the experiment al value of the alpha. The pointer is adjusted in the zero mark by rotating the gauge. Once generating steam. At this time. There is a mounted hole there where the rubber hose is to be connected. A thermistor will be used in obtaining the temperature by measuring the resistance in the rod. It is seen that the right part is higher than the left part for the water to let out. By that we can easily read the gauge reading later. Set up of Experiment 1: The set up shown above is composed of steam generator.50 mm. the other end of the hose is then connected to the rod and let steam pass through the rod. we should avoid tapping the table to obtain an accurate gauge reading. It is divided into 100 parts so a half revolution means 50 parts or 0. We will start recording the temperature or resistance when the gauge pointer stops to rotate. For heating. The metal used were aluminum and copper with a standard expansion coefficient of 2. It is compared with the theoretical value by computing the percentage error. make sure that the thermistor is at room temperature.68 x 10-5. We will also record the gauge reading or the change in length of the rod.

By that . Since enough heat is transferred. we use the resistance of the rod which can be used in determining temperature. It is reasonable because based on the formula of percentage error. Since the metals are strong conductor. For an error of 10. So. it doesn’t produce much deviation. As steam passes. the relativity of the length is used. If we start measuring the resistance not at maximum expansion. the result is still the same. The heat transfer between the rod and steam is limited since the experiment is designed such that steam can only supply a certain amount of heat.1 mm >>> 1 mm We observed that the room temperature is below normal because of the air conditioner. the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ∆L Aluminum Tube 1. As a result. we might be getting the correct measure (much smaller than the actual). Rrm Initial Temperature.92 mm 20 °C 22 °C In measuring the initial length of the tubes. Since the temperature is based on resistance. This is only applicable for temperature lower or equal to 100 0C. To avoid that. we only used a meter stick because it does not affect much the percentage error. we could say that the temperature determination is nearly accurate because it directly measures the temperature of the rod. which measure the resistance of the rod must be properly contacted to it. This is equivalent to the expansion coefficient multiplied by the change in temperature of the metal rod used. we could use interpolation of the data for the corresponding temperature of a specific resistance.1 mm 114200 Ω Copper Tube 705. the thermistor. Instead of using a thermometer (and measure the temperature of the room). solids expand in response to heating and contract on cooling. When the stored energy increases. Because of that. The fractional change in length which is a natural quantity to use is the difference in length of the micrometer measurements (initial minus the final) divided by the length of the metal rod used. sudden expansion of the rod occurs. It is the fractional change in the length of a bar per degree of temperature change. we had obtained that aluminum and copper rods have the following: Type of Tube Initial Length of Tube. so does the length of the molecular bond. The linear thermal expansion coefficient relates the change in temperature to the change in a material’s linear dimensions. From our preliminary observations. Because of that. heat from the rod may be transferred to water. This response to temperature change is expressed as its coefficient of thermal expansion. Since the resistance range have a temperature counterpart (increment of 1 0C).000 Ω. trm Aluminum Tube 705.27 mm Copper Tube 0. the steam produced passed through the rod.2 mm 111700 Ω usage of resistance. For our result. it is shown below: Type of Tube Change in Length of Tube.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION During heat transfer. heat transfer occurs from the steam to the rod. we could start measuring the resistance of the rod. the steam returns back into water and stuck inside the tube. In heating the rod. the temperature of the room is the temperature of the rod. the rod should be oriented in an inclined position for water not to stock. An error of 1 mm is too small for the whole value or let me say: 705. Once the rod reached its maximum expansion (maximum temperature). Lo Initial Resistance of Thermistor at Room Temperature.

For an actual value of 75 C0. It is observed that aluminum has higher value of coefficient copper. And upon by carefully doing the necessary procedures of the experiment and by interpreting the obtained data and results. The change in length of an object is proportional to its original length and to the change in temperature. while the y values are the percent error. (thot . we found out that dimension of solid objects are affected by temperature. Based on the graph. CONCLUSION In the experiment. For this experiment.32963E05 /C° The x values are the ∆t. we focused on one dimension.5983923 3% Copper Tube 38. it is possible to say that deviation in the numerical values leads to error. Taking aluminum as our example. the change in temperature greatly affects the experimental value of coefficient of linear expansion. thot Change in temperature of the Tube. just to prove the law of thermal expansion. The aluminum can vibrate greater than copper because it is lighter. The graph shown above is logarithmic.Resistance of Thermistor at Final Temperature. So.27x105 /C0 and 2. While in our experiment. the length of the object decreases (contraction). Aside from that great source of error. there is also area and volume expansion for two and three dimensions. It is due to copper’s molecular weight is greater than aluminum. Rhot Final Temperature of the Tube. the length also increases (expansion) while when we decrease the temperature. So.trm) Experimental Coefficient of Linear Expansion. based on our result (assume that other numerical values are accurate and doesn’t produce any error): For every mistake of 1 0C: 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 38 48 58 68 Aside from linear expansion.27484E05 /C° 2. expansion of aluminum became significant even at smaller temperature change than copper. The .33x10-5/C0 for aluminum and copper respectively. as temperature changes. αexperiment 13100 Ω 11500 Ω 75 °C 55 C° 78 °C 56 C° 3.6686268 4% The values of coefficient of linear expansion obtained using the formula obtained are 2. As a result. The errors for both rods used are: Type of Tube Percentage error of Aluminum Tube 37. I couldn’t see any significant source from the values. As we increase temperature. we produce an error of 37% that has 20 Celsius degree difference from the assumed actual value. The objects expand and contract based on temperature due to molecules of an object vibrates greater than at lower temperature. the molecules of aluminum move more rapidly than heavier molecules of copper. produces an error of 0%. we still got a great error of 37% because we are dealing with microscopic measurements. we are aimed to determine the coefficient of linear expansion of a metal rod and to determine the factors affecting the change in length in thermal expansion. for the change in temperature of 38 Celsius degree produces an error of 100%. Among all parameters. Despite of that.

Laboratory Experiment in College Physics.amplitude of vibration becomes greater resulting to expansion. also in Burj Khalifa.britannica. I would like to thank my brother for letting me first to use the computer to make this work report..500 per sq ft (over US\$37. Also.000 per sq ft (over US\$43. It is obtained that the greatest factor in error accumulation is the error in measuring temperature. The total cost for the project was about US\$1. 7th Edition. and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) flagship development called Downtown Dubai at the 'First Interchange' along Sheikh Zayed Road. we can say that our experiment is quite well done. It is due to copper has greater molecular weight than aluminum. for writing some of his expansion. I want to acknowledge my fellow group companion for giving me her full hands in making up the experiment. chairman of the project's developer. We also account for not tilting the rod while steam is not flowing. ideas there regarding thermal Finally.H. Mr. for helping us in making up the experiment.717 ft). Emaar Properties.5 billion.. said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US\$4. Because of this principle. I also thank again the Library for lending to us their computer services.com/EBchecked/topic/ 591408/thermal-expansion FREE SPACE Burj Khalifa known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration. I also like to express our earnest gratitude to Prof.info/expansion/ [5] http://www.physics. aluminum expands greater than aluminum. REFERENCES [1] Young. We may strengthen bridges and other constructions by considering expansion of the body. Note: Imagine if it’s giant steel. It is also found out that copper has less coefficient of linear expansion than aluminum. with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009.wikipedia. 11th Edition. Gimena for the help on performing the experiment. near Dubai's main business district. even though he is not one of our group mate. sold for US\$3.000 per m2) and the Armani Residences. Construction began on 21 September 2004. I can’t make a good result so thus a good report. we may be able to predict how much space must be allocated to in constructions to avoid harmful accidents. Not bad at all!  . deviation can be considered because we are dealing with microscopic measuring. Mohamed Ali Alabbar.032 ft taller than its original height. So. R. The application of this experiment has a great significant to us. If you weren’t there. It is because the water may stock inside the tube and causes error in the actual temperature. Freedman. is a skyscraper in Dubai. C. but also for some of her ideas of what would be the theoretical result. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost.500 per m2). and the tallest man-made structure ever built. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010. US\$20 billion. Ang for the recording of the data and Mr. United Arab of Emirates. In March 2009. University Physics with Modern Physics. De Leon not only for imparting to us some of her insights regarding the experiment. and for the entire "Downtown Dubai" development. Mami Red and Ms. I want to acknowledge the author of our text book. Borres. 1995 [3] en. Despite of this.org/wiki/Thermal_expansion [4] http://www.. H. 2004 [2] Bernard. Young of University Physics. My warmest gratitude to Mr. to Ms. at 828 m (2. a one degree oC rise in temperature means 0. Deduyo.