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UNVERST TEKNOLOG MARA

FAKULT KEJURUTERAAN MEKANKAL





Programme : BacheIor of Engineering (Hons) MechanicaI
Course : Thermo fIuids Lab II
Course Code : MEC424
Lecturer : En. Nazri




Laboratory Report

Flow Pass a Circular Cylinder

Name Student ID Number S|gnature
Muhamad Najmi bin ZulkeIli 2009664442







Report Submission : 18
th
November 2011 Staff certification: _____________
(Signature)















TABLE OF CONTENT



1. TITLE


2. OBJECTIVE


3. THEORY


4. PROCEDURE


5. RESULT


6. SAMPLE OF CALCULATION


7. GRAPH


8. DISCUSSION


9. CONCLUSION


10. REFERENCES












@I@
llow ass a Clrcular Cyllnder

C8I@IV
1he ob[ecLlve of Lhls experlmenL ls Lo sLudy Lhe pressure and flow characLerlsLlc for flow around a
clrcular cyllnder

@Ck

1he flow fleld over Lhe cyllnder ls symmeLrlc aL low values of 8eynolds number As Lhe
8eynolds number lncreases flow beglns Lo separaLe behlnd Lhe cyllnder urag forces acLlng on Lhe
walls of Lhe cyllnder are hlghly dependenL upon 8eynolds number 1he effecLs of vlscoslLy and flow
separaLlon upon pressure dlsLrlbuLlon can be observed loLs of pressure dlsLrlbuLlon and pressure
coefflclenLs along Lhe surface of Lhe cyllnder demonsLraLe Lhe effecLs of flow separaLlon on Lhese
parameLers
1he sLrucLure and Lhe developmenL of vlscous flow over a cyllnder are descrlbed ln f|gure 1a
below 1he developmenL of Lhe boundary layer and changes ln veloclLy proflle from Lhe sLagnaLlon
polnL aL A unLll flow separaLlon aL polnL L are descrlbed ln f|gure 1b 1hese changes are closely
llnked Lo Lhe changes of pressure gradlenL from A Lo l negaLlve pressure gradlenL LenLs Lo malnLaln
lamlnar boundary layer whlle poslLlve pressure gradlenL wlll acceleraLe lL Lo LurbulenL and
(subsequenL) reverse flow resulLlng ln flow separaLlon I|gure 1c compares Lhe pressure dlsLrlbuLlon
(lL ls cusLomary Lo ploL Lhe coefflclenL of pressure) around Lhe cyllnder beLween low 8e number and
hlgh 8e flows and of LhaL predlcLed by lnvlscld flow Lheory



llqote 1 8oooJoty loyet cbotoctetlstlc oo o cltcolot cylloJet (o) boooJoty loyet sepototloo locotloo
(b) typlcol boooJoty loyet veloclty ptoflle ot votloos locotloo oo tbe cylloJet (c) sotfoce ptessote
Jlsttlbotloo fot lovlsclJ flow ooJ boooJoty loyet flow









99k@DS
Wlnd 1unnel and accessorles

1 ubsonlc wlnd Lunnel

2 A 2lnch dlameLer clrcular cyllnder wlLh holes















9kCDDk

1 A 2lnch dlameLer clrcular cyllnder of ls placed aL across 300mmx300mm LesL secLlon
of wlnd Lunnel
2 ln order Lo measure pressure around Lhe cyllnder 20 pressure Lapplng holes are
drllled aL equldlsLance over half of Lhe clrcumference of Lhe cyllnder
3 1hese holes are connecLed uslng flexlble Lubes Lo Lhe mulLl Lube manomeLer for
pressure measuremenLs
4 1he veloclLy ls seL abouL 10m/s
3 1he pressure measuremenL ls Laken correspondlng Lo each pressure Lapplng locaLlon
by readlng Lhe mulLl Lube manomeLer
6 Lep 1 Lo 3 ls repeaLed by seLLlng Lhe veloclLy 20m/s
7 uaLa ls collecLed and pressure coefflclenL ls calculaLed





















kSD@
For test 1
Tabular Iorm Ior velocity at 10m/s
h
0
228mm

cat|n ng|e ht (mm) ht h
0
9t9
0

1 0 228 0 0 1
2 10 229 1 7691.04 0.845716
3 20 231 3 23073.12 0.537149
4 30 234 6 46146.24 0.074298
5 40 238 10 76910.4 -0.54284
6 50 242 14 107674.6 -1.15997
7 60 245 17 130747.7 -1.62282
8 70 246 18 138438.7 -1.77711
9 80 245 17 130747.7 -1.62282
10 90 244 16 123056.6 -1.46854
11 100 244 16 123056.6 -1.46854
12 110 244 16 123056.6 -1.46854
13 120 244 16 123056.6 -1.46854
14 130 245 17 130747.7 -1.62282
15 140 245 17 130747.7 -1.62282
16 150 245 17 130747.7 -1.62282
17 160 245 17 130747.7 -1.62282
18 170 246 18 138438.7 -1.77711
19 180 246 18 138438.7 -1.77711











For test
Tabular Iorm Ior velocity at 20m/s
h
0
192mm

Location Angle ht (mm) ht h
0
Pt-P
0
Cp
1 0 192 0 0 1
2 10 194 2 15382.08 0.922858
3 20 202 10 76910.4 0.614291
4 30 214 22 169202.9 0.15144
5 40 230 38 292259.5 -0.46569
6 50 246 54 415316.2 -1.08283
7 60 258 66 507608.6 -1.54568
8 70 265 73 561445.9 -1.81568
9 80 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282
10 90 258 66 507608.6 -1.54568
11 100 258 66 507608.6 -1.54568
12 110 259 67 515299.7 -1.58425
13 120 259 67 515299.7 -1.58425
14 130 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282
15 140 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282
16 150 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282
17 160 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282
18 170 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282
19 180 260 68 522990.7 -1.62282











$AMPLE CALCULATION

For test 1 at velocity 10 m/s at location 5
40
o
h 228 mm
h
0
238 mm
H h h
0
238 - 228
H 10 mm


Using Iormula as below:
P P
0
pgH
Given p 784 kg/m
3
g 9.81 m/s
2

H 10 mm

Substitute the values we get,

P
o
P pgH
P P
0
pgH
784x9.81x (10x10
-3
)
P - P
0
292259.5 Pa

The CoeIIicient oI pressure:

C
P
P P
0

1/2'
2
292259.5
(0.5)(0.784)(10)
2
C
P
7455.59949




For test 2 at velocity 20 m/s at location 5
40
o
h 230 mm
h
0
192mm
H h h
0
230 - 192
H 38 mm

Using Iormula as below:
P1 P
0
pgH
Given p 784 kg/m
3
g 9.81 m/s
2

H 38x10
-3
m

Substitute the values we get,

P
o
P pgH
P P
0
-pgH
784x9.81x ( 28x10
-3
)
P - P
0

292259.5Pa

The CoeIIicient oI pressure:

C
p
P P
0
1/2'


292259.5
(0.5)(0.784)(20)
2

C
p
1863.899872





k9


rah ceff|c|ent f ressure aga|nst ang|e 0 fr ve|c|ty 10ms
1


rah ceff|c|ent f ressure aga|nst ang|e 0 fr ve|c|ty 20ms
1





2
13
1
03
0
03
1
13
0 10 20 30 40 30 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 130 160 170 180

Cp
2
13
1
03
0
03
1
13
0 10 20 30 40 30 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 130 160 170 180

Cp
DISDSSICN
From the graph,we can see that the graph have the same pattern but Cp is lower when the velocity is
20ms
-1
. 2. Other than that, all experiment or practice done by human will always be an error. This is
because the person that handling the experiment did not have much experience to handle it. It also
cause by parallax error during taking the reading. So, some values obtained in the experiment might
not be accurate due to some errors.
















CNDSICN
The conclusion is when compared to the experimentally observed Cp distribution we see that there is
some agreement in the region between 00 and 900 . But any agreement is lost in the other regions.
The reasons Ior this is viscous Iorces dominate the Ilow in the region to the right oI the center line
giving rise to separation. The pressure tends to plateau out in a separated region, the level depending
on whether it is a laminar separation or a turbulent one.

kIkNS
1 lrank M WhlLe lluld Mechanlcs 3
Lh
LdlLlon Mc Craw Plll new ?ork uA 2003
2 ?unus ACengal !ohn M Clmbala llulds Mechanlcs lundamenLals And AppllcaLlonsMc
Craw Plll
3 hLLp//wwwgrcnasagov/WWW/k12/alrplane/drag1hLml