NICMAR

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT PLANNING SCHEDULING AND CONTROLLING

PREPARED BY MEERA NAIR POOJA PATIL MANJUSHA PATIL SHWETA PHANSALKAR

GUIDED BY PROF. TAPASH GANGULY

DECLARATION

We declare that the assignment “CONSTRUCTION PROJECT:PLANNING SCHEDULING AND CONTROLLING” is completed by Meera Nair,Pooja Patil,Manjusha Patil,Shweta Phansalkar under the guidance of Prof.TAPASH GANGULY.

Meera Nair(221110) Pooja Patil(221123) Manjusha Patil(221124) Shweta Phansalkar(221129)

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We profoundly express our gratitude to our guide Prof.Tapash Ganguly,NICMAR Pune for providing us the necessary wholehearted guidance and valuable suggestions through out the research period, without which this endeavour would not have been possible.

We also thank the Librarians of NICMAR, Pune for giving us access to the valuable facility.

Meera Nair Pooja Patil Manjusha Patil Shweta Phansalkar ACM-22,Section-2

Project:
Project as defined in the field of project management, consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or services or result. Temporary means every project has definite begining and definite end.Unique means that the product or services is different in some distinguishing way from all similar product or services.

Charactristics of Project:
•Performed by people •Constrained by limited resources •Planned executed and controlled • Consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or servicesor result

Project Management:
It is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives •Definition of Planning: “It is the process of representing the project scope by its identifiable components and then established the logical interdependence among these components”

Definition of Scheduling:
“Scheduling=Planning + Time”. “Scheduling establishes activity durations, project completion time, critical activities, floats.”

Definition of Controlling:
Controlling is directly related to planning. The controlling process ensures that plans are being implemented properly. Control is the process through which standards for

performance of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied. Effective control systems allow supervisors to know how well implementation is going.

Project planning:
It is part of project management which relates to the use of schedule such as gantt chart to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment.Initially, the project scope is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined. Following are the steps: •The duration for the various tasks necessary to complete the work are listed and grouped into a work break down structure. •The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that enables identification of the critical path. •Float or slack time in the schedule can be calculated •Then the necessary resources can be estimated and costs or each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving the total project cost. •At this stage, the project plan may be optimized to achieve the appropriate balance between resources and project duration to comply with the project objectives. •Once established and agreed, the plan becomes what is known as the baseline. Progress will

be measured against the baseline throughout the life of the project.

Construction Planning :
It is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management and execution of construction projects. It involves the choice of technology, the definition of work tasks, the estimation of the required resources and durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. A good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. In addition to these technical aspects of

construction planning, it may also be necessary to make organizational decisions about the relationships between project participants and even which organizations to include in a project.

Resource Availability and/or Limits

Planning Inputs:
•Due date, late penalties, early completion incentives •Budget •Activity Information •Identify all required activities •Estimate the resources required (time) to complete each activity •Immediate predecessor(s) to each activity needed to create interrelationships

Tools:
•Scheduling and control charts Horizontal bar charts Expenditure charts and graphs Personnel charts Materials milestone charts •Critical path method (CPM) •Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

Gantt chart:

A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a projects. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work break down structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency(i.e, precedence network) relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percentcomplete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. The first Gantt Chart was developed in 1896 by Karol Adamiecki, who called it a harmonogram. Because Adamiecki did not publish his chart until 1931 - and in any case his works were published in either Polish or Russian, languages not popular in the West - the chart now bears the name of Henrry Gantt (1861–1919), who designed his chart around the years 1910-1915 and popularized it in the West. In the 1980s, personal computers eased the creation and editing of elaborate Gantt charts. These desktop applications were intended mainly for project managers and project schedulers. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gantt charts became a common feature of webbased applications, including collaborative groupware

Advantages and limitations
•Gantt charts have become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a project work breakdown structure (WBS), so they can be understood by a wide audience. •Although a Gantt chart is easily comprehended for small projects that fit on a single sheet or screen, they can become quite unwieldy for projects with more than about 30 activities. Larger Gantt charts may not be suitable for most computer displays. A related criticism is that Gantt charts communicate relatively little information per unit area of display. That is, projects are often considerably more complex than can be communicated effectively with a Gantt chart. •Gantt charts only represent part of the triple constraints of projects, because they focus primarily on schedule management. Moreover, Gantt charts do not represent the size of a project or the relative size of work elements, therefore the magnitude of a behind-schedule condition is easily miscommunicated. If two projects are the same number of days behind

schedule, the larger project has a larger impact on resource utilization, yet the Gantt does not represent this difference. •Although project management software can show schedule dependencies as lines between activities, displaying a large number of dependencies may result in a cluttered or unreadable chart. •Because the horizontal bars of a Gantt chart have a fixed height, they can misrepresent the time-phased workload (resource requirements) of a project. In the example shown in this article, Activities E and G appear to be the same size, but in reality they may be orders of magnitude different. A related criticism is that all activities of a Gantt chart show planned workload as constant. In practice, many activities (especially summary elements) have frontloaded or back-loaded work plans, so a Gantt chart with percent-complete shading may actually miscommunicate the true schedule performance status.

Critical path method (CPM) :
The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or critical path analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. It is an important tool for effective project management.

It was developed in the 1950s by the US Navy when trying to better organise the building of submarines and later, especially, when building nuclear submarines. Today, it is commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, software development, research projects, product development, engineering, and plant maintenance, among others. Any project with interdependent activities can apply this method of scheduling. Some questions about the project? How long will the entire project take to complete? Which activities determine total project time? Which activity times should beshortened, if possible, or in other words, how many resources should be allocated to each activity.

What is the CPM? Critical Path Method (CPM), is a procedure for using network analysis to identify those tasks which are on the critical path: ie where any delay in the completion of these tasks will lengthen the project timescale, unless action is taken. For all tasks off the critical path, a degree of tolerance is possible (eg. late start, late completion, early start, etc.). Network charts and CPM analysis used to be carried out by hand. Software is now available which requires the user only to enter the tasks, duration of each task and dependencies upon other tasks; a network chart and CPM is then automaticaly created. Why the CPM: The CPM formally identifies tasks which must be completed on time for the whole project to be completed on time Identifies which tasks can be delayed for a while if resource needs to be reallocated to catch up on missed tasks It helps you to identify the minimum length of time needed to complete a project The CPM determines both the early start and the late start date for each activity in the schedule. Terminology Used IN CPM: •Activity A task or a certain amount of work required in the project

Requires time to complete Represented by an arrow •Dummy Activity Indicates only precedence relationships Does not require any time of effort •Event Signals the beginning or ending of an activity Designates a point in time Represented by a circle (node) •Network Shows the sequential relationships among activities using nodes and arrows •Path A connected sequence of activities leading from the starting event to the ending event •Critical Path The longest path (time); determines the project duration •Critical Activities All of the activities that make up the critical path •Earliest Start (ES) The earliest that an activity can begin; assumes all preceding activities have been completed •Earliest Finish (EF) ES + activity time •Latest Finish (LF) The latest that an activity can finish and not change the project completion time

•Latest Start (LS) LF - activity time

How does it work? In the Activity Diagram described in the previous article, a network of tasks were set up to show which tasks needed completion before other tasks could be started. A very common next step is to add timings to show how long each task will take and then to identify the critical path, which is the route through the network that will take the longest amount of time.

Tasks which are not on the critical path have more leeway, and may be slipped without affecting the end date of the project. This is called slack or float.

Tasks on the critical path have no slack and this feature may be used to actually identify the critical path. It is also quite common to have more than one critical path: indeed, the perfectly balanced project is all critical path.

A critical path

It may be possible to reduce the critical path of a project (and consequently pull in the completion date) by rearranging some tasks which have an optional sequence or by moving key people onto tasks in the critical path so you can reduce the time for these tasks.

How do you do it?

1. Build an Activity Diagram, as described in the previous article, including estimating the time required (or duration) for all tasks. Include a space on each task card for early and late start and finish dates or times (times, rather than dates, are required for tasks where hours or minutes are significant).

The early start and early finish are simply the earliest times that a task can start or finish. The late start and late finish are the latest times that a task can start or finish.

2. Starting with the tasks at the beginning of the diagram, complete the early start and early finish for each task in turn, following the arrows to the next task, as in the figure below. The early start of a task is the same as the early finish of the preceding task. If there is more than one predecessor task, then there are several possible early start figures. Select the largest of these. The early finish for each task is equal to the early start plus the duration of the task. The final calculation is for the earliest completion time for the project. This is calculated in the same way as the early start date.

Calculating the early start and finish

3. Starting with the tasks at the end of the diagram, calculate the late start and late finish for each task in turn, following the arrows in the reverse direction to the previous task, as in the diagram below. The late finish is the same as the late start of the succeeding task (for the

final tasks in the project, this is equal to the earliest completion date). If there is more than one successor task, then there are several possible late figures. Select the smallest of these. The late start for each task is the late finish minus the duration of the task. The final calculation is for the earliest completion time for the project. This is calculated in the same way as the early start date.

Calculating the late start and finish

4. You now have, for each task, the earliest and latest times that it can start and finish. Now find the slack time (or 'float') for each task by subtracting the early start from the late start. The slack time is the amount of time the task can be slipped by without affecting the end date of the process. The critical path can now be identified as all paths through the network where the slack time is zero .Calculating the slack and finding the critical path

Program Evaluation and Review Technique: PERT is based on the assumption that an activity’s duration follows a probability distribution instead of being a single value. The probabilistic information about the activities is translated into probabilistic information about the project.

PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a model for project management designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.

Overview PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. It was able to incorporate uncertainty by making it possible to schedule a project while not knowing precisely the details and durations of all the activities. It is more of an event-oriented technique rather than start- and completion-oriented, and is used more in The most recognizable feature of PERT is the "PERT Networks", a chart of interconnecting timelines. PERT is intended for very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine projects. PERT terminology and conventions:

A PERT chart is a tool that facilitates decision making; The first draft of a PERT chart will number its events sequentially in 10s (10, 20, 30, etc.) to allow the later insertion of additional events.

Two consecutive events in a PERT chart are linked by activities, which are conventionally represented as arrows in the diagram above. The events are presented in a logical sequence and no activity can commence until its immediately preceding event is completed. The planner decides which milestones should be PERT events and also decides their “proper” sequence. A PERT chart may have multiple pages with many sub-tasks. Terminology

A PERT event: is a point that marks the start or completion of one or more tasks. It consumes no time, and uses no resources. It marks the completion of one or more tasks, and is not “reached” until all of the activities leading to that event have been completed.

A predecessor event: an event (or events) that immediately precedes some other event without any other events intervening. It may be the consequence of more than one activity.

A successor event: an event (or events) that immediately follows some other event without any other events intervening. It may be the consequence of more than one activity.

A PERT activity: is the actual performance of a task. It consumes time, it requires resources (such as labour, materials, space, machinery), and it can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another. A PERT activity cannot be completed until the event preceding it has occurred.

Optimistic time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected Pessimistic time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong (but excluding major catastrophes). Most likely time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal. Expected time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal (the implication being that the expected time is the average time the task would require if the task were repeated on a number of occasions over an extended period of time). TE = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6

Critical Path: the longest possible continuous pathway taken from the initial event to the terminal event. It determines the total calendar time required for the project; and, therefore, any time delays along the critical path will delay the reaching of the terminal event by at least the same amount.

Critical Activity: An activity that has total float equal to zero. Activity with zero float does not mean it is on critical path. Lead time (rhymes with "feed", not "fed"): the time by which a predecessor event must be completed in order to allow sufficient time for the activities that must elapse before a specific PERT event is reached to be completed.

Lag time: the earliest time by which a successor event can follow a specific PERT event. Slack: the slack of an event is a measure of the excess time and resources available in achieving this event. Positive slack(+) would indicate ahead of schedule; negative slack would indicate behind schedule; and zero slack would indicate on schedule.

• • •

Fast tracking: performing more critical activities in parallel Crashing critical path: Shortening duration of critical activities Float or Slack is the amount of time that a task in a project network can be delayed without

Computer Software for Project Management

• • • • • • • •

Microsoft Project MacProject PowerProject

(Microsoft Corp.)

(Claris Corp.) (ASTA Development Inc.)

Primavera Project Planner (Primavera) Project Scheduler (Scitor Corp.) Project Workbench (ABT Corp.) SuperProject TurboProject (Computer Associates International) (IMSI)

"Controlling" Must Exist or There's No Organization -- Only an "Experience"

Management in business and human organization activity, in simple terms means the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.

1. Essential Features of the "Process of Management" Process consists of a series of sequential operations commencing with a beginning and terminating with an end, in each cyclic operation, that is necessary to achieve specific goals or results. The process of management is characterized by the following features 1.1 Continuity: Management is a never-ending and continuous process. The different function like planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling etc. is interrelated and interdependent 1.2 Circular: The functions are inter-active. They are non-linear and circular. And in a way all functions may be considered as sub-functions of each other. For example, planning, organizing, staffing and controlling may all occur within a planning process. 1.3 Social: Management deals with human elements from within and outside. It influences significantly the whole society. Management decisions may have far-reaching social consequences (like the ill-conceived decision of some industries to engage 'child labor'; industries polluting the environment with poisonous gases and effluents etc.). A Manager, therefore, while taking decisions must remember the likely impact of his decision on society and ensure that management decisions do not act in conflict with accepted social values.

1.4 Composite: The functions of management should be considered in its entirety. The functions are integrated and overlapping. Thus we cannot perform staffing functions without planning and organizing etc. Similarly planning will be empty without being followed by other functions. 2. Controlling Controlling is directly related to planning. The controlling process ensures that plans are being implemented properly. In the functions of management cycle - planning, organizing, directing, and controlling - planning moves forward into all the other functions, and controlling reaches back.

Controlling is the final link in the functional chain of management activities and brings the functions of management cycle full circle. Control is the process through which standards for performance of people and processes are set, communicated, and applied. Effective control systems use mechanisms to monitor activities and take corrective action, if necessary. The supervisor observes what happens and compares that with what was supposed to happen. He or she must correct below-standard conditions and bring results up to expectations. Effective control systems allow supervisors to know how well implementation is going. Control facilitates delegating activities to employees. Since supervisors are ultimately held accountable for their employees' performance, timely feedback on employee activity is necessary. 3. Control Process The control process is a continuous flow between measuring, comparing and action. There are four steps in the control process: establishing performance standards, measuring actual performance, comparing measured performance against established standards, and taking corrective action 3.1 Establish Performance Standards. Standards are created when objectives are set during the planning process. A standard is any guideline established as the basis for measurement. It is a precise, explicit statement of expected results from a product, service, machine,

individual, or organizational unit. It is usually expressed numerically and is set for quality, quantity, and time. Tolerance is permissible deviation from the standard. What is expected? How much deviation can be tolerated? 3.1.1 Time controls relate to deadlines and time constraints. Material controls relate to inventory and material-yield controls. Equipment controls are built into the machinery, imposed on the operator to protect the equipment or the process. Cost controls help ensure cost standards are met. Employee performance controls focus on actions and behaviors of individuals and groups of employees. Examples include absences, tardiness, accidents, quality and quantity of work. Budgets control cost or expense related standards. They identify quantity of materials used and units to be produced. 3.1.2 Financial controls facilitate achieving the organization's profit motive. One method of financial controls is budgets. Budgets allocate resources to important activities and provide supervisors with quantitative standards against which to compare resource consumption. They become control tools by pointing out deviations between the standard and actual consumption. 3.1.3 Operations control methods assess how efficiently and effectively An organization's transformation processes create goods and services. Methods of transformation controls include Total Quality Management (TQM) statistical process control and the inventory management control. Statistical process control is the use of statistical methods and procedures to determine whether production operations are being performed correctly, to detect any deviations, and to find and eliminate their causes. A control chart displays the results of measurements over time and provides a visual means of determining whether a specific process is staying within predefined limits. As long as the process variables fall within the acceptable range, the system is in control. Measurements outside the limits are unacceptable or out of control. Improvements in quality eliminate common causes of variation by adjusting the system or redesigning the system. 3.1.4 Inventory is a large cost for many organizations. The appropriate amount to order and how often to order impact the firm's bottom line. The economic order quantity model (EOQ) is a mathematical model for deriving the optimal purchase quantity. The EOQ model seeks to minimize total carrying and ordering costs by balancing purchase costs, ordering costs,

carrying costs and stock out costs. In order to compute the economic order quantity, the supervisor needs the following information: forecasted demand during a period cost of placing the order, that value of the purchase price, and the carrying cost for maintaining the total inventory. · The just-in-time (JIT) system is the delivery of finished goods just in time to be sold, subassemblies just in time to be assembled into finished goods, parts just in time to go into subassemblies, and purchased materials just in time to be transformed into parts. Communication, coordination, and cooperation are required from supervisors and employees to deliver the smallest possible quantities at the latest possible date at all stages of the transformation process in order to minimize inventory costs. 3.2 Measure Actual Performance. Supervisors collect data to measure actual performance to determine variation from standard. Written data might include time cards, production tallies, inspection reports, and sales tickets. Personal observation, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports can be used to measure performance. Management by walking around, or observation of employees working, provides unfiltered information, extensive coverage, and the ability to read between the lines. While providing insight, this method might be misinterpreted by employees as mistrust. Oral reports allow for fast and extensive feedback. Computers give supervisors direct access to real time, unaltered data, and information. On line systems enable supervisors to identify problems as they occur. Database programs allow supervisors to query, spend less time gathering facts, and be less dependent on other people. Supervisors have access to information at their fingertips. Employees can supply progress reports through the use of networks and electronic mail. Statistical reports are easy to visualize and effective at demonstrating relationships. Written reports provide comprehensive feedback that can be easily filed and referenced. Computers are important tools for measuring performance. In fact, many operating processes depend on automatic or computer-driven control systems. Impersonal measurements can count, time, and record employee performance. 3.3 Compare Measured Performance Against Established Standards. Comparing results with standards determines variation. Some variation can be expected in all activities and the range of variation - the acceptable variance - has to be established. Management by

exception lets operations continue as long as they fall within the prescribed control limits. Deviations or differences that exceed this range would alert the supervisor to a problem. 3.4 Take Corrective Action. The supervisor must find the cause of deviation from standard. Then, he or she takes action to remove or minimize the cause. If the source of variation in work performance is from a deficit in activity, then a supervisor can take immediate corrective action and get performance back on track. Also, the supervisors can opt to take basic corrective action, which would determine how and why performance has deviated and correct the source of the deviation. Immediate corrective action is more efficient, however basic corrective action is the more effective.

Standard: The room thermostat is set at 68 degrees. Measurement: The temperature is measured. Corrective Action: If the room is too cold, the heat comes on. If the room is too hot, the heat goes off. 4. Types of Control Controls are most effective when they are applied at key places. Supervisors can implement controls before the process begins (feed forward), during the process (concurrent), or after it ceases (feedback). 4.1 Feed forward controls focus on operations before they begin. Their goal is to prevent anticipated problems. An example of feed forward control is scheduled maintenance on automobiles and machinery. Regular maintenance feeds forward to prevent problems. Other examples include safety systems, training programs, and budgets. 4.2 Concurrent controls apply to processes as they are happening. Concurrent controls enacted while work is being performed include any type of steering or guiding mechanism such as direct supervision, automated systems (such as computers programmed to inform the user when they have issued the wrong command), and organizational quality programs. 4.3 Feedback controls focus on the results of operations. They guide future planning, inputs, and process designs. Examples of feedback controls include timely (weekly, monthly, quarterly, annual) reports so that almost instantaneous adjustments can be made.

5. Characteristics of Effective Controls Control systems must be designed properly to be effective. When control standards are inflexible or unrealistic, employees cannot focus on the organization's goals. Control systems must prevent, not cause, the problems they were designed to detect. Performance variance can also be the result of an unrealistic standard. The natural response for employees whose performance falls short is to blame the standard or the supervisor. If the standard is appropriate, then it is up to the supervisor to stand his or her ground and take the necessary corrective action. Effective control systems have the following characteristics: 5.1. Control at all levels in the business 5.2. Acceptability to those who will enforce decisions 5.3. Flexibility 5.4. Accuracy 5.5. Timeliness 5.6. Cost effectiveness 5.7. Understandability 5.8. Balance between objectivity and subjectivity 5.9. Coordinated with planning, organizing and leading

CONTROLLING MEASURES : Various types of checklists ,form ,daily reports etc. are prepared to have a proper control on project and on each & every activity.There are some examples of checklists daily & of monthly which records all the data and control the project.

DAILY REPORT

CONSUMPTION OF MATERIALS
Workwise consumption of steel and cement (Client)
Description of work Cement (Bags) 8mm steel (Kg) 10mm steel (Kg) 12mm steel (Kg) 16mm steel (Kg) 20mm steel (Kg) 25mm steel (Kg)

Description of work

Sand

20 mm metal

40mm metal

M-sand

Hollow block

Bricks

Workwise consumption of materials (Electrical Contractor)
Description of work

MATERIALS RECEIVED
Material Client Opening balance(T) Received, if any Consumption Balance

Material Contractor

Opening balance

Received, if any

Consumption

Balance(M3)

WORKS PLANNED FOR TOMMOROW
Works planned for tomorrow Quantity( M3)

TEST CONDUCTED
Tests conducted Age Date of casting Date of testing Required strength Obtained strength

Checklist for Beam
Date: Project: M/s Building: Location: Location of pour:

Sl No: 1 Depth of Beam

Description

Remark

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Reinforcement of beam (No,Size,Spacing) Placing of cover Formwork &Bracings (Alignment,Rigidity,adequacy of support) Quality of Materials (Sand,Cement,Coarse Aggregates) Quality of Green Concrete Grade of Concrete W/C Slump Type of vibration No of Cubes Cube Strength Arrangement for curing

Resident Engineer (PCM)

Project Manager (PCM)

(Client)

Conclusion:

Thus by having proper planning,scheduling and controlling over a project we can achieve its timely completion in optimum resources and minimum price.Now a day planning is done with the help of computers software like primavera and MS project. For a success of each project proper planning is necessary and thus by having correct schedule and controlling methods we can successfully achieve timely completion of project.

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