BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

by aspe

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Harshvardhana.Maurya Dynasty • 6th century BC is of great significance – as an era of spirit of opposition to the dominating priests & Brahmins. . • Ashoka constructed 84. • Buddhism blossom because of Askoka.000 stupas. • Teachings of Mahavira (587 BC) & Buddha (623 BC – 569 BC) formed the basis of 2 distinct religions – Buddhist and Jainism. Kanishka. • Stambas were constructed close to many stupas with religious teachings inscribed on them.

– Chaitya hall for prayer – Viharas to live Architecture & Art developed & manifested on 7 forms Edicts inscribed on rocks Stupas Monolithic (Stambhas) Monolithic accessories to shrines Castles & Palaces Rock cut Chambers Buddhist monasteries .Development of Buddhist Architecture Under Maurya • Created Rock cut caves.

conceptually well balanced. • Solely monumental. • Capital – Inverted lotus or bell shaped Base pedestal Animals with or without Dharma-chakra . • Capital & superstructure asthetically given more importance.PILLARS • Great artistic value • Boldly designed. finely proportioned. • Column = shaft + capital + superstructure • Capital + superstructure = 7’ height • Shaft = 40’ – 50’ high • 2 pieces joint together by copper bolt.

ROCK CUT CAVES • Two types– Chaitya hal – Viharas – Eg – Lomesh rushi cave – Sudama cave of Barabar hills .

. 35’ height. stone canopy at apex. hemispherical in form.diameter. • They were elongated . timber vedica. • Initially they were mounds erected on the tomb of Buddha and Buddhist saints • Later these mounds were claded with bricks & stones to protect the stupas from natural decay. terrace & torna (entrance gate) were attached.STUPA • Ashoka built almost 84000 stupas to propagate Buddhism. • Resting on raised platform. • Originally half the size of what appears today. • 70’. • Eg Stupa at Sachi.

3) Use of permanent material for religious structures – stone 4) Secular structures made up of perishable materials. 5) Timber construction details used during Vedic period were adopted in the rock cut Buddhist era. .CONCLUSION 1) Two school of thought – Hinayana – Mahayana 2) Spread of Buddhist led to construction of several stupas & monolithic pillars through the country.

art & architecture recorded a commendable development. palaces. Maurya period – religious symbols. – Eg Karli caves. Stone was used as building material.Rock cut caves Stupas Sculptures . Bhaja. Shunga period – Stupas & Viharas. temples.SAATVAHANAS • • • • • • During Shungas – Saatvahanas period.ARCHITECTURE UNDER SHUNGAS . Rock cut architecture initiated during Mauriyas & developed during the Shungas. Ajanta Mahayana belief started Architecture divided into. The kings encourage Buddhism.

– 2nd century BC – 7th century AD caves • 2nd century BC – 2nd century AD • 3rd century AD – 7th century AD . • Western India – Saihyadri hills – Ajanta. • East India – near Bhuvaneshwar – Khandagiri & udaygiri hills. Karli.ROCK CUT CAVES • Rock cut caves were constructured in Eastern as well as Western India.

25 – Viharas • Cave no 10 – oldest chaitya hall .AJANTA • Art & Architecture at Ajanta development during this period i.36’0” high Dead end – semacircular Stupa – decorated Cave no 12 : oldest vihara .96’6” long .Mahayana style – 300 BC – 700 AD • In all 29 caves – 4 Chaitya hall.41’3” wide . 4 chambers on each of the 3 sides of the hall.e.&th century AD • Ajanta – Hinayana style – 200BC – 200 AD . . inner hall square – 38’ side flanked by colonnades on both sides.200 BC . 2nd century BC .

– In all 37 columns – 15 column on two sides. – Chaitya window – entrance façade. – Pradakshinapath – around the stupa. – Stupa right at the centre . . 7 around garbhagrih.KARLI CAVES • One of the huge chaitya . with hermica at its crown. • Main features – Two upright pillars with lion capital at entrance. – Circular barrel vaulted roof – Wooden ribs on underside of roof. – Double storied façade resting on columns. • Chaityagrih extremely beautiful.

Capital – elaborately carved . . with 7 columns around. Octagonal shaft. Hall – 124’ long 45’6” wide 45’ high Semicircular end . resting on inverted pots.Pillars with carved capitals. Pitcher shaped pedestal.

STUPAS • Famous Ashokan built Stupas at Sachi. elaborately decorated torna. Bharhut. . • Stupa was extended & cladded with stone. stairway added. • Extention. Buddthgaya were renovated & extended during the Shungas. vedica constructed . • Several new elements were added to these monuments. • Initially a Stupa & a monolithic pillar were constructed by Mauryan emperor Ashoka. renovation & new construction was undertaken by Shunga king in mid 200 BC.

Diameter of stupa – 120’. Hermica surruonded by the vedica. Stairway towards the south. 4 ornate tornas.The Stupa has following elements 3 tiered canopy at the summit of the hemispherical dome. elevated ambulatory path around the Stupa. . Height of Stupa – 54’.

various forms of Buddha & variou other scenes & ornamentation. Relief work on torna – scenes related to life of Buddha. Horizontal post member known as SUCHI.VEDICA Constructed early half of the 200 BC. Vedica divided into 4 segments by 4 tornas facing the cardinal points. vertical post known as THABA. . Principles of wooden architecture have been adopted in totality.. Consist of stambha i. all joint by tennon & mortise joint in stone.e. coping in stone.

CONCLUSION • Use of more permanent material. . • Details of timber construction seen in stone • Rock cut architecture flourished in western region • Subject matter of art & architecture from public life.

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