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CnA1Lk 14

Nat|ona| nea|th Concerns Water Safety


1 1he ubllc PealLh Servlce lnsLlLuLes waLer bolllng advlsorles w/flood condlLlons as a means Lo reduce waLer borne
lllness
a Avoldance o drlnklng sLreams paraslLlc lnfecLlons llke Clardla specles heavy meLals lead polsonlng
2 Arsenlc ls anoLher facLor
a new Lngland has hlgh concenLraLlons greaLer Lhan 10mcg/L of arsenlc occur ln groundwaLer
b WaLer from wells ln meLasedlmenLary bedrock unlLs found ln Malne new Pampshlre also has hlghesL
c Cver 100000 people w/prlvaLe wells could have waLer supplles w/arsenlc
3 MeLhods of arsenlc removal llke ferrlc sulfaLe coagulaLlon wlLh sand fllLraLlon
4 1o reduce rlsk of lead polsonlng Lap waLer musL run from 12 mlnuLes
Nat|ona| nea|th Concerns neavy Meta| dur|ng regnancy and Lar|y Ch||dhood
1 Lead arsenlc and Mercury are neuroLoxlns and cause lrreverslble braln damage
2 8lood laed concenLraLlon of lnfanL found Lo be largely affecLed by maLernal blood lead levels
a Women wlLh hlgher blood lead levels have noLed Lo have lower hemaLocrlL and serum levels of folaLe and
ascorblc acld w/low Lhlamln lnLake
1 Cure dleL counsellng of pregnanL women Lo ensure adequaLe lnLakes of lron folaLe and vlLamlns 81
and C may help lower lead levels ln lnfanLs
b Lead found ln palnL chlps dusL wlndowsllls hlgh concenLraLed soll LreaLed wood sand
1 Chlldren musL be remlnded Lo noL puL Lhelr hands ln Lhelr mouLhs unless hands are flrsL washed
3 llsh wlLh hlghesL mercury are swordflsh marlln shark and canned fresh and frozen Luna
a ln 1ennessee for example sLrlped bass ranged as hlgh as 079ppm well above Lhe 03ppm level
4 ln farmralsed vs wlld salmon walleye has Lhe exposure of polychlorlnaLed blphenyls (C8s) and mercury levels
weren'L hlgh enough Lo warranL wldespread resLrlcLlons on dleLs
Concerns Safe Iood Supp||es
1 leaLures lndlvldual servlngs of condlmenLs aL resLauranLs and plasLlc seals on [ars wlLh screwon llds
a lood lnspecLors oversee food processlng meLhods and resLauranL adherence guldellnes
1 lncludes sLorage of food aL safe LemperaLures safe foodhandllng procedures
b new LhreaL of bloLerrorlsm has lncreased securlLy around food supplles
c CuC recommends sLocklng prlvaLe sLores of food and waLer ln case of emergencles llke a radloacLlve fallouL
2 Analysls of conLenL decllne of Lhe 6 nuLrlenLs (proLeln calclum phosphorus lron rlboflavln and ascorblc acld) have
a decllne from use of hlghyleld crop varleLles
3 Safe use and regulaLlons for food addlLlves (subsLances added Lo foods generally Lo make Lhem safer Lo eaL) wlLh Lhe
Cenerally 8ecognlzed as Safe (C8AS) llsL
a 1hey musL be approved by Lhe uS luA and are llmlLed Lo speclflc amounLs
b 1hey musL meeL a speclflc [usLlflable need ln Lhe producL
c MusL noL promoLe decepLlon as Lo producL freshness quallLy or welghL
d MusL be LruLhfully and properly llsLed on label
4 lood Labellng helps prevenL problems for lndlvlduals w/food allergles and has become more sLrlngenL
3 lood lrradlaLlon ls belng used ln Lhe processlng of hlghrlsk foods such as meaLs Lo ellmlnaLe lnfecLlous paLhogens
a 8educe lnsLances of Lscherlchla coll polsonlng
b 1here ls sLlll publlc concern abouL posslble adverse effecLs of food lrradlaLlon
c Lx mung bean sprouLs wlLh low vlLamln C conLenL as Lhe radlaLlon dose lncreased
6 1he debaLe of organlc foods conLlnues recenL labellng regulaLlons have gone lnLo effecL Lo ensure consumers are
purchaslng organlc foods
a Crganlc means Lhe foods were grown w/ouL Lhe use of commerclal ferLlllzers and pesLlcldes
7 Lven Lhough farms musL be less rellanL on pesLlcldes and for consumers Lo purchase organlc foods Lhe consumer can
pay excesslvely for Lhe nuLrlLlonal beneflLs (an up and down effecL)
8 CeneLlcally modlfled foods lnclude LradlLlonal hybrld verslons of planLs and Lhe more sophlsLlcaLed geneLlcally alLered
foods
a CeneLlc manlpulaLlon of planLs has become more sophlsLlcaLed owlng Lo advances ln sclence
b lL's posslble LhaL physlcal exLracL genes from or add Lo planLs can change characLerlsLlcs of new planLs
9 1radlLlonal hybrldlzaLlon or crosspolllnaLlon has been used for cenLurles
a lanLs occur when pollen from one planL ls Lransferred Lo anoLher (encouraged/dlscouraged)
1 Lx broccoll ls blologlcally llke caullflower excepL lL ls green and hlgher ln beLacaroLene vlLC
10 Cne poslLlve use of geneLlc manlpulaLlon of planLs ls Lhe ablllLy Lo lnserL planL genes LhaL are naLurally reslsLanL Lo
lnsecLs
a 1hls reduce rellance on chemlcal pesLlcldes whlle sLlll feedlng Lhe world's populaLlon
b Some concerns are posslble adverse alLeraLlons ln nuLrlenL levels lncreased rlsk of allergles w/alLered
proLelns crossconLamlnaLlon w/crops noL geneLlcally englneered and LhreaLs Lo envlronmenL
11 Some geneLlcally modlfled foods have lnLenLlonally been alLered Lo ralse nuLrlenL conLenL of few vlLamlns mlnerals
and 8C
a 8loacLlve compounds found Lo be alLered ln geneLlcally modlfled grapefrulL
12 lor proLeln Lhere are no allerglc reacLlons from proLeln alLeraLlons buL Lhe poLenLlal for allergy rlsk sLlll exlsLs
Concerns nunger and Iood Insuff|c|ency |n Amer|ca
1 1he School Lunch rogram was developed from Lhe response of WWll's prevenLlon of young men Lo be admlLLed
a AnoLher evenL was Lhe 1960s domesLlc hunger from Lhe kennedy and !ohnson admlnlsLraLlons
2 1he 1980spresenL underconsumpLlon has agaln become an acuLe problem for many Amerlcans
a of Lhe persons llvlng ln poverLy many are chlldren
3 undernuLrlLlon has an adverse lmpacL on braln developmenL LhaL ls wldespread among chlldren ln Lhe uS
a lood lnsecurlLy and poor healLh of chlldren was noLed
b 8eporLs of low physlcal funcLlon adolescenLs have lower psychosoclal funcLlon
4 CbeslLy and dlabeLes occur ln Lhe hlghesL frequency among lowlncome populaLlon
a 1hls may be because reflned graln added sugars and added faLs are relaLlvely low ln cosL buL also have
llmlLed saLleLy value
b 1he WashlngLon SLaLe ueparLmenL of PealLh analyzed Lhe daLa lndlcaLe LhaL concern abouL food securlLy ls
assoclaLed w/obeslLy
c ln korean chlldren obeslLy assoclaLes wlLh food lnsecurlLy
d poverLy and food lnsecurlLy relaLe wlLh low food expendlLures low frulL veggle consumpLlon and low
quallLy dleLs
Concerns Nutr|t|on M|s|nformat|on
1 lood fads (qulckflx" dleL/supplemenL) and nuLrlLlonal quackery have mulLlplled as sclence of nuLrlLlon grows
a anyLhlng LhaL ls ouL of llne wlLh currenL sclenLlflc evldence ls consldered mlslnformaLlon
2 lood quack has been llkened Lo Lhe paLenL medlclne man of Lhe pasL
a use of sclenLlflc [argon Lo sell producL
b lL ls wlse Lo be susplclous of any wrlLer lecLurer or 1v speaker who makes clalms conLrary Lo accepLed lnfo
c use a scare Lechnlque wlLh regard Lo healLh clalm Lo be a sclenLlsL or auLhorlLy clalm assoclaLlon w/unheard
of organlzaLlon or aLLack Lhe luA
3 8us are auLhorlLles who are legally bound Lo glve sound sclenLlflc advlce on a varleLy of nuLrlLlonal lssues
4 Mlsleadlng promoLlon of food supplemenLs vlolaLes federal law buL neverLheless follows
a uoorLodoor sales healLh food lecLurers pseudosclenLlflc books and [ournals
3 1he besL way Lo buy vlLamlns and mlnerals ls ln Lhe packages provlded by naLure
1he Importance of Iood o|son|ng and now to revent |t
1 lood sanlLaLlon ls a maLLer of llfe and deaLh esp for Lhe dellberaLed or acuLely lll paLlenL or young chlld
a CondlLlons when preparlng and consumlng food should be clean
b When ln doubL Lhrow lL ouL
c keep hoL foods hoL and cold foods cold
2 PealLh communlLy depends on safe foods and waLer supplles
a Many agencles promoLe good sanlLaLlon pracLlces Lo prevenL and conLrol communlcable dlsease (dlsease LhaL
can spread from person Lo person ofLen vla waLer and food)
b Concerned wlLh all aspecLs llke food preservaLlon addlLlves prevenLlon of boLh naLural bacLerlal food
polsonlng waLerborne dlseases and Lhe dangerous effecLs of pesLlcldes and oLher Loxlc chemlcals
c 1he uS ubllc PealLh Servlce Lhe prlnclple healLh agency of Lhe federal govL concerns lLself w/all facLors
d llCP1 8AC ls a naLlonal efforL Lo educaLe Lhe publlc on lmporLance of prevenLlng foodborne lllness
sLraLegles
3 Lack of sanlLaLlon lnsufflclenL cooklng and lmproper sLorage allows bacLerla ln food Lo lncrease Lo dangerous levels
a Serve food soon afLer cooklng/refrlgeraLe prompLly PoL foods may be refrlgeraLed lf Lhey do noL ralse Lhe
LemperaLure of Lhe refrlgeraLor Lo greaLer Lhan 43 degl
b keep food ln refrlgeraLor unLll served/reheaLed
c Speed coollng of lefLovers by refrlgeraLlng Lhem ln shallow conLalners
d keep hoL foods hoL (aL LemperaLures greaLer Lhan 140degl) and cold foods cold (less Lhan 40degl) lood may
noL be safe Lo eaL lf held more Lhan 23 hours aL LemperaLures beLween 60l and 123l Lhe zone whlch bacLerla grow
qulck
e 1horoughly clean all dlshes uLenslls and work surfaces w/soap and waLer afLer each use Also clean
equlpmenL and work surfaces LhaL have been used for raw food before uslng Lhem Lo cook
f Always wlpe up spllls wlLh paper Lowels or oLher dlsposable maLerlal
g 1horoughly cook meaL Lo avold Lcoll
h lf odor/color of any food ls poor or quesLlonable Lhrow lL lmmedlaLely
now ersona| nyg|ene Affect Safety
1 lnfecLlon of food w/bacLerla sLarLs ln farm flelds by workers who lack personal hyglene plcklng frulLs and veggles
a 8aw frulLs and vegeLables need Lo be washed because of lnsecLs or larvae lefL poLenLlal dlseases
b Cnce food ls ln Lhe house lL can be crossconLamlnaLed from oLher foods such as raw meaL
c Pandwashlng ls cruclal Lo prevenL crossconLamlnaLlon
1 8aw meaL poulLry seafood eggs veggles and oLher foods LhaL may have been conLamlnaLed
2 Anyone who has lnfecLlous dlsease should noL handle prepare or serve food hence bacLerla ln lnfecLed cuLs or oLher
skln lnfecLlons may be Lhe source of foodborne lllness
a lood handlers musL always work wlLh clean hands halr flngernalls and cloLhlng
1 Pands need Lo be washed LhroughouL each afLer" evenL
2 lood should be mlxed uslng clean uLenslls raLher by hand gloves are mosLly helpful
Some IoodSafety Issues for C|der Adu|ts
1 lood preparaLlon shopplng and sLorage can be very demandlng [obs for many elderly persons llvlng alone
a MosLly Lhe elderly are mosL suscepLlble Lo food polsonlng
b 1lghL budgeLs and lngralned feellngs abouL wasLe cause many elderly people Lo sLore food longer Lhan ls safe
c WlLh low vlslon and sense of LasLe and smell food spollage may go undeLecLed
1ypes of Iood o|son|ng
1 Salmonella
a SympLoms severe headache followed by vomlLlng dlarrhea abdomlnal cramps fever lnfanLs elderly and
persons w/low reslsLance are mosL suscepLlble severe lnfecLlons cause hlgh fever and may cause deaLh
b CharacLerlsLlc LransmlLLed by eaLlng conLamlnaLed food/by conLacL w/lnfecLed persons/carrlers
2 SLaphylococcus aureus
a SympLoms vomlLlng dlarrhea prosLraLlon abdomlnal cramps generally mlld and ofLen aLLrlbuLes Lo oLher
causes
b CharacLerlsLlcs 1ransmlLLed by food handlers who carry bacLerla and by eaLlng food conLalnlng Lhe Loxln
3 ClosLrldlum boLullnum
a SympLoms uouble vlslon lack of swallowlng speech dlfflculLy progresslve resplraLory paralysls
b CharacLerlsLlc 1ransmlLLed by eaLlng food conLalnlng Loxln
4 ClosLrldlum perrlngens
a SympLoms nausea w/ouL vomlLlng dlarrhea acuLe lnflammaLlon of sLomach lnLesLlnes
b CharacLerlsLlc 1ransmlLLed by eaLlng food conLamlnaLed w/abnormally large numbers of bacLerla
3 Lcoll
a Abdomlnal cramps bloody dlarrhea
b CharacLerlsLlcs 73000 cases of lnfecLlon and 61 deaLhs annually kldney fallure occur 27 of cases lllness
resolved 310 days
6 LlsLerla
a SympLoms lever headache nausea vomlLlng pregnanL women can geL flullke sympLoms of chllls fever
alLered menLal sLaLus headache and selzures wlLh menlnglLls
b CharacLerlsLlc SympLoms occur from 2 days Lo 6 weeks dangerous Lo unborn bables and persons
w/compromlsed lmmune sysLems lnfecLlons LreaLed w/anLlbloLlcs