Power Factor Training

Understanding the


As this prlf'U;tng of Power FMtor Tmlning goes to press, <II: leas[~Tenty th usand athletes and bodybuild rs ill tlfty~ei ht countrie are tra:inLng with this systeOl and achlev] g heir bes results ever. What exactlv is POW"l' Facto Tralning~ How d d ft miginate? A nd why is it s n effecti wel To previde answer.., to these questions, we must begin. by explaining the very nature o~ thernusde rrowth process. To begin with, mu... growth l~ a de product uf hyper rophy, or the enl<ll:rgin~ 0 ~x.istillg muscle cells, This was rabli hed al our:a hundre years. go by the research of Morpurgo and ha been reaffirmed eonclusivelv ever since, ~ The pmeess f hypertrophy is one of muscular adaptation to l!llp-used overload and occurs only through an



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I I., till. JQhn. II Title,

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This book i. d ilicated tu et.:er)1 bod.,. ·ui!der and. aclJ!e't~ who has an inqul.ring. rmional mind.; ro etltfYpe-l'SV'Il u.'IH:! an throw off c Jte chains of comfortable hfibit and unproven premises and mati!? in til I1~W direcnol'1 d'lal IS guided by reason ilnd abservaticmal eVI~ del1ct!. no mcut!;:T whae duu dimcliofl takes him; to Ever, .j'x:rSon wrao t1'1t:.sa thing and immediatdy fhinks 4'How c.mt I make thi.s beuc-rl"; to e!"~ry person wlw is unafraid w challeng;e Me faf.~c bdi~f.~ ,he herd ~ndlead omers Du~.of the tliJVt\\I and ll1W of the .liglH·. J n the parlance of bvd)lhudtling" it; is die people wi [h these "gene-s" who are ,mil, the ,gre,act,..,r champions of the iU"m.«n race, To die~e people, nor J'Wlt:. in die science of human strength bur in

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It win provide yol. Properly defined. For i_ru~am:e. so not all conclusions obtained from current u·ai ning research cnn be aid to .e.e wrth every exercise and everv workout.In the past. Further.k done (mcrease 0. they we re (Jb rained a fu iii 'ten years be fore testosterone wa s (tnt isolated. ul from an rncrease in the inrensi y of wor.. In :my human CD normal. ub".lbjccts participaring in the study were unquestionably "natural.l with a mesas t~) measure the effecdve nes of any individua] exercis . h avrer the weight. it w s deml.lt'crlwlll. healihy ph~ISi· ology.rhe volume o· muscular output (pounds pet minute is t~."s . Tholl degre fif precision is unheard of in bocl-1. as far b de. i.J completely avoid overrramtrrg and to ensure tha every workout ill producti ve. Power Factor TmLningworks in 100 p rcent of cases b "cause h stried". research conclusions just uoted demon rrare elinically h· t. "Only \l"h n im nsit~{is increased [overload] does hvpert ophy fo]low. 01: m mths. the gI'e@lt~f the rnu5Cuhlr verload. Firsr.building. __ Hypertl"Ophy is seen only III muscles that" must perrorm . Research conducted hy Roux-Lange indi 'lI:ed. foLlowing these two fun lamentals will lead (0 bi gee.3 with a simple method to quanti V the amount of ll'luscula:r overload tha't you ge:nerat. Dr. as 19'56. Steinhaus lndicatcs. great amount nf wcrk in a unit of ~im~.2 TIle other tndispcnsahle clement in the muscle growth process is' he amount of work yom 11 uscles are made to perform in 2! given unit of time. has come 1i:O b regarded as synonymous wh:h the amount of weight a musch . so OlH of the S1. whereas the rotal amount of work done is withUti t worked. Arth ur H. with gr~. through the cvercoming of ill gr"'~u~:r estsr ranee ln <Ii unit of ume than before."On]y 'I"'} en a muscle perform . regardless of age or ~el1der. which Is meaured in pounds PCl!" minute. for dean arhleres. every workout. is made w contract -: ag<llins'~. and. Mas r me thods did not. iii: win provide <1 means f. the behef that natural body~ builders need peri dizarlon (for example.. 1r ohevs rhese in ~VCq.ys the ·wo fundamental of muscle gro h: high intensity of muscular overload. trainees ju { adopted a rrainlng me hod mar sounded gooJ1 followed iii: fOT 51 vera! \Iii ·eks. will its functional C]"05 ecriun need t Increase . me . in the Context ofrhese T esults.e sole contributing (@. T aday. w rk in <I Ul111" urne}.n) FW"thcr research by Petow and Siebert 'put a finer point onrhe issue of overload (inten· si y/ duration): "Hyp rtrophv rc.lIpply [0 natural bCldVhuiId~fl!i.'H<~nifiC:<lntor a number of reasan .cwr1tO the prucess of muscle growth.11Y CU'ITent training trends. drug tearing of experimental ubjecrs repr sents a prohrhutve and impractical cost. Perhaps most important. £0gressrve overload. maximum overload is d"le greatest pessible muscular output over at me The e results are . s ign iftc anc e. stronger muscles. Howev r.Jn' suated cHnicalty that weight per se is only pan (although ~ large [1< rt admirredlv) ofthe hypcrtwphv ~qual:im:l. Add 'I t iL1 n £l1 rese arc h c endue ted b~. in C ntrast.' exercise and in. Th unplications of such data art: certainly srartllng in light of l"l'101. actormg into your workout schedule periods of lower muscular OIJtpUl) to stimulate muscle growth doesn't ring true." ~ THE OV£RLOADEQ AnON The rerm r." rhar 18~ of normal human enducrLnolog1'.. In fact. f particularly: or "dean" athletes [natural trainee -). then arrempred to subjec ively <1SSC5S wh~ther il had yOll r p( wet Fact r Tra1mng will pwv[de given unit Ll time.u~E power.

the beginning o~ everv wOlkouI.fdng nf £xncmdy weLghc~..•10 4' 53 67 73 Develo] jng Ligament Strength: The Key to Panrasnc Power 7 . Alw<lYs couloult wid'L IjOur ph'l"Slcilm before 6 gmn Ing a_ny progrem of pmgressive wI. A~ a result.:n yuu are ·xen. e::dst. espedflU'i 'b~ljelevel of ilil. • and joints is mand WiImJ'UP Wr)T 1').u~des.~L reClulr~ bDth 31. Un iver e CDl1\'!l.jiardy and Of pam wh .15 pwgran11nv()~ve~ a ~t!ilemflI1C 'Pt'ogr~lon of mil' ular overload rhat leads to [he li. top 'mmes Contents Foreword by MLke Mentzer.:ryb:oefi if the mnnee is not ijl'f. this is II very mtcnse p~ogrilm.i~I'flQ'.CAUTION! 111. 1 Understanding the Funclamemals z The Power Index 29 4 5 Moniwnng Maximum or Optimum Results Overlo d for Maximum G·~· . WARNING. Alrnough tial for iOPiCY dues. the: pore:nIn exen:I5C ii v!. H you (tel my strain .r hgal1'lenl.'tLl a thorough knowtedg~ of pUJpeT e:Xl!ici~eform strength fit:ness.Ilt your phyS'LCI:UI. a pmpe.[ hea\'1' of m. Mr.: i~ht [La minI!!of exeid~e:.J(ld J1hyskal conJition. Ai. tendons.

an act: of choice. the degree nf it!.ic h to eva Iuate him. More John important {including abl e effort is the the OV~ fact rhar. du~y udvocare .~ bodv's limired recovery fll1ibty.. Fact vs. He hat) acquired a finn tntclle tllal undersrandmg of rh theory nf high~ in. volinonal effort. developmenr in an Indl\ddlla:l IS the proper s[and rd by wh. his Ole ns (j survivs t which c n on~y b used by :. tor Tm'ir'ling t 99 147 Budybui1ding. aren't the measure of a man. etion 165 199 14.lJl rep [mining.3t such effnrt exacts on th." Index 237 "Muscles ince man's mind is his bio- logically Ji tinctrve trait. urrlike most bodybullders tor champIons}. but he has been a serious 'hodybuilder fOT over (irt en years. Yom Logbook 225 133 Foreword Arthur jones once said to a ')routt~Mike Mentzer. W~thin rhe framework of that rhcorj.tensity rraining. John has exerred consrderr 11 long peri od of time !>ruJying the actual science of prnducnve bodvbuildtng exercise. Taking of the 'toll rh. Lint has never won a physique title. john and P'uWier Facror Training codeveloper Peter Sisco have developed a uniqu ~ application into account d~ rhar emphasizes magntrude vcry heavy overload- ing of the mil 'cuhll:ure u "tng parri.8 9 10 Your Ideal Rcunne The Ten Best EKe' -ises fr 89 power F.

lly represents a ['evolution in. Once overload h.i. (0 ir. The greater the inten- bined with specific exercises yielded the highes[ mlLSCU~ tar output and.POWERFACTOR Using Power Factor Training. Think flbollt this fo.It was this.c [MIXING - I SC' LAR OVERLOAD WhHe the c.sIr.u.~J!Ta~ 0 rna i t till1:lm mtTing [he um Je. and for your em ire workout.le growth stimulation. w~ quickly Ji covered thm: one method comIn lhc.! • went up 200 poin[s. This level of precision i_md! isolation t£l. YOll may.te a precise Power Factor and Power Index for each exerci se you pecl'o:rm.J s lse and strength .. I M . mdl~. you wdl he able to cnlcu1. unambiguoU8 con lusion tbat k:d 'ILO the develnpm nt of Power stlmulnte rnnnon.1 ulate ahead of time what workout you will be [e\.re and wI y you fell short.ning can measure the muscular ourpur of an" xerci e or training method. s been dearly us rlated <16 he sole stimulus that induces muscular hypertrophy.XGlctly wh .5 rhesc studies prove ccaclusivelv rn<lt muscle grows larger solely i roportion to the puunds pel minute wor volume (the oveJilQad) apphed.uil'cd to p dorm next time out tnorder to meet your goals of iacre ase. you'll mow \:.).Tk1ts m ans that every workout can pav uff m !. for example. Factor Training.'iltv or overload. TH.JI. ihe greater the hypertrophy. find that: ~four shrug powe'li went down 7 percent ven when ycm bench press pow"r went up 34 percent and Y(lUr overall Power 1l1. that provides the gre test overload will the greaten muscle growth.. trengthtrs ining. hend .ornpLltations used in Power Factor Tr::l. a m m nr. heno . then if lo~icalll' foUows that a tram~ng method.':. 'You will also be ~H.e to 1.. . "~eSJi• . That method was partial repetitions performed m the muscle's strongest range of .[he highe t level f rnu .1 pf :mli'fl rencil n1l.1!llins' tf it doesn't.

. Further. Many terms (elate [Q advanced rechniques of rrai n lug.l f. ni's.aught in the h. MIKE MENTZER. Over rhe SCIUTI_" 11l2. bi's. Terms such a r.FACT of P. WI ll concentrat on the few th ar you need 1:0 know m order eo uodersrsnd Jower F· cr r Training.much longer rest periods between workouts thf~n most high~ Inre nsuy tra j rung theol'is{$.L1~' months rhat John and Peter used . REP and PO\VEl{. tl-$o(. . . The terms of the bodybuildt:r~ fortufl::1Iely.m.d thev have olid evidenc~ that it works. Not uuly 1 I:heilr '['lower FacmT Train. quarter of them.derstandmg of the science of produ five bnJ). 'r. ou have in YOU'l" pOllsesslOll a hook of encrrtn01l1 value. as Cae ar's L tin. r. _ For tbllSe &eeking not m"lly hetter rdults. int imid. p-eexhaill[h".in. and Tlegaflt!i:~. to outsider'S.owerf.i r's not even necessary fm the average athlete to learn more than.g.bmld1l"lg e>:erC'ist:. eve ope P0w~r Fac or Tmi"l11n.ates ETS.iJi:i t1~j" as cl~ey m u y at £h~[ appear. Ie t us define Uln t£nru.~are common 1:0 rhc bodybuilder but h:<1vC the lmriate looking like <I deer c. sounds as foreign. ComequcmlYt 'the pracnrloners o this sport use 3 Jargon that. 0 they fI re not necessa ry fOD:" the 'purposes of 99 r [cent of trainees.1.~forced rel)s.. but also a b~t~ ret un.cadlight5 0 an oncoming car..e:ps. The Ja. are nor as.heol'~'UcaLly . MR" UNIVERSE Definitions "Firs r.. _.aemr Trra:ming I BS. supeneL~.rtn.rgo!El Indrviduals who elig~lgein bodybuilding ar • genuine subculture of the population.}uhn re:pnned ito me penodlCaLl~ the I dd I fabulous results they were achieving.

Only when the overload reaches an fHIl.ti!ve i. Th ere' are no un irs of mess urernent.'er Factnr ill measured in pounds IJer ulinute~ PF = ¥'. (t I· exnressed as P.r ·overlnad):: The roral amount Df work performed by themuscles white lifrtug weights.IEF LESSON IN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Befcrre yoy can eifenhrdy train your muscles. you need to know how they function so you CUl. =!!£: X 10-6 wh~re PI is the rower Index.PF ts the Power Factor.lld:ica~ tor of museu l. where .ful in your quest to build a strongc-r and betrer-] oki.lnd how thrs knowh:dg>e wll] make you rome !Succcs. me POUND AGE: The amount of weight <11\\ OT resistance used on vations QfPc'~e. ONE. naruraHy enough.. a brief rest of thlxt~' to ri'ine'ty seconds is raken after performing a senes yf tepetincns. P unds. In. and exercises i. TIle Power factor and Power [nd.n any given workoue or tlralfimj. It. best uircd W Himular.<lking thi$ a cumphc3rcd physio]og~ci:l1lH15~e:rt:. The PO'I.ng puslti ~m of fuH extension to [) finish posincn 0' f.io:' them to gmw. and I i the toml time m mInufes.REP: Shorthand for repennon: the conrracncn and/oT extension of a muscle gwup (rOTtI a smrli. W is the [oral wdght lifted.nd '>ttengl:h.• POWER lNDJiX (Pi ): A mea mremenr of rhe durnrioll of a given p~)wer Facto.OU1'U greater ·th<Ltt wh a r the musdes are normany used ro performing does an adaptive response (grow th) take place. sets. W is the total weigl. described as repetitions [raps). Withou'c m.JJ'tion. Generally. select the exercise OVERLOAD {muscula. let's examine just a few four bodie s' basic srru rures. of rhe total arnrnmt of work performed by [he muscles whHe lifting weights. from workout to workout. N.LlU contraction and its subsequent rerum to the sterting po Ieicn. the w~y (hey work together.:.'iseo. .: An increasing progression. A BR. r output.l5 intended as a re(ill. r lifted. A series of such movements is. and l h. The Power Lnde~ is meaured 01"1 a tog-aritlirnk scale and . PROGRES lVE OVERW'AD.EP MAJ\.R.eJ( l1'leasuremenrs are inno1:". PRODUCTIVE t( overload ROUTINE': The sum of reps. exercise...ng boJ~r. SETS: AcuUect ion of repetitions (anvwhere rom one 1:0 one hundred ()F more).1MUM: The heaviest amount of resisranee that youc1iIn llfr for one repetition. the roral LIme in minur . \VORKOUT: A worke ur (If suffki~rtr trigger a growth r-espOr14C in the central nervous SlrSU~i:n! causing an increase in muscle size a.! sessiun.Therest between sers aUow~ trainee ro catch his breath and provides time or the muscle group Involvedrn [he set eo partially i~cuperate+ PO\VER FACTOR {PFh A measurement of the inrenslrv of mlJscular overload during an exerci e.

the (iher I1e·cruitmem process. overload rrainlng.He 'was limned to thls welght br.rtd5for~petitlon5 in km strongest range. to six weeks Of more ~depe nding upon. hlp the metabolic waste producls of the workou and to replenish their energy reserves after a very dramlng maximum-overload workout." TI. acadernics aside. three distinct phases m\cL'or tale place. caps le ll. the I'csulting' hypertrophy.I[! or what Roux-1Btlge called "agreat amount of work ina unit ef time.Wbv? S'~ln:plvbecause the greai'cr weiglus.ec nd phase i that o[ recovers. SYSTEMlC RECOVERY W~th Power Factor TraU'lillg~ Irs been estab]ish. But: hecause he was lacktil into the notion that he had to pe. which.ckly discerned that his muscles were capable of handling much mere resistance than he had been pwvidlng them. F'tfst. grow. It's always stimulate.:INS. yom nervous system){' to a hig~ [even of muscular OIlJ[P'l. However.!. more mu de fiber. it ~Lmply 'lands to reason that tram b ngto fai hue in you r strongest range of motion wi ill 'much h~3Vie1'w~ight5 lS a IClr.Ishlg ."'eight up a few inches from your chest.range reps (~'m develop thefuU muscle") cnlv Lhe amounr of fiber requlred to move ZOOp unds were ever called into play. u( course.:cause that was the most he could handle w hi le train ing in his weakest tarlge. At leas tone. \viU take place onlV atter the recovery process has run its tOut e. a workout must also be gl'eater. in fact.e .eight thai: his muscles were capable of hfung in l'HS strongest range.s tudl' indica ted that the actual growth of muscle may occur in as Ill' ie. however.. The third and final phase is the growrh process itself.1. Then: is no way to force your body tn skip steps one and two."eight on [he bench press was 100 pmmds. we ~llJi.ed [hat working om even as litth as three days per week can qtuckLy lead 'CO overtraining" This dues not refer simply . r..once supervised the workouts of a ~ubj!ectwhmt: maximum workout \I. gtol1. f~fteen minutes during leep. Once he srarted uainin~ with the maximum w. his size and strength gJfieW conststentlv.• timu] 1[. bench press as Ol example.. The heavier the \1. The strangest range.tl full . grow . An re cove r. recov. rasults in a greater depth of systemic fi:3tigue. As we've learned. combined WLID the greater muscular flll~U'I: required to move them. the level of museular outpur employed during the trairdng session and ' he subjecrs innate illdaptOlbihty to exercise. Furth~l'. he was. The eontennon 'that he requrred a fuU range 0 moth~n in order to build the ennre breadth Rod length of his muscles has heen proven erroneous ewing to innervation. we've r1t:cendy learned rhar completing this process can take anywhere from two or three d . LOCALIZED MUSCLE RECOVERY VS.1. arrd the nature of I THE THREE PHASES OF MUSCLE IGROWTH for muscular rnase to increase. this can only be accnmplished through subjecting vour muscles (and. \Vr.365 PG'11. Both the body and the systems.arin no case will muscle growth occur until adequate stirnulatfon h1'l_~ l-een achieved and total recovery is complete. you must remember db. that feed the bad V IT)1J 11: be given time to dean.mcue incense and clemand~ iog (han 1:r1lLning ro failme in your weakest range of mociun. In fa ~.Iei~htllt!mployed1 he greater the muscular output and. OOCUf-S during the [ast few inches of your reach. are required and activated (U move them. the recovery period (ollowtng sud.Using the. more specifically. However.vth must be stlmulated within the body. the weakest range _( motion is where you first move the ".rforl. ince the wdghrs are heavtcr. Training in the strongest range of motion allows you to employ tremendouslv heavy wdghts.f \.

.. smoorh. resul Ing ill.let.nom [ine in the quest for biggt!r and muscles is progr~. The human boJy has over 600 skel(!ml muscles-a f<ltio of al m{j~t three dk:elern! III Llscle:. 'Their compactness dererrnlnes to a vcr)' i~rge extent the flexiblliry of the join [h. wlrhouk nerves.ls .cus~ 'tamed to. not the muscle. pennanem damage rothis tissue. Puwt!r actor Tr'olming Increases the $iRe of [he ske.d the nervou:. BOoNE .PttlCe. Cmx:li::.'5~i\l'eresistartea.CENTRAL NERVOUS SrST1!M (C '5): The spinalruro and brain. Their funcrtnn i to atl:ach muscle to bone.an conrracc ::lnd produce motren.Jll&e yoUt muscle.! tendons tnem~ selves Me tht: GOb~1 tendon organs. cles arc rc:~'Ponsible for moving our bones. b<tnds thin bind bone to bone. LiGAMENTS: .. The . Cannon must be exercised when training because. In WI.ibrom. which consists of the gElnglia olnd nerves rhm reside outside of the brant and Ilpinal cord. to every bene. Skeletal rnus- . if a iigtilnem is srrerehed too far" the jomr it holds together will become loose.ers. Th~ human skd. eleron. The CNS funcnons in conjuncnon with th periph 'Cal nervous sYHt:m.:.lgn_al 01" h. from allparrs of the bony. you need [0 3pply Of. h:. The nervous SYMem • ppears like thollsand~ of hn:l~wires that function as rransmrrters. lt 15 responslbl for ii!1udating the mus les of your body to contr cr. the ache that you expersence during srrcnuousexercrse is being IT'<lflSmin:ea via [he tendon.. Smooth muscle assists organs uch as the seomach and intestines in the passage and digesnon offood.ey serve. lt IS of vital irnporranee to buth the aspiring and competitive bodybuilder as.. The btl.have oven:::ompel. recei .ernn COn.OlJU1'tS.~l muscles. and interpreters et dOll... rf vou're able to increa e your resisrance by your fiex~ workoU[" it's I ~C.~}Irem thaI: IS aft01~hed to i[.ypertToph~r is overload.. thar is. and skeleral. Bones k meve when pulled hy mu des attached [0 bones by tendons. makmg Ihe muscle work harder rh nit i nOITlloU')o' !lC. for our highJ~' ~\'vl~'ed d.c muscle ts in the heart.:: mmobtlecd because our musdes l wouldn't conrract. we'd b-i.exteriry and precision in rnovemenr. which send srgnals ro [he blain indic. HYPERTROPHY: The process ('jf increaliing mutSdl:lsi!t. Generallv.~The hard cnnnective ti -ue rher makes up the . load or 01reSIStance for 'rhe muscle ro COnrr<lcr against. tvhkh aCc.cumpl~c<Jiredas some authors may have led you to h lieve.1rll1g stress and fatigue levels. and 'tho t resis'[OInce must be p'mgr~SI. 51 ron~er Thar' TENDON! Dense bands Ot rhe ends of muscles. NRJSClES:: Body tissue that c. ed frotiil yOW' previous n training sesston by getting bigg-cr nod frongfi". itself isn't as. AI:cecurs ~.Iv e (rom one workuut to the next. The body hasthree distinct kinds of muscle nssue: cardia . To overload a IUU de.'! a direct resuk of demands pbced upon a lllli:sdeim.sIS(S of 106 bones. The s.

n t just your legs. Exerc LSLnI'{ in the strongest range Df motion.!! W fa!:r~n Ln )lOUT ~"'On. if yml rruin nonspecifically (that is.Il"101de u pon 3111 of your bC1Jt'! recuperarive subsystems (kidneys.: physical system as a wbole. with flLH~IW1ge movements).s. the results win come f<lpidly lD PT'O' portton to the (l erlo d yOl1lmp sc on -our muscles and their corresponding output. liver. This {act gave rise to STsCO]~ maxim: "Every ay i kidney day. Conversely.. de rnands were .:lVlf'f' 'ljJ~iIl"JIUiJ Il to t mlJl'r unense (l11d.OS[ urtdamental to aproper understanding of the cause-an -effect relatlcn 'hlp between exer i~ and mus ole growth.g.The reason i:). whenever you exercise. Lees llzed muscula r~cov~ e:rryacrus 111' takes p lace verv rap ld ty (in twenty -fcurhoues i some cruse). your legs ma\r weB have recov ired by Tucsuay.inc! inf..i. As a result.1ldon. ay '[hat when ~rntl [min specifically for ire and strength [rraimng in youutr'ongcst r nge of rucuon wi h maxlrnum overload}. ignorefo the development of flexibl. trainrng effects.mply that ynur wh( le .ll dtan lfmning wtl'lk~s{ faT}gt" (If 11 [ion.oF TRAINING 7hrinill.\ioystem lS called UpOICl. su nee ir to . We'll.. pan. When you rraincd ymu legs the I.'I1! expense of maximum muscular d -velopmem.Lng r<:l(~ tis] . . ince your whole systemiscalled upon every time you work our. creas etc. But !try to do a heavy back workoutl You won't feel the SI"e'dfk training methods result in ~pcdn(..ecClv"ry of [h. maximizing rnuscular ( verload.lhllny ll'my be increa cd hut ar [j. the neuromuscular t-r ming stimujus i divided at lea t 1:\\'0 difft:rent ways: (]) muscular size arul strength and (2) flexibll iry. In physiology circles.SI: mngenf TfUn1011 !:!"M m~lch ht'. Full range of rucuon is no a requirement for uver1o.:mannlTl. rh is book. lf you perform 10 S~[S ot heavy quats on MOD a'l. you've got to 2it~ow rue whole 6yslcm rime [0 f' • vet after each ~ nrkout-not just rhe specific body pan that VOU trained..fly more about this tmpertanrphv • to logical princ rp le late r in. flex. W fdih{111 in )lOUT to localned muscle r acovery bu ratnert the r... u .IJling a muscle: and overload is the only systerrm: .). this is known as the specific adaptatlo to impo ed demands (SAID prlncipl and is ~mong the m.Jay before.liry in fa\'O'r of .a. For ][lOW.." SPECIfICITY .

.'Llu6d~ ~w[h. 11.l3i'li: overlnad is provided .lrnmaa & '8. Physical Educat10n <Inti Recreation a few. 308-10 (1981).-CXr.. 427-33 (1\125). Stfl~l1gthfrom Mtlrprngo [il) Mme{~::J half ce:1lI1.hYJ... 10Z.3-102 0973} nd by P. H. Usner rtmk!iofteUe iinprustlng Julius Sprmger.~ reseaech was CDITohorotcd by du:expermu!ms of iPh~[C1logli~ such as W..the average rrai nee.tl~[ange rnovemerus.Lff:O '. Sid'lt'iT &. and Untl!NllJc.frarc. Ph:mG. 'ome Lndividuah: such as Bm iKazfnaier.150.2.lber Arb. RflUX-langCl. g.1I'Y ofw£ean:::h.&1w. Z. PhY~I. ::Iran annual meetmg. 1. IT [be~f weak range of motion is this strong. H. 1:0 the m.rease. Studh:s on muscle Hbet '5pli[rirL~. Ueber ACfivi~affi. 36 3.l d:umu:::teril<1riol'l. Howeve r. 40" 45-55 (]978) ha~'. in shokr<'ll muscle..th potential.'lel1ttl'Jphle del: wlkurl. C19-46 (i980). Maluln. it i capable of recruiting and sUmulflting even more muse le fiber·.~I Ther. James &. l'lf the American Associa'[ion 0' [AAnrm] m 1931).tl7lm of Applwd P~)!r.llJ.bypertmphie de~ Muskels. Granted. 1loUy '& Ashmo re. 191 n US. Vihlro III rh Enropean }lJl. Steinhaus. Vi1fChoos Arch. 5. Professor of Ph~' icai. 147-50 (Sepr.11l'IIWUS l'l"l.hllngell uber Hvpuerrrnphie des Skcllet-muskels. KIm Med. t 1956).ioJ. Muscular enlargem n{ and number of fiben in skeletal muscles of mQ.dated. Peruw. W.il sll'e'L'Igm ill.:ci'I"I.kht:n M usi. Smdicn tiber Arbelt!. S[udien I. orne by fu. . m.ti.~demWl3. r. and Gollni k. PefOW. Athertoll.H~brnmh & S.). A. 122-44 (1891). J.Jowth in ell icken wing muscles. V.J that UlniiLbteal rratning prndllce fl biltucr. le~btFl!e.ifl.o. there by increasing their muscle g[l.els.dY. E'''p¢f'i~uitl.m. 3'0-59 (1928).:"I\. for fun-range reps! hut this s. Houtz. ApJl.amo.Re't'let!J:I'. . NOTES L Morpu1:'ll.:al:iotl. TIlmon. . bUI: that overload IS not anywhere nea what it has [he potential to be.t'Iu~nce Df [he central l'Ier"'uu~ s~'stem upen the rnuseularun .HI resultsin l.139. T. Clar.(d & MeI1Ul.'" (Bedm: des Mus k.t'e:. Reidy. MOIl1!. H.!:)'Rel'lt'w. Bam err. Ral. KOnli. Hence. Sit:bert &...IReltab" Y(5). Ph)lS. Am. F. 4. and Flex. Dorian Yates.e published in eXt'rdse and Spm'l Scum. A. their strongest range of motion by definidruilwould be even greater. Univcrsi'1' of C l. uetch~.. . R~ evidenced by rhe redueed poundages you're restricted to utth'Zing.dt5hyperrmpbl~ only goes to show that the weak range o motu n forrnese particular trainees ls trell\enclou~1y strcng-certainly much stronger dun fur .k. 'W nnme but Heahh. L 7. 109.foHlin (who presented hl~ fintlinw. J Q'JPn1~'. Z. 6.[. 50> 935-43 ( 19 BU.c. 1955).:.R.dLlced. 37.. Wheeler can use some phenomenal poundage:. Viirnsaln. Moore &. Studles by 0. Admiuedly. Klil1 Med. whlcb theyheHc\lc IS ihrec. btoehenueal and I11DfT1hol~k.

rogtesSi.~. however. wIIl be· a. An hat' all you Ci:lJ. AtS discussed in the previous chapter.(u TTo:. thar }lOUT muscular overload migh~ have been much les than you perceived l't to be.bk f(J eo!lIL"IL~" ahc1!. f r.j wMI reQ uJre sumprion of the wrung foods. there are rwo keys t~Jsttrnulati ng muscle growth: (1) trigg.:d~ and !ttl"~ngt~. [f you felt partkul.ighthElve been a total waste 0 your time and effort. load of ('n great amount ~)fwork 1U a unit uf time" and (2) making rhat overload ~'l.U!oo 1 as been bV I.IT only means of gauging the value of yom workoi.1 Jo... The truth is. In.a-ph of &tlcT~.1!nil'lg.The Power Factor Measurement and Why You Nee.er· ing growth by subjecting YOLl r muscles W aln over- in 'm:k~ ~~~ m 'm. or : orne other fanr. UW.vdvgreat r from workour 'CO workout.mre productive than your previous one. your workout: o.arly tired a the end ot 3 Wr rkout. con- U~irtg PO\l.] 'r complete one m re . suppose vou benchpress 15·0 pounds 30 ime in Z minutes today.'e'f Fat::Wf (. ~fOU . [lWlnl'l to inadequate sleep the nighr be:fQl:'e. The cause ~1fyour fatiJ~ll' and soreness mieht not have been that you 'ubj'ected 'yollr muscles ro a greater overload.tl rJ[mne what ttomi-:O't!t ~m. ~r[lU p obably assumed it was n.d It Until now YOI.

find that's <Ill you am do. Onc~ you heMin to think in pounds per minu .I G POUND' .14 15 rep.]·liftpower '~nt down 15 percent even when ~'our ieg press power .weve'r. y 'U would enter the same result tot the II:WO workouts in. you'H know exac ly where and why you fell ron.and the answer mIght b . ul ca:n bench ). measured in pOUl'lcis pEr mmute." Because of ci1Le laws of physics iillIlJ the law of muscle fiber rectuitment.! me.800 JMYIiMs j)CT mIll me' " wi n be requi ed r perform n xt time 'in rder ItO meet your goals (If increased srse and stren tho This means that everv workout can payoff in gains. they must be stronger.0 calculare <II precise Power actor and Power Index for each so:" . Ask the avetage person I:D a g. your logbook. It" a law ~f rhysic. In the precedIng example.rlmlli. THINK. Both dftY1.dn~r whtl& hu beSt s.lg pr~u Is. firul rhat your de. Yo u will yl U ahL:au of time whnr workout You may. orne 'rystal dearUsing Power Factor Trsining. [t's.)'fi~ what he or she bench-presses. if you ignored time.. )'OU will be able 1.I. Then you'd promptly gel dis uraged [hat y U were nor makOJ in~ any pro tress.cnpable of liftmg at higher rare.sk tl u PUU't-T FIlC'Wf u.1. "] COIn bench 275. to c lculate t. your training ~'1bjectiv~ ami progress be. exerci sc VClU perform and for your en me workou also be abl . ho.'" Ask a person who 'USt:~ f'OWd Factor TGJin:ln rhe same qu ·"''!Ion.A.s-rhe onlV way to I hfr the same ammmt of weight in hotter :< m unt of tim if. With conventional W 19hT: raining. and IJ might t Ir's . If you don't beHevl. ask lsaac ewton.·hat! Wh en you do it m 1 1. the time it takes 0 t perform the lifting is completely ignored." get one more rep. with. t week and benchpress 150 pounds 30 tlmes in 1 Yl mmutes..3.300 pound' p~r minute. you lifted 1SO pounds for 30 repetitions.'2 rninu re 1 yl u are strong '1". for example.PER MINUTE The Power F<tcror is a rneasuretnunt of the roral amount of weigh!: you lift divid~d h~' the tim i( wkes n lift i[. you C[111'1. Then vou go b ck to the gym ne ." 1f your muscles (the engine) an:. 1£ ir doesn't. and the: reply m ight be. a nonger "engine. the latter is a much more comprehensive measurement. But guess v.

This is wh. Ieaving only differences in the wcighr hftt:d.jE!" O~ 'WI!IRI(lDUT 2 SIPIs 1 Heps 20 21l w.~· 11 mill. A Power Factor is ideal because of its sunplicity ~H'Idease of we. and the LlIDI. Ortce you have a uumertcal representarion tlf ~rQur output."er Fnctor fur each exercis that you p rform is to provide a pre ise nurneri ~11 measurement of yousmusculaI outpur.ll I Tolill TI~t(J CIlfllPIf!. Ac[ually..IS.e1alone.ANCE? L. rtme.lif. tlI' WOR~DU1'11 berml. $0 all those distance measurements would just factor out ofan"" comparison rhlll are made. W±th Power Factor Trawing. right? W mng. Workol.2 ~ At [his point y u might be wondering why we haven't included the distance rhat the weigh[ travels . 111C0I. I of precision and isolation represents a revolution in strength training.l tC[LSQI:'lS rhat lr i~ lett out. examine the two workouts described :In the tables.14159') Second]y..by Lilting 150 pounds 20 urncs M1d perform l sets fa]' a total weight llfred of .135 pounds. ANALYZING \VITO THE PO\VERFACTOR Let's use [he Power Factor measurement to examine shoul ler press performance in WnrkotDt~ 1 and Z.17 went 11 perc nt. part of the 'power calculation. For example. ference by fe.: Bar~11 j6Jj I It 1 20 00- Il3rbilU dead III 22 3D !1'D US 2 2 15 100 11l 120 r Itnti ID CDmj: iHle.. Workout 1 reprcscms more '\vnl'k in a unit of nme-=rhe key to s iml..p ower or watts to measure {he power thar VOLU musdes generate.Ms 150 1!1O 145 .iiL DETERM1NlNG YOUR..'f~lL ·4) ill/. + 20 2G Btl 90 1D J ~6D TJm:l kJ Cllmple!'~ IJ min It 15 100 Time '10 C(Jml)lel.2 2 1SI1JJLJldl:!(l'W t~8. r~~1 11m!: f) COmtr.ia..'1 livedid not use borse. 13 1111 n 2 156 15 75 n IJle to G. you can compare the overload and effef:ttveIU! S Df every workout that you perform.(JmOI819 l~.g.I~ '!lS m.~ ~. Firsdy. . f In: l virtually impossible to precisely gall that I.) The-se two workouts ill ""iUY i!iimHart and it looks as i[ Workout 2: is the better om: because it Involves using heavier weight in every exercise.ll]ating muscle rrowrh.l{ J has "' Power Factcr th . So tr would stlrn!J la re mote grow t:h. In Workout I you br::gm . '- :ro 2t1 1~ Time to C(lillpl~e: ?55 175 100 14 min. th length of your arms and legs isn't going to change over time.lgher than Workout 2 and involves Uftifl. which require eomperations using pi (3.m~ til tmllJlleI~ ns l[1l'lI~ l8Q :1 RI~ 20 Wa1D.'!.!ll JlUilool'ln 2 J 2 . That's why the indivluual limes du not add up to the total. especlallv In mcvernents that involve an (lTC of mcticn. 1 is 38 percent ll. as a practical matter It is difficult I: precis ~y measure (he travel of the bar when lif(i:n. POWER FACTOR The pUfJ1l1SC of calcularing a PO\l.e SllIIUl. (The nme given fnr each total workout includes the time ~flk~n between exercise (0 rest and to set up the equipment. There are twt. This le .cilll S&ls 2 15 T. suring by feel ~:5 ob elete.iji 1~ WHAT ABOUT D'IST. min.n additional 10. Lalpul'ool'll1 ..

l Want to derermin your muscular output at rhe rwo extreme ends of this spectrum.I:1or.18 19 6.oo 13 1~ 1~ 1.249. The reason is that there if.ad 1111 ~oo 10 11 to ~[fl'all that weight.000 pounds.ght alone will increase \Iour muscular QU'[PU[.3. And remember.325 p unds di ided br 10 minutes).!4{J 46' "'h. which C1dds7. Workout 1 is uperior.j nma Pawlr Flef·ln 2133 100G 1. you would 'be completeiv tired out.• bringln~ your total shoulder press weight to 16.fting will be ended 1(.hIJlb.pounds. my gmnumoifu:'r could hft more . your Power Frier 1 is 221 pounds per minute. Then. you increase the w'.085 pounds !e~s than the same exerc ise in.lnds." per rniaute. yom rate of muscular output." and by every sensory measure you wmJld feel char you had given vou. you can only Jo few reps and rhe li. is Z. Workout 1 is 38 percent more effc tlve at generating rnu cular overload and the 1':rowrh stimulauon that goes along with U:.140 pound -exactly 7. Then you perform Z sets of 20 repetitions with pounds.2~9 B!l2 1. or Power Factor.JIT 2 5hDlIID~r press LJI ~ulJOOl'lll 8a..000 1 ~.1mI I dead I~ 16..eigln to 245 pounds and perform 2. the tlmuunt of weight that you pm on the bat and the number of times you can lift it. W OlI'kuu'~1~ Funher~ since ]t t akes 13 minutes. Since it: took 4'1 minutes to lift all that weight.1 23.396 • WDRiUJUlIr 1 ShC!JI~f' pres~ La! pulidoWI' Sarooll do.l ymJ perform sets of 40 reps at a d me.!J.00(1 pounds.~the correct cornbinatinns of weight and repetitlons.r best eff:ort to sdmulate growth.l rlJSJ ~n1 :. &tiUfeding strong. AU thls rakes 45 minutes. For example.u"!! o d many reps hm it takes a long time. That is a ~(lW Power Facl:O. First you select a very light weight.2411 9.Fiually. you C .084 pounds per' minute less than Workout 1-<1 much lower in eflsity 0 lifring. ince it takes you ]0 mmutes um IPOWER IFACtORS fOR W. Thi bdngs the: [Oral amounr of we~ght you lUft to :H.200 pounds to the [CUlt.·1 • WIIRIIDI.g. . If the weighr is.260 pounds tlnd squeeze out J rep . You lifted ] 0 pounds a [ot~1 of 1.U5 pounds. (0 complete he shoulder pressworkout..exerClses as weU as for ehe overall workout. comparariv 1)' dismal ] . Pushing your limit' urther. In Workout 2 you stan out by Uf[rng the arne l50 pounds 20 times for l sets for a rota] weight of 6. let's say 10 pounds. You would nor he able 'ItO cumplet'i: another rep.. s t of 10 reps fo.$·WJ 11m. YOY would be "pumped.'cry asr. A:ft:er 25 se ts yo u are complete Iy rill rigued and cannot perform another rep.3J3 rounds per minute (2]. That's 1.ORKOUJS '1 AND 2 [un:lu W!. YOH Im.very heavy. an.'I1.: uppo e thatyol. flfter the last rep on erich -of these shoulder press workouts.:re~sethe weight ~o ] 90 pOlJl~cl's adperforrn 1 sets o( [Zreps for an a adJitlonai4:. an adJiliorm14. your Power PaCWi diOPS: to <I. 19. a relatiorwhiiJ between.325 j1 Teta! (mill.han Z21 [pound. It's ubv ious that i f the weight is very ligh r. Hn<lJly~ yOlu Increase rhe weight Or! the 'kJar ro US pounds and perform ] sets of 15 reps to <tdld an addirlonal 10J 125.. But the facr 1 that b'lllj~h'l.000 times for a total weighluf ]0. F1NDlNG YOUR ~'SU'EET SPOT" By an meosure . The same c<lkuh tlons reveal similar resu Irs for both of the other ..5(1 Y6() r~IRr ~4.:550 li4 14 0)1' - rrmo' 'IS 13.900 pOl. using' the bench press.000 pounds. 'believing that sump]y ~dding wei.r.56Q pounds. yOLl meres e rhe weighr '[0 .

~ ?3 noo ~.d.lmln.100 ~ 2CO ~.le 1 !.100 10131 Powerht!Qf ~. Since human muscles will grow cmd ~arger ol1lly whetl[hcy af~n:axed be'jl'und tlwtr normal operatutg '--3p:rud1I:)'. At th at wdgb.) 4. you cannot genenrte a high Power Factor..600 6.041) 5.6~J 5. By the way.l'X] . Th:ret: hundred pounds is yom one-rep maximum. he CaJ:L) lift 300 pounds-but iJ he does. reps.2>mtl1l-1t1.40]) l?D 111 102 Ub. YOll ng perlonn ] rep . muste r~ all the srrength you can.~ 1I'mt~I' P~&rFa. Subject A can put mere P.640 100 1100 DJ 5. Imsglne that Subject. 300 pounds ill 1 minute is a Power Pactor of 300 pounds per mlnute.re inthe middle lies VOllt per.1D 8.Sa FA 5(] 1~.i!!1rn. This lS 1ilI well-settled principle physics.120 300 ~ ~.800 5. 4... U you 1if r too U g'ht aweigh t.960 13. An engine rhar hfu. Scmwwhe.4W U:JO TD't~1 FI"'~s Wergbl till.Dwer !Factor f'Ot Vario'us Weights: Subject A ~----' weight on the har-ln f:~u.20 .&BD 2.4 il!i. it is very ine:f:nde:nt compared whim liftin. but i[ is nowhere near his muscle's fuU c~paclq'for 1i(ting.ey are 1J.21 (In th e bar Bnd. You rest fov iii few seconds.82'0 &.g 140 pounds 63 times if'! the Same .strates"" critically lfilNItant element (Jf srrel1:gth tra ining.~'] 0 pound8 peT mlnute has to be more powe:rful thanan engine that Itfts 1. J5 ~.600 ~.2«1 2. You put 300 pounds y Next.] SUB>lEGT 13 TIIIIII Reps 12U 9B ~ 00 00 100 t~a 64 7. period.i abo cannot gene-run.200 t2.nute perind.DOO 2ao JOO ~ ~ ~~ 18 m>oo 9. vou test the other end of me spectrum SUllJEtT A Wlljg~r D~ lI'ilr {III.!raphfor Suh]en A. the [Nat lveight he can lift per miaute ~s greatly stronger decreased. Finding that spat k!.HOC! l.000 ~.321l 4.'wl1al~[~.400 ~IIiJO r.1:W pounds pel: rnlnute.fdng 3 ffcns the number of reps [theV [an complete L1ma 2.Jt he can ge [ the ben talliu of tutal weight' l.ifted per unit of time.~ ~OO 2lIJ 1. Ttl Ufl.OOI) 80 76 U !is 111.~ao 7. a high Power Factor.01l0 11.iscD:kula:rion is easy.e:V'5tmd rlus C011nr't i5 rhe most critical element of Power ffilctor Tmining .MI] ~.~ 2.280 a.QIlO HID l.200 600 Uf[ 280 pounds 8 times III 2 minutes.650 5.<l1D 120 j. whUe that rouHnc might ger~. but YlUi [ust can't.:tW 6.fJ.J::lD 4.\) A and . and it will take everything he has to perform those reI's.2W &00 1.J2D ~.lhere the perfect comb inJlllOn of weight.2~O HAO 4 ~OO ~.13 experiment W deterrnine how [he wei gilt th. Subj'ec[ A can .600 0. Therefore.tDf W~igl!! H~l 11~.600 8.~mi. That is hls sweet spot. or the bar. It's also a verv low Power Faetor-« a fraction of what you are capable of gener~1i:ing.tplace...weet s]]mt'\i\.:NO 2:60 22 15 a. .the key wm~xil'il1laU1t' efficient and productive werkours. he g~nerr a tel> hi:.J80 S. yet If you HH: too he~vy aweight.erat~ some ad3ptiv~ response.11i3D l. your operatirtg capacity is inthe fi~!. This example deml>rl.yoi.~i[ CIUClai to dlscover what is. then try [0 get ~nothe[ rep. highest rower he eorwben Ire has 140 pounds on hy ~iftilI1lg the heaviest wct. h: varies eonsiderah 1y be twee n ind ividuals.160 12.480 1. Th.E1:ht ou pessi b ly C'3 n. rind tune yield your h~~hest possible rower Paeror. Their ~~sults are lisecd ~ the ~8I61e ~nd illustrated with [he n bar gwphs. As you can see in tnt: 1.

For e:xamptc. .lu we know.absobnely. pooitivt:ly generating more output [Tom yuur muscles .hties.ing else does the ~ifting" Subjeu B dem.hey generate" Some of me.~ body parts you'rego[ng to be traini. AU you haveto concentrate on is devf'wping your higheH possible Power Facror tor each exercise. Why] Many factors contribute [("I the abilitcy of U"Illiide fibers.Lies :L.n:y in the joints.- i f~idyb]gh (10-30) repetitions with it.. muscles.and ccnneettve tissues ofth.iciu. dxyg'el1..500 pounJs per minute [his workout.l.ti. in oederto analyee whic. but his personal sweet spot is ~n pounds. Wilt are ve [ to fully understand. Add welg!u 3~aifl . as do the mix of slow~nMi~ch find. unlise only the b:::a~st amount of energy andmcve menr n:quired to [hm-ought y warm up rhe joints. arc being acrlvated by wd!i\Y's workout.chOlIlgcS . during each exercise to see what area of a mU5\':l.out. Then add 'what fen' you is SP IlIIJ! apprec ialsle resistance and perform 2 more SEt:'.e is acnvated by a partlcular exercise.stT:ilJrl!~he variatlen [hat OCCUf8 t among individuals.arly infinite' po~ihi. and perform tlnly enough sets to ohrain a sligh'lLpump and to achieve visICU5i. You can't take 'blood samples i:lindtissue biopsies after each exercise th~tyou perform. amino acids. highest Power hcwr i'l achieved tv hen hehas 2 L 0 pounds on ' he bsr.U mdtviduals.11s.0 I.g~ @. BUI: Y"y clOfi/t need to! If YOUl Power Factor is 6.<lchine. The nellJ:l:"lli pathways between the hrain and ruascleshave varying eff~cten. then you are . of moderate reps (. You can't perform a CAT S('OIti1 on your brain [0 determine whar neural padl. start out with jHst the empty bar yC!!JJ~[elaout 00 uriliae and perform 1-2 sets of a 'PIDwer fac:tur for'Vanous We'lghts: SullJec'l B--~ ! B~--------------------------------------' ~ ill'i1:!~. up completely before vou start to rime yom work. When:: the muscle phvsically attaches co the bone relari ve to the J 0 inr has a prof'Ou nd dfec t on leverage. r:loth..bmn UJ. hnw much weight ymlre us llflig.ays Or both. But here is the good news. to activate and to the puwer t. Tlae bodv's ab~Ht)' to supply and pIOCCS~ ATPm the muscles varies between rndiv.f s !: E 1-------------- ~1---=.~ you need to do is keep l track of how m~11l minures it rakes to do e. and last workom it was 5. because it giveiS iii dear indica. TI:aln l. and evervth ~ else wi]! take C3 re of ng he &D.v.ry the numbe rs.['Qughcomplex ~J beneftr to the itself.600 pounds pel' minute. Cau. and ho~· [TUUW reps <=InC! f: ts yo ltJ do with S each weigh r. a. To WOlKIn up. Record t11.w<lV. so 11.W).rut! one or the orher ng ie tesr ing does nor really prov ide any pracsrhleee who just Wants resul ts. and some of them.] i\l1 tht:. of variation.. I: lon offW her is deli vering the n1Oi5 t over load (n your mUS~ des and what is not. The complex cecktail of blood. dead lifts" ~hrugiSJ etc. and hcemones char :supp~y the entire p'rGce5:S bas ne.5.f3.oIli. He can put more or less weight on rhe bar.ld: who tares: tr's because of herrnone secretlen ur neural palhw.. . SlMP'LEAlumMETIC As you perform yoUr' workout. i~tnfmVTIrat om on the Workoul: i R~conl~[lrm.].2J Your mU5IGh::fibers are the engine.on: Wa:m::lI. His.'ie syste rns wurk togethe t Oil n y\\'a.ng. t\s.St~twirchfiberli~n earh muscle.. no You can't place 1fOlll' bod" ln ~11 M'Rlm.ach exe rcise y [bench press.h rechruquets generaring the greatest metabolic .

then divide the product hy 1. ITILultiply the. :ifyou lifr Hi.hr.:23] pou nds. Dom g SQ wi ll lead to a n incentive to use heavy we~ghts teo quickly. me or yo!. l O[) pounds. 9 5 minutes. pees et b\l s~ le l1TLp arithmetic" For example. you've lifrecl ]05 pounds 40 tlmes fc~]' a total wd:~~h[lifted of4. This willibe used to calculate yom overall pedDl!~ m ance. time of day that you be g ~n your wut kou t.5 "" 2.og the total welghr by the umc lt 'took to hft ]t..9 the Total Tlsne on the last line.000. It mel ud es rests bet we en sets awl rests between exercises ami the time you spenr changing weights and g~t:ting a drink uf water. perform 1-2. 8.5 minutes. two nutnbers to ge [2. thensrart timing your Power Factor Training.011 average (Very minute 'fOUl 1ift~d 2. pa rt of yuur Powe r Factor. Yom M1Fm~!jJp shouJd never be counted <15. t f need ed. lin all cases you shou k] be sure to tully warm up before stafting the dock 0]] YUU:I: workout.785 + 72.. nat 1 hour OI['1d 35 minctes]..Hdding rhe row of su h rorals.ula~c the Pnwer fac[or by Jiv~di. TIle Total Tune includes aH the time used frcm the beginning n Yflur workour (but not the warm-up) W the eo nd.n your up real sets. rut another way.lted by mill point andready [0 5m. Enter thi~nme at the rep of the pag. your warm rUp. your Power Factor is L. do no[ include weight llfred during YDUt watm-up. lifteJ.~the Workout Recnrd: pounds. To calculate the Power Index.eight per exercise bY. Ytm should fin ~ perform. I{ s houhl not lfldudf' ".. MeQsme me .. For the sake of consistencv. rnultip]y the tmal w't!lghtby the Power Factor. The warm-up itself should not degenerate into a '~y get 4. 16.17:5 pounds). It . 7 30 pounds in 7. sets st that example. Here's how tc u:s. if you perform 20 repetitinm with 105 pounds. Warm up completely befm:. U Yf'lU.000. )~Oll win know rhat you have increased rhe eve rload and ga: ined srreng rh.. U'Y to use the same warm-up routine evel1' time. more sets..2ClO pounds. Aliwa ys express t his in miflu tes only Um tnsrance.is 001 just the Sum of your indivtdl1!.\ll:ight for the workout by mdcHng th~t(')ltf11 weight from each exercise (in this lsre the totalwejgh 1.H your Sun Time horn get Toral Time your workout. Agflin.t. If you can increase thartuunber on your next w(}rkou.e rime 'fUll start each ind lvtdual exerc iseto rhe rime you finish.vc!ghrr OllL Mtled dUi~ng your Y workom. taking as long as you hll::ie. B 1 peunds per mtnure ( 16.0410+ 8)940 + 72.. ultilUate]y causing inj !ill}I. You will flnd a ilitopw~och veryhelpfu] ('Ormeasuring this time.: l'Ouswn to time yll"U r wnrkout.you multiply 1 'to o Ente r the workout. 18 S Ubnril. I . .200 \.I P time.231)."<ITlTH. the exercise time from [h. You should be adequa~eliy w<:lTlil'.1."e~.' fJ Enterthe time ef day that yml finish your workout. It snou ld always include timevourest between sets..680 thetotnl = 184.J.7)0 + 13.730 -.and <1.l'1 exercise f~n:1C5.25' and. • Calculate o Calcu the total ~. you. 11"1s: nutrrberrepsesenrs i amcunr of li.. do 2. " CaJCldate the total .!r Fin ish TIme to Calc. So. This is the power output of your muscles ..7.

. WOifi.:n. Howevc r In so DU~ respec rs it is a re Ia:tt ve me<J.. in. of diffe.:. Mif~ b3I nlIW ~ OVERALL.<l. 3'1. strong-range exercises tomorrow. ~p~ ~ 111o'~ l 'P ru:S~ R>!fIj ~ 'I ~6.'!1 fWi'aJI1' x l'J..~5 r Src.rF.1a S!!Il ple. 1135.ge exercises t003lY.LDDWNS 'IIP.l~1::tIO' .' "'~Qhj di.. SlJIIIiJI .1.. ~ -I&~I~ 'fStl"u.h 11lOO.flif'mJlb 5li .~ iIJI.. l.\ ---.I'I:olf '.'.'b /rrrlil 11'-' 1.I Si/. then he mfl\V have 01 lower Power Factor number than someone else despite f.~etraining Of super s'klltl'or v ~rttl81ny any other method fora few weeks at a time'.. ~hI ~~!lI't.'.___.i Iee .cto~won't mean much when compared.~!.t. would be indispensahle. 4 _' Ot<A D.. • Edr"'~Lo'!T PUL. 1~4. The same proviso hold s f(Drcompari ng Powe r Factors .000.lL!_ The Power he tor me asure menr WBl~ adopred because of its sirop[ icity. In this case.:n!__:T!__..st. If eneperson moves the ba ..I1l RWF..1i"UIt /it..7Ik: f~l..y to compare the i..IJI f'lIlf1"5l' ~ b'~1 ~'~ ~s: Iii " llnI __!1_ ..]1 ~..l-1n &11 w~~hl ~Il! &rn "'' 'r.26 WiDRKlur tRll:CORD GI To f nd A. jc >'.Mlb 'ttlb>U~l.~>'i 'utI'l .• farther OJ cleLi'beralUe. ~ • 1.f. !'5~'S.Jn fact.SiI!! 8 l!l~:rtnme-.rJ ~ 'ti< . roul keep your pmgress .004..~U·rruJl.M].ft.llbY ~5 L ~WJv...~~ -i.ty moves slower.1.t 1i'~" ~ II: qrw:r..m f/aps . 1~/... Such ccmpartsens a're~rrelevarn.ii!lill t> F~ning in.ll. i'i!' ~K 'lll{Q n ~'l!TV' WiJtti 'IM!. r.\'l P'701d~. as stated earlier..'lcij be used as a comparison of similar workouts. U Tllli!~liimll: '.004 1.lJ ..I.Inlt.. If yot! were to adopt flll1~TaJ. In this example.-fid. In other words.lcl:U._ If..' o.tiD'liI ~ ~.n~hl ~ ~ EVEltYTHlNGIS REL-ATlVE S!i!'s ~Mln~.tr:iI-------nr Pu~rI!1dl'l.175 -.~ny being stron.r1· ~~. multiply the total weight ~)i the Power Factor.000..n5 x 4. However. .ger.. . I'I~II R II:!~' ""'.e1l\dy and eonsistent whi le ~voiding cvertraming. 80 don't spftnd any time worrying about them.~ s..737. WDRIliOUT: ~ c ~.C))o( Stjl~~I·!!!~UUI~ 2.~ NetH !3.'5uremen E.'iI<!.~ rmr ij'P' ~ 9V~ l'oo:<J. your Power Factor numbers would still be ~n excellent w.". ~~tllb fuilIlI<IlY.. i"j5~ lOx I ~ .~ -lj!:!il.\n -s. ~ I'Mr f~ ii. T~~ 1l. 90 A u.!QY.. then ..RSp:tll:J I 'S:OO..ar l~ w.lt ~:B'~~ • EHr._~~~~ S"lt. ~ '. § ust work on improvlng your numbers..·i .l - T.z.: 2.: • ElllflCiM: l!iC4'1 ~l 1 c: 0 0"'I:' Fill1ish1lilm~. they w~ _J'. if you perform f. 155>: z.rent individuals. and "super slow" exerctses the next day. 184. :i.t yuu 111.J_~ -'--__ .1w~rFOOI!..n· AI.ZOx ~~ ~r 2.>.im."). 1'5v: l.a.j]]I~ ~ 5. I n.") calculate the Power Index fCiryour workout.000 . -e- me fleps SCs 'o'kiD~ ~.. divIde [he total wetl'!nt by the total time.dc product hy 1.E.p 1'I.. 'l__------..!ftV.5lu Il.' U ~. __ ~"'F"'"' _ ~~.9'11 ~ ~oox'Vilx ~.000.L:..vi.! the Power Factor for the overa n workout.j MiN.mell'lsity of each workout and W ensure progressive overlead.:IR't ~s !J(lx ~... rhiB form wlll give you all Df the dam rhEJ..fl'Y~ &jj11l31 =I/I'.:eel to measure the effee U vcness of th is WOi' kour ~engifleer the nexr workout. i\lfiOril F<!P:5 5dli \OS. . 6 .1..I SilIt:lB! ~ lJb~~ I~ ~? ~. For exam- I'>"'lhl ~'II! ~ R..S" t ~ IIMh II x I Fll!p... if can onl y I tl~~S i'lltgl1l ~ .J~~II! f'I'. [he associated Powe~ F:El.fIl(I.~ SUbllt. '~ . sm...4.._ ~ . II.

c. One is the rare uf 29 . and a d if~ ferent rnech nism kick in.'~ ren1pefll!IIJ!! .V.! r hand. muscular SUe[lU fa Hut .S. Cut VOl.r of Icllm prbICO::U )011 {t~I)1I tCl:". On of those afety systems prevents you from working out 1[00 r_ CaH it farlgue.."n protec you from exercising to the point of pu in uo much srress On yom: I>T running 11 u. on )etrD h.. ush bodv's recuperative <l:blitles .:iihilitws. j ump into cold \. i .:il" flliluf~ r goll.S. it'__' a reenarkabl variety of automatic survival and prnscticn mechani ms thatwe are onlv beginning to understand. m~ul. nd one mechanism goes to work.TRENGTH AND BETA SrRENG'fH: TWO WAYS TO GROW If you think ani ling" eight ill! pe arming \ 'ork the way a machine does. [['$ wh. ]It has can It f~!Igm .'Tdsmg ['1 I1:t • polm of !J:4 ttmg rj)(lm~ch !t:r!!. then there .3 The Power Index The human body is a wonder of engineering.uely soes to work c mpensating Of '[he stress and ending surviva] slgnah to vour hraln.UPliA .lII[[ or ge't 1I nd er the hot sun.rea:dte in sume bacteria.an: two measures of [hall: machine's strength or power.Jd. or running om: of gas.. and your bod~' immedi •.

That: means rhey have much more strength capacity bLJ[ do not tap irttu all (. We m.e world can generate the hi.] .Hff'lCfCnce. lfyou never use that reserve amount uf strength. wi rh the fo.SeS your Power Factor is the Same 2.a srrengrh.Flding how strength manifests in the human hod" Gm help you measure and guarantee your progress.. rhev jl. a l-ench press rate 0 2.c~n. can exactly duplicate the first set to [il~ture. but there are protection mechnnisms that try to prevent you from operanng In their extreme limits. The human body has the same two forms cfpower.t8bench press or a 90D~lPol1n. Beta strength irs more like a motion picture rhnt can meaurc how long you can ust in your alpha 5itrengrh. Iike 20 [om.[e. like 4 h. your Power Index is 68_8.0]" mass.1 rare nearly anyone reading this could nurluca. the Power Jndex is a re lati ve measu rem ent of how long you can sustain a given rate of Lifting.5 mlnures.500 pounds per mtnute). but how nlfU1y realize thmt if they are not making progress with one merhnd uf strength building. In eonrrast.relve hours? That's aerobic exercise!" HO\l'cv. That' why you can perform a set to ([111me but after onley a ew econds' rest perform more reps with the same weight. that It gives a measurement of yom:r:ate of Hfting for a moment 'in rime.liOlyUl. .]y will sustain for only I) wry short period of rime.500 pounds pee minute. The POW!!f Factor mea ures the interuj. but he sustained that rate for l2 hours t ] can akeaJ)' hear some of ~'0lJ . it wHl n vcr grow (0 a higher l~vd hecause it doesn't have 'to. per hour. perhaps a minute or two. m one 01 two minutes. the (act lS that it W. To illustrate the polnr. A 700~pmmd~rh.I1~' care about strength per se.OUTS or 24 hours me millhm plus pound. Some people. no question that 5USUli ing activity for rher lung is aerobic in nature.. AlI:1ha . in a strict ense.! means 'to gaining 111.g 1.ghest1llph. Mass is the ing'n~d~ent that every blld.1 ]4. rremele important !. while mer' i. any discusstcn of how strong or powerful <Ii person is depends on rhe period of ttme over which I Bin Kazmfi'u. ]f you 5US~ tain 2. hot his 'wen~devclupc:d heart and before needing to 6~ shut down.'l x 10 .er. if you sustain it for I] minutes. That's .buHder is aftier. The formula for beta 8trength is ' . record by benC:h~]Jressifl.ll$[ want to increase it as . If srrength can be increased in [We W<:I yli [hen W~ need to measure 1X in two ways.rea.strength is ak~n to a snapshot in.:.'Ii rate of 'lifting of L576 pounds per minute. afrer unly sixty 1:0 ninety seconds of re t. We can these [woo forms of human power alpha 8trert.30 .9. the plus squat represents an astronorntcallv hi~h rare of insranraneous muscular oUfpliJt that the human boil.:IS his muscles that h red thar . Clarb of [h.ncl muscle mass.b. there iii no d if erence in alpha strength. These t"\Vo mea 'urements are the Power Factor and Power Index.d~ On rhe other hand.000.. Or 'total weight" W) d ivided by total rime (r).gth and beta strength. and that can be overcnrnewith hrtef rest ~ jWI: one mote protection mechantsm of yom body.500 pounds 'per minute for J.000. they canrt'f another? Must bodvbuilders dDnil.)f I't til! only one set.1 Please notice that in both Ca..fa. respectively. Here ls rhe most important '~i:1Gtfor bodybuHllets in all of this analysts: both (nnns of strengd'l.g.fung that i can achieve. easurc alpha streng-dO.ity I"Jf your Hfrlng (for example. This phenome non of hi (I: ing an initialwall of fatigue Anthon.l1(.rm!Jla ~. consider that the 1995 edition of the Gumness Bnok uf Records Iin~ John "jack" A[henon <liS settrng . There is a subtle bUE e.828 total pounds ill l2 hours. keeps extra muscular energy in reserve just in case it's required in the nell!' future-for example. or total we 19h t (W) sq uared d ivided bvtotal time (r) Jivilded by 1. The wiler measure ii!'! the amount of time thar machine can susrarn rhar rare of work. Bur llnder5!t8. your Power Index is 1. lungs. ~·Tv.Ii.

Wh[. because they have fa I. BMkaUy. WilV? Physics. While borh achievements represent anincrease in muscular output. though your Power Factor did [lot c:hMgC . YOLl C~r:I eltherLfr mCire w[0l11 welght. Or whau:wt. 1l1I. WHY YOU NEED THEPOWEI: There are rwo ways thar V("IUl INDEX Mnst bfJJ)'l:nli~ don't fea1~ ~~rt GOOU[ MT'ellgt/J pl!'i' se T~ J~t ~'al1t Can get Hmnger. progresses.ed. the greater the ltkeltbccd of producing an injul'V.:y don't :realize is rhat they are always rneasunng their progress on 01.] en tnto the trap no of pel'formi:ng only I set. AI.We frequ~[ldy~alk I1I. can8ta!JIn:by reducing the time of your workour will lignore beta strength rreirung. tr has to be stronger. we art: measuring. again.7oo pounds per rnmute for 7 rnlautes. Also.d l. For one thing. If YOU lift rodav and last workout YOILI Lifted onlyL 700 pounds per minute. the quicker yourWO:rrkOLlt pace. Remember. for a longer perind of time.2·hum perfod? I of rime. then yQU -tale stronger. you are also srronger.Or. Over 12 hours it's the aforementiont:d jack Atherton. they measure progress by alpha st:rengitl"lonly and neverreally tax th2lf' reserve sustained srrengrh.000 pounds per rninute tn im:"oU!sl! i~ru II meQlru W ~~tI(IJ~ ~l(lT'e rness.l able 'to Hf[ at the same rate bur for a .g. Dr you can lift rhe same weight 10 a shorter period 2. time scale. beinr:. Over a 1O~secom.e work d onereq tures more strength.. You can't get something for flOfhin. AU of them cnuld make new progress by measUfingthe:i. If fin en. the tacttc of cDmlfar:tdy tr!r~flg w work 0'U[ tn less time has cbvrous limitetlons.lI) to f:rui>u:ncd bodybuUders WhCl <ire kJl'l~ progress. vou will hecome fetmHia:r wlrh the tWD ways to achieve lngher Power Factors.5 m inures ifl_Rt workout and rh Is 'Worirout you lift!. your Power Factor T[l1Iinlnt. u>sually shott. ]n ef£~c[. 3 sets. even..!! th.vorkout. 30 reps.r beta strength and making sure that tt pror g:re. 70(1 pounds per minute ftlr . if vou lifted!.l perilKi Al1thony C13tk is king.. Howevee. flli. ] wend er 'LV h tc h of the two w~)uId be stronger over a . thetr bela strength.ss~yely increases fmm WOrKDI:J[to l.gine (your muscles) can continue lifting 8[ a certain rate but.

toward Hfting 3[ ='I high Power Fac or and to keep It up fur <IS long .c. the Power Inde is crraphed on a logarithrnb.. x 30. can vidu < targe increase in the Power lndex. during th ievelopmenr a this sy rem. Thenretically. It stmultane.II1Uf POU'ff Fru:rm.5OO! Becau e c. Consequeutlv. suppo.y muh lplytng the t :11weight (W) by the Power FaLtor (~). the Power Index would be just 90 (that is. hut you\i be cheating youIlle!f. 1'101' did you work nut' or I minute.Tra:inir\g }Jro~l!. These mer rises can be di~prnpf)rr~on<llte both in raw mrmber: nd inperc nt3Jge (in fact.Y to ma. ~ euld p iJc :I S[ag~eI"ing 30.~lUi!! "-'ti)s ro ru:lll~t)~Iligh~r ill Ilmb.'. we were eoutinclv achieving Pourer Indexe in calf raises 0 wen over 4. WIt! be. YOl! :)hou~dnit use perCell tagcj).. you could U1CreaS" ymrr Power Factur everv workout by using this () tic. ba d on the average 'I:'('.000 pounds per mtnuecl This is the llmitatlon [j'f looklog at Power F~. You can'[ chear rh Power Index.000 lb.000 pounds pet minurcl Of course. but your rate of lifting for Via minute would be 30.!f Factor.:akuiaring the Power Index mvolves squsring the total wei In B ed. For example.' the w~~ght componenr of ~I(')ur workout is acwflJ~v :squared.T~. The Power Irnl it i a mathematical function of the total " 'eight lifted Bondthe POWl. That ~SJ an indicarion of improveme t ami enough [U guide ~'OU in he directk n of progress.chcarlo]1 of increa ~d t[en~d'l" Youcan achieve an extremely high Power Facrur ratIn.:.kc big gains in your Power index LS 'Ito urI:. The onb" impnrtant dement is he trend be A~ . By way u contrast. scale. S ince the Power U ndex ~.Lmi1'al' Ui'i[JI m- in an upward direction."ornumbers if! isolation. This produces ve:ry large number. yuu reall didn't lift 30. in 6 seconds.000.000).cUTl'Le t. a modest mcrease in is ret g~i.000 lb. + 1. This is where the Power Index comes into play./min. us]y reflects both he total weight you hf and the rate of your Ufdng.~ hy performing certain exercises over fl very sheet period uf time.se that you p rform 6 c ~Hra lses with 500 pounds. !J.!Und~er minute.V8l. which is men divided by one million in order to make It more manageahle.S catkuhu:ed !c. Your Power Factor. 3.000 pounds. The only 1.000 Power Factor). )PI.34 35 longer period () time also is an 1r1. U ing the example of SUt 500~pound calf raises in 6 seconds (30.

df~. hlf>~ogbook a.~ clear indica tion of wheth. A high intenslrv of museu tar ~1Veload is one of the indis. T.ic. Mmllentarv inlCen5~ry is expressed l'fl.000 pounds per m.).. in fac'[. The Power Index gives yOLl a dear tndicatien ~f whether or not yuur stsen gth rs mereasing by n"J. ne x t time in [he {PIla.2~OOOlb"l(ni~.re W is the 'tots] weight lifted in pounds and r i~[he total t irne in minutes.ati~ ca By.as ynu can. Those are the only '1:'\1m way.).nds per minure (20 x ZOOlb. the ~ower the m.e~ric inten.sity (1~). find techniques 8ISCO'SlAWS OF BOnYBUU:"DlNn M. lt '[herefme 'behooves us.slllly propo-rtioMfe W t~e duratiDn (D).er Faetor (PF) .~ming YtJUJ" CIiiIpac1ty [0 continue liftIng at rhe same rate hut for a i()~cr d me.rec ision and a more exact science..0 ias tautly spot evertrainirtg Of f! plateau.he m~degrealtpmgr.Ind increase IiIlpha strength.\ltt see. We measure hem strength in terms of the PO\.zOOpounds in only 1.laryifUeruUy (I'll) of Clfljl .JJ 'total Vl.o:ruent!!..667 pou.hf1'f'[.il:!1tify· 'lng that in tens itv. ~:s eble to susteln that nne of lih~r!g for 3 minutes before he i~ ~u failure. trainee performs an exercise with mPowel' F~cwr of 1. -i. Thts increase in Power ham accuratelv rd'lectl'i the [fairlee's. You can. + I .2. YOU.1. = ~} l .01 1.h than wi th .em. i When we measure intensity with the Power IndeXl we can idendfy an inc reese ira be ta strengm.ess. to have a means of qU.amenrory I~ru.'5 yOtlit' muscles {or :ilny engiTle) can get stronger.ined.00pounds! bi.erd5~ OT wOW'lwu r. the ionger ~he dumtivn af ane!l. In .5 min.t:UI'1U output (pounds pei mlnuee) for as lon~ as possible. Mat. m You Can perforrn more r. if a trainee performs 10 reps witb 200 PQUnd5 in 2 mtnurea.eight of ·~).e. he has hfccd (.e $45ul. In the realm of human exertion] there are :a:c:tually (WO for ms of strength.y)o and.erui[)' .ctor increases to 2.t makes k revolution9ri)I.b~se two numbers.mpl. the gai'n'!s you s tiMlcl to mah:ftom l using it will be spectacular.i'~ = ~ X 100-0 whe.)wer Fa. By mo[rLtming t.. tt is ex pressed as .g[b and beta strength. Wh:hout this measuremenr. stren.l!lH ma. you will hav~ Instant feedback as '~O whae exercises yield resulrs <lnd which do not.1L1S ZO~ep8 with . on botl':! wmkout days tra lnee would si.ea.y enter j'20 reps at 200 pounds' Or "2 sets of [Orcps ~t 2nD pounds" [0.h. f Of exaulLple..p acity to lifr RlIOl higher raze. .ensh.ust be. The efll~ cienq' of this :syslI:emis \lII'ha.ep:s befo:r.[ I]]dexthmughvolum. 2. This lawis ~.a.!r lr takes me lOfl_gf. .US. we can identiCy .h i~can. over wh.\'e.5 minutes" hjsih. tjons of rngger ing muscle growth.Ji!l'e:nic lniltensj~v O~= \~l X 10 (3) 3.ea.f3thematic~lly as I . where W is. lncl'~~shl~ by measuring your CO.f'V In~ensit" "1".the total weight lifted In p()u~ds :od c is the totalttme ~n mirurtes. FOTex. "" 2.e'Vident. Th. ab{~iw CO perform the exercise at a higher in:DensH:y.he mom~n.emp]e.e"~fdEe is (tltle'r.pcnsab le r cond 1.jOOpounds for a Powe r Factor of 2 .in. in the imerest of !:!lieater p.tail'l <I high m. perl'ur!. w hich we re6erw as tiIlpb. b.::k •.er or nm V01lJfstrength [1.667 lb.chin-gfarigue wim I Opounc. The measure of <llph®:. inu te (2 Q x 2. Voll!l.e :rr. l~ plain E1iLg~$h. Power Factor give s you .. strength ifi what wecallthe 'Pow.nd pWI:nEJ tl y g:e't disoouraged d:ua:the made "no prcgtess" when.~.500 pounds per mluure (hi::i mQ[f:Lentary int. NeX"~ .00 lb. If [hat same trainee.1.m. AE l!/'lJlJ ~. 'When W~ measure rnomentarv intensity with the Power FPlctm r(I'F) nseasurearenr./min. min. suppose 8.

r v~ry eno rmcuslv among individuals. At thi time we have no uni I' of measurement for recovery capacity (En. and his second Power Index ts 10-1. consider this example. because of a relatively fixed and finite recovery capacity. liver.etric Inten by 4. you wil] reach (!I polnr where your vnlurnetric irLtens~. However. pancreas. trengm. he has tll. your kidney .8.~. our performan es were notlnng speer' culm. YOl'lrfrcq len y of training (F) must decrease as yowvolumetric Intensity U ) increases. there others have relatively fixed rates ('If performing their func {tom and wi ll not gmw larger ami more effi c ient with mOlFE use. and would like an iclea [If how dralt'lnllc a subject's results can be when Sjsco~s laws are properly obeyed nnd applied. week. hi or her suppor ing nrgtms win not increase their funcrional capacity at the same time l1J[ tn the same degree. as well at! m the same person from Lime ro rtme. since he can sustain the am high level of tnUISLUIBI. Human phvsiol ~y IS such that while ~ person carl increase his or her mUSCUhl! strength by a actor of at least JOO p ercenr. In etherwords.sa'f}' to . For example. This 100w prevents conslstenr progre swhen m1flg ur a jxed training sr.~ is.v of training. Whell we fir t-. ~t is nt!ces:.tv (or Power index) cannot bL' pwg[essivel~l increased. he still h3S a Power Factor of 1. and it is m 'asur. In scientific term . The: fHC.. F where F is the fn::quency of training.ng organs can replenish themselves. What is important to remember is [he principle thac. This abihf)' is hi bl. Like gravh:y. H' imtial Power Index t 6. humans have rhe ability to perform muscular work at a higher rate than their ~~Ipportl.POUND If YCHI WORKOUT is ~ ~ t on how much cellular waste yom kidn. a.c[ty. there can be no new growrh stimulation. find it certainty mu. R is the tu:nee's recovery capacrty. say~ a twenty~four~hnur period.ade no progres5. W'ithout: pmgrcssi""c overload. The body needs LLIn '11'0 recover. you \!"L~ulJhave a: or gre2ltl'~'dlrulnlshed r.~ive them more time ro ccmplete their jobs as you get stronger.lrteJule. it's the lawTHE MlLLlON·.lS 39 time in the gym. if you double your strength through weigh[ lltting. ~IDIJ ll' is the volumetnc intem. Fur example.egan the development nfPn\\<er Pacror Trnlnlne in 1992.500 pounds pet minute but ts able to sustain I't for 4. to be UiC. Since organs like the kidneys.ecovery capa.tll ot also double their 'ffllcienqr or sue n so theycan process [narc in rwenty-four hI urs. n Frequency Training IsInv'~ir:se~y Proportional to Volum. due to the rtatnce's finite recoverv eapatity" S1!:8Itedmarhemancallv. when iI~ whe n gett ing over an Illness.5 minutes before he reaches failure.![v of the workuur.ed with the Power Index. the volumetric intensity of it workout is inversely propcrticnalm the (requem:.! must decrease rrainmg f[~uenqr if you W<:lIU fJ In Tease irttensrty. it ts obvious that he lS stronger. 50 your Power Index will be Lower when you train more frequendy (other things being ~quaU. This increase in Power Index accurately reflects the trainee's abllirv to susta ~ the tnrensiry fora hong pe rind of t ime. if we look Dn lV at his Power F~cror (p'Iome:nrarvin tenSity). i' yOy +.r output fur 01 longer period of time. YOl. A typical .lwOl'jls train three dClYs pet.:t-3.eys irm carr process in.

9' fiI = PF x WI ~ ] .eight to ge t . con isrlng of three dt ~ fe. Ar.948 with ~ Power Index 0 t. On the fame th d a y or (he program.000 2.000. 1.500x ~.J87. the dlffcii:~i:n:ein total Weight rnElke~. Since computil"lg the PCI. shrugs.rly. yidded an overall workout performan e of a 343 Power Factor and Be 5. were now lip to an astounding 500 pounds. this point (he [1. every rmnnrel Further.e motion combined Wllh (2) exact of rnonimring of muscular power output (to avoid both waned .rofoldbenefit of (1) exc't:dsing in the strongest n3.dfort and vertrainmg) led [0 an explosion 0 imprcvemertt. 540 puun. we arranged a specialtest of tht: system.r Index b rha.7'50 Ib-/3-5 min. and 430 pounds. our shoulder and arm workouts ~'ielded a Power Factor of 3.nJtoe press and.!:J barbell shrug.g.750 ~ 1. dead lLft.40 £1(1'1' r f~wt Tmfnin[ 'Ill workour ('if shoulders find arms.OOD.000 = ~.37'5 pounds.i es. and 1.U"l equal Power Factor: 2. Workouts that had begun wtrh bench pre scs. and leg'Sworkout.u pace for 2 hours and 11 rmnures.. a Power Ir:tclexof is ~lluiv- . violewere <Ible to add [UIJI exercises to cur workouts and more weight to each exercise. yidded an 848 Power Factor and a 36 Power Index.5DO .rent exercises.jI. leg press. We rook 8J couple of day. we kcp'[ up th. This yielded Factor of 7~636 pounds pey nunu e and a Power 7 . in 13] we each lifted 1.71 J. back.000.iIn. consisting of duet: dlfferent !!:(!~[":c.ng 1:\\10 Lincoln Continentals. respect ~ ely lAnd \t' these were not smgle-reperitton weights..000.1]g. Pit PF WI'" 1.t a.ds. milLt Power Factor mlnutes. OUi: chest.find srrength-buildtng capacuv and effk. ]35 pounds. By way of comparison.423 and a Power Index of 3. These were "sweet spnt" workout weighfs mat we used 'to perform man)' lieu of rnul i~ ple repeelticns. l.i1~ f~Ience in [he Power [nd~x: me 6. a chesr. the [Inn::incre:rwes.0.i!tncy of llysrem.1l m. and leg: workouts now yielded <I POIUTer FacwT of rhis tralnins NOTE alent to lifti. We used rhe bench press. = 27500 Ibill min. in e~fect.OO() 6.32:5 Pounds.Mathermukaily speaking. After flfry~ two days on the progtam (co[Uisting ti 0'1:'11 Ysixteen workouts)...fier ~o~alw. respectiv ly.lnY.3 Power index" Simila.l.a tremendous d.5(0)i. 8. \'0-11 [if( g I<'II.'l uf extra rest and were careful to carh up with the propeli' fooJs.000 = ll.wer lndex r quires rh8lt you: square the weight. . [e~son longer nme t"n~ta[~ a higger Pawe. and leg presse of 175 pounds. :n. This clearly and coo\'lndnga". buck.500 Ib. demorutrates rhe fantastic rnuscle. \YJe designed a special workout tha combined upper and lower bnJy pam arul p~ffor'l"l]tItdi. a who~e~body \\'orkout.00.

Monitoring for Optimum Results

Never pe arm a blind workout wherein you just hf~ weight without re ard [0 the reps, sets, and exact rime taken tor each exerci e. h's a wasted workout. Even ihh-e i.nli:ensi~yis uffkien t stimulate orne new muscle growth, you'lllmvc no way of knowing what intensify you nc·J next ttme you're in the gy~:n.]['sslopp'y. andthere ~sno excuse for if. The most significant nmifi.cat:ion uf the irm ,,valion of the Power Factor! 'I'\d Power Index i the a'hilitYI for rhe fi:fliit tune in [he history of strength training, to prnvide simple and mathem 'Fi . U~, precise Indtcatiou of muscular outPUI:. Once this abUhy IS established, it permits the most effectiv ind t:fficlent way to objec ively measure your progress, Theories, m'Yth~, folklore, and science can aII be put to the ul t imare ta borate ry tests; How I1lLl~h overload does it dehver to the muscles! DD~S It Jev ~op greater strength? How rnuchi How fast? And rhis is just rh ~ tip of the iceberg. H "nccfotth, ever~' factor [hat ontrlbutes r or detr Its from your progres, ,I] 0 can he m asured,


ay,'ar~ a/

till:! lime if raker
pa!urm an
cxtn:i:ti;!' is crilJrnJ to



ck'n! jmJgre5s



MnJllfrmngjllf Opr.i1lmm R~ndts


You will be able


accurately measure the effect of m re

or .fe'Wl;!r reps, more or fewer sets, heavier or hghter weight, langer or shorter wurkouts, extra Jay of.( between workouts, use of dlfferem supplements. other variatirms in your diet, and mote. In the domain of hncly~ buildmg, powerlif intI, or any other form of rrength training, "1.1 h in tant and precise assessrn nt is nothing short of revolutionary. No longer i5 i nece sary for the strengr h ill: hqtete to mcasu e pTogress y I., ee l" or "instinct." And Ii the equipment yOll need to unleash this powerful new technology' ts a logbuok and 31 stop\,vatch----common items in vir-tunny everv other ,port and y~Hso crucial in deterrmnmg and plotting progress, Could you imagine, for example, an Olympl miler try ing to morn or his, or her progress by "fee [" or "instlnce" wlule experimennng with running techniques Uke wind.sprin • inte rv·ab. running hills. am] on. never measurmg pmp'res~ by u-i:ng a stopwatch. Never having any t<mgiblc, Dbj.ectivte D1.e.aSUfC of the effects ofhi~ or he. traming techniques nor of improvement fmm one monrh to the next! Yet this is exact'ly the type of low-tech methcdo logy tha [ stren ~th ath lete~ hRV~' a lwav used.

During vour POW~I Fc cror Traming workouts, you wU1 record on rhe Wo'ricoU[ R, cord "Olrmthe rim IS -'!;!;, reps, ond weights that yn1l.l lifted. Afterynu perform a workout, record yo ur resultsfer eac h ~ ividual exercl e and your nd overall wurkout performance on the Exercise/WorkOlUt re rile \.t'ar-k






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1. New N~lmhr - OM N umher - Difference 2. Differen{,'e+ Old N LJI''I'1her x 100% - % Ch~nge
For example, suppose your Power 'a.cw~r g le~ from [,675 ttl 1.890. Find the percentage of change: LB~O = 1.15 215 - U175 x: lOO% 12. %

Performance Record form. The only ct Iculatinn )lOU nee ) to calTlj' out or


Exercise IWnrkout P 'rformance Record forms is the percentage of change from workr ut to workout, lb Imel the p rcentage of change, IHe this simple merhod:


I[XiEJRCUi'E)WO'RKIIUl I• Exercise;
IllID Trrl.!II'jBoQI1I


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CS 50

















,DI~~ ~. FlIlgllrI1


we enc urase you to amtliartee your elf wirh the technIque, asir is the' key to guaranteeing chat ,every workout is ef ectlve, fficie:m. and I mgt SS:i.VIe,. As. V0l.l do so, keep in rn ind thaJ't the two ke l~Sto max irnum ov erload are total weight nd time. Those are the onlv two factors that you will adjust in your workouts. For ex. mple, using the bend press numbers fromthe W()rkruJ'~ Record entry l n page 16, we sec that the total weight lifted tAr II 13,040 pounds, and the Power Factor tva ] ,581 pounds per mtnure. You can :find rl e tirne it took YOLl to perform th is exerci s~ by louking 3 [ th e V('urkout Record or by clivl·ng the total l 'eigh[ by the

One of the most powerful aspects of Power Factor Training L tts eapebiliry W permit Yol.l to plan a werkout ahead of time m order to achieve ij target goal. Th calculations necessary to do this are still fairly simple, and

weight and 11 IO percent increase nn your Power Facwr the nex: 'lime you perform l bench press. Simply follow these steps:

Powe r Fac mr ( 13,040 + !,581 = S.lS). Now., supp ose YOlLl set fI goo] of acbieving a 20 per .m increase in your rotal

1. Add 20 percent to 131040 pounds .(IJ~040 x ] .20



If )1au. Every workout is a positive step toward the rratnee's uldmBlte go:a!.J"Un_1 ~mln·1 . 'Therefore. You will be readit" able [0 Set: vour pmgn.e>e usLng {he same dany schedu ~e andrepenticn schemes :reg<lnlle:lis f o the huge ~mQi. so on. A~ you '!I1.lJ rs shoulJ ever be [he same.lJly productive Eor your particular phySJllh)~y. your o stopwatch to ensure that you don't IilO over the '9 minures you've ser as VO~ r t"'Fge I: time" and you w 111be: certa in that your Power Facu:n and Power Index lUl!ve increased. useless.ndivtduab (remember the sweet liipod).. Add 10 percent to 1.581 'Pounds per minute (I /HH LHl = 1.050 pounds.of eighreen workouts over sury d~y5. Ccm.. Dlvi. and.titl [lie goal total weight by the goal Pow~r factor..iym~ru$ of everyone fo~.ts can be set for one err all exercises yuu perfonn and fClI[YDur total wo:~kOl. The graph s:hOVl<TI here reflects nne subjec[~s ch ..'9Cfn)~d mart of exercises {Di"' six:w~eh. Goa. ". Sinc. The "engineer mg" ia done wi th the a Power F<licwr and Power Index numbers.1M~~~ GWI Tolal WILmhi lib.mil you get nowhere: engineer an ever-Increasing cverlosd.c~.hi¥l. This liS' dethe ment of Pmver Fac tor TraLliLng mat crea tes its effl. per£OrmlPLg 'the sameworkout aslasttime h.rk ut. 'then s\vitc.¥1C1!1 t.. Wi. ge in his overall workout Power Index during a m period .m[ of variation among i.l'I. you now mow exacd~ wna[ Y£lU have to do in your next workout to ensure that your muscular output (ove:doad) Is higher: you.5al pr.'648 ~ 1.six more weeks. be LS.g to anethe r chart £o.cnClj' and is ~hl.l. .650 pounds in 9 mirllut~s(£e. The [rend . have w Hf[ 15.rlast woekeu Ii: pmper~'i engmeered.739 ::::9"QO). keep an eve on. reason [hat such 8 h.ID ever\. Yam result is the time (if'! minures) 2l~~owt::cl to perform the hfting (15.I W~~ l BUOWed vou!l':!\~lfthe req uired time for rCCO\1ery and.llt as well.e t~bl:e). lt stimulated muscle' gTPwth and if you response.i:g_hpercentage af its rrainees can wmk: out once a week or less and sti 11see ennSl. and y~)y ge t !iote dily stronger.) 1~. You can achieve Y(.e yuur mYSCh~.sl:ent improvernenr all the way to the nptimum-level rnuscularitv that they desire. are ill strcnge rpcrsan when you return [.It is difficult to overstare t11e tremendous vallJ~ of this abilill 00 plan ever}' workeor to ensure that it is p roduc ti ve.'o.rklrm.)Uf goal ~otal weight ginlp~y by increasing your bench press Power Factor {pounds per minute] by adding omextra set or morereps to each s~t or hy us rn.b()C)k. Here is one of the most irnporraat thiflgll [0 keep in !l1L~ nd. [f:.D~a 15. Do the same workout every time.lll"l.0 rhe gym. you are <h dif~ ferent man (Of oman) .5 are now c:ap<Jble of more ourpur. Power Factor Training glves yau. the ab:th'ty tn engineerevcrv wor knut that you perform to be maxirnf. return 'to the gym. 3. gvowth. the old workout will not tr~gger any growth GRAPH YOUR IlESl1lTS Tills.lowlng 3 pl1e."IIIhciS on the !"rtaph paper lccared in yoo[ log.:s~ by TPlot:tung your Power Factor and Power ladex nm.2.739).DSIJ P(l\llJBf' F8ttar Thill ~ ~'b.rss 9. Ide all VI no rwe worko.r.. X !u a resul r of hay l['lg made these Mmple C~ Iculmions.g a heavier weight MJ rhar t he total will. technique of sCientufkaUv planning your goals ahead of time <lindmoni tmlng yo ur res ulrs perm its the hi ghesr possible muscular overload each workout and the great- f- ~r. you.25 ~ 00 est possible g~il1s tn ~i~e: and strengjh. Get it ~ That's what pmg:r'e:ss~veoverload isall about.parcthis [0 the old . because each time you.


'awer Indll-Dverall Warkout ~--~----~~~~ ---------~~~~

rlternselves, [( you. do not allow for this f'act, you:r.l1JL.!sdes
canrun grow. The sample graph shows stC>i:ldy progrer on aMonday.,

Wecfu'1Lesd~y;Friday schedule, but hv the t'ive:lfth day a declm in the Power Index oc urred, B}, swltching to a schedule of rwo days :per week, the trainee g"dve his rneraboltsrn the required rime" not only to recover, but to increase muscle. mas .. On <I twkera-week schedul tremendous gains were made up to 'the thlny ~cl)ird day. At this point. rather thsrt just hitdng <I plateau, muscular output decreas d harply. Once again thi 'IIVIlS cerrc ted by addinfr more time atlben\"cel'l 'Motkouts. As expected, the Power Index again showed a rremendou improvern fit. YOUI,.",H! note that the change in Power lnd X hom Day A co D,W 59 is enormons, Thts r fleets afSPI:~t:

increa e in both the total amount of weight lifted and the ra.'e of mting (pounds/mim.u:-s). Suc.h numerical gains can be IiBchi(;!vt:l.l 1.1ythrough a great increase in InUSCll~ m
lar srrengrh and therefore in muscular ize. that you should see on YOMrgr.aph is a ccnsisrent individual exercises and on your workout.

a orres[pondlng increase

increase in your Power Facror and Power Index numbers, both on

As in me example, a ~'Vafkom may nCJ't always yield <t'll mcrease, and you may evert 'ee a decrease in you numbers ..This, as you will discover; can he caused by a varie·ty of crrcumstances. You may have worked eut after eating tOO ft:w carbohydrates or er havlng had too li .

]mport31ndy, even .'Subtle changes in the athJelt:)s perormance COin. be quickly. nd g[aph;mlly tdentified and eorrectcd rhr ugh roper alter ions in the workout and/or the training schedule, I'cwer Facmr Training ideFl~ tifies and prevents the chronic plareaus and Dvert'raini.ng tha plague urcngth athletes who rely on the old, crude gauges. of feci and 111..SI:Unct to measure thett pedonmm0e.

rl sleep or when un ble to concentrate due l:O stress, However, rhc number-one cause of a prolonged ln~i]l·ty

[ lrnproveis overtrainlng, Much more win he said about tlus cruc al point latee in this book, but for now it tS crlt-

ieal to remember tha[ muscula r g:rowrh t~kes place onl~' aft r you have recovered from your last workout. The
recovery and. growth processes require time to comple ~

Maximum Overload for Maximum Gains

The amount of overload }fOU can impost: una enrsclc i directly correls ted 1< 'il:h h w much slee and strength it can acquit e. The greater the overload imposed, the grea r the potenna J size and strength increase, S:pecific demands unposed upon the body result in speciflc phvsiological ad;l.Istmems. Thi 'fact for:rm [1 concept centraltc exercise rhyslulogy known as the pnneipl of specifle adaptation 1.:0 lrnpesed demo nil (SAID) .. According to the SAID principles, if training is to be performed for the purpose of snmularing increas ~ in strength anJ Ize, then the demands mus be of a specific naturenamely, peak overload and rnaxierum muscular

~ j)l~'T'(!lld

impOj(!J .~he



tn~~\~$m mjj.~d~ ~i~


Howe ver, as e IJf bodies ad a.p t '110 a certa in level of res tstanee by deve lop ing 1. [gel and stronger musdes, tht: overl oad m our woeko uts must be increased it funher grow h is to be achleved. Thill cans -andeffect telationshlp has been labeled [he progressive overload prmcl le, which that in ord r r grow progresslvels larger muscles, he skeletal


muscles musr be mutineiy subjected tu ever-increasing demands. 11m i~ not only one of the most basic principles ~f strengrh development, it's also the C:OIO(m';;U'Ine of

ier and




must consiuently strive


lut heavyour


if so domg



Power Facror Training"
THE LAW ,oF MUSCLE F]BER RECRU[TMENT As far as building mu cul.L'r mass is concerned, the sale objective is. muscle fiber re rulrment, The more muscle
fibell'Srecruited, the mC)~'e activated; the mm"f!activated, the g'l"e~H:1Z'rthe growth srirnularkm, It therefore stands to re ascn that the more m uscle fibers ca lle d inw p l~y or ma cl e to contract agatnsr resistance, the more muscle fibers ",·ill be srlmulated to hvpcnrophv, nr grow larger, It was demonstrated clinically In 1971 that, at light loads, s.[oW-[\ViteJlfiber conrract and are capable ofsus~ taming repeated conrractions at this relativel.y ~j]Wintensity. Since these Hbers are weaker, they're not smted to a. higher ime.f1:;iry of effort tn: overload, If SL greater kHlJ i.~ imposed upon the: muscle, a progressive recruitment of largerand ~uonger (fast-twitdl) muscle fi.ber occurs. Thus, when the load Increases from light to heavy, there is a progressive increase in rhe number of mus 1:t.: fibers involved in the> conrraction.? In essence, light luads, regardless 0 how many sets lind ;eps you perform with them, recruit pnf"lladty slow-twitch muscle fibers, which have the lowest capadry to increase in Sl'Z;~. Heavier loads recruitbsH:wttc'h ,fibers i.n ~tllditifrn 'W the slow-twir.ch fibers a iready actt va~ed" from. rh is we can concl ude qui re without fear ('")f contradiction, that the amount weight lifted, Ji5 opposed to the speed of the contraction, iswhat recruits d'ld stimulates the greatest amount: muscle fibers, rherehy ill nOWI"!!! for lit! great t:S[ increases in si:;;~ and str~n;:yth. r>

Power Factor. Consistenr rn.. reases in siae and strength c are yom goals, I3fl'cr all. lf you have the fib.!r recruitment potenrta] {.I bench-press lOO prnJilli.lIsfor 6 sets ,[lor 30 repetitiuns, yet the most ),(lU ever lift in. :;lIT), given workout is 115 pounds for 6 sets of 30 repeution , then neither ~r()ur muscle mass nor vour strength will eve r increase, The), don't have to; the muscjcs aT' un1), herng caned

upon LO do work [hat's wdl below their existing maximum c'3.pacir,..r, (AnJ that work. incid~ntany; is quite ca pab le of bt!lhg hand led srll.~]y by the slow- twl teh ft bets, which happen. tel he rhe ones that have the least growth paten tia I,)

Wha[ is the relationship berwcan how a muscle grows and why a muscle g.rnw)? And please note that rhese are two very distlrl(;t iS6Ut/.8; the answers W which are found in two l~'i~tinct phY5i.ologkaI processes, How muscle grows is through a process of overcompensarn n m direct proportion rn the overload i.t has to contract against. The greaier the overload Imposed on mu clc •. he greater the. ~rowth ttmuletirm and, o( course, the overcompen.sa'th:m. (lncieru;e in rnuaclc mas). 'i.Vfty muscle gl' WS] because the bod),'s muscular status quo (or homeostasis] has been threaeened (VtB sufficiem overload ha.v ing been :placed upon andbecause suffidem rime has elapsed since tha~ overload was imposed ro allow the body's recuperative subsystems nrne t "]) recover from rhe stressor of traini.ng and (2) overcornpensare Or enlarge upon rts existtng totes of muscle Ina. !o roprevent a s irn i1..1" str ~ SOl fro m dis-






rupring [he body to the sarne exrent the next nme.

However.tly coaxing or cajoling the muscles. porue '1:0 [fen endou uy. and me utg~er mechan! sm n. tor he vast miLjurilr'.57 YmJ can't acquit' inordmate levels of power and rnusde mB5'S by gen. MUSCLE ROWTH A SYSTIEMlC. ]( an individual ls willing to exert himself maximally 3:TI1. which (white imhvidll.. eccenrncally. 'whether concert rically.ESEARCH. Heavy weights Uft:ed as many times as pos tble within a given urut rime impose II maxlrnum overload.'ilh[ieEOr aJ5 leng ~~ posslble. Thi .gh-Power Fou::t)T) resistance.l uses p1l"ogt'essive restsItO'! nee in hisworkou ts. nor by applVbl1~ the popular t:ho1Jgh erroneous nction of "confWiing" them. Growth rsn't easy.es:s is a b::ah1:ed rather thnn svstemic phenoreenon.norlon is erroneous. ONREPETIT10N VAlUATiONS d1at s 19naL~l h e nru::! y to grow can cnl y be tum ed (11) by a the t 'NS. GrO\\lltn i sy temic. not rean~r "cry long at all. the . Such being' the case. This is ['hI: m st important re uirement for developing larger and stronger muscles. Instead. rI d I aving been imposed on the muscles via their contracting. I'ight weights r mlld exert! m? The answer i •One can't-e-at can to arms from least nat withou steroids and growth drugs. more imports dYI on the eNS.1 variations lTl3Y exist) is. nor only on rhe iocakzed muscle bUL. however. the central l1erVOUli !iys'Pm (cxs) n:igg ~ he gro\\i[h r 1 CSS. Muscle growth is a systemic I".epedtoivc tasks that ate well within the hody's existing muscular capacity. NOT LOCALIZED confusion that has 'arisen in [be realm of streng'i:h trai ning ha b resul ted from th e belief U1JH the muscle glowth pmc.·icl. or in combination. a proce d at cannot l called mto ph. In fuct. srancs llv. the PUWef" or I . It mu t literally h· (arced. you mus[ make [hem work to the ltmtr of their uppermost C<lp~d. against a very heavy and demanding (h i. how does one force growth \I.ize and strength of h is skele tal muscle wtll jncrease.y y the d1C Much of isolated 21 d protracted P rformance ufhighlyl'.

Grm nc r 3irrtdM. fact..clIbiIlloutput as measured l l me P.f'fidenqr cccurs Itlla. whkh heightens rhe elecuk~ 1 inpur intnthe muscle <1 t on e tune and s~I1lificancly amplifies the contractile . ALDnATIONS INNERVE DISCHA8GIE in.p have been. the actual muscular output way Evidently.!3IfliY repetitions as pO:ri:sible llsitLg weights ~h<1L are over 5. what happens synd::l:ronh. ~ For thosem. In such cases.. eheu chances for GOOlpe~ltiv'e success. been activated. can ~H:nJ. Therefore. overload]..tlJwe~ght. This results in the impulses for musculas coa trac [ion and muscle fib~frecml rmeru oe cu r..l~ 'LOI1I.. The result is the ]:nghest' p os8i:Me Power Index 3nd gtea:te..ltancous[y.UJ.d st:x"as well as numezcus other c:onb~deratfo~5 am.e[ ate you:r maximum COMPETITIVE\VEIGHTUFTERS NEED HEAVIER.) trepetinons ate not necessarily rhe result ofa srill g:l:'c~t. Depend irlg upon innate fiber type dlstributien. hence.force Ci!lpadtlf of the (... cOfltradih: abiltry..~ impulses ~prca~ to svnchmuize in lIf res pOlUe to m uscular conrrac d() r:t against res i. (Th]. S.Qte tn~ere&ted in de vdop ruenr of srrength qua strength r it would obv ious lv be ofbenefH to train. This hasbeen cormbormed hy 1 me . sim.e welghtfis>elected fDr training should be heavy enough 'to recruit most ofthe avail<Jible muscle fib~rs (slow.0 percent bur und er 100 percen ~of ~ trainees one-rep maxioo." rhe number of conespo~dmg and ]'I. Further .2 In other words. there by di mirush ing muscular OVCdQbld.:i.~ffkjency~ .oweF Factor.so d0~ng wnu ld tmprove their neural activity and..te into 1Detter riming be [ween [he {pollfids lifted pet minute) falls off. J rI.t.iQlV lntermedlate.di'tions OI:spredom. neuromuscular contractile . going heavier w'~Unat necessarily recru it more musde fi hers.H::gb rs win enSl~re [hat i <ll] svailable muscle fibers h.sult from 2 ~ tions in I:hc patte rn of nerve: d ]S~ tera charg4i::.) TIle heavy ll!.hlv 50 percent of a muscle's one-rep n1. rhe ~[r'C:f1F!thgain~ may tl.i. and fasttwirch) win have.59 Indc). WE!IOHl'S degree of Hher reetuirmcnr. irrespective of their actual ~~2ie...u.arion parlays in this respect ts that: d.M<1.~ inanr f~bet tvpe. and f@1jH-:witch). muscle's maximum voluntar).nC~dose to 100 percen[ of a rrntscle's malt ~1'Ii'I1J1I1l vcluntary contracti]e abilir\. t 01:1 ma [ the b<l:l.rid colleagues strongly corroborates this noelon and goes on [0 reveal that lLh.rnum. th. the best resul~ G0I1"'!C fWIn perforrning 2LS m.lg rhe muscle and the rate of contraction.v:-dwli:h a load thar is mui.e di~ch"Hg."(imaHy at the swee t spot (fe:ferred~o in Chapter 2) ~where the We igb. with weights closer to ]00 percent of their une~rer maximum (req Uldn~ ~owe:r repet [t~O[U ) <'~5. AU of this e.:i broad range must exisr nwmgto such diverse tnnate physk)liOigk.. Milner~Bwwn.ct'sone-rep ruexi mum weight for iow (l~. ".m.ongund tv iduals. Udo mdicares dl"lt while parallel increases in lnad nerves tnnervatil.\lge ruJ. tntermediare. (lcti'i\lC. this plcocess hs ppens only up to [I certain t hres hold pn in L Tht!Y perce lve thm threshold to be at 50 percent of a. But once this tl'treshoid is reached.. thdr research indicates that 90 percent of allavailable mu:~ele fibers in il r~l'g.~de n tt fh::~ search conducted bv S. pounds per minute ( is. Instead . it Q'lft a>Ct1JJaHy dimintsb muscular output (your occurring more nr less.aHy decrease it the resistance is £oCI heavy that only i OF 2 rE'pe'tltlons are possible. the range of 90150 100 per.r lIl'lus. reps gener~ ]t would appe~r that gains in strength ebtainedfrom a pwgmm utihzing weights 1:['1.:xisring fllber~. Research by H. ceo t of a subj.'erfactor). while htgher repetitions will lead 'to greill:e.rrumscJe growth seimulanorr.etedl muscle grou.

1 g does performing the b$ic exercise. The.I1e mffected similarly hy a g ivenexercise and therefore devd. rnenn tha I: I3J II a bodybu]lde:rhas to do is perform the basic movement. Using man y va rlat iom. Fred Hacl'ield in his bonk Bod1'~ huilding: A Sderui![c ApJ)rDocl'l. As long as an indi~ vid.f{.: neuron) ccntract simuhaneously (the all-cr-none law of m. not the number of exercises performed. fiher contractien] not someto tlae exclusion of others.8J. fJI hexagon...60 research cm::tducted by D. or I . this.bm~ 90-100 percent of their one-rep maximum fo:rsetS of li [0 6 repetirtons. ceUs.Qosing Ught~wdght. Chi. mind that.Iith each motor unit are spread all through thegross muscle." In fact. Dille£. exercise to make ~l biceps ml. TI1e bottom 1 i1'1 aU of this is muscular ourput or overload. It's simpl. owing to [he unmense IOIJ"!.C of genetic variabi [tty among individuals. a II of the eel ls servtced 'IbV thebranch (fB.siae and strength. There would ~xlst no need to improve There's 01180 apopular ~l few though erroneous belief (which exists ~n quite (mirnn. Each branch ends m: the muscle cell and carries the decrrrich. asbocimed~l\.theI3l.. The reason ~5 the way iii muscle is innervated. "the. of an exerc ise fCi r one muscle In flQ WOJiy of: nsures more g liowth Or Jjffen~ rJ. According to Dr. -size-firs-all repetition prescript ion is not DEll}' irnpraetkal butspecuLa1i:ive at best. me me WHY MULTIPLE EXEG:CISES AItE NOT NECESSARY Many bndy h!. loot ehmke.a res ean't perform <1[1.Q]' 1\ im Harly. wh tch Indicates that such a systemlc reSpDrt5>e to twining can. Whel"! rhls current is released.a1De maximum increases in hi~.y net possible toisolare one portion.'i on a tree.r'swhy the "muscle shaping" advqc.g circles] rhar by varying the upon or alter the t:XlS[~l'lg panerns vf nerve discharge with in p artie ytar muse le ~rDups d ur ing the performance of spedfLc. Ir's the force required to lift a weight that dererrntnes andactivmcs the amount of fibers recruited. the trainee will sotaehow be able t[. ~nytJ"IdlYg~ess than this percentage would compromise their objecnves of stin!luiating maximum strength incre ases.]{I:tkyiii\r muscle must be performed ~~. cempetitive hfts . bardtl r..! :si'la:pe of that muscle 'w ill not be (I:ffiet::te by varia tions in the angle or J pos l tion of srress appl icat ion. Wi a U of the conclusions that have been pred U(] ated m upon research ~mphasb:tng the percentage of one-rep maximum. <1 Qif'lJt. This helief has absolutely no basls in fact.J1 rs ha ve adopted the age-old conte nt ion tlde ehat a variety of exercises for a~p:.l direct the Stress imposed to specific areas uf amuscje find C-"lIl tht:reby "shepo" the muscle being named. all portions of the: gm:s." Muscle shape is a f'u nctton of genetics.w of muscle fiber re eruitment renders [his bel ief inva 1.USi(:J1f:. "" .~ rowth pa rte fntng 1Lh.l-[owevcf. It'S important ttl 'keep in.d ~mly when tral:neesemploj' weights appJ:'mu. mnervation. Th!. and rld himself orherself of the <lrltiy uf supplemental exercises for a given mUfid~'l I suspect it does.order W activate sJl of a given muscle's t'~be'[:s. kI.isd~ look like (I rriangle.sistenti)i'l ~I'(lff'l. TI'lflI. ang~e at wluch a muscle is trained..il't he reasonably is can ~0 stimui. be dh:h·t. multiple exercises is hath lnefficlent and ineffecdve.emical current rh:n causes each muscle eell jo contract.s muscle . nerves that enter 8J given muscle divide out into threadsthar resemMe 6ran~he. s mgh. err rid~ nf a muscle.ee doing ~U dl. Zl!S we've just lemn~d.uaP~ Power Factor and Power Index me increasing cOl'l. This is called thepeinclple of nonc:on~iguow.

hut look and s-hape uf them wou.t.be hody'~ em. l-lie COli ld train am yW3y he wanred 0\1 eli the ne xt fi ve vears.'11' only when then~ me the ones in [h. ecmpcund movements. That'~ uoh) th~ ~mlolsde'I"~!)tng" llUI. M ou nt R ushmore. since in 'e.. morhers egg.fS (I!n'~ p~ryuttJ'l ~:ln heavier weigh~!io to gti.m.going effmfl'iO conserve t:ne:rgy. If activates mlly the minimunl11umber of mU{ic1efibefS required rc perform a partie ular movernent for any given demand.! is.wp. But wherrbe was athis maxlmum musculantv.olatiDrl mevements. It'S not me on ly f~:cu.vdy heavier snd M~:l~ ~1wtJ'lt! III .se a sixteen-vear-old had ~ crystal ball into whi. There is could tr-ain with one set. but hils muscles WCI!.!Il Pewcr Factors). .d1:liFldy dear that you must use a load of at ]e. suppo.~V' muscle fiber '1)'( tecruitrnenr nmkes it abun.. A~ter all" the primary COfllr cem of all living ofgornhms ts [he acquijli~ion 9Jnd preservation of ent:lgy In order to better maintain the body'li.ec.d. mere must f rst h ave been a ve ry sertous cleman d fOf it... The grmllth. So dml~f ~"mitevenn time rrytr:tg w shape armrscle intu mmething it cannot hecome . rn<!Orin'lialtymuscular twcntl. strong range.OOUC].. hum>em. Muscl~s will giO\. FOf muscle gr-owrh [0 be Sl!Jpp] ied.u. or stay the same ('~hwughM change in intens: ry). 'len sets. . The Ia.'Mll!!. the relarlcnship between muscular stimulation and r. as many of [l muscle's fibers as pass!bl\! must be made to contract slnmltaneOlJ~ry. m MI'~m!R~dul'L[rf"e . other choice.]/Un"tc!ml (1f ~tl~riC8. of muscle tlSSUC beyond notmal levels is.! or ea rs.a~is. To induce maximum levels of muscle gmwth. there will be no growth. ~ll fun range.tn.e. The bonum line IS contraction. inrerna] status quo.mwth Is one Clif ·supply and demand.. As. etc. HI. in fact! a dlsraption of tit rs status quo andrequi res add ition 811 '~netgy for bu ild. known.an.[:-le would see much larger. rock hf~· ~ng'lweight liftinf.u. important as if is to lift progressi. his muscles would ~ook "he w~y they were programmed to iook whenhls rather's sperm h~t his.:.:~ W ml'l~~ (I/.1.E .m~kt flll~. ]f a muscle's existing level of size and strength ls a:dequate for harlil:!lif:lg worldO<1ds normal ~y encountered (norn).1t:c["y:5ral ball.g andl1. eX""T.c. bu41tng muscles.ld be <IS preordained as the shape of his nO$1. There is 1)0 need for it. OTHER ELEMENTS OF Pm.)VE EXEEliCIS.h he could ]ook to see wha[ his mutideJ:i wou]d look like wh~n he is 3.'ll~il1teflanc.rr~{}n.lIb~e continuous increases In size and stre ngth.1ld end up looking exactly hh~ THE ROLE OF' SUPPLY AND DErdAND A~ YOH can see.iceps midd~ ~~okWU! a ['ri.St ill threshold pOU ndage. look ing sr l[ annther W:lI y.yea:r~old.A ~~you cam do is make vour is a trerrle:ndousphysiologicSiI demand' for them to do so. larger (thrm!gl"l progressive intensitj).I.muse lc smaller ( rh rough lack o( use].

Traiaed rnus- ]tl". Udo.rhyrioiagy. e were PlJbtlsh~d in}mtrncd a[. . Mih''Ler·Brnwn and colleagues ~mpiricE!ny vslldared the fsctthar the load im~cl UlPO~ muscle dLl.raiflung and h~avy weights. 34.y proportjonal W us cruss-secnonalarea.511 (W11l). Clafke'. S. S. H. Dr. Adaptath:msil'l Mrenl':tn am:! museular endurance n:sulting 'from exercise. maximal tncreases in the sise and strength of trs muscle tlssue.ly in. Power facwf Tr[at!'1iflg. Wy composition evaluations provide a better means for determin ing changesin an ~ ndiv idua l's rn usc lemass. 3.1l. urilibing d'lc cnUghtened rcchnique of been shown to de liver th e a. 4. Bxel'(i5~ . body will Jo evervthlngIt possibly c:an. the lceat ion of tendon Insertions.sUilt~f theirresearch .c. wQrkl. and the~ength of muscle bellies are inherited cbaraccertsncs rbar cannot be altered throli~h trai !"ling. aphysiclogical mcreas e muscle density Factor T[amin~'. l. stjmulates the body's overcornpensenea Q'Icc:han lsm into act ion SInd results very 'lute k. 2.1 r rge muse u 1 ature than it perce ives to be necessa ry. Howe \1 er.~'lg muscle. Consequemlv.' Rooh. D. and strength thtough Power de fibers Lend to 01. in tum. i. WhM is Important 1:0 k:e-epin mindis the fQ.ctthat [he hu man. ][S eXlS[i:ng condi(ion.• 81.The growth of muscle tissue. The major physiologkal response to overload rrail'ling ts an increase in muscle fiber slee. Because greater muscle strengthls accompanied by greater muscleweight. reerukmeur. Bel. In other words.385 (971). muscle's stre. 359 (1973).• Phj'~rr.'Indvice versa. ~f VOUw~lInto ge[ biggerr.[0 tt'l03.LM~ GQ[ltrl'i. Bodyb:ui&L'ng. to g ive yom bedy a reason eo grow progress ivel V lfl~ r a nd stronger 1ID1Isde~.p:IDC~~S that a mast ti'teraUy he fon::ed to rake place.1arger than u ntra tried m uscle fi he rs. TIlls can only be aOCicm::ltplbihedthrough rnaxlmurn rJ:'1\18(ul<lr output t. ScaM . This. It's 1J p W yoY. a V='1rI ety of factors affecr muscle strength and size.'\1_(hcHJgh not everyone can develop huge muscles. then..lntatn. The n~. h<lll stmngest -ra nge -repe tjtions. A S('[~'!'l(ific ApPfiJ{~~ (Chicago: COrL~emporar. []. L 73-102 ( 19'73)1. It's na(.be. 1twill nor waste p ree ices resources building a 1..ngrh is direcltiJ.~kmi~lh~ I1'lEljof faeroe dictll~En~ rhe ~ypc anJ volume of rnll8d~ fi. you've got to get stronger. 19~8).dwayo possible ro aasess muscle strength solely by cxterna Imeasurem~ms.... some people POSSf'$S a greater genetic porenosl for developing muscle she <1Ind scren1'lth. Gri'uner andM. grt:~tt:·lit posslb]e 8JmCUm of ove r load tv fau rha~ :!I.& Spurr SgmCfli RIC~j . AN'(l Ph~iol. S". :. M~!t:u:~r·t\n'lwn .)tj 230.. Fn~d HUhcld. everyone em 1" Res~rch ccadaeecd by R S.'. et J. The t)'pe ~ncl density of muscle fibers.

J lowe-ver. And. Wi[hm][ q uesrion. ~ l1em_ ligtmJentJ to d~t!dnJ~ weill! . ase thC(le or bond between muscles and tne skeJenl~ f£3lme. Tendkms" f 11 contrast. ConselIJucndy~ a man with huge bl. usual] ywhite and fibrous~ that serves to connect hones at the body j emts.l'I'I~msrructure il1V~. Bu. all rhlElgsbeing equal" this is correet.lie:u natura] po \'lit' r. so enlarg- ing the muscles' . it's rrue only iJ the muscles have been developed through reSiHOITlCe exercisewhere poundages have increased gl'adufllly ever a period of hUH.:.j"fmltg u~eflgth_ strength develop massive muscles. to and.Jtimpmr~r1y tf<lineJ muscles need not be sU'nng at all.Developing Ligament Strength: The Key to FantasticPower A ligament is a hand []f tissue. Gt1l' rnentioned.5i~t: <lindstrength to makethem equal tn the dt:Illand$ put uptm the m. The gene ra l pub he and manyarh hf:res ha vc dle ide a that a 1'!"! fin wi th large muscles must be s rtong. . you need Sf wng hga~T!cn[S to dl':! dDP grc~[ V ~ITength.jii(m. you need great W'iflmu~ qm~.riably displavs g.t one wi th rugged ligrn.

.es.f':. 1.aid in the lifting rhe weight.. of CL)U rse.ipport and Ufli:heavy v. £11'11: offered by the larc Canadian strength pioneer George A ccord ing to Grimek. can produce.ana mort wei. the knee is rh joint that tends to buckle fin.. GdmE'[\::. l~_:Iw·bHeml'lLy acd\ll'tl' don't eruoy ' he correspondlng rise in strength and musculature that an increase in resi ranee would have c..lf.'el~ht:s and. The difference hetwe n medloc re anJ col ssal s rength lies in the pulling power of the llgarnents workmg in cenjuncion with their ccorupanving muscles. Gn:mt:k told us that rhe mo t valuabl pu~ce ofU'aimng advice ever gwen him .n t' dum yuu've ·etper libed .h. OV.ltt're subjecting :your fn u.~c. More tIUlfl you cnn li£[ WJtNtaU.s. ana i." and rendon.Sl doinp. ' I Looking at the joi rs of legendarvs rong men such a Kazmaler and Grlmek.000 /lound. W JP roy id e s trong ::lJtt< chmc nts fa r muscle s undergoing intense contracriorrs. .u tasric strength result. )'OUT tendons.1 ed.. under heavy weight.lJ power In the knee awl hLp jOints-spe.s-vou C<ITl 't beOlitparrial repeuunns utilizing a range of ant}. Onh' when greater muscle mass comes as a result of zreater efforts (the haindHng ofh avier and heavier weights) can ltgamcnt toughening really I:<. only muscles do that. which app ~r to have been forged of ehe strengest stee].. The legend tUl' bodybu ill! rand srreng th a thl e re john Omm:k is certainly the ·cmbodimem of \'vhat: strong H~· nrnenr s1:u!riyd.. The bes ~ way ro giN. ..r ligamenJ:s.YO'1U have to "I.. he oming "weak in the knees. flexing ezereises. In other words.rll1g to the built-In ~I eLYfactor o the S-<lf~tv pins. . Movemenrs such as the leg pre ." ln fact. lace and f.~ igaments and te ndon almos-t b:wariOs)bly mean weaker muscles. Il's sometimes . tendons d n'c contract r othe. and )'OU gel. "Which vas true as I found Old.prior W i~hat..H of t'u.oning owrhead . iJ that he's. Bodybuilders who pump up their moms through Jaqly workouts of ligl'l't~weigh't. This UJill strongthenytlw. teaHy worked well ior me. cailv wirhin ILgam~nt. The tendons Q( these men sp c ~k volumes for the power the u r muscles are carry ing. tendons] and even the bones ro 3 certain degree. bCiCtlUSe )'f. Conve rse IYl' less -developed .zr [hun )'Ol4 UlOt"'W if you uere jU. to develop maximum strength in vour ~ nd ns and ligamen .:s ttl more su·ess .dm n. trL'!flgtit is to ~uppon t1 to~of-weighti» cer wmpos! nons. ore parricularlj t:ff ctlve in thl regard and also quite safe'. bur also On their very pronounced ~~wJlm~. J. more strength or.fun (H'n·' . especiallv in the region of the legs. To blJi. owerr.e it"s [[upommt to develop strong ligaments and tendons in order to s. .. people are compelled to comment not only on the he of their ID'IJ cularure. J.rwise-. they devd( 'pi and arrengthen the ligaments. In muscular strength. . Til two march in lo k rep. the ndons transmi the forces 1:0 lhe bones and move them.69 TH' ACQUISITION Of SUPER POWER Whtl.'<H. Wh'n an athlete starts to 'how signs oC slowing . which prevent an . three to fOl1T inc. l1\e heavy pasti}'lt movemerus hat you perform during Power Factor Training not on]y Jevdop and stirnulate tremendoa muscular growth.cifl:. built hlS tremendeus muse le mass nlmost exclusive t)' by using the a erernentioncd principle and techniques such as partial r petitions. ] owen tOW rn. got up to supp. •. Legtreng h depends heavily on ligament and tendons. liven so.kl: .

1'l to be. and i ~ "'tren~th determines the qu.-[sue. and joints through Power Factor Trab.' or standaed of performance of nrw athlete. the mure powerfu] the muscles aee gOIfi. nd po iri n rhar require rength to support or handle· xrremely hea v y1oundages. the athlete canner Hft enough weight wil there ls of 'ufferingan~f severe muscle strain. YOLllll get better fl. h his hands 01:" leg.At the end. stTong<h iarh of this fas '.at~ive:s.! door to strength gains heyond the' realm of most athletes' wildest expceratluns. the muscles rhel r tensile strength. ue or bon s.}.ing opens Ith!. Developing. b und together or enclosed by a whitt: substance krtown as fascia.] ligaments become.sly:.alone to maximally tax the mus- de of etrhcr region. idea of the importance of its cnnne rive tissue.d of mnny parts. The mart' powerful -h rerulon am. ObvLou. R any m 1'1 troll poundages can be handled In this exercise for multiple repetitions.. 0 [he muscle mas rhe far cia be orne a tendon. tendons. The IUUS 'leg a:re composed of micros !lpk bundles uf . the human bo y 1~ el sely kmt . Or other Hgament or '~'endon injuries. Evel1' internal! rgan is covered with COnneC[L\' ' tissue. JevclopmenL which results inr duced mus ular BODY~TRUCTUREAND YOUR POTE.NTIAL fOIl POvtER lf you can visualize your hndy as a burldtng. The muscle tnass is enclosed on the outside in. e 'pecmlJy in movement.'70 accident ~houid you de cend ton low. like any structure. tea. It is this connectlve tissue lh<. I self attached to othcfconnectLv 'liS.1. The mu dell rerve to move he jomts and keep the body upri~ht and in balance. the Lessrisk j . Ilw more effort r:he bodybuilder or weightllfter t< kes 1:0 make this connective ti '"LiC tronger.aUf'. Tra lnlng with conventional methods. ~ combinatien thllit promote ven:'!i' rapid gains m both size snd strength. for it i this tis u th is usually mjured in arhlerte accidents. Iranger ligamerits.then.

Range Partialse Why They're So Effe'ctive Anybody who's been involved in bodvbuildin .7 Strong. AnWll!l sn~ngth athletes and w .I ['<iT- tinl rcpzridtl1i1l~. HO'llr. After <. tone of Power F<lctor Twining.ximmn-m. itis also known that the Il'lrc~tesr devzlopment or these muscles cernes ebour only rom using V'I.Il~ they 0It"e among the mas t bas h: of bodybunhlLng exercises.I:')1 heavy ex [C~ rng poundages. As a result.'ev er. the per mnial question posed in the quest' ' Or bigger...t1ifi~r!!uf Te'ROWfl. d ers.'t:rload partials-e-partial repetitions performed m the muscle's Strongest range of motion. powerful ShOLO 1. ffld:l'I) ~~'e rtsea ~dlTltqLte LILt l.:asefte(tlV~ as the Olympic press 'or budding massive. These are the corner. m re powerful muscles b H lVi' can I continually handle mort' weight! The answer is found in the techrnque of Ill" . .igh. fur any len~ h of time will ten yew rhat nothing build thick powerflll p ctorais like the bench press and rhat no other exercrse i' quite .

Nevertheless. Co 115 ider the fnllow ing rories. the: ~eat Engli~h Olymp! weight lifter.ESe weight:!owould be lowered to EL POUl[ that was rmghly f'Jur incl CSo above hili head..: [ike.ing Ugamenft endon.f'lty~one. andl 'm around DO pound:o. . p<li. told tht:.e~. - h'ighly [he effccnvenes:i of rhe rechnique: "I'v done [hL'1.1'Ihroughout t the )'earJS.. will do [he same wondrous things f r he b Jr.i. 0 [ started Joing th full squats 0 SUCCESS sronus.ViIS one uf [he pioneers in the rldd of parnnls.l." wid the l:lLlr:hcu::s tbought(. 1 wanted to see what fun squats W lIld bl. f'tte us. When] did them fp a fe'l'l' weeks wid. pheru men lly heavy hench presses. and Anderson would practice his I l Anth( ny Clark. Georgia. native of Toccoa. if HOY. author 0 hiS experience with the partial-reps principle: ur 1 1 thInk tnc)' work! 1/ ~Cll4 're duing h.1' the quarter squat. 1"5 0 for champion life in search ...'er FaClOf Tr41lnmg IS SUCCESS STORIES: BUIlDING '. l'nany have used th technique of partial repetition but few.000 pounds "Of artials in. (Iller I . ha hu upon the method performing partial repetiriorr early in his career. If! conversr [ion with the authors. B human being.' Bill Kazmaier. rbe [ir~[ teenager in h. ifs riluch.r over. ' hi·h causes a quick adaptmioH b). would p O:ltID lus p rria by su spe nd ~n mass ]vely I(')(1ded barbell s frorn cha ins h an~~ mg off the branches trees in hl: hackyaI~l T1.l:trnng Man.His 'back lift uf 6. again. Partials budd am:JJ.u~rs of renown. having made <IninJ~pfh srudy of he technique's efrt:ctiveness by inccrporating it into his own workouts. .170 pounds Mil] stands some forty vears later.C[i'It. Anderson spoke de mass. which permits the 1hodybullJer to perform.]muscle strength. became a world champion befnn~ the • ge of [w\. Once )IOU go back down w a T~gldar style of t.qua'lS just to be able to handle the wdghr and also partial dead Lifts to increase pan: of the 111·koUI.1 feather'!" Ronakl W3U{er.on mtwcments like squats. The first partial move men r 1 did \\. accord~ng to the G uin ness Bnok of Recor:c:ls as "[he ~reiltest weight ever lifted h". raE GTH Amo g strength athletes and weight ]i.trongest range n motion. wI! teh I' n do ..ed p. repcrltlons rom this range.1. I did 1. Power it cks and Smith M. rhe bvdy. easier. that's Jm:miding a real ofler!noo.P(l1.rainingwHh a lighter lllfl. Paul Anderson. 11 body power.cmtia{s nl'ysdf anJ. I I' partial. tl c famed 01vmpic 1 ~d medalist (1956) liI.il"')'partials.5. builder eeking tncrens d muscle mas as 'they have done g:reate.t training rechnlque: his "I Ji'ked P rnals because the overload tnt: Lldn'er. 1 did partial :s. aU adrni red rhar rhey knew they were on to sum thing. bi:XftucSC of the l ngth of fhe bar )IOU rnn only reaU)! go sligh tl . \l 'h !e numerous 1 owedifting champicnships and srrong man titles earned him the adA itional tide {b"lng the "\V(}rid' Greate5. developed 1118 srrength cl"u'ough limtfed~rangt: work [) uch R Q'lp~city rhar he round support more than 600 pounds overhead. nique. the squa as an asslstance exercise.tmt doing fuH squats.000 rouruL.i~w11' to hench-press 612.. 80 the might). they were very helprul in addln OTUS. Anderson !. an!. mihwry presses. have recognized the fuU significance of lrs potential. and the wdgh[ I~elt like . Oft ~h~ bench press . p~rturm~d in rhe .md and the itr t manto rever e-grlp bench 701 pounds. about this ~rea. when [hey employed th tech.sc:hines did nor exist in Ande:rsc)fJ/s rime. and.ed . BUll:DINGMUSCLE MASS Parcial repetiti(1n.

gal. Mentler h~ld chts to ..l bot}. J 00 pouncl~[Dr a fetv 'I'€ ps.t 'Wit. we re perfornUfig partial-range Preacher curls. .erfect score of 300 in t. I cCl~t!dret'l.t11.76 presses behind neck.ck. I wa$ trWd1 stranger than an)1 bDd)' zrr OUJIlJ t..W r and his broth er.1 colossal S'lrot1!:lth (he was able I~Osupport. . Uruverse conresr tn Acapulco. . !tfJri1il(.g lip 'rI. \I.:cp~ back in d:u: IJrS: llll~d mf~ers itL tlty attic w whicl1 1 hooked up some support stml)$ where a bor wral. increases in muscle mass.I1dene of wdgb It rtlTlll'S imrnorts Is as well" spoke W us ahou r his experience in ustng partials to build not onb.d wr W [he halfway wh ere ~e mhe-r's laands wCluld ~wp til If' bar £!nJpvssibly IHlen gitre a slig!!t hoo.fUr N-~UIC!J 150p~tmds JO'( fuU~range rep:~ W 2 20 ~I)un~ for partial reps. Mexico). When Me f:!t.300 pounds -un Lou F~rrjgnor the star arThe lncr~ilib~ Ht(l~ television series and {at (5 5" and 320 pounds] also one of the most r . was also a !Suong advccate of pe rforrn i fig partial rc trt ions in h is t'w.sr to get the mam moth we(gh I' started back upward.edia te Iy s ir aourn w avoia faWngdvWn1 We would ut'ea'ln~d ~he bl'l. «-'e bo th noticed apilm!ciabi~ mass irliCTrrue_~ dlj.Behind Ne.s pel'fonned in UJis aU~otn iasnirfrl ~ib'Ere aU Mike Mentzer.k} a Legendary bjJJyhui lder S!.trtmg tui ng rhese at lL:(ln . for their bu. . In. .u huild u:emendouswhnlc~lbnd. H nor accidentally. . but ~iso tremenduus John Crimc. is another champion who utrh~t:b the Power Factortechruque ofpattiel repennons in his tr~jn1ng. Ray. the filrst b()dybuilik~r 'to successfullv I1Ipply the . After a se~ performed in said l'l'JanmT we' J im:m.dine pre5S . up to mare than I .'H'raps would suppart the barbell at a height ~ha. overhead a 1.rtf.Spended fram ~hese raftErs and louded Itj) witll weigh[~.tfL/Jer/Jeudicukll to the grCltiinJ SO rhe r-csi.OOD~pound weighr slung from rafters 1)£1 c::hairts when he weighed ordy 185 POLLI1lJS!) hut also to develop his incredible muscle m. .·ring that period of P()\lXtr . U si ng ~ Preuchel' heJ. the firsr to ever garner a p.ccHsed either C~Se)1Of ~~ of laeltlng site. YDl~ set:' ~he . n in~.~Hy his audience in Mwde & fitness mf!~a1:~rle: to re massive bodvbutklers of an time.sUlTIce dian't faU rlff in rillE" wp of th~ mClti'!lm~m nne oj ~5 I l)'ldS~ qHir~ a bil. .~imihrly impm:u ive p(lUT!~S in the Dead Lift tlnd P'ress . I.mElH rs likepanh:d preH<!'~ otieThe~ and so frmh. Here <~e five examr ples {~fhow partial reps have stimulated not onJy p}"tenornenal lDOWt:I deveiopment. make my eXe1'CiSe5 tJL'r~y hea. Once the. . Regarding hili expenence with partials.r for the .J 2:. tvC wuld wke.!il be St:l. really ~ncretu~d m:y ~Jower zm d nUt-Sde I i I lace 19705.li. he told would [owe:r [he 220-pm.. . \l!e lmth used .!arkin.y power ami very im preS:illve museu lat develop ment.fonny sii~r and Clge and so forth. we i.Rh t began us (1Scen t .'! about e"j~ level W EhGL[ Y nu co uk! perform !TbOtJ't.lrkeJ ijt~lf2 welL l n f(1C t J go l quit£' 5.~SK: T he last tj'me fE!'ng.: Pasiti01l .~hen Casey Vil:ihlf firs[ tTIlu'ed rn Ca{jf(fmi~ in die kue 1970s. I recall thl:u ~he)' wr. way. About 4· rep. and a host of other power movements tru.tmlrctirion (when ht: won the 197tl Mr. And while no nne has ever a. We ·~~ed 6 25p-ourtds far qua neT reps til the hl..Rock wor~.) ass istance was given. scip I ine of science to his tra:ining and also.~ey and .H the timl1:.Pre~hef tu:rb. the quarter squat Ca.~gedin any serf(J US Power Rack work was .vy rhi .

.leg p'n~s~!t!sutiUzing a full . My bad.strength. After Pan-ia1 aN. at din off-season bodywd~ht of er As you can see. 0Iym.Utern EO be t!ery goad.lice])~ L1b:.Jith various exercues OO~r tfte Y'e(lI'S In U~ (jf forc'eil 'reps.partial ~e.esse:~. he too has been <Iklnliltime booster of parttal repetitions: !Jr!iEi:ve jn fun rfp-~. A n(i when)'m~ faa m s taLic.ridt b~ll-'rangt rtpstmd men .u.l!" I .mngf uf ITlOt:IDn.onj~ pIJil'ilt of dimil'tHhlng r.!ar~tlmg£ 1'e:peo:riD~ I'll'l f:'ll''l'Cise:s ~l~ch ru inc~inf bat-bell r}1'" rnach tl1e' presses and kg P'f. erreosome:tMng f'tIeJ.~t nor pranical to ~av.tlt('):pment. An y rim~ I do d fuU·rtmJ? l'fi'p L'rL r sa)'. if me musck can sun btnc~km. going aU the way doarn to rl12 paint where m)l knees u~(lu!d w uck my IJPlJ:rfch.s durmg [he range vi TIlmion and eu 'wh al pOilH it's at i ts !'OO~m. so I'm alwa::f. experience wi th partla ls: 1 used w d(] .c~d l'i!PS. Nor syrprisingty.e S t on e~.ay. pa:r(:i~~rep.e' for..liAva). 5 iun (:~nc~ntr. I us~ L() trtl~n [M t u.('i!l!Ve.ta li.~me eXNc:Ls~s. [hen'l)Vliy nDtttlke tr cdl dle Ut~j'! comes aff 'm'"j .llwking 1m things like test}pause D'I" ma~i· mum i~egath. My UJa)' of using them. and J don f gel a'i1j'~Mngnut of it. thin king tlmt .Iuue ~U'ch "lay w eXlend mY' ~~[:S and make them etJ~r harder.J(i~ry el' T Clf t41ery .one ~l.was the correct way..s use a half or paxtiaJ rep-.1"j mh)es have gro!U. They ire no:t for me at flU. bm myth igl1-.eturn~.)' caltJes I c.offiAM! My' upper . in $. )IOU' ~1i' st iU got some negaa ee s:t'fcngtil.IW duu on t1llm~cb.rn! r i Dorian Yares.se.er the weights you hf~.a.na. easllv rhe most massive Mr. 1 try to become.dh(lw.d M\Je no pump at a!l.~[anedbending Ul y ~ng. is per. and chest.t J~ndlng bene.$icg !ly hero-m.acharntpion inrhe history of bodvhuiW· wdgh~ than you would t'tunl'l<1Hy_ Of course.rj Every 'year 1 train. partials alluw you tn lift much heavithe 2:95 rounds at 6 percent bodyf8. 1 do p£lr~ial:s: on cai-1. my !Qwer bo. UtiHdng every high.e' ace!~ rome:d. has ba.ep~ing dtat in mllw. Le l'S fa. il.s CDme'S vff (4 my calves and onW m')t !ower back aJ'~ '!'ea' ~nd. w~an yau frnJ doing pt1$Wve reps t )'flt{ Hill have SDUle ~Wtic or h(JW~'ng ~tf'Cngth. .ld~f in dle sport today.troilli~g widt mm'ghr sets. Ke.ek would be killing me.Vflld.""dnlnr!im~ "d (hen c(.intensity technique in the book. a.a.it marl:' l11NSde grClwm.p~:a and fmatd .cn~lpkl I'll gu w fnilljre u.t.E\. the gtea.nd my dliglu j W"~ UJe..s 1i. ~h(lsrre s. 'Uw ~jJ t.:'i U.1'l t" For me.'td see al what poin~ ~Iletea- ~l'id aJ a se~ of regu.·enu. who is also known as ~'Q"11adz:ina" bCC:IYBe of his asteunding quad. )'ON wuW l)fobably $dU do f:l'ant[ll~. for ex.r. And wlle:n you failal thm. dQn't 1jU~f shut my r d../its Vf SOme such rniftgs_ I Hsed rom~ paTua is while VT1l:paril'lg fGr ~/te i 993 Mr.i" wa. smarter abm.nd ".\ct:£" ShOUtde75. "Wh.g pressesl Ferrigno had this to S::!¥ ~bom his.. an)' thing bt: .After iii Jf!W sets of ~his..tm2tri~aUy rostimulate furtber muscle ~owth in the cff-season: bi l a. res jN. Olympi.. Dori an also em ploys the techni que of pa rn a I reps wh~n looking to up his training intensitj Jr.thighs bfewrig:fu up! l! r k~et':~juSt E~ien c'litaHy dtey gQ~~ W 32 inches armtndl Paul D!<:Mayo. Ilm.re'r rhe overload .tlf. at ffiJi !~ af d~.t. hc. wlf rais 1£'5.t inerE'tlSit mY' uuenSH:y. l11'l d then (')tlE! dil)' J ~hought [D n'lyself.ond a.av~.s. i hOllAie to fight hke hid! fo'( eV(lU a little b..ce it.l.. 1 found d'lat. noW when J ~(Ll11 m.nllles a haps rhe l')righte!it up-and-coming bodylbui. ro d:!uilgs like .bUntinue be)'otW /ailu re with half lind q'Harrer reps un ~ilI (an 't even move dre b.:teifam1 cliem ~t the eyes. or s(.

by Liftinn as much as ~'ou can and hy rnak ~ng a con erred effort to increase yOLIf Pnwer Factor 011 a per werkom basis.YQU see this exrraordlnenlv ru~g-ed look in rh .on to build j fig tronge r ligament and rc nd on surengtb. You've gd) to tra in heavy to get big.:1jli. overload ~'OU c n impose nn your muscles due to the leverage deficiencv. and partials allow ~'ou to train m the heaviest possible manner. ph\':\Hques of the athletes whose statements you've [u tread. fa:ils to take Into account rhc fact rhar ynu have <II choice in the matter: ~'(JU Jon'!: have La tram in your we.. [ohn Gri.'!like Dorian Yar '. 'n adillrinn 1. . It'ndfiTI THE"'WEAK LINK" A ALOGY There is a popular III .tUUS to acquire.I.)i who train with vet)' heavy pourida es.£llJTit'l'It n:d ~tT~'T1Eth..me for a man W grnw old without se~ing the beald)l and stnmgth of which J1i5 bod.ystem that can enable you to overcome the leverage and developmenral deficienci rhat nature may have fOIsted upon you.FACTOR LOOK "1t is u sho. Flex Wlu::eIe £J' and John Sherman have the look. This maxim. THE PO'YlER . As you wilt sec.80' ill yOLl're IJ imposing ( 11 (he muscles. In other word . im in strength trgining: A chain ts only as strona a. n:1gEt!d limit. b capable. ~f(lutll certainlv 11e\' lnp LI phVsiqu r irs most mus ula 1 massive limit.. its weakest Iink. e. P wer Fa xor T aining utiliaina the technique f partial r perittons is the onl . Fugged look.lders seem an.) builtL'tIg II. hm ever.. ri:mg~ f rnoti n. Peo II. even though your muscles are .hich is the prime reqisite fm build ingm as ive m 1. and watch ytlUf personal Sl:<'C' a-nd strength records skyrocket! j > T Ptilu>'<!.. \. It's <ll look that mere and more hudybui. Ah:hough )'cru may never be ~b le to lift we igtits 65 hc:~nryat$.1 scles . gi V~ s [he body a very powerful. M well as in the phy ique CI_ other athletes of tOU. you're I!: rrict d to how mud.y u're only as stron g rn <to exercise as you are U1 tbe we akesr pan of its range of merion {also known as the sdcking poind .-F1U:tm' Tramiflg.gil'e~ lh bod)' Cc \~ pl1tlJ~rfW. Wt h lull-range reperitinns. li_SfJnat-es Power Fac ror Train ing in aG.mtk did. Giveit a U'Y for yuursdf. say.

.l\. THE TIt. such techniques ". But doesthis fact mean ru<l.U never be forrhcorntng.r qu~d~ or yuu~ pees. cambered bench press bHll's that force you:rhands below chen k~'\fe.'>t range of mntion.3LpiJrncreases in strength and muscle mass ". <lndth. which ~sexaspetaril1:). you muS'1 thInk in terms af whtH your muscles are cap. and end Uranee .LS L~an argument advanzed (1nly by people whoenjny arguing. Ahhough you can improve f!lexihHtty by performing ~ornefuU·n11'lge weigh[·Uft~n. If your muscles ~te capable of Hf[ing 5DD pounds {O[ 20 reperiticns. 1[1])EalitYl ur's an argument that ha~ no end. AU it knows is th<l~yom J1I1Ll:5id~$ are being called upon to ]lft a ve:ry heavy wdght for a lot of reperjtlons.ITY. Instead.The reason t'l that the level of m Wiley output is sri II Iar wen below w]"u:'l"tlu're capable of" ] F. PIJWeT Facwr TmlJl. nothi ng can deli ver better resu Irs rhan we tght lift ing.r? The tru th of the m fI tter is that yom body doesn 'thave a due as.o.'l. yet the mOS~you ever work out wtn:h is ISO for the snme amount of rep5. mare blood h~s to be Sent to the wC)rkin~ muscles <Ita faster rate.NAU8TS Somewhere along the Ilne. f1exlbHity. a :!iotraight Olympic bar than h is with a cambered b3. running.1then.t1 terms (If its eneF'gy svsrerns. even if you iLpmgress" hy adding 1 ~1( Z repetitions or even 10 pounds to the E'XeIcise . More musc~e fibers havem be ~cri vated as force rcqui temen 1:5 {the e(fnr[r~~lUired to move he:avy resisrance] dictate fiber an STRENGTHI' FLEXlBII. in mDS~ CliIses. which requires :it tremendous amount of energy to accompl ish. . ranee exercises.sU'nnl'le.capable ni handHn!..ec reted.. then you'~~ only prog.ADIT~.ly slow . its sole concern is how much energy am .an d no me thad allows yaw w Hfr more wei. mf1l1'llngfun.to whether you'reperforrnlng a fun~rnngcerep.e in lri 8L1: ion of the Krebs evcle and a host of other metabolie activiries have to rake place. the body can't tell if yuu're training you. ""h..t powerl if~ers ate weak or "1'110 r reall y 3S strong as thoy appear on peper' becausetheir range of lnoli~n is less with. Th.g exercises or stimulate th.]rcds more pounds in the ~tmngest mnJg.t' cardlovascular system (to improve endm::inct:) hy performing high repettnons wirh heavy partial movements. If 'ijhu remain in the weal ITHJ:de. For example.bjeLtiI'!g themro. POUMICS FRo.!lw.re!js as quickly as your weakest link does.·range repcnnons..e5acreper.ght rbsn Power Factor Tr~iniflg. the fOIlTIJ of v."'oldd be \'O'I~dy inferior to yoga arul runn ing or otbe r spec ifk stretching and end. you remeln lockedittto the notlcn that YOll must perform rUn~farlge mnvementa {usl1~lly beccuse that's [he w~y "everybody else" pedorms them}.'it reason haFt your h~l.oce In VQ lvemenrvmore hormones have to be . ~w.ngth. AND ENDURANCE The 'three benchrnarks uf phVSLCSt'l fitness are mt'n~[h.1: is designed to 3Lccomplish one and only one of these objecrives. northeir weakesr one. T 0 develop c iovasc ular enduranccvwetsbr l~fting could ~amer some improvemenr hut will never equal eross-courrtrv £kiing~ Jista. The b~JJyisnjt as concerned about such aesthetic CllfLditioru as whether your mL1~c."'I.'~n!.ent mUlid~ size! Obvjously none.blc of handling in their . But for devel- o ping ~ffeng th.l~l tcalterits pre:s. In facti i.o.e of the movement than you're rr~sentLy$lJ. W~[h partials you're not re~lly as stl:\ong as you appear on pap~'l"because youire not doing (I fuH~IaT1lgerep.t.. or other more 8pectfic exercises. you can expec t to hear the disp~raglng statement. waste produc rs have: to be cleared.I.5 capable of provldtng:.allow you to aehieve ~ greater range of rnctkmthan a ~ttaight Olym'pic barbell 1. maximum gains :Ln.M.

.fun~n:tnge exercise si.:.and fiber recruttmenr are required to ge~ the job done . Your g(1al as a bodyhutlder. your muscles arc l'n:'tf:lde to contra:. and enc~gy on hispart.range of mot ion. This makes hill"! lessprone ICCIlnlUfj' and able to perform mnre ef.mply makes this gnat impossible tn f~]'-.'jly.ei[' strongest leDge of morton d eve' lops what is termed lime r1on@l strength r as doing so but hJ~ tre lUC ndous and :practical I bod i]y powe r t hat is both ut iHzeJ and necessarj for a 11of your dOly4CJ-d@iY actlvlries [illnd any emergencies that sho uid c wp up.tble to ~bsmh many times yom bedvwe igh. ~lOW arm~ me stronge s~when 'me-'ll re almost complerelv extended.h. and you're better :. rnovemeaacspeed.5. Unless a full-range bench press competition som".[' sr th~ outside of hi. Tra~ning' the muscles if! d1.s c1\el:\t~Of course nod To do SO would represent 8J s8.how becomes <I crucial method for clI.criJke of snengl:h.t's required to stimulare w. Yau Gill.L n CIrcle to ach ieve ~ full . This is rhe fElllJlge where he'll build allthe explosive strength necess~ry fur his legs and arms to move from a semi~~)m.Q full range of monon is r .OOt ball Iine n'lan prepare to bHo thIOl1g:hrh e ]lne eo the mtended H1tget by f~rst squ~mtng clown until his haunches arc resting an the backs of his calves and drawin~ hi!i elbows back so far that his hands ar. [he g. . .~peli:iUon$are usefel o[lly for performing in artificial g:ltn~ and contests. ruNCT~ONAL STRENGTH by now that wtrh Power factor Trnjning. a:t It!<lst as far as your potential acmudly. Likewise. Functional strength for a football player .sary srul impractieal in the attempt to generate masimuru power qmddy.·n. you're not eng<'lging i~ a stretching competiOhVlOUS It should he don. not one study has ever been conducted that hae proved that :. The season why this doesn't ha ppen is obvious. trf.f£t.ete.And. imu m muse ular mass m:'Ids trengtb IlQthin~ more.tiveiy" In ccnrrasr. In) other words.l3t ls exactly wha. line is !:haJJ: with ~t['(a:I. e arrives there. They do not nrst recoil ro BI point one or II:\Voindles from you ~ chest.t from such <II.mEh as PO"{~ e[bfting. r Doing so would be borh UFlrlcee. learning to become more '-!fficicm in rhe skiU of fuUr range m "weak ~i nk" bench-pressrrrg is entirelv unnecessary.sT ~'eights possible.[ the hetlvle. you certa i]1'ly don t j make i r ~ pc in t to touc h YCl'll r ~w'e~ to vour heels wi rh ev cry step .r~ater weight {overload} ernplayed necess ita res grea~eF eI'J. And. strongest functional range.is't in the moveme n r. strength arh]ete. The bottom. ~th stmngest·range rraintng. You're training fO:f the express purpose of developing yom abse hue m OU!. re<'\dUy see how this p:ril'1!ciplecould ~<uHy be aprlr~d w most sports as well. ditch or down a road.~Fgy prod uctiou in terms of what '5 necessary to fu el the increased Hber zecruitment and muscular output=-which.:v'iuu. quick. \X.3':lii:unUn1: muscle growth."ligC5t·ral1ge training. 'When ynur le.portan.a car out lIf a. m foorha ll p layer I S co bu ~ strength and :she.minJng d1e outcome of a football game or bodybuilding contest.d~d to <Ii fully ex tended pos iticn b'l the shortest ]:)1"166 lb It: time. if you ~1u.l~ning for functional strength via sheetrange.IS qUlddy 3~ possible.:glll)w~. Have YiJY ever seen a {.gs aS5.reside& in a movement of between foue and five inches. a~ the' clinical srndies dlea earjiet cmpidcaUy demonstrated. and cl'. ld as discussed pn. full~rnnge r. and explosive movements will have the plaver at his intended t:lrg~t (.ce of functioaa 1 strength GCClM'S when you trip and fall. An~nllls'trax ian of the' im.ct agah:'Ls. i~ the only stlmulusthat induces muscle growth. you do se W:lth yom arms almost fuUy extertded. YCiur arms reflexiVe]~1go out 'far infron r of you to help cushion and absorb your de!\'Cent. he'll be cempletelv prepared to do h his job in hi:.1.t['!ir!l. posirion. obvleusly. and ·wlhen. pc rlod. [J1 fact.

ty. and-e-more tC1 thepllint-they produce fanrasnc results. Y:our mus les are potential capabl of doing alma I: any j h you rcquin~ of them.5 parenrlv a partlal-range . Again. f01. a toad is imposed on muscles. and connective tissue dun exceed rh ir structural in egriil:y.u 'bun ro your heels (as. bu exaggerations o nrm or fulL-[ange rule may prevent them from iOing the weight-ltftlng job (J which the V are capable and may even call5t: inju[)\ . Fu rrher. virtually ne one U es a full range f motion. when squatting) in onJer to s ~rnulare sil!~ increases in your thighs. it been empiri any established rhat performl ~ exercises over an exaggerated or "full ran' fe. can develop his of he. simply because you are ~u your strongest in that range. Om hodies were nut designed 'to 11ft wei~ht. fur example. the range of mot ion req U lred to rax your funnuona] strength is the s~fest Iartg~ of all. lnducina leverages snlely for the sake of perform. anJ ll~amentS [0 eX31gg.ing. we can't stre S too strongly thar nowher ha . THE ATU1l_ALRANGE Outside of the gym.ry. you end ur sellin ym muscles shnn in developing maxlrnum sue and strength. The analogy of the sprinter hould esrabllsh conclasivelv that yow dml'r need to I touch ym. s str ng as your we~kc j• . legs quite well ~imply by running.:nne~!< Consequendy. By locking yourself mto the notion [hat you nly fuU~r:. xcrcise. A spnnter. which ~. i: link in the movement will aUow. . Functional ~[rength trainln means rh l you're not silhjecting your muscles. joints.. when you lift a wei~h't by these artificial rules f range. distance. harbeU movement over SOH'Ie arbi[Tiny win he lefc almost com let ly untapped and unfu Lfi II ed. Partial reps fire mere in keepmgwirb [he natural range otmcrton that LPurmuscles unltee on a day~m~day basts. of motion w LU stimulare more rnus le f.n absolute requir men: for stimulating maximum in reases in me find strength.erateI arcs of monon and/ur inju.bc5. ligaments.'l1ilccmcling m the srrlct reg U ireme nts of man -rnade g. maximum fiber rc uitmenr nd maxrmum sue hould urilee you'll onlv become. example.apaci. tendons..lngemoverncnts in your training. They are clw safesttypee ot repetitions to perform. Your true.maxirnum s rength c. lnjuries nccur in t he weake r range of rna ti em whe n.

U$IYBl 1. we diu 50 wuh no precuneel ved b lases or p rejudi ces of how to lIT::! in. we weru by what science had revealed to be plhysio~og. When we embarked n the development of Power F<licwrTraInlng. ]n stead. f'fPS .V' 'n sue and strength.l]' Tfmtrne r HDW m(il. clIid e xe-Tdse~ per b. C:lI. When we locked mto Me realm of the: requirements of pro due ive exercise. hence. ic. l}"".!d) jmnl the answers to these qu n s came forth rather readih.. nnd fe'l.:h use of the heaViest weighl:S and.n. bur verj t~w of these ()'P'~ ions were to n n i tent. ~ut. we \ er surprised to find (hat p W11mBrlhl "ideal" Iraiflin.. No "01'1 in iom" were gran ted 1·g l t imacy.al facts.11 me ffeet relationship be I. but until rece (1[1 nuboL~Yh ad an answerto them.Your Ideal Routfne Just WM i [he "ideal" rrainln 1" routme? How many ers! How llliIny reps? H w mal"). excrcis s per body ran? And how many d 'y pet U' t!k should one emu to srlmulate maximum ajns in size and..h as how our bodies lean to tr ss: what exercises allow!.. yi ·lJ the greatest: pounds per minurc (Jf 89 . once we rnok time to .TL Y sees. Th~ re were V opm iUl1S.ver snl I had any sCJentific basi. trength] These are valul questions to h~ sure.

into the indivldual's lnmted rcc verv abilitj.NTNG SCHEDULE The ICSt [hing [he body uoe5 immechruely after a workout is to recoup the ene'rgy and reserves lost during the worko LJ t. While recoverv of anindividual muscle rna)' be quite rapid. vom biceps muscle would not mcrease in 8ll or strength. YOill "ideal routine" changeseverv rime.. no other consideratlc n held anv m aniag. Bur if ever you reach apomr where you're not progressing in Pow r Factor Traintng. Bm how is that inten iry measured! :I. Because VOl] are &tron. ked up by the authors' personal experienee. are sepa:nat~. the recovery of the overall physical SYS em (abo known all systenuc recov '1.~::>ked tch tech:Wh nique yields the greatest nverload? The answer to 'born queues.. Being facts. ".eateH overload to the muscles. rnaxirnum g:wwth stimulation. We. OUI sol obi ecri ve wa pu re 1y to d i cover what was [C uired in the w~y of prcgresslve resistance exercise to produce the has ever quanrified the amount of ['i Tlo<ld-unut the Power Facror was trmovared. it becomes . n·u~sc were om gui. rr8. When I(he muscular rverload in training is as h. tb. By im.posing 3 progressive overload upon it.:) . even o· \finu . with.es[ !possible tncreases strength.stem > m . The p recess l. would indicate that tt [he overload wa of sufficleru inrensiry ro stimulate strength and me Increases. growth wit! have been simulated and will occur as long as your training sessions dtln'[ occur [GO frequendy. het in the greatest weight could be lied to drarnaticallv verload the musclesin a ws y har no other [ed1nique could even remotely approach. vour Power Factor and/or Powe r Index 'W i[l rev eal it instan d y. During that time training would be both UIU\eCr essarv and counterproductlve.r ~ r each workout. How is muscle sdmYl~n:d~ The answer came back. workout.§imp~. We lift weighr in or . In order to ' ain muscle mass. F r example. workouts for maximum benefic.dy whether vou have recovered from your t1rCVH)Ufi." triceps] on one Jar and rh other half (l.lppHed to hrtng about a purely anabelie condtrion of the human body. Another question rhen had to be . dy ( hou]ders.. tach requiring <I certain amount of trrne. ' II will have no wa t I dl C m accum . had no interest in the dugmatic pr servs ·iOfiOfb dybuilding rraclition (01' any other tr clition. biceps. recent research. with no weu~ht in 'your hand.er m increa c he inten it:v f work and trigger growth. system lc recovery rna ~f rake ~nywheIe· fro m one to s lx we~k~.igb.. T1'11 A W he lp you schedule you. If you were tel just flex your elbow up and down. tfAr. further inroad . If you are or 'rating blind [wl it no measure nf your muscular output).ge. ts. pas lble..~ hehind hfting weights 'is to iilent:rate high ~inten 'llY muscular eve d oad.cto quanrifv the value of eveX"i" exercise and to JlU~[21lfltee that progress is taking place on a wurkout-ro-wcrkmn ba is. YOUR TRAJ. uf recove ry and grwwdl. For maximum ossible g""_UuI there had 'to be. the technique IOf trongestrange repe irions..he question became. 118 it would Inak.tisn't. we discovered. and how fr~qlJently such all overload canhe . was.91 exercise (rnerehy allowing' fi T the greatest MIlQU'l1t of muscular output): wh a t training methods deliver rhe gr. we had m stimul re muscle gr. It was at Uti e obvious that. For over 100 }fearsof rengrh t['aining1 no ~y. btl.. The whole tJ. Once ~ means ()' measuring overlcwd i' at hand. in both muscular sIze and Once we viewed he issue in thls context. for that marrer). fasn:. we s arted ur own Power Factor Trahung on lit three-dayper-week split routme. At mispoint. However.ming half the b.ey were nat subject 0 change but instead straightforward and.)') was rypicaHy [hought to requueanvwhere from forty-eight to sevenry-tw hours.dehnes.

depending fin their irmatc adap'tahtht).wenty-fbur hours on the wt:ekencls) to elapse between workouts "Q the process 5 Q recovery recov ry abilities. Likewise wuh bench presses. In sue and stren~[h or S unpl y mai n tenance of our maximum rre grh.RYlNOImCOVEItY Power Fa 1:01' Training's A. Th . working at greater nurput levels. their (Ibihry of variation 00 rhetr per- .0 reps.and om ability to generate maximum levels of overloadhail risen to such h.ining).YOl! can adjust the frequency of y~ ur wcrkours tn ensure either Heady inc re3. 70 day· later." legs. our bench presses wirh 52 I) pounds for 2. ly moniroring yom Power factor and Power Index nurnbe .. W _lJuld -rain on MOllilays.days. t'l Umving a full foIt1""cight hours (and an adJitiunai t. to exercise.5..man!. UU[ repetirion barbell shru~ with 600 pounds. All of this was [e£lecteJ ln a plateau then a decrease in (1Uf Pnw~r index numht:rs. 4 75 P()LJfl~.result wa that we were now rnu h stronger than when we began trainin~.ll:er muscle mas (and we were gaining mass steadily). Wt:dne. soon mi~t I go back r ) ]O\\.. After all.!individuf11s with regard sonal t\:cove. And me leg presses just flB~ out kyrock. a weaker muscle (su h n ours were when WI. 'What'. Soon a11 overhead press limir wei~ht rose from a re pectalsle L85 pounds to a rnonstrou 4 5 pounds.ng sessions U] on~y t\VO day per week (Tuesday. Srill others may rcquir upwards of SIX weeks. lower back.. and Fridays) and somettmes even once a week.~. {As a ·ill--uc tc. but due til the increased th overload and orresponding in eased demand n our ing days per week.. Ail rhi point.. &Ol"l"l 800 for 6 to 1. even rernotely eapahle O'f when we first started train ing. wim every werkout.. p upward. .eted.92 9. total oXyP gen uptake In a trained mus le working at maximum c~p~ciqr has been shown to increase in sc~me cases up 1::0 ili]rt}' times ItS original [enng c('l. Others may require two weeks off between \. gYU':l? Some individu Is ln~y only require on' hlgh-inten t[y Power Factor Training session per week.[han we wen. an J alves] on the nCX[ tr:Hninl! d.PPLICATIONS effect un the body is S llramatic rha to prolonged re every period i mandatory. we 'b-e!il:anto exp rience a ·i. The result? OUf stren ·th gains made another quantum k. and FriJ~ys. and om leg 'presses went OW'i [he moon to I.ematlngbasis. The qu eslion at dl]:$ poin 1i: c hanges hom How soon can [ go back <I the gym} wl . We apparently were no allowing sufficient thne Ior both the recovery and growth procc ses to rake place..! Our overhead presse wen: now bein done with.. Our grer. carted rraining] conrracting maxlmallv requires less metabolic fuel and produces differ~nt quantities ofby-ptoducts and wastes than docs a stronger mus [e conn ctmg rna ime U and moving a greater weight.tkours for recov rv and arol'lth to man i est.. pee. We ev identlj had been stimulating gw\ .Se:.iph levels that we were tJeginnin~ t exceed our bcdies' capacities to re ove from om wotkours.ry abL]m t:y (th31 is.b. The only logical conclu ion was that we would have to redu c our train- and grow 11C uld occur.ery stron ' dislnclinarion 'to train on our scheduled three-day-aweek program.r~acity!) At rhi point. the !body. Fur he [irst month and £I half. By cis.6QO pounds for ZO rep~! VA.325 for 35! Obviously same mfljQr changes had ("JCClUTed. t}1!IS spacing was perfect: OLIT prcgress soared on a per workout hasls. was using up much more fuel and prociudng muchheavier quantities of waste pruJuct. what had previolJsly yiekh:d 6 eCpS with 165 now wa . ~' on <In a. in orde to stimulate an adaptive response from.. becoming dear' thar there exists a wide range to rclerare peak veri ad tn . gUlin~ way tc 485 pounds for 20' reps. An~r Heady decline of Pnwer me <l. we reduced om Power Factor Tr Jni.

nn B~ dn". not \\Ihl!tht"r or not you are doing 8 reps Of 12 Of 17 or 63.Iefocus of your training shnul I he on what give 1'( u higher numbers.tJ. it .l!T' JJ. peak overload causes the greatest: daptive response hy the CN'..f In any event. mrmirmln.e performance of some extra se of bench pres. yuu really don.ItLd p()U. ( me trainer .d:.will cell yuu.c~ 1'0~1' mlilX.:I r ~1u:ltr~S il[h~f lr. running even mile a !Jay will hum far more calories from your body '[han would u.~ . ouaM". r.'[ have to train with weights at . can to stunulate an adaptive mcrcase in your mus 10. One [hlng lS or .Jt Index numbers are what is lmportanr.L~ weU substantiated [h~t training with. The So .rmmll n'l'~l1gili.t:I. The very f~c:t that yfm grew stronger is proof that VOiLI (ully recovered from your workou r. ct li and Power [ode.Ii: ruber that muse ul<r defin ition is' primanly the result of los. t~ jreq[[c.fuigut' at 25 r"re[it~on for up til ] 0 sets.. e or cable me crossovers. A WORD . there i~ no magic number of reps to perfnllrn for building IUO S or increasing d~ fini tion. It is of interest to note that reseal' h unductedbaek in 1956 by F. 11) chieve this d gree of defimtlon.·rJ[l~! tJ) ) uttr tl!C.'.94 95 your werkouta are I nth brief [less than one hour] and infrequent enough that you don "t ust: up all of you-v recuperative reserves l"flcre1v to cempensate for the exhauative effects of the workout itself.~'.t in .: mMS Stores.~i~ lmJ ~[~ 0'1' m. it produ ed a Factor 011' rower lnd x numbers is an lndicator uf overtrairung. one-size-fits-al] repetition schemes normally " p Iy to only a ~rnl. Rc I. however. Wl"1ile specific.rkouts In Jl ffLOnll. A.uuij' Incn. rrain in this regard. A~ long as you're trauung with vour highest possible Power F..IIllJex. 'Ol! COl'! a. you will have don all you r".jng subcutaneous at so that the muse] 's directly beneath skin appear in bold reIief.l[ your PO~f f~l(IT l. and that 1~ if Y ru are training with maxrmurn overload ani ir .'l1cress section of tl e populace. you wrll gro'W.a~I1~~JUi1ll..: rep rred that when uhjl!ct engaged in hfl:ing a wei:ghr du t induced . 1[. Hout. Hellebrandt and S .ABO T REPETITIONS Despite what.. The Power Factor and PCI'Wl..

Su. l Aldlou. LIFTING HEAVY WEIGHTS SAfELY NOTE One of the stated nbjections to naming with heavj weights i5iIh<lli['R lnjuriou .aJe nee (a t least on rhe cencenrnc nr Iifrl llg' phase IJr the rep). ~h1 (956). II. 11 reps mu r h slow-motion aff:1it:l! huwever.rs ad ' Iya. H. [1'\ fact.te support to you'!"lumbar area for overhead Ufts and adler heavy exercises.gh there ~smuch ment in . It is also advisable to obtain a good li(ring beh dun offe. In addition. repetjrions lID Power Pactot Training.nusnbers of set~and reps lO see what corabtnation can give you your h ighest Powe r he tor and Power Index HlliI'lbe rs. you'll grow bigger' d stronger from workout to workout.. pulldowns. the r~by increus U [he risk ng of injury. we've found that wrLs't wraps and hooks are abllo]l. r strength in the large m \IS . you shou1d snll experiment with various. As long as you don't train t often (no 11'1 re than thr e tlrnes a week). However. p [0 v td ing that [he muscle ltse If is responsible rtxr the v elncirv of the resi tance and that the 0'1 rimes. Lifting a heavy weight with '(he :. Ph)'~'i.I~d~' essential in movements such OlS dead hfts. and shruga. When you are pcrfonmng bench plleSSt:S and overhead presses.\i to the bones and c nnective tissues.]arory. Houri.~d Tht"rap) &1. chance irload is under the total control of the muscle <It aU nee the velo ity exceeds mus Ulfil control.en training Se.ectioni without merit Traming with h (lVY weight is actually quite safe s long as th .!groups w Ill that of your maller forearm muscle .. . muscul r output could tncrcase by over 2. J. (1..oppose 1:0 nttemp'ting to thrust it torque it. 'The living machine operates unde such wid margins of safetv that it is diffi ult to deplete ~ idden reserves of power in short per lods of exert Isc cons is t ing ()f sma II numbers c ' co nrractions . This i~not to indicate that all your 1.:.mh &.11.emphasis i on lifting the wdght. S. using the preceding guiddine/..Heltebrandt's ccnelusions. All exeter S m Power File: 01" Trnining should be perform d in strict form 0 elinunate the in\folv m nt 0 these outside forces.s.00 percent mas little as fifte.~ flts . as yOlil" museu l.very profound effect in muscle tissue..'iaiofl~. According t Hellebrandr in hi (JltVI1 conclusums.perlect]y if'! hfle with whar we have expcnenced when performing partial repetrtions u Ing heavy weights '\'ith simila.ch pmgn:. F A. rr It! • wrist quickly urpas wraps: are rna .d!~brJ..Lew. theI uf injury Increase tremendously. thi obj. Tf)'ing o move a weigh' thal's 5lmpty 00 heavy for rhe muscle tnvclved requtres the use of "outside" forces such as momentum and t"IQdv leverage.0 of these cutside for~~ amplifies the force transmitted rorhe jol n rs and connect iverissues. rudies hS1V~ indicated that 1110re m"eu are involved An yttli:1:ing a qui cke r rep c.

Also. 17l.a:te weights 85 you adjust. ~all !I-muthf I'llfLgt· 1<1 motioll of fh q_'f"ighr. strtlfig~range TI'Jp.fr~d) Q~ Il Smith . The:.(moot(}l'Y tu use either <I Pmver Rack or a Smith M(lchme in order to physically l~rnltthe range! of tuotien.: f !}j+t'J. (''lOUp to it.uth this new method.kely due to your Improved technique and your selection ~)( more ap(1ropri.1ilit'y·. mote reps per unit f time.mr:mn ~ITllng''rl:mgi ~. Important l o'te: Tu perform trong·mnge exercise afdy. So do not be 0\1 fly impre wirh rh first big increase in VI ur numbers. you will note char you C~T'I htt heavier welgn[ and.h what you arc i:u:ruClUy capable of lifting w.' maximum 3. \Vhen you.t~rdse~ said" I r i~l'l'laRdamry m U~eei.9 The Ten Best Exercises for Power Factor Training This chapter descrih s ten exercises [hat are well suite 1 to Power Factor Training. this type of training' will require [I rew workouts in order to establt::.1t1chme ~'nnro. d or mu-d . because you lift It shorter dl stance. these exercises requtre the higl e t Power Factor. irsr switch to Hrrm:l{eu.e exercises all urvolve hcavv compound movements that will tax £I ruu. In short.hi'!T II POUlt"Y Rac!. a it i mere Li.i.?'T [rl plljisi... 99 .range training. By d finltion. it i.

Thi .!:ero on your sw. of20 reps or each exercise._1]) B .g this program.. Look upon the 'trst three or tour workouts as ::I learn i pmc·e:Slirba t he lp~.Yom TImekeeping: Time ~fOW indlvidual exercise with a stopwatch so thtlt you have exact times fm each exercise. MandaYI A on Wednesdav. This' he on!" W<ly to ensure C. anJ weight.or do not p dorm Inl.e I I .!d: By definition. it j ust factors out of comparisons.. ten. :md Friday. workout -to.workout basis. During an exer ise keep ~'tOpw1lltch rannlng even when you are gett ing ~ ddnl: of water :1" ad iug the gym bu lletin board.] you always perform two :Light et [0 warm up [usr before bend. will be comparativelv ra per lied.'d ip!myUse i"I Power Rack or Smil:h Machln . YUll are already capable of lif~l.onsLsteDJ progress on t! wm Reps and Sets: Begin this program by pertUrnIi.\lin permit ynll ro gauge me corrcer wetghts tel uscand number o{ reps toperforrn.'!it P'eri~.. Time your entire wcrkout wuh the cl k on the wall.r overall tirne (the dock Or! the . rials 'L5 much quicker than for the lactic add OU t of yom =-che cleck ISlicking. Never perform d l: same' workout tWI. 3D" 40) or possibly more cadence t. Beginning Weights: Whether YClU realise it or not. Doing so provides ElII. The rule.. th es e exe rcises. do B Of!. will aLw~". The f~ct is.vorkOll II don't do it. Ro~atiDn: Perform Workouts A and B en alternate workout aY5.. For exaomple.t" gn'.1.ree-daY·31·week schedule of.. Wcdne'd<lV. B on Wt. Yo ill • UI:Slnl. to ensure increases in overload.. 'ight ' should be permitred to Je~Ciend 'mwyolll' weak ranse. Ninety percent Gf rainees require a rest of 15 to 90 seconds between sets of an l!:o:erclse.. ~ayjoMand. metabolic law. .$b~ {ncluded rn you.b.g rralnees- Take the you need to catch 'lour breath and get ~CIme tlt mu cles. incentive to increase weight'S fO[ warm-ups and e. twelve.you ". You can begin this program on a tb. or answering h phone. the speed. Dill fig Week Z.'L'!Ig a fixed. for example. and Bon FriJay. lSI Keep time the same wily every wnrknu ' m.r numbers)' you win need to m in OLl. rep. Bbl amon. :li~noe you W' iU\fery S Clem be engirteering wokourh that I. dU:ri.L ext: you WI U need to adjust it to MClndays only ~nd finally to workDuts ebar ale eight.Il.ng l set.ssendaUy turns your warm-up in to pan 0 youn. However. THE. pr ses. uf reps usj_ngpar~ flJU~range movements. du A on Monday. But in n J' vent should you include the time you spend warming up in your exercise time.. we do not p~cify an exact rest rime because U I. training frequency with progressive overload tratining lead to eventual stagnarton in 100 percenr of cases. and A on FnJay.dtl.Ht tax your rna dmum strength. Re. • . Conse~lnendyj If the .day only. Consistency [I) rhe key to having Iueanlngful CO'm~ pari o S. However. Q[ more days apart.l.CC in it mw. rhe same am unt of ume ~very work. lr's lil. Haw ver..g Week 1. as your training progresses. . you should adjillit: your sets.ng v eights in sttongest-range tr:ainjg that are far h ':Jivi I: than y '\J use in conventional training. 't' and Thun. but don't expect [Q keep that schedule for more {han truce OF four weeks. MondRY.e l out.ee't spot ng' in <lid maximum tIOngest~nmgeoutput.inin~ in'l'f'lLves tirring weight As rJ result your sets win al 0 contain more reps {20.. ytJIJ WIU b powerless to [ iove it: and 0 lu~d :suff'i. ... where ·01. as a starring point you should use 70 to 90 percent of yowr maximum full-range weight when beginnin.tOO HlJ' ehat you are in Bpabl~ u'f ]ifring in your weak (t nge. .esdilY. then hat time. bur don'r wa ne tim Rep SpL'j. WORKOUT FreqHl1:nC)': One of th most important things to rernember i~that USi. b gin is rea Uy not very impo roo nr.Soon (as dictated by '9'Dl. For example. Sri vantime I.

From a' tandrng p05irLDl1. Lower the bar ]ightly. The tanding barbell press is 3 movem n thai: will build eXlremt!l'l' powerful muscles ill YOllr deltoid . the aurhors recently conducted a swelly in which subject~ used aero range of motion (statlc holds) <lind stimulated very substantia] new muscle growth" So don't b tempted to increase th . unlocked while the back leg remain sUghdl. etc. Th a 1[U:l~ experience of thousands of trainees has proved ths range..' ofMmian: Th more we learn abeut the role of 'rBnge of rnodon in s. The Power F. first edition of Power Fo(:[o'T Training' counseled ranges ~h~ wete ahoy double and in some r cases triple what we are n w recommending. The {ir!. As it stands. traps.eady r duced with improved. It ts safe to say rh at the range of motion that you move II weight has an importance somewhere between very lit- or [11. as there are SQ m.s can be gr. results.ing inWo. ranges of motion because you feel guitty for "cheating. and sunulra eously dip your le. for wasting time <lindrnn ion. shorten up on VOUI' range with a rwo-mcb maximum in the di tance the ha r travels. .' and none. 3. You ar the: judge of when you have warmed up adeqm'll: Iy to begin your workout. [[1 fact.ges. The warm-up YlIU use is up t( your judgment .oullevelop fI . and upper back.rkout A is standing barbel] presses performed in either a Power Rack or.1: ig h t of your su pport (wh ether In f. a Smith Machine." Let the other guys eel guHt). 1.gs in a simulated split po i ion '(one k e just WORKOUT A Standing Barbell Pres. [0' Train ng method this exerei 'e is as folluws: 0 er orrniug sLightly forward and. 'f ress the ba r upward until yo ur elbows cue locked. . You may warm up entirety before a workout or just warm up individual rnusc les and joints b ore each exctcise. the rnore we realize its lack importance. with your hands approxrmonel y three lachc s wider on each side (11 ~Ul~'oug:c shou Ide rs. r in j ur ies. [us enough rn hreak the lock in vour elbows. preferahlj.-. 2. bent as well).\!!.] and even environmental ones like tht: gym temperature. eel for rhe muvemem nl are ahle W hoist 'om' apprecrahle pOUlnd. Rangi. not: dlmlnished.timulating new' muscl growth. Adj ust the ~..We cannot specify a one-siee-flts-all warm-up. As soon as }..r02 HI3 Wan:n~up.IJ e Power R< ck Of on ::l Snuth Machine) 80 rhar the bar ls • bout two to fc !J[ inches below th ~ height of a fuUy exrcnded rep. irmare flexibility.<IU~' human v arla bles (age ~ [la.t exerci e yeu'U be perform. T11C.

just be'crays~ someone somewhere said dUl is rhe right <:l1. qUlck cadence going with your reps. des:lgneJ ro ass ist yo IJ presslngthat heavy weight upward. 'pU. as the wfl[n3g~ }lUll'l] be hois[ing in this mcvernetu Th~ Sumdll1g .ndin~ p resses c-OI!1d we U be closer [0 ] mi nu t~£---o r more J So . Fromthis ]ClW~'Ii position. You will need trl perform thismovernenr in H Power Rack for total SOIfcty and confidencc.ves the tntpeZLUli muscles of VOU r upper backas well as-your entire shou lder structure.{ movement. Y{lL!lT indiviJu~1 response to ~ruu .' abf~. ~L _ ·. This is fe~ny just s. need to. )0 secoads.1]'sl:M a pair of hea\l'y~duty lifting hooh to he used dur'ing th~ pelfm.eSS thewdght to the fully extended positicnjusing some ~hght asstsranee from your calves and quads. Rest ~ iong as YOli fed you. tel increase your work ourput In.uali:zed.rill1g This exercise direcdyitWld. train at 'YOUT nwn pace as dictated and Power Index numbers. It uS ~trong.itv {[Oman all-out set of snungellt-range ma.!ra. Don't restrict yourself 'w 60 secends or.·Ir.hgh [ d. rnance of this exercise. head for ]0 Of 40. h'l{ YOIJ. and the degree of svsternlc fOidgue YUM expertence fwnl tr.104 exercise. a unit of time.·l1iim. so the comblaed muscular effbLt will en3Me you to move some tremendous poundages .1I i. so don't be afraid [0 bang them our fflH un til youi' ve reac he d 15 tu 20 repe ti ti ons.~ppLnf. ]f 'YOU S! n~have plenty of fi:~S leftLn YOU'Ii tank.Ti.'l10Unl ofrime between sets. ~n ONe:..t~jj Pfei~l~ d ~filJVl'i1I~m·tJuU wtU I:tmld exlre1'1'ld)l PfJwerflll Tl'1 tm:-k:!l in .g:h]y mdivid.:I_pS ~d IJPp~f~k_ ! i wHI mount up very quickl)!_ 4.flU"!" . are ~. worse titUi.[ Power Factor B :il"fWJe .Shj~I.~r~id~.ty iIldvlsable to get YC!!. aJ It is tmportanr to ge[ (JJ good. Your 'recover".

begirt to shrug 'Your shoulders upward <IS quicklv as possible witb no l~fluse at.u lan on.li~. L To begin thL~ movement.1iCid. not yom biceps .. To. men r. ih~fe6y .1II!l mil:lMU ~p T I~ baf~IJ ~/lTH. nand erect 'i11..ing the work..g is secure. Your h~nds.~np bench press imparts rre menelaus overload 011 the triceps as well as pectorals and ~fI!te]"lbI deltoids.imu Iarlng phenomenal t uiPpe[~bodv rnuscle growth.L!d[n'~dj [.rc do. Once yQ1J"t. CJIU ic k cade nee go ing .5~ during rib! p. Reme mbee.'iHght~ywider apart Aga in. place the safeqi' bars. ru I!.~ smnding urr~ght. 2.rbe]I j:iOJ" after es ta Mishing th[l[ yom grip and fuotin. the:rrcby puHing the wdghr up (lff the pins.h"lIJff or slightly less.POS~f!Oll that allows the b~r to fest two [0 fomLrlch:ts 'below your h artds if you arc mmding up stmig. Keep it going unt you cannot draw the weight up even a fraction uf an inc:h.de the rOW~I Raek. ei [he.r tnt: [Or Of the bottom of rhe move- CIO!l e~Gr. the more work or . .i:p E eneh1Pre S:!! TIle clos e. Make sure to keep your arms srra lghr at :1IU ILlme!i to ensure that your traps alone.:.abI~ rt~gg( ycmrself II PlIt)' "4 ~~)~~)' li/ul'Il hil'tJk! oW 1. the greater your muscle grow rh stu m.dl~ N'£lp~~IW mlL~t!i!~ of J (lt~r r~Jlt!T ~l.ht inside t'he Power Rack.lh~ UJlJ{)~ms:N "'~ry ~.' ~houldeni. U. .-=..wJ~t!.. a than yaul. M ake the movementl iIce asprint with weights.k.f~U IlS ~('rLl~ cntm' ~htllAWay[T~tuf<l.i..• dum ytmf fuU range.lOt h !~Sl'i'CllngJ)' oovjs... of the Power Rack rn 81.a range of mot ion 'that is one. 5hould be .Ike :1lU overhand grip on il ba.lzi. get th::1truce.reps you pt:rform in a glven set..fTj(JTl'MfI{:l< OJf tim i"~L~e The w!m~ ~m'll'U ~ lwi~tin!1'm.

1.widrh underhanded gnp U[1 either ~1 cambered or regular barbell. bt.u1ing lhe f. Nnl.lWtL~m.ciL Tlli5 tech" ique is w~e III tI. ir's unportanr to filet • c.rh this exereise until YDu'rl. To starr. To begin.~oj tl.a/ (~WTluad 3. place the safety ars of the Power Rack in <11 position that allows me barto rest two to four mches below your full reel h.r] raItial~r<U1.l ngw!hi.:k d.e-"fi'ip ~1']. T~ke a Dc nnw overhand grip inthe middle of a bar'bell (with the outside of your palms ju.crease [he d istancc of tra ve l to two to three inches.e'IU.g~ barbel I Preacher curls \\T~llprovide trernendeus OV~rlnad tel the biceps rn usc] I!~ of \10ur upper arms primarily and your brachiali and forearm muscles ~econdarily. 11'/lIIlii" L~l}(J:fidm"01J IiU Inc flocrr mst. just lowering the b~rb nan inch or two JClwnward.ing w~.c. 2.b1c handling the heavlet poundages d~. Once you're comfm:t8l. PrE'ache:r Cu. inche under yout 'fully exteruled reach.1 • I. raise the barbell nff rhe ins and extend yom arms upward unnl they are cornpletelv locked 01.comimt. From this fully extended position. then push it back tiptn the srartlng poslnon.[08 109 ulmes t. !'lot to grn€mte a.[an.! triceps Til': (Wt~-I:='Tltl ellch IJr<!\"~ b p'"edomitkll<!i)' I1l1lSC!~S Q ) Jlimann M UP/Nt! Cws.'MTi me edge. When you are B newcomer 0 strongest-range training. bend your elbows slightly.ng:).WI. t touching the ins. Anchor you elbows irn ly onto rh p' J on the top ofrhe Preacher bench and keep [hem there throughout . h iJ drlti~ far .Power Factor will allow.:4d of 01'1 ~ hC:Il.:ood cad ence go. take: a hnulder.i. you can place the bar a fuH SilC.Je of the krmJli.h. Lying on your back on a flat bench inside the Powe Rack. I Agatn.Ch prtU-Stiiift ~sHi~n.'ndl "!1ll'ldl~ :lID!'!' or:lJ.: at the Lipper linli ts yom ]ndivlduaI .

like standing barbell presses.have a trainlng partner or assistant help "yOU li ~ barbell up into the fullv the connm:red lmrnediately po~i'~ion fur yuu. . !derable use through their upporting role H1. Lean \-. which should be arrached to a low pulley. this i~ the 2.s . W. ]• to specifically target .. about three inches. slowly curl your trunk. Tf'lk~ hold of the crunch. bur if you really want exercise. the other exercise. lower the barbell :slightly. he on your hack on rhc floor. are centracung m'.m::hes an: the be t abdomLnaJ. reverse the procedure and.ack slightly to gcnCffiii:e even more power.elgbted Ceuneh Cru. Make sur you h Id onto the str IP tight! :0 thaI: vour abdcmlna] . '(QU'U find that you can only curl up ::1 d:nrd of the range you would if ~ rformlng a normal ru with all rhese exerci cs. upward [award . Trying to keep your chin On your hest. bench. h ern. trap.w111 get con. PY[a[md ~'OIJ1F weight fDr each set until . runerv-dcgree angle to the floor W posstble) in order to ensure maximum re l ranee in the fully contracted position. wi rh your hands beMnd your head and your feer on top of a :3."'pedfic exercise. bring the barbel] had up to the fully contracted pmi' ion. then with bleeps power lone. itting po: inon. imany against the resisrance.110 the dum t con of the exerc he" TIle bench ~tse t f should ~ at A. 2. ¥nu:r ~b. Elmer lean the barb j "II via "chest cuel" to}. ur shoulders OI bette ~yet. pulhng TIJ begin.'OU have pertomted the last er to ailure with the heaviesc weight.

In faer.!l a'n~lhf.~rfOITn 2. sets f 20 reperi tons far each of the following ex . You will ::1150' noti e an increase in appetite and.J'JeC'l. WhliOll !t comes rime 'tel rep "(lit: Ir.. rh. Always keep a slight bend h YUill knees when per firming this exer rse in order 0 insure that your lumbar muse les. Dea. you will. buttocks and harnstnngs. bear the b rum of the cxerci Sf' s tress.""fUfI!Ch-jifiisll f"'IH[U{:1I1 Noee t~ wd. rather than YOUi' vertebrae.H2 H3 $.f'acmr and Powe r lndex-e-should be increaslng dramaticallv with eve'l1' workout. W~W!tt'.al- They \~£-jgJu. beSt a!ldumin.his . Repeat for the requrred number of repetitione. One ~ V u have ended to uny centra ted p ition. sir-up. deep and The dead Iirt ls til . If you took enough time off between training ses ions. I That's the end of Wo~'kout A You will ncttee with Power Factor Tt£!iniflR a Sense of deep ussue fati[l:u~.!. "}.td l. This is fine because that is all the range of motum 'hat vour ~bdomjmlb require W b· stimulated into maximum gro. Once again.d Uft or developing the muscles of your lower ba k. Thls f3t'igu~ imHc~te$ that your muscle and the nervous system that supplies them have been C:~ lled upo '0 perform rasks rhat h retofnr have never be n attempte .[!"}n nade has moved rnrco" t£J fallT ml:~. greateslt cxs '1c1 e you can perform sound sleep pat em. WORKOUTB When s artine (lU[.jk eXl'ft:i..se ~~t we litwe ~ttnjH:d. mar workout. when you go to b ~].J (fUflC1tt!. increase the rests ranee wi rh each succeedtng set. erclses. as opposed to f) superficial pump. ~'CUI strength-e-as mcas uted by you r Power . be stronger.. ddiwr grem r'~S'lL't't. hold the positio or a two connt and th n lower yourself ~lm ty back eo the starring position.

1:'rbeUis re ring on l'oln upper thighs. J. Then ra iSf' the v"lci gbet bac k up to the' tarti.i. ruit. you ll need even heavier . glutes.f you". Vllhen L Stan by placing <'I barbell i:1'IS]d the Power Rack at <I nelght [ust sli~htly above your knees. Stand inside he PmI. as training in yom srrongest range wUl ~. Slowly pull rhe resistance upward.rth .imulanon t ytHl"U be imp<lI]. the more gro\l."[ing.ighr. . extraheavy welghrs em II y.. Press & moor bodybui'ld rs are aware. the bench press 1. glute I and lower back muscles. > 0( n he mnge has been shortened. Prom this fully erect posltlon. Thi i Hne. Ulsingonly the power of your hamstrings. The mer fibers you can r. maJidng sure to keep your arms straight. and ell'!cn yuur deltoids.ng pos I· tion.H5 accu stomed In ' he demand and ruechanrcs of srrongest-range tralnmg.. ll.5 fundamental compound movement for the upP\='rbody.Howyou to exercise in the safes'i pessible range 0.( motion while l11. herten the range uf travel to about three inches. lower the barbell st1:'IOothly. a newcomer to strang:c t· range rralntng-e-whtle keeping a slight bend in vour knees throughout the n vernent. Bench. Your feet should be under the bar.f'niling at thewaist ~ppmxillH'lt:cl~r four to ive mches-i.s t fully recruit eh fibers of your spinal erectors.ve. If YOl! re a1reaJ')o' . L." Rack and gl1:1Sp the barbell wi h a grip of apprnximal 11'shoulder width.-cl WtU recnnt even m re muscle fibers. untll you are fully er and the h..

Press the barbell upward untl. Lilt Pu lldown The lar pulldown will widen y ur upper lars and put you wen on your way r . on kt nat bench..Yuur grlp should be mcJ i um width SI) rhsc. Wiih b:u direcdy n.. Your rep cadence on rhis and all other exerci es will be: a quick as pm ible so as tn gcol:ynu your lllgh 'r possible Power Factor and Power Index. lower the bar until there's a sUght 'bend in your elbows-not such a bend that [he barbdl touches the pins in the Power Rack" bUI enough that it comes dose [(.:J'fI'u!!n ta' pmMl'. lMi WI'U ~ir.d. inside a Power b~' Rack. It also anoUls you to utilize more wcighr dun your Thf benc~ j'J1'f'U L~<iI.r ur arm are f IUy locked out again Repeat {or 4 sets of]Co u 30 repetirlons. and strength into the pectorals.I.l.tflith into rn. 3.w rnJ){'l!ment fut th~ !tj)per oo. m~:m. Place your 'eet flat n rh floor for (It:·'U'l.1 toueh Gng.iveI)' ~hrough ita strongest f<LngC of mot ron. S'i::i!IJ[t i~'i. Set the pms in the rack to three to fonr inches below yom' ull lockout reach. mass.and ~lT.a =O!1i'-'1e performed I::xduS. developing all incredible V shape.ngback. jj£1'ii. me .: clicH- mmpvu.traJight up arid down (vcrtical). anterior deltnids.lUi above your ch st..ce. It will budd incredible power. adding weight with each uccessive set. as yUIJ lower the bar. R~ise [he barbell from the pins and lock ir out directlv ab ve your hesr. anJ r u:eps roll' les. ~~OU'[ forearm}' are s. 2.

I."it with your Ie nces hooked und er me support.leg pr ssespermit the u e of wdght that is much heavier than most people can.cl:il1g your [ats alone. The leg press inv lves extensive lJJS. and hutto ks. prove to be de:stIilble fflc[Ol'. Z. Because of the tonnage your legs can UPPOf't in. Rd ase th~contractton and make <I point of fedil:ilg [he IElLs:r turn' the' fully stretched pe inon. rake a clos " unded1<md grip em the h~r.]] to 31 leg press machine with yow- PI~UJou. PuU the bar just sH~hdy down-abuut thre~ to fou: in he uillvd-then rerern ~tto starrm:g-POSl[ion. and your burrocks 0]1 th~ seat botrem. tt is one of the besr exercise that can e u ed in Pow r Factor Train~L'lg. Pl act: yUULl!' feet on the sledwi rh your heels abou t should er width apart and yom toes pointed either litmigln ahead orangled :diglnly OU1tW~rd. safely squat. To begin. 1.de.e~s andrelease the wp bar of the machine (or keep then). hamstrings. Straight. As you mcrea ynur weight. 3. L g Pres. nge of travel hy [ust pullin on the bar and making h move two or three inches by he force of c ntr.t arid you. of the quadriceps.I.en YOUTI. 2.shape ~i)OI '014 \ldl nn )'Imr !l'1I) m ~ 'IntJrng Upper ~ and 11'1 an .. S~t OR the s .!'.s. [his movement. locked f you arc lunglegged). srI: dOl\. and don't lean backward tn involve the lower back. To be(fit'l. should eel the pun in both your lars ~md shoulder Mades.m ~i!! I:!k V. C.. GiiiilSp the handles beside rl e eat 0 the this can back pres eel comfortably against the acngled pad bodywcight canprovi.us the upper back dn the work. Yom arms shouldhe 'In:[ched fully above 'lour hes !. 3 ver1if For everlosd pUqJOge..~crl?dJ. reduce yom r..:ncentrate (In m::llkmg or rue .

et" (~g~" in Cllse your f~et should .i pos&Lble. Once you have fu U'Ii ell:tended ynYI legs care Ii. P I aJ'~ you r feet en the p irH:fo'I.owe. sit ill <I leg press mach ine nile Sarne way you we u Id if VOll! were mbmn to pertonn a sta nJard set of leg' presses..1.r the weight about two 'to three inches.L~gPr.e instances] H ton oJ pOLm. WheneVf. The !eg r!l"~ssfJ.~clf movemertt.]ghtt:n~d legs are just shan of a if~Ulcu:llrow:. Once theweighr has been pressed upward and YOLU sna.g~ in yOl. ccntact wi th it.! Uy slide your heels off the platform until unl" your toes and the b8J ls of your feet remain m.keep the m~~c.urr.'m and slow Iy push wi rh your legs unttl your knees are locked Out and YOU:1i legs are straight.cls pc:il.hiFl(!'::> lock pins in place wh] le perform ing th is exerci se as anadded j j safety precaurlen the p~atfo[m.jr upp.Toe Press . To begin. as it aUows you to pile on (In 50D. J.!1ery!LI q-tWflUPS ~ hLlIru~ip.":iIi!'off ed~e of the s:e::l1'l_ for better balance durm~ the it. M:iu::hine The we press is <I great exercise for the ga~tmel'l. l.emi!lJS (calf) and associated muscles of rhe lowet leg.dagd 1. then reverse '~h.e movement and pressi t hack uptc 'l"h~ S(r:lrting posinon. 1. .es:!.On .

1:1 ten if [lIJIHI. SUB TITUTE EXERCISE Over rhc years we have Iearned there are a number of excrci s rhar s me people have found [0 be rna.Mge .ne ethan leg presses and because of urn ited 1.g YOlli legs 5trOLlCl'ht.-ru!! fr:w rh.e."t1. . limited to one or two inches uf travel.1 are forced W make sub titurinns twcrn:mitlS (mm and I 'Irnl:fl1'1:r~~.I srrengrh and sue Increase.:quiprnent a va ilabi 1icy.III 123 mean'! only one workout ..rou retur 'W the gym. [hen contract extending )'our we .r gru=(d~ltCtIlfkllJdt!s ..![I' duplicating tt. 1f f'OU trained with su you wtll be a snongcrper50n Don'tperfmm the identical be too . \". In ~mnL! .~ow an intens i (V tor [icient ptcgressive overload. completely your body. workout nC!H time. The u:e.00. rhcu that's what It take • and there's no !:}tl:ttlng aroundir.If ' tfu~ rr . Keepin. Th4.'Jl'!'fjS !S II 1ln.t' cadence and repetition scheme used if" the strongest-range leg presses just discussed.kg h q!lrum ~fllI kI PJk en.hedler you are <1 beginner o. Don't forget: Train hy [he numbers. uninrerrupted progress until you've ret ched tho outerm 51'. i1 lIvhat! lf that.r an oJvanced trai nee. limits II YOUI: ] netic potential.!ill hdy toward your calves.:Ifld yClU"li make continua]. allow he weight of rh machine to force your to~~ bad!r. Add weight each SI.! 'r. And if that . as it will 'Yomi'me reased sH'~ng rh. when . Partial squats <Irean excellent exercise in tl"eir own right. Som. hnally "ffective.every two weeks. 4.!Ydo requlr more fi. wo!t tl'llt. . what it tak ~ for you to record f. . The range h re i.

lng on Iy th e hn.td fm the tar- geted muscle or muscle group.ause it permjts prcgresswe overload.I!ft flle-rUt' J:T~i.:i. Fur triceps.J1.Cable pushdowrrs also ate excellent. Th~ 's O!~om.!.net>~J four inc h1:5.'!1s MIl.Ith .. {t\lI.l fClu. tow in.e-nne the hiRhes~ ov er~n. whereas smndard dips do not.g motion ~ tlJ§. but they do no allow you.:e anv substitution you like. n111i11Y have 'fO~!!.·O~tl. T1trmr'll'{l!\km tL'Ltn !)'J1... to progress to weight above your ~fld)1V\rdght. you can m~l. For the lower back we have discovered that some people who can't perforru dead lifi:~ prefer III low pul.sQ.}:ceeded [h. used) and the lower back muscles are used to lean back [\\'0 to In principle...'L~ ~. The key is tu use tb c best exe n: Isc I( Or at leasrthe best aViiliiable} to gen.ley O~1( "".rms i?j. AI.r~inch) 1"\1W ll1. yJ)I~r~!iI"el1gth witt.s (riot the biceps) to pull.peopi!e perform wetghtedparcial cih~m or use a ~GW pu. they are a good substirure. ~jl'hf r:Jf tk ~Jl rlre atm:'k. which the arms are locked forward (run. For the Iats some .'rm~a un [nflkf. Bu'[ if you have no leg press available. IlI1 l~ed Y hen !. be . Let your numbers yom ~lJ idle.jli(}l.some peoplehave resorted to nne-armed tat 'pulhlClwn8 when their c5t:rengdi\''Ilil:h berth hands j..'ld good resu Its from perfmming weighted partlal dips" The weighu~d b\Srect ~ hnpnrumtbec.e ~va ilable weigh t stack.Uey~] a pllrtiai.are therefore IJlore prone to cause i~l'1I.


g::. tt can recover a .m [(ifl sQjm ofl~ a warkr~~t.-----------1'0 Recovery Ahility.. kes place ~nth minute and hours i.! seconds after ormuscle has been workedto a point of momentary muscular fi\i1~ ure.£ ~r- {l1r1l'1 as k. the.uI'medic te>'ly after an intense work.ty:. Beeau this baiance ~ both delicate and elusive.I. ubstantial portion of [he rrength it lost as a result 0 theexercise.'Il.~'b amount of training and recoverv abHi.jl' 'in balance.: The Forgotten Factor .. THE GR.' hat most of rhe local 'nergy re erves utili J in the actual tl'aimng effC)r[ 129 ..m ft'jit-f'f !N. and 'j'J"rnm~ loI.OWTH PROCE· Phase 1 f systemic rec verv f. (It is durin this immediate ph. Some exercise physi:ologis't. ~ J Exercn e physiologists have found mar strcnzth increases.s have theorized rhar wt[hm 8. Ii If :'1'014 'y~rum In Uolil f!r..'<.5 li'LIJ'~2LS tb ret. It can be estabhshed and sustained only if YolJ. OCCur only wh n the Bthl t.understand the inericacies mvoived m the three-phase process of :[ecupe til lion. . out.

while anorh e r perso..110 successfuHy mn its course {d~pend!ng..lng. THE TWO SlUES OF RECOWRY Like all 0 ther ph ysk al characteris tics of 1'1 mans. groMh. The second phase IS chemical m naruee. An y ad di t ional train! ng undertaken before Phase..rt' scale by returning W the gym . you can wmk fit the close end of your range of r~c.llt has been denied fuU recuperation and gmwth. After idem ica I wor kou rs..L the fi rst day you can return to the gVm find expect: an Improve ment and ends wlrh the lasr day you can return. however.. Cansequentlv. you C~ schedule your workouts further apart by working at far end of your recovery range and work in g om f1.n may need afu II week In.1en and olf'lly when this inirial phase has h~en completed.y allowing for ad. on [he type and amount of overload Imposed on the system and individual recovery abihty). '\'lY1.1S soon as ytllil are ~ble. to the gyro and expect an improvement.gi.) However. This is wh. we not only had no sign of arroph y bu~ Our strength had taken a qunl"lWm. and it is rathe[ time-consuming. workout. you have faluity or business co mm i nnenrs (J[ an otherwise busy sched u lie. this does net mean that the muscle win recover its full capacity nor the deeper reserves of gene ra1 adaptationene rgy i.8[h~hry after exercise varies very w~dely among indiv IdUOIJ:s.01:'[I~ improvemen to As alluded to earlier.~ ] ~rt1e as pO~!iiblewithout ]ming gmund a~ measured by yOUiJf Power if VOu aft! [he Sort of person who loves to be in. order ro recov er !'iufficl!eI1ltly and show lmprovemenr. leap upwanl. up zo s lx weeks m~y be requi red fur Phase 2.J) h~ppenfl\. everyMt we performed. of me COUIse. 'to [fain and Wants sible. h is dear eh at t"t::co. on e person rna y he able 1[0 return [0 the g'if!l1 in fmty-eight hours amI see an increase in his Power Pacror and Power Index. and Yl'ur numbers will retlec[[hls. you \. Current research nukes h clear tha t what h ad previous] y been considered <I mandatory reco very period between workouts of forry~ two to sixty hours rna y ha ve missed thes ide of bam by at least seven days. be measured H In[J(~a range of rime th. we both set new personal records i[l.OVt. is absolutely crucial to your conltin1J~d progress. lf thlfi approach is repeated [lllf!~la rlv. the regenerationprocess can hegin the additional repair."'ery C~fI. To our surprise.. When thi. If very return to the gym too soon f. Durtag the development of Power Factor Tmh:1I. the ~rv'nas frcquenrlv .lfter a workout.li[ be. I and 2. ln some cases. i add a d 2L V or two of recover)' until your num ~ ust be rs show S. yom own r<lPlge m~v be nnywhere from two or three days ro fi'lany weeks. each of us at one time l.1 ing (If the muscles dtemsdves. and strengthen- Wht:l1 you use Power factor Trainir1:g.Vm ]:':lot periO]"IJJ.ml wiciC'.e gyl~l. Phase J th<l[ t~fovercompensat ion (]!'rmuscle growth I j takes Place only when the prev ions (WO phases have elapsed. are complete will be \vh:b a muscular systern Ul. When we fiI1<lUy returned to d•..1S pes- me . Power Index. you willbe able to See the extent to which you have receveeed by virtue of your Power Factor and. If. t'hi5 newfound ~~bHity led us to an entireiy different perspective on IemVe!I}1 arbility. fee 0\1~ U ery . we discovered [hat" as the workout progressed. rn.are replemshed. on the other hand. we we re mentall y p repared for a ligh 1.eql1Olte recoveryand growth.:IJL S ix sec onds Of even in as many minutes. fact. 3. well.5. Power Factor T~airung win allow you to precisely detetmine yom persona] ratnge ofrecoverw Dt:p~nd ing an a varie ty of persona 1 fac tors. strength will decrease.'l3d to wkc six weeks off fFOm worldng ou t:.

:·rIndex numbers. and you may be capable of generating only 70 or 80 unit uf over- luad . ptogres _ '.the trainee \l rho returns to the gym too soon will have a recovery deficit that has no been paid off in :mf~ ficieru recovery unlts and ju t dlg himself a higger ho le . 'a abHit~'m rr in -hree d V a week and meke progress is i relevant i vour personal tralning con idera lens. then.ov '][from the overload. you will be able W see thee. Thlnk of it tb i~wfly. you w n l no t perform a well. his abmry to recover &01'1"1 such workouts tncreases by on]y 50 percen. mp Ou the ether hand.r fron'l mat in fine Jay.This L a critical balance. In fact. time you lift lit weight. Uni verse. your stn ngth is minimal. JUS[ add s clay or two of recovery ur til your nu m he show some .lay.. In either case. you'll make dramatic and consistent. The truth of the matter is th .ECOVERY PERIODS The value of 1kno\\'~n~ y. PROTRACTED R. y to recover once you've increased vour Power Factor. He won'r know if his lack uf pmg[e. lf you return to the gym tuo suon after a wnrkour.J..150 unlts overload..J2 Factor and P )WI:'[ Index. rn continue the g_ruwt h process orbed thatwhile the average train has rhe porenrraj to inc:rea.l. It sta ds m reason that it will take even mer J... [her hy pesing ~I fundamental [haUeng!e.. which will. When you start vour training. and your numbers win reflect this.'~ at a different rate than his f. When you use Power Fact r Training. Say that your body has the ahll- kqt' to recover hom 100 urnts of e_ crclse per . you dip In« this reservoi r iI cerraln percenrage-s-a percentage that mu. Ever). some cxercis physlOlogi. at least) maki g 11:(J~-l:i -.. Hi problem will arise when he eVi:::ntlll!ll1y ceases to make progress. yuur mu le Gill generate . exactly when you Ir'1onestly do have to train and when you J n't. Wh. to re over from. If vou know how many days it takes you to recover trom ha"~n_g hfted x pounds n <J given workout.. II: rr towluch you have recovered l V virtue ur your Power factor and f'rlwt.5~ ls Jut! ro having reached the upper Itmits of his genetic potential.t.1 rove men [. take two d~~rs. ~ rut: MENTZER'S BE -EARCH can CCllJI. with mathematic fi ~r reds ron. I:) rrn.rom wb i h to recuperate. hav]ng become "s ale. your nlu~cul[!il'" utput might be o 'Up to 300 to 3 5 Q unl rs of overload <lind you must take I mulrtplc davs off between wnrkou ' . tern. former Mr. When this happens. < lleJ to inform us of the .'!ts have the- At about the time the authors encountered their first plate-all on ('he Power Factor Tr~in[ng sy. He may have stumbled onto a marg in of trairung til at fans w ~d1i his r(lll_gcof pe rsona 1 in recovery ability and i (for he mom nt. however. The train ~e's nUl. your metabolic !iystem C8J1L {eCOVe.' or having trained wi rh tnsufflcie inrensit).-mr personal range IJf recovers ab ili'ry is t ha t you 1 n know.ill. No problem. No longer do yrm need to entertain gullty though'" becaa e you didn't 'train one d[J~r last week.". 80m' dy d~.of overloading his system incr :'as. A _you grow stronger. t uh:irnatdy be replaced before t'he grnw[h proc . ehis starring level of strength some 300 percent within the first year. is rha body has QI g-cnem! and v '[y llmited supply.itjjng. By the time your re-covery ahi liql begins to improve. almost Iike a 'mall reservoir.t we've learned about recovery abnit~.bill~'to rc . Mike Mentaer. you would have been doing t rnnre harm than good to y ur strength and physique aspirations if you worked out even one day -OOneI than the wm fi~st daiV that you r rc C()Ve ry ab iIlt}' had replen ished ithe 1f..

irregular phef\Olnenon. If you.e. Heahh m. and Ile community.e.virh H~gard ro hi~ pum training experience. hI a re!a£eli experime11t. some of whom w re el. me sa.ning with :Inadequate overload :md 1:00 fr quentlv. ]c'~ tm.e rime off t'(.id. n-e saw ~twisced ce~ls. owin~ ro which they routinely train: he higher overloads with . you will < hon·circuit b )['h the [eCUVe][~'and growth processes . I' nt hegillrri1l'. In the ]®.l.)'off. iii: could just as easi ly hav h een appl ied til bodvbuildees who train twice a J~Wt six [0 seven days pel" week \!.1-14 results of sortie recent research he h.z Wh 11· this study was performed em marathon ru D"Iners.lrelyes entia! to cells 0'.Q three weeks off.l.' rh high~ olume and often ballisuc training adequate 'recovery time to take place.nuallr 1985 issue of Amenmn. And thm was the . fjlaTmhcm TUnnel'S had not regaiMd fJre-:race Sl-rengl'.an 't. Stephen Kieshn had mi. I'm afraid I'm going w lese si~e cu1d . According to Mentzer. if yourre W!li. l'~)e no~ed this wi~h all of fl1:r cUents. J conducted over a 'rwn. And some races may rnke mmuJ~ to remuer }rum. "Geez. to !'1mpeel this dling ~~ til frequenc)' of trai1'l!ng has 0. Ma)'b.agazine.ed an electron m.l. Mike. Olympia] Durian Yates whe£heT ill' not he'd Jl()tea a .m: training. I (-'ven asked [Mr. rom cens ~ and reUs u~rned liuide out..~mau~'suctess. n~ with.j res t.e m!f sulution H!f'i!ilJ be to train each body part once ellery two weeks . heU of til lot to do with 11 trainee-is u.ter rhe euenr.strength if I tak.\Vlty rmc? J Why [)lIt aim.l..d to for a ooriet)" of aM reasons.' af.!! to .~rearp!t(iod involving some 200 clients who had been u:rainm~ under hi direct supervisjon: I'tl'e OVER'IlLUNINn AND CELLULAR DAMAGE The clinlcal evidence that we l1eed [U train less fre~ quemlv is fin.h and power.c.''11 about Shennan's research. even more ce Us we-n~' oowf-rgd. almoSt (l'tiery sirlgle case ~ the)"' 1. The dD.i'C came back s tr01'l. m.l'1 found [hat ~n me kg-muscle II Shen1'J.da)"~be-fore-the ~race dllIl1tige I'l'Qffl training. to feel better.ing with sufficient overload 1:0 snmula e growth find llowing (wl at ft r you is) ln his articles ift dela:yed recotlet)l.r 0'1" ha." This is nor just a minor poil'il[ to be gl(J sed over. "You know. Altllo~t nil of them expressed an an .'at ' 0[. + methods.rh. Relu rning W lUodenue."'e rraill.lf! ev~n aflt:f a bd! we. h~dybuiLde[s rn8iYeven be at g ca er rl k.. Sherman In fact./fe r a tW(J~ w . our bodies.th-re~~week k. training progress should II [be an unpredictable. research conducted 'Wei by M ichac 1 <[ back when he a research associate Ban f(Jfced W mke a layoff State Universitv in I diana strongly indicates that res ~mJ recovery goes "-'ay beyond sirnplv allowing ourselves it's also bsLlll. hapl aaard. mruiling a:[[er ehe marath on r indeed! Ac Menue[ he COITecdy pointed Muscle & Fime55 and Flex 11 O)gazines (as wel] a1> in his 1996 i-look H~aqry Duty: in. Shermf.similar phenmnen.ek . then \!OU should be wimessing consl tent impn vement em a regular basi Cunw~~ehf.ger.icroswpe at cells o:hnarathnn runners. who admits 'uly <Ire the extr me example of 1 Lghvolurn training.." bu I've htui Illese people H:lke u~ f. Uy starting to rri kill! in from rh~ medical noted with n1llflY of my lient5 dlll:t they're glronger a.

ie_ to over rain than wa previously bd ieved. proponional to the stren. olTttsponciingly.[)1m and perform.1< I:l~ than was previously b lieved. Rather.. to stimulate an <lJ~p'li:ive response). Up to.. 1 tlIe ~aph repre enting dun kind of efforl r:mtput would bare:l)l lcat .11ith stress.sein .(' to draw a hurizontalline from !eft to rigttlll'Cr ss a she~[ of paper with dw~ !'ine represent ng zern effort arid rhen.em rc de mends 811ld creates far more cellular de n.gth the stressor. the recovery process. The sun's ray ll''II.ing I joking .: cccurrence mat is an n-II~ whule .i"Jut the door.In ~h~ body nf an order . (.dglu lVe:rtiwl line-uff the tmpet. Wluu. slower pfO~fess and.136 137 You' Ole gar W be Tga! careful u.e ~he flat £inr:.Il hea~ Sf t of 1m r ~ it'll bench pr 'sSe. <It miuimum.&cigg-ly ~ine ~Jfj!ve. or weeks to see results (thar is. The adaptive process. line wOl~ld stan: w wke off in C1 stT:t.emil itd. ere.. you can rcmam outside all day long.'our ~eedl.s. The r asun is Unit [he sun is not directly overhead ar rhts time of yea-rand. in the worst case. il'~ imrnedi [I. wa!bng to )'OU{ car. their work and urs has revealed that it is far C:1. its fays arc hot as intense.ce sepaTa~ii1g gl)l rucent from the flar line is how much mnre biocliemical1'"esmm:es hall" been tised that peak ol vertical or rot: up> Do )'ot! see how dmmat~c a difference thatL~?~ The conclusiun tU[cIW frOID Mike lI. Arthur Jones said some )lears ng(}~ "For every !igh~ incr~ase in ill~ity therE! M$ to be a dispuJtJoruonate dec'I'ea. dinlbing some Hers to g:N to work. To follow through on our sunUHHU g example. fm exa Hlp h::1 expoSun: to the SUfi will lead to the for(l"lati In of <I tan.halmg of the hody's store of melanin. . and he I week to omplete (and p . stressor of ulrravioiet light. the actual proces of a qurring a ran. or skin pigment). ['m begin~ ning w see "uKh mUTt" dearly is jt~t how denwnd~ U1g rhis stuff Js.a1PtaJt ion 1~stimulated is d ir:ectl". wherher in response m ulcreviol light or progres ive-overload weigh training. davs.I b ~ of <I certain strength in order to elicit an adaptive response rom Our budres (in 'this case.t is phenomenaL Ii you wcy. While our rea 11 for tannmg is a purely cosmeric one. J W~'1'l 'I ~laceg a d. precedes the growth process. Then )'D'U ~() in to the . and ru'm. dangerous physical exhaus r it In. can rake UPWlUl. nv rseJy. AJJ. 11 certain point. Further.t l!f nne full c> .. 1t woulii be a lit~le sq.rhaps much long' r).. And the degree to which rhe process of ad. the man..tha. and traming be ore [he hi-pha ic proces of recovery and growt has taken place wtll result in. is essentially de ensive./1I:~neuer nu're tmim11~ a. AH1Jra sudden thar liHle squrg. which always. l·Ngh-intem i ty training STRESS AND ADAPTi\TION issue 0 recovery ability migh 11 made more lucid if we look at it in terms 0 the budy's capacity to cope \.t peak (jv~frnad kwels. off of that line. i'f you decide 1:0 lie QU' i sun in me middle [anuarv. dotm1 the street.md (he bLDCkl \}1itMn t/te spa. and show little or norhitlg in the way of a ran for your efforts. you don't hav W wait hours.itionaHy.volume I. is a perfect e ample of how our bod ies ad ~Pt W prorec [ OU r j ssues from the.'tentzeris expen~ ence and Michael Sherman's tesearch is sim lvthar errrtli i"I inll: is a v tV rCfll problem :mJ that the actual proce s of working out makes far gre ate r 5yst. gra!Jn )lOl~r dailY' effort tJtt(lnH such as ge ~ring up in [he flwming bru~h. when Y u decide t lie out in the hot sun in the middle of July.

fin armpit • Const ipation II d iarrhea • In women. weight train in:ghappens to he a form on~Ddily ires over whtch we have direct conrrol.XP sure to the strong summer rays f th ' sun. III SweUin~ () the lymph nodes In rhe neck. A.imerest in. Upon afi..1"1i~' person who falls into th habit of train in five and six da~ ~ week over prolonged period of time wiU tnevrtably become overtrained.. According to Dr. Ntitkin lists these: other signs as further Indicators uf overrrainingr III Pel rsrent sorene ·s and sdffne. [clnts. le to utilise even gr" ~[ u!'rcriuaJ in y u training es ions. who i nsl t . that ill now dlrectlv eve [he ad).]ual maw be. as you become stmngl!:i and are : . will stimulate 81 compensatorv buildup in the form ofadded muscle tissue. u'ainmg !!' er v usne ~ D pte sien=-"] don't care" attitude !! Inab i]ity to relax Dec tease in academ ic wor k 0 r pe rformance .s5i in the mu des. fully recovn'[ ered frnm 'the cumulative !iv-sr~ml' wH of previous training ses lens.. nr hre~k df'lwn~bodyhyddl. which causes the skin to blister and decompensate. strength 0 rh 'un":s rays.'U in~. deep lac of enefg)1 and ambition. WhiLe it's bey md OUI' !111m diate pow r to ontrol h ..n'l" with stmllerstressors in the future. groin. Power Fa tor Training ]15 a form ofstre S '1:0 the muscles and the vendi ph)' leal .!i"I ur perform d to excess. u d ru detect nvertraintngis ro monitor the morning pulse rate. accompa II:J by frequent colds and Injunes' .If ir is 'even beats a m InU te faster rhan usu: I.i!. athle tc n ke~ his pulse for sixry . the absence of tnenstruation ne )f the popular method. rill" drain I til he hod 's regular 1')' d subsystems will actually prevent the buildup of muscle.lIvil. Sleep problems II II III Heodacl e . a sucresign t at YOJlJ've overdrme it.L The re .. hf nic f::lHgue Eventually.. Perhaps the most . the case n e cessive I. [rain ~ in.. I tam rm tom of ovcrtraimng is a very strong di in linanon W rram 3[ Your body is signaling your brain [hat lr l~~l. J usr ~5 the ~1Jn is a (Drill of stress to skin. In facr.!n. and rhe 'ltlUnLfig process liS a lmosr ~nstill1taneuus. regardless of me an.los of appetite Fatigue and luggishnes:s Los ef weight III II. Which aids the body in coping mort: ~". or tendon 'me . Howe vel. Hcavv-overl ad ex .)'3B HI) dire dy prop mot are to rh inU!mlty or str ngrh of rh stressor (the su 11.ihn hs entered an nv rtraine l""lat~ h s rnany telltale symptoms of this condition.~~~fu.\'1'hl.on training six to Seven Jays a week wiU witness a similar decornpens:ator~' C:ffCI:.Hem. you .. YMPTOMS Of OVERTRAINING A l aince \I.~econd_". Loss of . Middn in The Sparrs ME!didne Bnok. One of these 1.5 fin alrnosr consrant sense of (Migu{l cmnbml:d wlrh .. rei .~]. all of the eo.. taken to extremes-as in. Yom skill geL" red and sllghtl)' inflOimcd.erg'1 reserves will have [0 be uttllzcd in an attempt to nvercome the energy debt caused by overexposure W training. Gabe how powerful LJ[ well builr dll. The level of welght training overload depend soleiy upon our ahiH[v <H'\J dlingn ~ :irner£it· h ne -eSJ5a£Y effort required to overload OUI: muscle s.' Heavv-leggedness .u..g is inJic~ I. which uepend upon the easons."in~. a layoff OF [eduction ~n.

striving [0 add PI irlg1 rep 'tuum IJr :1Il couple of pounds. rcsolv lng eo shatter personal bests. psvclLing for l'ifts. stress [hat goes along with traini:ng. however. At this point.edom from all of th~ mental. ap:ply to <In human.lildel: can train for a month or 1:1\ '0 and make steady ga~ns in bod:" power and physitjue.! >lgaID progress. and certain mi dried fruil:l"isuch a eedless raisins will also prove benetid<11in [h].i[s.1 attemptlng to culrtvate at stress-free mental envrrcnment. and fortunately it \vork. JUSt the reverse ts true.y and fucus instead 01. the trainee would do !. Sifilply lake ashort layoff from trainLng. some genend or basic rules.itV"And that ts something t. How dD you get rid of the overrraunng $ymp[l1DlS once vou've acquired them r The truth o{[he matter is that rhe problem i. so that each body part gets ttl:'lLn. In short..th~y eb CFVt: a stale period coming on. To make progress.ting. rest as much as posslble.he also need. d". h is hod vweigh t w ill no r increase. Instead of re:. He ~n3y h:avc been driving himself to the limre MoS[ enslble welghr rrainer take a layoff as soen as . er mmend that you drop yom \veekly workouts to two. A" y~l'1. However. salads. become" exaLcrhat.i!. They must remember [hal: mu • cular oreness is not [ be co.ntem. in hi training. It's true rhar many bCldybuilders who hflw been training fOlryears never experience a SWt~ of overtrainmg and dismiss the notion as something that can't happen 1:0 them. hree or four da~Ts0 rest {rom milling will work wonders. bu t y"O]J can n:get r id of ovcrtra iriA ng h~' engag· ing in more work. and companionship can heir hasten [he recovery from overtraining "Imost as much as {be rest [net. You can work soreness nut n a muscle with a hard training ses ton. thin " rr ( f'thing. bemgs.nJu"· \ i h OV rtraining. teau . In act. to one workout every two weeks. In mallV cases. and al 0 try to get out :into the fresh air ct'i much 35 pas ibie'. lim:nm~ to music. C. m which all progress halts. out of en.t h.. Each trainee is oi1ltgcd o consider his own case flI"l Ut9 own merits. B (the so-call d stress vitamin . and the t ra Inee is soun r Hdy to sta rt 1b a(.!y'rt:: able to stave It off before i. the rea on why they don't become overtrained is &impJy that th. and E "an help as welL As we now know wh::lt o vcrtra lning is~the question then becomes. lc[ alon from workout to wnrkout-c"""ill never achieve.'iJ respect. fresh fruits.141 win find tl < 'r!"t· ining even three days 'per week will prnve . For exampl (I hodyb1.·J by the j . and the condi iun uf over raining.f~'e. Th Llfn"!r or bl'ldybl._d once per week. a Igh'~). u b too much.E! to traln with very high ~. ye fall conrinuallvto gain them. result. later still. there are \·arying degre ·s uf avertraining.lUder not only needs eedom from hi ' beavv-overloadr iu ine.k in agai n. some trainees try to train rhrough rhclr pl. an individual one. A~ a. ve crables. you may need to Jc tease your trs ming frequency 1:0 one W rkout r Vi k and.hese people-who don't rnaxe any perc p ible progress from year toO Yl!ar. There ill onlv one thing tn do ill a case Itk.1: rhts. Dice at time ·hould be high in proteins and carbohydrates. one must be wilhn. Plateaus are things or that have 'W be progressed to-and .\-'C 11'Q forget about training el'ltirel. Then all at once he'] ~cease progres ing andjeven though he en rs pleat y of nourishing foods. wadring half [he body in each one. gt1E as much sleep as he Cern (Ht least dght hou . First off. tress-free p~s(il~c such <18 movies Dr readleg books.e)o'lack the drive to rrain with the requisite overload ~lOJeffon to ever reach a cond! Lon of staleness. in nine case. A mul ti vitam ""11m tneral supplement with extra virarrtt . and prevent any further serlous ympw1m from developing. However.

. exercises used. a longrest rom weight naming is en absolute must.cd. arigue. remember all 0 ch knowledge you have w: [hered from e perience.Ishould 'aJ\I'i'avs have enthusiasm flOr ii:ftit1.~ in order to S uceeed. Acccrding tc Mike Mentzer. However.. It w. lOU ncient sleep. Nor nl-yi the tr: inee's nody in 3 state of chroni . YCU. one group of muscles witt diminish rhe capacity for work in other groups. a number of years in most ' as b. TIlE ABSOl. you are then In a pos iticn to rnak e rhe necessary adjus merits. sets.in1l'!Jg. Marked fatigue l1'1. Most learning. it whar. wholesorn fond. six months simp~y w recover from the exhaustsve systemic H(fects that have accumulnted. In severe cases. proce ss of trial and error . re t between sets]. [0 ]c where a person disco ern rho must dieect route remember these The greater me nverlor-ld!intensity.mJag'es. however. !!! I. ' on the force output or work erIlltln. Excessive outside stressors (those not induced by rhe workout) em hasten musxular fatigue. BI:(1i: should be .. It's doubtful rhar h re exists <lnvarena of human endeavor to his destination right ae the outset. C IT":' schedules of exercise. fortuna ely" these C<lSe5 are rare. and vice versa. Continu ing to force onese Lfto train for len~t hy pe riods of rime when a periud of res is needed will not only cause undue fnlstr81'tlCl'f'I and worry. as unbridled enthusiasm c n quickly lead to cXCe'Ssi V~ training.end enables you to plan your nexr workout.UTE NECESSITY Of' A TRAINING LOGBOOK As rhcre me 80 rn an y fac tors to COnS idee and so many variables encountered over the course of III training career. no grear . e'Becoming a mo ltvely developed OO. pOl. and ultimate ach i. that the amount: of time ir would r k any person to devel JP r hi.nigLle is apparent. reps. as steadv d lines in your Pow r Fa tor and Power Ind x will immediately mdicace fhat you are tramln t 10 frequently. hi nervous system and adaptanon energy are in corresponding tate f exhaustion ami J epl ton. goal. and rimes. Dependin the approach of fatigue'.tyoffs are remporaf}r and rhe time wlll srxm came when you can resume weight ttIl.f!tOI of your pml'lre:s£. If carried (0 extremes. and proper stress managemenr.There I~ no reason to reach [his state when II in Power Factor Train ng. emperedsome . .! Ie contracnons (rh<H is.fullest peter i.d}rhuild. if a sufficient r Sf interval is llowed between lUI. slnce enthusiasm is 8. In so dOing! you move closer to your Other factors s'houlJ he considered would certainlv hehoove the trainee important :p'hysiological pemrs: III ~11ovettraimng. For this reaso • the proper appllcarl In uf Power Factor TI'. who kept 21 training I~ 19book throughout his entire competitive career. This gives you an iru:hr C.huge pan of the trainee's Mec ~8S. 1 d believe. but.in result in a catabolic ct':lrLdition owing to bum the overwork and accumulated stres . ve (n layoff for as long' as thi" e [0.evement are reac hed through a.er takes time.< I could be redu eel . it't. exceedingly difficu] to. • FatIgue ts reduced aster bv rest. 111ing requires that y[ IU k ep uack of your workOUIt by recordirlg fr ·ql. By m ak irag 0lI trial BLnd miss i~g the mark and then no r ln g rh ~rror.u~ncyof exercise. when mey do occur. the>more rapid I. [he tratnee will h. Take comfort inthe fact thot h.142 143 trainee's r {iJ c I to decrease his tmimng.

.:e~p dramancally ifhe were.pitf'aUs that will slow down your pmgress. rhe I~ recovery period rhii9[ vi~lJe . ]. Keep ing a proper record of every proper tum as we U I! S every mistake made along the way can heir you.au'l[ng logbouk to make prcel se de rerminar ions of everything from.' if you view your r:ffiLtling f'l. Kit:~Hn~. <!i training journal wUl serve as a sort of phl'sioru!ilic~'l road map. overload volume to f!"equ):~nq' rtalnof l:ng for op elmal resul tIS.\'. Eventuallv. the best progress between 1 ~'OlJ'r orkouts.Americ!!:m' H~D:!l~OanlUtry 19'5S). <lindthe t~mi~'t~of reductions in training w volume and freqn~riLcy. yoY'll have enough informarton in. N'C1vcm. Fv'f th~ J'Jyctptr lIPr!imMn f}f P~Ji.V<. NO'TE~' I. It should also include your daily caloric intake and the rvpes of foods consumed. avoid the .1' ~()ff to r. you can calculate your nurrttiuna] requirements for furure \. C~l1l'ting your progress Uri yidJ invaluable tmining dan.ber 1992. St~phen. 3. Mike Melu~tr. Miklit Menl. '. to keep a training journal from the llay he began trataing. in a. Un. convetsauon with johnllrde. 31£ we U as 0 bse rve rhc effects of different diets on peak pe rformance output.S a joumeywhose destinadon LS the fulfillment of 'four phY$lCal potential..2)~r.'1'FilCl{IT Tmrnillg. Ey rccordingYOUlr daily food consumption.eIght gain and loss.rJ~. A mtining logbook serves as a historical record' of your workouts. it l!l cruriaj tr-ar::h fJ/)QLLr WOfI-:ci:~ts Ilfl. your tn-.l1 conversation wirh john Llrrle.

rm up '\III' i11 nd the mate rtal contaiaed oft here in of use as well.1[ years 'rry lng to mere [I se .of i lean muscle rnns in as little as three workouts.sstores. expect to gain finer one y. month after month..Ough rhe material presented in this cl1iapter is geared ptirnar-ily wwn. ~'I. It is a -ale be. rhat the minimum amount D{ pure musclethat an average mal auld.It"I" Factor Training method.-----------11 Although [here is no magic number of pounds you \lI'iU 01U:- ular ED't. te four time thi amount over a twelve-month period i'l:fl. Nevertheless. . AJtll.-aimng.I.. year after year in spite of your POWt:f gain bV ~ Hawing the Farro. T. me efforts.LJ could qUI te pos ibl V gi3in 10 pou nJ .re of 10 pounds knowing full wel] that Some reader' have the cap city gain lhrt!. mention the figu. let' assume [hat you arc a reasonaiMy advanced trainee and have snugg led fO.'OU r muscle 111m.ear of such training would be 10 pounds.:t ~rou tin weigh same. drink.:rd f::ainh:1g lean buuy mass" rhos> who desire tn lose weight or fi. and ~t Imge-wull Pr)l. We. for the s~kc llfi_nust'r~tion.

. ur training tjm . the thoroughbreds (genc~ic. these things don'[ has ten the mml'l.ODD e.215 pounds.Sliming yuu're gaining 10 pou nds of muscle per year. vear. above your rnaintenance need of calorie .. it would give off 600 calones of heat. A'~ the very ~easl:.of muscle tlns vear.linlllg ~u th rate in five years you would gain 50 pounds of muscle. you'll see rhar the Jaily wl!igh. many Mr. Think tara mnmenr ju t how minu cule 12 gram of mus~ de gain.nkalooutdaJily progress. the typical r action is '1:0 LI1Creas. Bur looked at over the lung It:rm-say.I were to s.!olog ~sts and bod ylmldders hove concluded rhar the qUisition of 10 pounds fI year fir thl:ugh training l alma [be~rond the reach of mcst ofu lesser rnorta Is.m. such an amount: doesn't really sound like much to gain ave a twelve-month period . If V0I.bout you Q' Arnold chwarzenegger. it's going to require enough I1l. I Till's nor: V n enough w r.000-c~lories a year over and. It's deli!::ulo usl y s Itl~\'. of muscle issue and place It ill a device known 35 a calorimeter. Bur kt'~ "tS~Um~ rhar WI. if YVLJ want 'to gain 10 pounds. t~ arivel.d mar's.' how llI~ny calories extra we need on at dally b:llsis. g[O\~·th. those 6.t ga..rease urintake 0 supplernente. unbelievable 31:'\d of mus le bow slow sue!'. J. which i enough to transrorm the. five yeatb. and these men are! wh rher they choose to adrnir 1:0 it or not. That's (J. per d~f ls-an.an comes our tu 0. di .usde. ill there exlst • p rvasive attitud hat things have to happen In terms of davs. 365). You c me out With the I . They want to kno".in . rh aforernent ioned exe rcise ph".ingcvC>Tl lOpoumls ofmuscle a rear would be a consideeable achievement. St1 (llrrl . verage fldulr rnala weighing 165 pounds into a Zl5~pOl. In fact.. 01ympin In one ycarl-g.. To ob ain rhls answer. Betng what Lhe~'at hod}rbudders do 'r rend to think in terms of. not 6. And if you rhink 10 pnund. daily workouts.'.ousl YI gaining 10 pounds of muscle (CD]" more) is rnu h less th.e.ia: comperitors aerually wei.1nHi n to maintain health through what is crc[tvd to as lEI well-balanced diet.000 extra calories a day. \VI.. However. the question becomes. Wemi. gmwrh computes to 011. gi ter on a b d '\r(!igh'r cal ! going to require some nutrition. Granted. Th ls IS the same as II warns or less han h a:~fan ounce. simple procedure-c-but rarhcr 10 pounds of pure mus le. rra calories R )leiU'. ill' 1't_"\IcI! If yotl divid 10 pounds of muscle by the number of davs ir took to g~1l1 j r ('[hat IS.A NuJn'l'um St'mi'l1llf GAlNING ie POUNDS 0 I MUSCLE Some exercise physiologists end experienced hodybuilders believe h191 gah1.And yet.111y peak ing) our speciesvThcrefore. let rt be undersr od right nf{ the top t h •.Olympia competitor. It [aUolA'S logically from this that. and :0' orth.000 calorie hy 365 lde fllie number of days tn a y~). you must fi st he aware that one pound of muscle tissue contains 600 calories .. On the ·url"ac. \c\lhen we don't seem to be gainibg f<l5t enough. it':.: cue all guing to train hard enough [0 gam 10 pounds .! ~h n'c 8.v i.urgi ally cur aW1lya pound.1W<1'9 hink in terms of a Y'oK r in blocks LJf five years.g'h Db.T1m is true of l human beings whether I'm tal' ing . YQU would have en consume 600 x ]0or 6. in one 'l"ear is siow.. However... Ol'fl'llP.md MI. we're n r referrmg her to simply gairung 10 pounds of bodvweight-e-rbat's a rel- .Q27 pound uf muscle. How mu h food will you have to· < t to gatn these 10 pounds 0 pure musde Without adding any r? To answer thi . if yOIJl want to make sure rh at the we igh t you g3ii'1 is all m.: zrow th proce ss. which U~ how you have to look at <II training career (as noOOdy ever became Mr.

To grow 10 pounds of muscle. wha [lS the reason you're nm growit1g~ Answer: You're not stimula ing growth in 'your nairUng Se$SlHD. requiSite Ill!!:' ""aUlln 01" Tt4P. A.J'\\o' juS[ muscubr mass. And we sl'Iyj'f1i1ll'!:bt t1i!t\i?f' muscle ~wth I. In idents ]lv. and then you\.~m Ul.c oJ yorn.seLf . 4.T~'~[. you. in 10 pou ds ul my scle a.~ ui ite fa:r muscle growth: you've got 1:0 stimulate your muscles Ii:O g:I'OW through your [fanning. as It I.rhat VI.gger rnroulfh lTl:litlJng. 'I ar. Th .ilIY over and above yOUl" mamtenance need of calories. keep In m md how minuscule or wrh i on a laih' basts to g. In short.he muscle growth pro~ . Yet hO\\1 many bodybuilders do you 11 knov who force-feed rhems lve hundred oreve th usands uf extra caluri es <I day W' ith the mistake ll. very rarely is the answer to a muscular gruwtb problem nutritional. You have to provide adequate nutrition to maintain YUill existingphyeical mass. the maioriry of trainees ttlready eat more than they need to grow W pounds of muscle <I yea! anyway.all being "ripped").! . fin1re:~:hat Nutrition phW n role niy after vou've mel the fj. If you at more. '5 why so ew of us ha . WejD)enor sugge ring that you count vourcalcric this exacdy every da)' to make sure that 'You gn.~ ultra-low body a u eating sufficlently. 10 growfast!er. \'r(lh:u we're rrylI1g' to [Dim out by doing dt' arithmetic iii rhr I you cl n'r h ve to force.ga in. TW fH{ -:rREQUlSETEfORMUSCLE GROWTH N~. h cause almost e erybody eats 11'10['1: than adequately. par. MoS[ ing roo many calori .S.S.'tl bltle5 out of an apple. you can't ' at 16 extra calories a day. vou'r ' not rrainin~ with sufficient progressive muscular overload.re gO( to provide that unv bit of extra nurrl i "to allow for [bu. Theprocess of eating itself actuaUy contnlrutes l1otJ'Itng tel . me til'S!. U ynu'1tt! net groWtllg muscular mass now and ymli[ie GETTING ENOUGH CALORIES FOR GROWTH TO TAKE PLACE For practicsl I'HJrPOSl:. You can get chose 16 eNLTII calorie a Jay hy taking t"v. liny bit of extra growth that might take place on a daily basis. thefre hastening the muscle growth process! TIle logic is almos: oo s impli[ic. tile d apprcxiruately ]6 extra calories a d. notion that in so doing. IJ us areactually eat- take pla ce ~ bees use it w ill all de pend on how successful n j'OU'f efforts were in the gym.. you're going.answer that ro grow 10 pounds ot muscle a ~'car.Pl'ISC (l. I::icularly in North funerica. BUI: what ~fOU'U be grm\l· irag is fa. that's true.

takes intc accoun ~'Olll tndivrdualhasal merabulic rate (J3MR) and vour voluntary physical activity output. rh. 15 r' rc 01:1 or 20 percent of that igure. stlmulared that growth in first place]. then. ft m the milk and sugar you put in yo.00 + 4. so you have on~y 1. :l. day.500 = B.d above yuur maintenance ne ~.a. But perhaps a mor ~ curate way is to write down every 1 trated from VOU! job. you have to rack on 16 calonc above your maintenance need on <l daHy basts. a:ssumtnlt you ~Ul.. One way to discover ~'uyr ~.100 cal rles.500 + 1500 + 1.7. tack 0(1 16 calories.V Rlf'\ additional 10 pl1unJ~ of muscle 3 year.756 calories per d:a. in essence.740 calories per day. ood -you would con ume a grand total 0 2.t]f coffeelbo [he dressing vuu put on yom salaCk. W gr )I.lver a random five-dav period. Also. divide YOUT total hy the number of dtlvs invclved (5).500 C3iJIJ~ ries. 50 you pig' out and have· 4. . take yom fi ve Jail y totals t add rh em up. referred to as yl 1.500 caleries. In other words. 7Da calcri cos). d~pefi(. but ll:doe ~W'L. After each. Monday yOy consume 2. Your resultin average daily calorie intake is Z.l - me Iar weight. and div ide th ts numbet by 5.000 calories OVC1i OL!:J.st itself over rhe curse 0.hng on whether you are ~t:denmry. This simple procedure Is. Your SMA. low your metabolism . The notion that doing "n will hasten the muscle growrh pIT1Cess. you W<Ul1: to find out wi at .500 calories. It's important (for obvious rea1.lIt you.you some idea of just how slow muscle growth pmces can be and huw tude additional supplernenta inn or nurrition you really ne d to aU< w muscula:r growth to ms iCes.) These calories are in addt inn [0 the calories you require ev f1t' day tn maintain your pre ent hod~lWe:I~hlt. iell n'lav bump that extra alone intake to 17 or 1 ealori a day.500 + 2.. j~ . this method takes l[ :~ro account.U1d you consume a Ill' re t'i i al 1. i~dif~ n 's ferent for everybody).bliv caloric needs is 'W multiply your present hOllyweight by [0 and add (C) that Il:. or very active.1 simply mtsraken.11' maintenaece need.153 hundreds r even rhousands of extra calorles a day m hundreds of extra gratns of prnteln.: this period." accurate rule of thlJlOr.. OIl riday you're back to normal. Try an exam ple. to dercrmine one' maintens ce need of calories. DETRMINING YOUR MAI-TENA NEED fOR CALORIES CE Rem mber to nllow or 10 pounds 0 muscle gmwth 1:0 ~nanife. If you want to gam 10 pounds of muscle a vear. Ansum.ourse. (Thl is ovcr&implifi. ns] rha you don't change your diet durin!. tt'@ your daily mainrenance need of calon -the precis amoum of calorie you need t maintaln your pres 'nIL bodvw 19ht. the nutrltional "secret" to gaining 'fill cu- me single thine you eat.e{[.ren't gained or lost weighr. The remit will be you.i n the growth prcc ess wb. of calories (given.ay is I [he middle of the we~k and y{lu'r'~gening tired and TI. ue to you (tha t is.rour daih' maintenance need of calories b.500 calort s. of . At rh end of rhis flve~day pertod. modef3tf'iy active. it doesn't matter how fast Of . Th ~pWeedlJfej incidentallv. sit down wub a caloriecounting beck Jill! ealcul l: yOW" total number of calories for dur day. Wedn . Add these five numbers (2. On Thu lay you el guilty and decide 0 atone (Of yom dietary aberraeicns. On Tuesday you onsume 2:. you don't gam weight ~mdyou don't lose weight. average dailv maintenance need of calcries. It over this five-dey p eriod you b. a certain meraboltc cost . there is. At that speciflc amour of cal rtes. . i1"t need of caloric. 15 un "'l. and i facrored into rh is method nf derermi fig ~'our J.irher 10 percent.!not gaif'ung or losing weight.y. a year" you have [U con- sume an ndd1uon3l 6. This j' ::I fairl.

.lgh 1y HJ' calortes a da~' over and above om maintenance ed of c~lmies. who ofren consume up [(I three err four imes the recommended daily tn:m e of protein.s1ticm is called the placebo cllc"C[. urine. There al 0 exists evidence rhar consuming 1. fatty acids. one of C. joggers wbo log more than 100 kilometers (60 miles) a week need more prorein than bodyhuiLJe[ . All cited before. nada's leading exercise and nurrtrton science centers. For 9 154\~pt}Und bodvbutlder. fil. according La the stud tcs. butld mln'le. bout 4 (25 percent) ~hould be pro cin calortes. or Our cups of spazh ·ui. particularly muscle.'i based 000 whilt the average uldividuiill requires •• nd bodvbullders work much hArder than the f u already gel more than enuugh pm d from ur diers. hree ounces of chicken.HOW MUCH PROTE YO· R.[o'lcJgisc $ work was all g:lamnur and leeure cir ut 1). To be used by the human body.7 gram a pro in per kilogn m uf h dywetght. five slices of bread. Bee auss prote in is no ~ normally i!3J fuel source yUU[ ciai]y need fur this maeronurrient is not contingent upon how active you art: ln the gym. <I:]"Ld {and eces r you thou 1ht a phy. however. McMaster University. lndlvidual protein requirements therefore depend solely upon lndtvldual bodvweight.ndy released studj tein loads imposes major stress and can cause excessive A lor of bodvbuilders seem prcoecupled with protein and hm'v much extra pmeein is reqnired t . Thi power of 5ugge-. mosr H:. the~'}fe all hrokerl down into exactly the same d'Lln~. (It' a tuaUy 22 perenr..I uL IeJ daily prot inrequirernenrs by monitortngintake and output of protein in the subJects' sweat. Barring <li starvarioa diet. Cells and tissue. muscle r-i~sue consists of approximatejv 25 percenl: protein. such as pregnan 'Y. It just 50 happens that 1 gram of protein contams4 celeries. A lso.! lmdv's prercln than the~' need requirement lis unJ r condt nons. ential elemenrs-e-arnin .indictIting that bodybuilders. Wi! can hear the" cries o pretest already: ~4Bu[this fit:J:~ lII1:e of Q.EALLY NEED TI. . rhts translates [0 about 49 grams of protem a day-the equrvalear of sixteen ounces of milk. but 15 p r ent ill easi r t remernbee and dose proteins enough.recommended avernge daily tnrake for adult i 0.nonstcrable pl'Q~ grow rh tlf these vita 1 0 rgans. "" metabolism and excretion of [h. when bodywd\l!ht is elevated].! maintenance need of protein Some f-tldclist~ honestlv be! leve that if they don't have their hourly protein drink. rgc' quantities of protein m<liy d~H112.leLed hy glucose derived from carbohsdrares.7 l.ein.ge:the ktdneys and hvt'r. etc. VOU need 1:0 consume 1 rtam of protein beyond you. id glucoi>e.'l are broken I down into h ~ arne es. Throughout North America OJndEun:rpe. ron In per day. In fact.$0 to arow ]0 pounds of muscle every dOil.Y. The researchers at McM st r Umversiry . 3.j. most ies .'1 All prot. Th -.e.] Therefore. we see (hal it rc II ires n::n. B dybuiIJmg wnrko ~. tlnJ people inadvertently inge [except p l'haps when (he °t LUOrl. You must under rand thnt protein is not lIutiz£cJI to fuel )fOYl' workouts. because the~' believe It. which are also an energy ~om'Ce. rhese are spared or their primary 'purpose of tissue growth and repair. .Wdl" If we look again Q[ our 1ypothe[ic a l example of growing 10 pounds of muscle B year. Out of those 16 calories. conrrarv to mu h 0 what you"ve probably read.s. Yllu'd have to Inak both long and hard to nees who are actually deftctenr in this macronutrienr. there me not some prot in hat are more "anabel] . year. theLf srre grh will decrease 50 pounds-e-and then it doc. are based on proteins. In fa r.. And contrary to \vhar some believe. em lly need only 10 percent e:JCU. n:ce.

d ld ing pmgres~. The number thm resul [S is your specific dail YPN~ [ein requlremenr ~n grams."em.ing i.Lffie the fe Um. repre:senlS. - I. out OF those 3. they havea vestedInrerenr in distorting rturrirlonal reality. ing methode tratn.) ifyOlJ~n~ trying [0 THE BESI' D1rnT ToO fOU. This ts your approximate wcUght i]![ ki]ogmm8. you must recalculate yom protein requirements.2 and round off the result to thenearest whole number. So lees boose that percentage by .oXDER TO BUllV MASS d:iJEL The 1LlI05t impcrtant aspect of ea[ing Oil well-leal a nLecl diet Is that it mnn.vity wLll use lip to 80 QI. In mnst instances those p£opk~ also sell .C'fOll mAINlNG Power Factor Tr. This is something we all learned ln eighth-grade health class" ~r also happens to be:someth 109 we often for~ get.aveIi:1!ge mdtvidual. .1. health. This is not an opinion. f~ ~ foct that can b~ backed up by any exercise phvsiologtsr Sf merHcaJ.9.d diet. SUGAlh THlE FUEL OF PO.9 gf<\m 0'( protein per kilognm of bcdvwetglu.nltlg is the worst way to do it. I5 per-cent protem. and ali h igh~ intensl ty ac t iV ities d!e:p end en [I rel y upon gl ucose <IS fuel.~considered a htt::h·in.t as fuel.:r now needs 63 grams of protem a dtly-----{")n. Failure 1:10 do so could up-set yuur bodyb!.~ny calcrtes. doctor. ~I'H:!eh erequ ire menrs depend on bod ywd.l'lht" not actiwity level) T1Ja[ f.e 154~poLlnd hodyblilild. 3. ]oseweiFlhr or lase fat w get Hit up . 60 pe rcent should be' carbeh yclnl tell 1 25 percent protein. [Re rne mber mat bodvbullders ffif:lV be more active than the i1ve:t:~ge man" hut not that much more ac ti vee.wei ~Ilt rra i.~ fIIeeds is eici'1er excreted (wh~ch represents ~ waste of mane'f) m! worse. or '~f11y other form of weight trai.!000.5 percent to 0.S. 000 ealories. fur). . 2.ow nutri. then spe nd t he rest of 'Your time.:ning for [h~l ffil'lrtter. Any kind cf weight 'bala need die r. Divide YObtV weigh[ in pounds b')12.lc:h time your bodvweighr increases or decreases.g. J.. stored ill' far (WhLCh.'1ts. And the calories th~t it does bum ale SUgffit calertes.SP rotein consumed ill excess of the b~xiy'. Weight tmining uses 9Q percenr gJlucose for fuel. !1LJ:Jd15 percent f. S.ainiu. and 15 percent fars.~m.\"'IJl Ft\..' 90 percent f:fll. ourlarger estimaee of yOUlpiw~ein need per kilogram.tensili:~l activity.profein.doesn't bum all rh>lt m." Fine. It doesn't matter how you train. Myh'~ply this numbet b')i'0. You w iH find ~uacks and faddists who say YllU should ear the tl'lajUfUty of 'l"OUf c3nutie~ from protein.dUlElg aerohle ~clivihes to burn far .. use Power Factor Trajruagto either bu llcl(u mainta in your muscle m3~S... The fi rst requ isite in huilding a nro~g hea Lthy body is maintamlng health=-aad the best way teo maintain nesJlh is F) ear <I weU-ba~af'lce. whcrher it's Power Factor Trammg or any other sv.lv 14 01me grams l lb detertnine your specific protein TequLir!m~ntsl". lr yam daily rnatntenance need of calones ts .:OW IN .tah:l. wh~[ea5-aerohic aCli. well. A wdl-balal1xcd d iet comprjses 60 percent CJrbClhy~ Jutes. This i~ h. LlOn2lJ scientists and physical educators define a ""TeU~ I Simply eat a well-balanced Ef. ]f yQu'!rt: looking to get cut up.28.

. The rea on f1 Lni.. sugar! If you1ve ever been around a bodybuilder "rho's been on iii 1t)~'1H:-a.~. our spinal cords. Anybody who's h. 111"1' CI!.r's in an 2.I've seen bodybwlders do weird d1GrlgS. d rm 'r rhink the world's g-Cling [Q srop revclvhtg. They fed weak. Th· m impurrant reason i:J ths t out nervous systems. ndy bar. or an oc cas lana 1 c.![ d If d1h isn't rh result ofb ~ing on a low-carbolwdrate diet fur too long. fcui . fiBh) and poultry of 'the .U{PLE AND COMP'LEX CARBOHYDRATES get into your Carbohydrates. They contain vitamins and minerals and other important nurnents. [fa preferable roo me get vour carbohydr:l!tt::ll kom ~ m~fily natural sources as possibl.. They star dreaming about hocolace insresd of sex. an apple. Fruits and vegetables thinkinlil proCESS and personal lty. LLlW blood sugar wm dt:finitdy cause an erratic personalitv: medical journals. 99 percent uf ito.yom persona'Hfy i' gmn' to become altered. Wha t are these $q::IUlb ~ They're yoill'" nervous system ending out for the one dlm~ ic needs most.dyhui]din .e. con tUf>ed. a baked potato-the carbohydrate has to be: in the fmm of glucos for your brain to use it. ~oulJ consume.9 percen If their nurrltton from the one thing that we've been tHught is the worst thing we. Anvone who goes on a low-carbohydrate diet notice By the t ime cur behvdrares b 1OQdSneiUD. the sugar that III its bask fuel.'e your body the same form of fuel. art: by far rue most unportanr rurrrtnonal elemenr anybody.. sirnpl and complex carbohydrates gh. Dairy produ 4. NurritiCln is really so simple: U you helve to do is eat a well-balanced dtet.:cll arnund l~r.h t used ru be caned he £Om baste groups: ronu 1. and aUf peripheral nerves deri\'~ 99.PrJoiJ!I!Y F ("tur Trutllin/o! THE 1MP'ORTANC:t: OF CARBOHYDRATES S. for lon time.the I HOW TO KNOW IF YOUR om]' IS WELL BALANCED U there's one issue in bodvbu ad Lng 1:11I t's been.and v' getables i rhat rhesefoods lend themselves to a well.~lders. tense.arbohjdrate diet. behind he scenes. and I think ies because 0 the one-tune voguish low. knows that a lot of bodybuilders can seem CT<liZY· They do WUllge thirl~. w be in the form of glucose. tonal experts advocate t!lat you [Iy ro get ynm carbohydrarcs from whole grains. next to water. and I've lfren \Vondl. ( It's that a nutritron. which is really nCJ'~hlng more than consummg products rom \. Meat. our biain derives. i. But. It affe t . it's nor good to eat 1:00 manv refined eods Or simple sugat because the~' getinto your blood rream WO fa~ and cause aU kinds ofproblems. eur 'brains.alanced dier. yn~l]1see (ha't it atsf'l impairs per 'onaBty+ Your persoaahrv' a product of yom nervous systern. How ver. I . Therefore. U your nervous sysrern is not geu~f'lg the fuellt need from arbohjclrate . if you h ave a hankerin g. and edg~f~they suffer impaimumt of concentration and short-term memory. can eat: sugar.rh diet for six weeks or so.pronounced lack of energy almost trnmcdiaeelv. [t makes no dlffer nee at all wheth r it's from a the~' hav candy bar. along wi'rh fiber. Cereals and grai 05 1. nutrition frum sugar: Carbohydrates are the mo t important thing you can eat because they ate bodv' source of glucose. 'Elm just bodybu.

. fats. bodv- hWi1I:rlab1v wonder where supplern nts fit in. And you an see tr.nd of an.lUg sugar from fruus. i'(' uften not posstble ttl get a well-balan CI::t1 Jje r due to time p ressures. six I:tJ eleven porucns f oro the second category. ng yuu If'Iccd-a U the v iramirts. 1"t'I1J h vitamfn Hi it will tum ~'our urine bright vellow. and ins es J consul a physician or regi rered dietitian. H wever. 0 course. By <1Iddingto he confusion.'. you should consume two 'to five portions from rhe first ca:tClZOry. you "re ge tri n.' pressures. useless vitamin and minerals that you're just ~oing to pass through ~'OUlF system allYW'-IY. erobic traininc.u. demands suga a fuel. Evea etmpler.1vertisH1g claims. Some nurritional scienusrs sav that once you go below 1.g everyth i.U 'be ~e'[ting a \V II-ha]an:ced ~lie~. Complicating the matter nd ronfusmg it are orne of I: h c crazv arric 1 es you re' J in sorae f the muse] rnaga~i es. Anaerobic activitv. fa rn iI. where is your muscle gotng to get sugar ill order W Continue cnrracttng! W( vou're not gettrng lenny .•balanced diet. then theorerIcallv you don't need upplernenrs becau e a wellbalanced diet is just that: well balanced. carbehvdrs l s.. Tak~ eupplements only when you think you may not be getting a well-balanced diet. including restimonlals. These ale des ig ned sold ~l ttl seH you more preducts n by confusmg you and muddrwg the issue. Our best advice is ~(I ignore. but les rhe truth of rhe matter.1 THE ROLE OF SUPPLEMENTS When (.The matter uf Jiet is really ve:ry simple. an r n By defimH(. and only tw to due' portions from the final two categories. Obviou. Weight uaimng du s not bum fat as fud (whi h ill "'h~~ies [he wor r way to get defined nuusc ulari t:y )" It's a simple mcd teal fac [ til a is not even (pen 1:0 debate. Build a big. you. you can't g f a wellbalanced diet. cere. Well. 0 ten these 1:10 ks are . Un ortunarelv.OnUm1ted with the nutritional builders baSICS.Jn. minerals. it's impos ible to riel: the vh'~amLns. How~\'er. nd water you need ttl maintain health.lf mu 8L!~I'l ctthar you're nor get lug a wellbalanced diet. for example. the" exi ts no need ".hill' OC'i er to spend hundlPl'ds 0 dnlhlfs a month OTI.500 calurles.:fl!CIENT FUEL FOR BODYBUn. which is whaJ{ weighr tlllmin~ is. job pressures. We have to kip 01C1ilt from time to tirnc. they're able to divest you fI yow: hardearned dollars much more c2I::lily. such as befcrc a contest hi~e you're on Iow-calune die One your calorie intake reaches a certain low leve]. eattre boob can and have been wn ten on nutritiunal supp lements for bod ~rbuIld ing. . and if you're not ~en. minerals •• nd so forth thm you need [0 maintain proper health and. then by all means inclu le an all-around vitaminjrnlrteral tablet LlT protein supplement. lSIur grains.protein'.y fraudulent garbage. Weight training bums ugar. vegetables. this is •n area \vh~re products [h1l[ rnighr have scaue benefit [0 certain bodlybu.pmt ins. muscular physique.sly. ritten andjcr published by somecne selling nutrirlcnal supplements. etc.DING Carbohydrates arc he most efficient fuel ar Power Factor Tralning at an" ki. Sorting out the ormer from the latter can be a fu~l·time job. i vou're e:illtinga well. if you eat a little b t [If t:'veryn-liug bur not 1:00 much 0 anvdung.160 161 Fer 11 \ ell-balanced diet. it Y u mkt: too THE M· 'Y EF.Hder· are advertis d and sold light along tde purel. This may seem oversirnplisnc.

00 calories.. have to burn in order to ge t the sante energy y ield dIS from 01 pound of fat~ Almost 6 pounds! )':ou \!"·~nknow when you starr using: muscle feu ene'ill' hecau e you wtll start l ~.rtdu:uwm. [an burning mU5de lor ener 111. how 1:1. J you were 1:0 . Where re those ~.5. irectlve rnech- .ying. As far as the hndy i concerned.. I WHY YOU HOULU STAY LEAN I.rgy.[FIg weight very . And j r's going' to protec t itsdf aga Dn. That' what bod1rfat i'-stored ne. ring bodyweigln and YOLl redu .ue diet for a contest. And that's WhlT it's .'1. vou will inevi ably lose some muscle.. it hinders body strength. then you're going to be 1.:d muscle-s. lf YOl! need 3.'er: From your 0". Contrary to what some would have you hell ve. fat in between muscle fi])crs-actuaUy hinders contraction.dll)f its bodyfat.. We poinred out ea rlie r that one pound of muscle tissue coneains 600 calorie: in contrast. le h. which be broken down in your liver and turned in to gtucose. In fact. it's d. you look at a bodvbuilder who goe On zerocarhohvrl . Th r's whi" carbohydrates.000 calories deftctenr.encrg~'. by eaTing' a well-balanced diet.rapid]y-2 ItO 5 pounds a dav .m lose .d: He gets: fat. The bes [hit ' to do if you d sire to stay defined vear-round is eo get lean' lowly over a ericd I.000 calorie a day [0 maintain y ur e_ i.000 ealories going to come from? Yom bo&~r~ fat.162 ]163 carbohydrates and you require :nl~ foc hlgh-int nsiq' ontractians.'J1 m uscle tissu e t Your muscie tisue conralns an amino acid called Oil I me.rhe Stronger you'n be.S been discovered that Intramuscular fat-'l"hat is.. are called "protein sparing": they pare your preteln ('m belng used for . II'~ inevitable l ' <i.l. 1 pound of fa contains J . ~netgy. rn. to go on low-carbchvdrare diet to get deOnl.I[ time nd then maintain th t lower body at level sanely. You 'can l:l!lways tell when you start using muscle f . fat adds nothing in the ws yo of ermg an advanrage to body strength. you'1'1 notice a VeIY ommon phenomenon that happens lmmediarely aftema.e yom dail)1 calorie intake to 21000cc~](JIie5. t th Is happening agam in the furure by ru t"ti I'Ig on as much fat as possible. where is your hody going to gel sugar to con tirtue contracting ~ Ans. it's starving.ulSeit's a. There's another reason to tay lean as much of th~ ~U"1'~D. The best way to zer CUlt Llp tsto go O!1 a reduc edcalorie diet by reducing your da]~ycalcrie intake to l do'w your d{lJl'y marmenance need 0 c< lunes. any pounds of muscle would you . wh lch serves to make you weaker. The leaner you are. me body doesn't w~!1t [II time a possible.

is one of the least scienrific endeavor in the sporting '\ odd... Not that bodvlr'luildung can't be or L$ no sci ntific. and (most ilmportantly).~ - . Fact VS. -(etlon -._mg. . it might be SOl c to say th at the time for uch <I ncnccn ILra d ictcl:ry~ ratiuna]. tl < I: are currently ill voguthese d YS. scientific.l<:a 1'0 prac· n(:e ~cien'ific it ough I: to be practiced for :rn ax imal resu lts.ac. but: so few individuals have ever taken the time t v lew it In terms of the related SCIences to learn how Tho: rimpk fM~ uj Ii prncillilfl:d SK!. th n. practiced.. F· .---------12.g by some 0 the bnarrc • nd dcwnright fraud· ulenr training bcli . phone calls we're' rcceiv ing nn a dai. '---- ~bUlUillj:! GROUNDLE-S8 rKAlN[G THEORJE _ j uaglfl.result'producing system 0' strength rraining ]5 long overdue.-· . ·d .g<Id~ Lng the Power factor TraIning System.VW«f[h are all '~Im ni.'_YUl lld_..1 it is comrnonlj. What folln . i a look at som of the I Hi5 .. a wen as blj' the volume of maul and.C .b .ly basi rt. :. B O._ I 1 Bodybuilding.. ~ ~..

diac mu de! Remember that muscle has one function and one function only. Phvsiologicallv. The. In f<lct. It's not like the kidneys. hjecttv'" shuul be. rhen vou would have effec.is whether eUQugh fibers have been enured te move the resistance you're wining wilh. meaning that more fiber' are stimulared to grow. a N~lLtdu' machine. You would wen have to perform addirional pee work to srimulare the rerneining rwo-rhtrds Ilf your pees. The heavt r th wIght. YOt.hlCh you recliae rour torso. since Hm'ibn~ [he amount of fibers involved m a contraction would reduc _. For example. fl t hench. . or the ham by at least clg:iu yards. you would have to perform rhre exercises to stimulare one muscle complexa mormmenral waste of time. your rnu des can'[ diHeIent.Ii <Ibm involve [he most muscle fibers. lifted. a person m~ght have for IC!Dldln~ them. if ord~' for its ambiguity..\'dy Isolate certaln sections of a given muscle..M. particularly III Gnnmdlles!!iTheory I: Angle l[aining Is a Must . by definition. I) contract. It doesn' mat I" tothe body whether you tr in with Ii. Muscle contracts or relaxes. MultipLe-angle training 1 predi :UII.for Mwrdmmn Muscle Devdopment "Y'H. if incline presses could stre s only the 1 an incline bench. rnuscl does. if you actually shocked ill muscle 1'l1OUP. Furthet. The only taetor that dictates muscle fiber acttvs rlon i' 111 W hC<ll. 0 ecpu n har by O'ainino at diffie-rem angles.tively stimulated only one-third.:J on rhe mi. it would ~tU1 be J h[CP in the \1. ~f}10U shocked your muscles and the mczor units [ha't supplied rhem.n. Evenifmulnple-angle rralnin C uld effecti. sol function. shock he mul ~ rn order to make it grow is inter<:nirng. OT. hence.166 16:1 more prevalent muscle-building beliefs and what bas~'1 it anv. potential fiber involv menr n (he exercise and. For thar matrer. AU your muscles are concerned with . i1:5 productivi ty. acts of" the matter just nught ~Urpi[l5e you. What could 'this p . a decline bC'1Ch. This is inherentlv ~['ldfldem.i.~ate' between 3 barbell.i would have effecnvely left it incapac I rated. Muscle i ~ cnmpllcated at " all. 111~enure argument In suppotr of mulrrple-angle tral mng as a means of max imlz~ng muscle gru'wrh has n lssed the side.Theory 2: You've Got to r~ hocku the Musdc The belief dlat you have to. you would have [educed the Lighr of the fact thar both th uppe'[ and lower par t n of the pee share acommon tend n 0 insertion.'v the weight is-not me angle through whi'c:h it'f. G[to'Und~es. The fibers in both regions are dv.1t: the COlJie. AH~n all. That's it. it logically follows that exercises that gcncrare the highe [ Power Factor and P wer lnd .m:e it's your mu d ~ lb r that" do aU of the lifting.ore muscle fiheri)c an: not brought into plav or recruited by changing such compararivelv trivial me hanlsms as hand spaci g or the angle at \l-. So train by the numbers. nor loy preconcewed notions regarding rnulrlple mefficient exercises. ibbf mean? Certainls. yuur entire nervous system would he traumariaed-e-nct to mention your car- upper pees hvhi h til Y don't). or a bucket of rocks. the III re ih r re recruited to lift ir. That's IiIU.I've got I_f'I hi[ the mu l ft~)fildtffcrenr flrlglc~" IS a popular belief these days. . This is not what any bodybuilder's.. the nmounr rcceivtna rowrh stimularion. Th~[' I .I'fOng dirccrioEl. If you 'P rformed an exercise rha' Umit1ed th stress of focus 1:0 onty one regton of a muscle roup to h excluston 0 @n 0 her regi IPS. this just i:.s e c ned into play. red whenever the m'LI. youl]l be bringing more muscle fibers mto pli::lY than would have been activared o the rwise . of your pectorals.x: i. lc cmp]. then.

For xarnple. On." This L.The same ones y It! U e to build maximum mass. MWide are attached ru bones by tendons.ey ll be activated irrespecrlve of what part of the muscle group they happen to resale in. 50 the onl \!. ilie action of the b iceps muse Ie us still the sam e:-i t contracts.t:fJ rdless of whererhey are located i~'l.ers. Muscle length i& one of tho. Apart (rom basic. Gfl)I!. rhe its fimcnnn.ly Cut the tendons and rearrach them further down the bone.1 pe • orrn my bask. ciable degree anywa. he 01 vy. contraction. mearuug If the weight ~'otl're anernp irtg to lift has exceeded the capacity of tho' Ibe <lire &')1 activared. this. r. Muscle fLbe[S~re recruited only ns needed. by the ". vexed. If you ask most bodybuilders. and.ce5sive stretching and an exaggemted rang~ of motion play no part at all inthe pro C!1'5 of muscle fiberrecnu tmenr.ray. the greater the likelihood of yuur becoming defined. be activated.::il:tlng up. cuntpounJ movements. Theory 4: hohllti n Exe-rdsei5 CJleate Definition and Striations wm GJ:lClufid~ess. Such nn answer ts absolutely loaded with allacies. tb e Mu dies DO! of the most pr valeur miscall. rimulate it into gruwrh)..: (jI. are' recruited and hence sti:muh-Ired by one thmg and one thing rJl11y: weight.t iO[1.ing the b -sr phy ique YOll can.':. ger and stronger. cajole. There's no such thing-as <I cellular brain in each l dividual mus le cell that would all Ow for ir 1O beco me confused. compound movement or size. the stress of th e ercise would ~c more dirt! dy focused onto the "lower biceps.gc Preachercurls for yom biceps. you perform it I'ring back on a fortv-five-degree angled bench. coax.!l'~ (CIi:::Wi On aevdop. Ex. If you want to ensure th~1[ fill 0 [he available muscle HIrers in yom' biceps wHt be stimulated 'W gIrO!. hen will more fiber. instead of performmg <'II dumbbell cud . heal'Y con pound move. What ler cis to 1::11creation of demurhm' the burning t}' calories beyond wh<'lt yUU ingest. Think ahuut it rhis .avadahll.y."" big~ - .£ ddkulnus. = F ull Ra:l':JigeWil1 Le ['I_gd~Jelil.with a barbell instead 0 J IIrnbbell. e gen tic traits that JUSt a:t~n't -Ilbject to alteration. It SIt ill is cMrying IJ U[ In. b\1 V!trLJ~ ofbt:ing the ones (hat .l}. You cannot shock. heavy.f angst. forget abnut it and jll. and certainly not by strerching them. professtcaal OI otherwise.Iy to I ngthen a rnuscl would be to surgical. and rh t' it. ' ibef5. for example.pn mary fum:. or ~luaLiIty.rill11l.UUU~::i. lou'1l1l15L1ally hear [l reply somethin_g llk . Theol')' 3. Again.':. why '[hey perform several exercises for a glve'r! bod~1part.' ill so mehnw srimulate more muscle fibers n ill rhe insertion 0 a musde.FI'1:Ci growth. a th trd to bri rig om the striations. kjlls[ iRtl'( P S:iiible r lengthcn mus les fa any appre. there is no such thing us <I "shaping" exercise or "defirritton' movement.nre the ones that wtll lead m rhe erearion of the greatest defmitoon. The more calories YOlI expend. bask. the exercu s hat bum the most calories on a per set basi .168 If.)mmonly believ d rhar [{you perfmmedfuH. 'YOli decide to shock your biceps mus de by having it perf nn ill ClJL I. Mu le celts receive electrical snmularton from h brain via rhe cenrral anl~ peripheral nervous liV:steIT'15 to either contract or dlsengage (r~l' ). befudd led. or rhe ever-popular "confuse' a muscle: i. i. So if your biceps aren't as long asAmold's. 0 where' the shock] Likewise. then you have to employ a resistance that is heavy enoug-h [} r mit al] . ~Wen. another movemen t for shape. And which exerci e~ are rh~Ij~. or HUed with any £onn . ruenrs for ~i~t: (du:ytre also the ones that bring out a [nus' de group's inherent sh::lpc.'I. and th. Ther fore'. eptlons in bodyhutldm g is the be lid that a full ra nge of moti an '\.a. gtven mu de. it wa cl.

you Consume. calunes over and above mamtenance levels (I YL)t! think \. likewise with nutritm . to manifest? Damn h'- . had ew striations. Consuming quanrirte .1 somehow cornpensate for dw ~ffecrs of what . rhe bm]~1and it muscles have needs ~very blr as specific as the 1brkklaycr'~ {even more .000" He doesn't need 4.n~d bodybuild er. t [meed feeding or hyper· nutritirm C"<'l.. had them evervwhere! Certainly. He needs onlv '4 000 bricks... A O~pound gain 0 muscle. Even at . There also appears [0 he a certai: genetic prcdisposiuon COwan! striatlnns. whereas a 'tenth-place inti sher. ~Lnyway. ]t's like a rick layer who needs exactly 4.ol ti n m vernents Lh. Gral"l[ed! nurrtticn does affect the dezree to which growth can manifest. They cannor be "trained' iruo <I muscle. far in csces of [hat intake does not somehow force the body to expand this suppl i 'mit The "'odVh~s specific nutrntonal needs each JilY..oulJ otherwise be oven!".ch Tilting as Overtraining.[ [he muscle U~ 3rmnged l ngitudinaUv in bundles. henCE:..lt~d merdy 'refers W the fact tha. yuu can accmJingiy ex [end the hmh LO which yuu can train and.of 2 percent-s-yet Munzer was the one with rhe tn rnms. Forexample l\Ik Olympia.tuallv: surplu bricks can 'be r.000 bucks to build a chimney.. and nutnrion. no su eatmg.. The s~lpply 0 bio hemical resources US1i': up in die ptOCI! of growth stimulation are lhnited of necessity and cannot be resto ~d In: tantaneouslv. the notion [h. He does 'r n ell 5i .'io lr go ~I OLlh! uncl rTIle imphcation is thar t( you overeat. An ouncel How manv ext . upply cfth ~brochemicals utilized in the growth pr ess.sold or put aside until the next job}. ll<lt"b required for maintenance and a [trtle bit extra for the gww[h you may be stlffiulating from workout 'tLi workout-e-only result in the deposurun ~f fat. the term lmplte ill limit that cannot be transcended. sumulare muscle growth. and c ertainlv borh men Were:at incredibJy low bcdjfat levels. no matter how many calorie . h thing a ove!rtraimng. This position has absolutely ["U backing from exercise science.. 'I"OU cannotnain for shape or &eHni~ tion more successfu1h' with [.050. In !81C r. probably both in the uelghborhood .{fling suoply Isn't true. Onl Underellitinc One ofthe more recent mi 'concepthnls till bodyhuilJU11'l regard the issue o overtramin . yc:m-which would be worrderful=-everage out to a lirxle more than. but to limited extent. muscle growth is ner!l'liglble on a daily basi . n nun 'I.S srnarcd. There ore. the epcrative word 'being needs. and everyb. ..' best. skeletal muscle tissue I.. Surplus calories-e-these over nnd above .term sl'ri(.001.no tercise are [he 'Weights greatest a J the muscular uutptlt required to move 'them the gi!'catest~ar~ bell bench presses with 200 pounds or repping out with..U}. . has keleral muscle [is ue.][1 a genetic predn position towanl sud a condition. AD ailequare Find cptimal tn ak of nutrient serve to maintain a fun .. and would gen rate a !Uglier Power F<JCWf- As ar as striations go... Th . n 'lOll can wici'l compound on •and srrlarions are the resulr f both an mcredihlv lowpercent ofbodvfm . In conclusinn. Dorian Yates. In (he context of nutrition. Dorton Yares had every muscle gr up developed to its rna imum 01'1 hi hoJy. . GTOUlild]~$S Theorv 5: Thete'g No Su.. ouhl he required or such a mimrscule amount of growth.l'! day. When viewed under a microscope or with the naked eye (.ID a highly dt:£i.t'r's. And he doesn't need 4. muscle striations are dearly visible. his muscles were more fu IIy develo red than Were Munz.: . There 1:..a . Andreas Munzer. pair of 40-['()unJJ!JmbhcH~for it set offIys] Olwiuml~1 [he heavy benches would require far more ener '''I to complete wny_ In which I.

Of the temporary swelling of tissue due to a buiidll['l o( fllJid- improvemeru..rectly related. which is WhM r~t'lXl'f bod~'buiLding really I~. i-15 not an accurate indic tor of muscle growth stimulation . sumulatinn.ike Paul OeM~yo b~ing able to bench-press only 100pounds? No. Could you.11 £1'115 CaJ::.nUf Power Factor a:rad Power Index. ve . nature of [he relationship between $UzC and and rt ceukin't be otherwise. and he has the muscles to prove ir.cs Another popular theory in ra inlng these days is [hut of p lfome tries. of a muscle 1~ proportional to its eros ~ ectional ar-ea.ed (0[. the pump sul side . Unfortunately. nor aL1 hodVhuildc[lj grow as It: ule 0 each workout.. time they work out. Increase your rate n work.. A pump.:s. you nod e mat it's atrophied rr become smalle r from disuse.:ance level they-ire being called upon to mel e. there exists no evidence whatsoever that n pump is n index of muscle growth scrrptiun for rehabilitating rhat lrmb! TfJ get loose ruusdes to grow bigg{:r again! Strength training! And the stron rcr the limb becomes. tor.sl1gt. then. That' de why when you remove a limb that's been immobilised due to lfiJUI"Y from a cast. af it (I Groundless Theory 1': Plyomctri. people who perform htt. Ifthe pump was the sine qua rnmof muscle growth SI imulanon.. long rime ago that muscular size and strength are di. AU bodybuilder achieve a pump 'ItO some 011' degree ever". U 7'UU want to grow iggcr and 'bigger mu des.NI~ si. edema.S big as he is because he is as srrong as he ie. Th is POJ5lld ates that l: you rake <]I mod erare wei l ~hl. as the plvcmerric advocal es would have you believe. all of the afmementioned athlete would 'be jumping up in \!lclght classe on an almost \veeHy b(lSL8. Strength training. What recruits the fast-rwirc] fibers is tile ha rd pc.l[ u explosive.b-volum. 1. and your muscles q.roundless Theory 6: Train for tnt: Pump.few. In other words. or [he gyll_ \\. to i S Pfcvi. Pau L:ls 2I. and even Smu·Master enthusiasts. you should always train with an ye toward a strength [8 Such me strength.! Slf~ngth .. Still. thi. for example. obvlously. Muscle fimers are recruited ln an orderly fa5h~ Ion a ording to the res is't'. Paull works out with over 400 unds on the bench pres. however.tirnulated the muscle will revert the mu de being worked. More precisclv. For yDn to move a weight quicklv. or Pow T F. more s peel ficaH)" its force requirements) and nor. lrtespectiv of the ge ~ . i cn . a s[ml'lger rnu . imagine a massively muscled bodybuilder I.'1I:h I ide that geEtlflg a good pump LS hI! key to muscle growth stimulaticn. you'll stimulate only the fast-twitch mus It: {lbers. however. the btgger it become. while a nice feeling admit edI}'.: it. In other \ or Is. dot: n't :Jlways pmeJuce much in the W3Y 0 a pump. MOVl r!l:P' a Hg-h[ wetghr. The evidence is [hat very ltrtle extra n1Jtri~ non beyond vhar's r quired fO[ maintenance Levels is legitimately needed 1:0 gain muscular hod'l'wcigh"C [)11 Cl consistent basis. the quicker you can D10V'i. because the lighter the-weight.'mmger_ And therein lie the key 10 rnu cle gww h.!)k-overlcad workout I the body is 8J bout to undergo some profound physiological ch. Toggers. A pump is simpl. the speed at which ~'OUper" form the movement.trill heav laess of the we igh [ to be li ft. such as cyclists. I or that matter. What's the doc or's pre- G.C blood-ul growth was . obviously. 'Then You Know You1ve Stimulated Growth Many bodybuilder head. i a bigger muscle. Unless ali 8.c excrc ise. as reflected in '!(.g tile" rhat. h: was disovered a lung. result ()f a workout. fast r·[ ri'i ns. there can be no rniSl:akh1. a must oe light. This is yet anotl er bit of fietton. at I experience <!I pump but don't experience g_owth a a result.

lI. 1r./r Trrunmg velocirv ar which ynu move it. 'c. perrjcularlv i ch bottom po ition. ample evidence th at jump] n:g and bo un ci ng whil~ he Idi.s.~mng be a .Pesformrng :full~rRnge I Groundless NI.5 I Iy fast..hU'l1fleifi Magaztne). Accnrdmg!:O men li e the R.·!. Plyolllenic movements.l. h ypertro ph y. finly requires slow-twitch fibers.IUS in] uri :h. Groundle' Theory g~ FuIl~Range . So while ~(. or very arne :l'e8!5on-heavier w~lghr.]ua:tshad. ra ge squats is :SUI erior to the weight utilized in :i!ny oilier ac usrom d to p rforming. The fast-twitch Ib r -the ones "lit h the greatest rna 5 potential-c-are finally recrulted when the other two sets of ibers can. fibers are acrlv ted.eI)' productive exerclse.ng heavy weighn will ("<. And. thls recruitment process depends not on velocity but on (mce. m go. where the t nterior aspect ofthe lumbar vertebrae is compressed.rhc muscl . wa sn 't [he squats per se th at snmulated rl i: wondreu overall growth.ll could have bee n emp lrl'!ll:di. result in either hernlated or ruptured discs. t El'!:erci. cannor activate fast-twitch . The heaviest weights require the gl'fC<' ~S[ force and. it: wilt ru t 'row larger or stronger until n 1_ overloaded. Accordtrig re exercise physloiugists (who make their car rs out of studying closely the cause-ar d-effecr fdarionsh ips o sue h du n ~s).-bodyweighr. muse be required to exert more pow~r or work against a greater eS1s[3 ce man b fore. full-range squats cause severe cemprcsslcn of the spina] cojunm. who contributed much to th iron game. or [he incre as e in rhe [15 -secrion I area uf <I muscle's iber I can hes he triggered by mereasmg both the amount of weight UfteJ It above what is currently . Demands uf low muscular imet1sinl are alwavs mer: by l e slow-twitch fil1etS. however. iUl"lger meet the fore requirements. if nor f'J:'lay the most productive exercise.'.tf." These beliefs have p rsisted to thns day-and uet wirhout reason. i'bers~ There simply is no evidence that mnvemenrs perlbrm~d n weak. What happens is that the int rvertebral discs end up getting pushed h. which could. no. B~siJc ~U' Lng excessive near forces in the knee [oinr.i n rerrned ia teefibers in order to recrui [ . quat An~ dri{~ B. That is.eaders (e'tHw:r(5of . Research has constsrenrlv revealed elecrromvog sp i c iVlty of up to ten t100C.'5~ mp]y because' h amount o:f weight (overload) uriliaed in _1111. hence. An even grea1ljer demand would have been placed on 'l he eN:' by rhe performance of strongestrange quats. ~II SqlU1[S are d. tirnulating effe on the entire sysrem. ckward.)' ruatter The rv 9= P're E"hilllu5doIlli z how much a muscle is used. They were ri~ht. although a weak-range exerci c. but radu::r thl! ract that squats were rhe veh lei for ustng heavy weights to tax the c nrral nerveu svsrem enough to cause an adapt ve response. includinu the lilm ~and intermediate-twitch. Thi meansthat duo: lntcnsirv of the work required of It must be inn ased squats.fink· 1y not the "'11'( Quarter cu.::IS are activated.174 PPWIIT FQl.range move me n r.uUding benefits offull squats. the amount of force requ or!!d 0 move the we. me not only have produced grC<l cr muscle growth stunulerion bur would have been much safer-as \\~eL'I. again. recrulrment of fibers. diJ and wills rimulare phenomenal overall muscle grO\vh-. Therefore.Intermediate fibers come into play once the slml'-tw]tch nbe[s are no longer able to continue IDe task.ight.s~ Ever! Mark Berry and Perry R~~'lder wrnte volumes in the 19JO and '40 about h· "wondrou overs 11muscle. bodvwdght in the lumbar region when '1i1U squats fire performed with as little 3S an indlvidu' 1'.twitch fib r • There is.:lgicaIlybypas:s the alow and .tuukl in anexplostvc or ballistic • hion will-m. with dn: light to moderate weights employed. whe'fl~h~ fas1>twitch flhl.

'5y~lr must lite-roll\' be forced to occur. or mughly haL the a moun t 0 f reps performed In O!lf: strong-rang set-willi much. rhemuch-heralderl creator ofN8Juti1us exercise equipment. in~ng rhodm olngles.i. i it' fuU~ran(Jt! lsolarion movement. The r ~ exhaustion system tncorporates hghn~1l' weights and reduced muscular overload. Therefore your rnu dl!. a reduced resrstance. uch be~ng the case! i ow does one furce g:rowth with ligh weights or mild exertinn] The answer. Usually chts resistance lS in the netgll b. he fewer fibers that are requited t fIlove it. According eo rh Lawof muscle fibell recruitment. the f~)[her 0 are pe rfor m hog I css wot k (rnov lfi1.rinci])le. so it LoS not nearlv A:S effictent a musde~building system as SUm!! <ldvuc<. Groundl. less resistance. isolation movement he performed prior to a compound movement with tend Iy zero 'rest time between the ( ~'O.!.IY by th Isolated and prorracted performance of highly repetitive tasks that are of a level wen within the body's cxi tir:tg muscular capacirv The fact ts thar growth is sysn:n1ic" and the trlgg." as oppo e-d to science. pre-exhausrton requires [rut <U1. Pre-exhaustion became so popular that Arthur Jones. the we.~r mechanism that signals the bod~f to "['f'\V can m])r be turned on by :'I'8Jll to arm' from the eentral nervous sys. exhaust r tal out to roughly 6 to Hper set.~77 (nverload) and the rate of work or pounds lifted. Given rh<'lt rb clinical formula for hypertrophy is increasedwork in a unit of time.. th reps performed in pre.1rh lJ uf 50 percent Less [hanwhlIt the trainee 'would normallv use.e s Theory 10: Instinctive: TrainhIJg A very lmul school in bodybut\dil\g advocates that you must "nU. must also 'be redu cd In order for the temporanlv fatlgucd mu cles ro contmue to contract. c.t:5 into consideration.glrusare reduced even further. The ft.im'l~'thing is that th~~T actually mean ld Never in his wildest dreams (a d some th m were pretty wild lnd '~d) \I. The (11.!it your In tncrs. Lt. Growthi n't ~1.[ghti the moremuscle ftbers are called into plav rn move.rould Sigmund reud. a Uri it of tim • Sut~.il> Takmg the preceding fi. Converselv. t that isolari n movements necessitate thar hghter weights be used than would he urilieed for COU'lpound movem eats lis ertough of an indicator ItO ten you that this ytem is headin~ in the wrong dtr cticn. mcludine one that gained a tremendous amount of expcsur and popularity during the 1970s-ihe preexhaustion p. Granted. which i a [0 a1 of 12 to 16. the lighter the weight. when icon r ) builJi. :~i the Iselation rnovem nt. you're doing tWD sets back to back. Max unal s ti mu latio n cannot he 0b ra ined with sue In 8i system.ng muscles.'E is rl e central nervous Sl'stem tha t triggers the ] gr wth pr cess. When the camp und movement i permrtt ed tmmediat 1'1" afl:er or . hut wim 1igh:te:rweighe.u:. pre-exhaus I~ <I step towards do mg less work. That's just for openers. "Go with your gUll" sa~' [he advocate 0 this rheorv. • econd. 1€ss total wei!l:h'~lifred in. muscle af' be stimulated to grow using method uch as pre-exhaustion. it becomes much easier to evaluate aU tr. . The result! Little or no muscle gt"owth. Agam. • one can'taIL lean not without growth drug5. but only minimally. desLgned several of his machines with an Isol. ['lunjcmnpounJ component built into them to take full advantage of it. AdditIOnally.~te5 nllght have lnh::iaUy h ~li ~ed. For the (Ike of iilusrrauon. per minute «(hie P wee Factor)."l less we i!i:hd over II given uni[ IJf rhne=-per et. because it calls fat such a eeduced level of muscular output.tem. The higher [he overload and rate of work. I1d instinctive trairung. [he heavier the W~. the rclHHaTICI. which c nnot be called inro pl. the Ii'l:reater[he cdaptlve response of muscle grci\IIJ'~h.

g allows III ybuildcrn to measure ~nJ fLnJ the optnnum point where th .lspeCJ.ABOUT' UPPLEMENTS One of the bigge. I cou Id fee] that I was h. Never before has such an emphasis been placed on nutrition. Supplements." An instinct to build big muscle in order tu ultima dr ruh b by oil on them find go up on a srnge and p~e? lt' downright laughable.. and detemrined how rnusl gwwth is really stimulared. Cau]d you ~. g..g Instinct.'~bodybuilders ~I has build.HB ~lldem psyd i. athlete.er).Ii particu- me have always used.t eve!" I"~en applied w bod'Y~ bUll ing. s cicnce. lro k. nut mstinct. controlled the enviromnent.in~ i:1I1 instinc hie creature). then and only then can a a resorting I: be made for mineral to proteln powd t .---supplementan~r.. and vitamin/ supplements. bout a rodynami s" to. minerals. The llinE:l. rh ir gren( e t degree of rom 1· grD\. ild:ing could one postulate s-uch a ludiemu rheorv a. can susy tain their highestworkload or Power Factor and. upplcme and nutrition are two entireLy different things..Bit ~!i the most neglcc ed.: of bodybuilding ill. for example" an Ol. design their airplanes. or 'whefiwe're unable to obtain die nuUIt ion om bod ies require fro m those same fuoru. I~JV~Hechmethodology [h(]. uch as . bowler.' to replace them in [he dler. rt w.\trYi have ever postu lated thf11 ur species <I "bodVhuildi. f3 s. it is this v. carb drinks. supplement were never intended to be used a nods 01.e most lmportan fact regarding nutrition for the bodybuilder.yidd you noth it'! 1.g and get' away with. hence.ffid nt aircmf . lnstinctlve tnlinin. .s in • ny eflJt:avm inv[)lvi:. artemptmg to monitor vour results hy . v log the greatest workout of my h£~. uch a s bjectlvc index at how you felt at any given time" would. e. in luding 'body· hi nurrienr. sflfe. Un il Power Factor Training came 0[1 the scene. Hy.vth stirnulat ion-the effeC'ti\l~rLe5S f which shows up in their wnr. And so li: i.. or anvcn else who wishes to mamtain heal h and build a strong body is rhc unequivocal need for a well-balanced die t..' 1 nf supplements.ng science. A contradiction? No. Remember. viramins.st concerns fl:l!c!ttg bodybuilder of the nineties. L rbs. homemaker. are !.n."Ily 9 fa. cured disease.)nnpk sprinter ny~ i. and w3tt:r-n~Cf:. prerni of man b('.rndlgane. Or <it least it hould be. I'd be grossly mistaken. After all. but if my Power Factor and Pm·v~r ]ndex were down. no objective gnuges by which to accurately measure one' progress Or lack thereof hal. Boeing Aircraft doesn't employ individuals who sinlp·!y 'have "a good feeling. they hire people with hona fide setenriflc backgrounds W]10 understand and can objectively m easure the parameters a.he I.. onlv on apparent one. Feeltng something to be true is no guarantee that it is true. bodvbuilders often forget that bodilv health is the first requu he flJf hu hHng <I muscular phY!iique. in the final enalvi . Pow r Facror Tralnlt1. Supp[ements do plav : role in nutrition when they're used a he term implie . on the other hand. Remember that . Un ortUfii:ltely.siil)' for mamtauung healrh. ]t. objective measure 0 the effects of h is training tee hniqucs nor of hls improvement from one month 1:0 [he next! Yell thi i exactly [he kind of trrarionsl. Nutrition is what we obtain daily from the foods weeat. \"Vhen you are unahle to main ain c well-balaneed diet or ~fyou ~uspec[ that .. THll: FAC S . sound d let 1s one that daily P rov ides a It the nutri ~ . that sent men to rh moon.'OLT re deficient in :. Even if such an Instinct d icl ex ist (and we by no means grn_Dtth: . I . A..kuut numbers.ents~proti::in. Wh·· d i~Ito s 1appeued ln the pan.ng tn men iror h i progres 8 by "feel" or "instinct"? Of his nev cor havt g measured his progtes "by using a st pWc tch! Or of neve]' having allY tangible.. Only in bodybl.

each amino add retams its dLS~ rincnve h mical structure in order to be utili:cd to make up the varied ~quences Pi nd s rructures of human proteins. several death resulted. serve no bnulO~ltfll value. s lrn pl)' a waste of money and the body's I energy digesting them. yieh. Making more amino aclds available wiU riot make cell rnultiplv or renew sr ~ :• srer rare. or a T·bone steak. tosterone deficient that all he need is a good pIO~ tein shake m order -0 ser things right..If bodv simply breaks down the m:illcro molecule ofpretetn into its consriruent amino acids and redistributes th~ ntdlvidual amino actds to where th. Th. HOWe'iH~r1. o in acids are simplv me nitrogen-based and.t as their soya. P Clfk needs for protein. II plcmcnr can only be justified when used supplementally. add itto rial a IIIl no ae u. Scientific infcrrrnation then bdng disserrunated hy hi chemls .t. Amino Adds It' absolutely l'lmazing just how many bodyblJilders readily accept the notion that amino acid suppl rnents an: somehow a primarv 'requisite in the muscle growth process. I'ot on ~ did the labels change but also the y markccmg srrategie ernploved to pmrnnte rhc ~'fiew" products. unlike the SLl~i1'1'S hat 'me! the blood rom carbohydra es. But if males no ddreyence ~1i: all to Y ur b dy w hether rhev' re iIII the orrn of n c apsule.physiologists. rhe on lV things supplements re pre5e:M is alack of a tten[to ro cne's food sele rton and meal preparanon. when parncu la 'I" d eJicienei es exl t and C~ n 't be redressed bV a c loser artention 'to diet. while the other is . pourmg excess amino < dol im your bQJy is no di ferent . However.500 calories per clay. 1 Ir's • norher example 0 old wine in new skin . "aeuao adds. In [acl:.. At thi~ point..1 the Same effec. and nurrtrtonallv infcrmed bodybuilders such as Mike Mentz.h.180 when hquid protein diets were voguish back In the sev- enrles. Ami . The hoJy hill. Y'Jl. colossal waste of money. Again.t: no simfLouritybetween the two at all.hs gl'vmg a r constituents ufpmLein conuacror more lumber than he < I. Amino add supplements were non.' accompal. r. additional amounts. reissued the protein lip lemenrs-i-only this time with a new name. and even superior repla .' hercas a SteIO ld [6 0lI hormone. Of course..b (regardless G how they were consumed) wHl not be put to work. including muscle gmw.! d . tantamount t telhng man who 13 [I. 1.. by and large. absolutely nece ary or proper bodily and muscular function. t and a. in i ted thai!: a well-balanced diet provided more than enough pm~ tein for (he aspiring bodilbuihlcI and that upplemenrs were. such as those obtained through supplements. It i at once obviOU~· UH t such claims were ludicrous. e!::g. Of course. For example.protein [:\0 a nu tr inonal de raem. One is <l: dietary constituent. t:ffecl:ive.uiy caloric consumption drops helm . m ents W an <1balk sterc Id • TI WI( 1. . sfte r a 11. amino acids are. in an attempt W recapture the tremendouslv lucraelve roreln mark.to build 21 house.e~'re needed moat.. the protein manulacturelfS. l1u: history ~f amino actd su.pph:ments tan he traced to a few years back. con t:~uendy. when protein supplement'S became for a time ra her unp pula with the b dVbuildr ing community. and beef predecessors.'. a pill.. bodybuilders who diet severelv for a CQnt~U receiv mu be I!!SP j·lLy car ful be • u tal urrients.J dru f-and rhat's a hlg rHf[ercn e. As long as the cells have all the a mi no at iel s they need.llied by ad c<mpaigm dedaring that they were actus Uy safe. There extF.. 10 arring such cond i tlcns. Mo t reduced_I~ calorie diets are often so restrictive that the bod'll does not rnanv es nut i tonal ennsts agree thar a well-balanced diet becomes irnpossi- ble once your da.. VI. milk.

the body Were carried in every cell lbV .NA_ Bccaus R~. the chains rhat tbey ventually make up are known as ribonucleic add . )f dairy pruJucts each Jay.. and a base.h. l. further. not just protein or amino actds.000 proteins 0. Then and only then does nutrtricn become 01 factor in the ':::£O\). (. we . each f which is made of sug ar. [here seems to be better absorption.1 parienrs). tlhospnal:e. if the amine a acidlysine is what the DNA blueprint calls fur.eoxydbonudek fKJd) rake its marne. Ag in.IOJ P ultrY'i am) twu ro rhree or ion. DNA lrself is a chain of nucleorides.13 tiny amount of DNA-a discovery for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize that same year. mUH be provided I order fur you to matntaln YCl\J1: x i'''dng level of muscle mass. without concern .be present. opposed to suppler merits. if tr WEre.. Wh n attempting 'to rn lntain th nutrition of the ill. it could not be used. ".~ precise.r buth::ling big muscles. min a ids.e molecule com's fWIll a hot Jog. and. These wiU tJ" . There i evidence tha:twe ~eall~' o much better when d the amino acids come rom foods . you must l r S imulate muscle grm eh • I the cellular level via peak-overload trliltining and then allos.b rocess. small change 'in amino add sequence or structure can rna e H protein unusable-c-or even lethal. the complicated mechanisms of absorbing amino acids from the mrestine require d at some ammo 11 ild 1 aln . It's the equencing of the nuclectides in ONA that actually i SITU 1:: the cells in how to mal he varL ous pro Leins that the 'bod y ne eds. A parentlv. need ad. For example.. from which DNA (J.or R.C n cond ude lila 11£0'[ prot ein syn rhcs ts the food santee of the ammo acids dries nut m. mina acids an: not requisite fo. To buj[d big muscles. These insrrucrinns musr .'l. the transfer RNA will seek lysin and ncthtng el e."hen ames vt'01t!iOrt. induding 0-9 gram of protein per kilogram of hp!dy~ we'll'1ht) In order to aULUV rhat growth to manifest. because we know that . a can of tuna.[ ~~yinterchangeable. The free-floating nuclecttdes are made with the sugar ribose. If you stimulated growth by training with sufftctenr lo: d. soy sprouts. lvstn frc rn one source canner be Jifferen~ frDm that: of any other. ~hys icia ns ha \I found that pure amine <lieds take n by i Francis Crick. suffici em to me to elapse he tween r workouts in order to aUClw your muscular reserves.or whether rh t l~lsi1l.S trucrions for mak ing proteins fro m ami no ace d s. vuu must consume a h rlc blr extra (approximately 16 calories.~ 'to t: made and then signal the chrnmnsomes in tb nucleus that a ~ ~eciflc pr tejn i. time to recover and gww.. especially those who have digestive problems (such as pOHJHJrglc. rter. Such a diet indudC$ SI:( to eleven portions cfcereals and grain j rVr'LlW flv portions: of fruits and vegetables.u. When hquid foods (\'lhkh OIreus-ed fur pnticnrs) an! formulated with a mix of some pure amino acids and short chains.. or rt how mouth are nor that well absorbed. The DNA nuclermdes are part! y made' from H sugar called deo1lOyri ~ ose. To get adeqoate nU!rr:i[ion~you simply need a well-balanced diet.'\ rel ntle :dy seeks IJtcml~l. A. p Ad quare nutrition of all nutrients. amino ac IU suppl ment. unflower se eds.:)111 molecules of anyone ammc acid PI c ccmpl . arul Maurice Wilkins discovered 'he instructions for ffil'iking the more than 100.'\I\f{'l W three portions of meats. The method by which the trll~ions 0: cells i rl e human body encode <1 d ue thi iniof[[mdon has been known since 1962. !. These cells determme what proteins ha\f.182 183 The genes that shape our bodies-and particularly om muscular developmenr-e-provide each cell with iQ.

vldu1CJ ":L Lllt:V Ij 'I 1. Aher all. so you ve or W map out yo LLr naini. les intense lifting were uuroduced into [he chedule to reduce the 'hance of burnout and U1JIUry as [he arhleres c me off the dmgs.t mere's.}.:'r were winning titles. The aut] ors of the pro-pericdizarion arncles liken hodv- me building to archlteC'wfl. periods of hcavv Ii' ing were tructured to <lindheavier than ccmcide with rheir drug cvcles and d"lt:n periods of lillb. mey were 5(Wn t "1" and able '[0 train much hard er ]n sum. After all. Th tru h. it's muscle issue and [hereon! n n subject to any prr ces of "refinement. the U.Dg p lans stccord ingl y. can do one of thr things with muscle tis ue: maintain its lZt:! increase its size Hwpertrophy}. ~t's as simple a that.tl' your a nout L e _' OZ:lt!Ofi eye n1g workout routine. rry to look U LiG term in an)! DIU de hysio]ogy textbook.hn )ni~ . " 0 Refinem n Phase. an American coach inquired abuut 'their "crfdnirlg syst~m11 and was told rhar [hey "divided [h~ t UI:L[l S IJ. As l . prnvide ~'OU with toll cyding). O[ decrease lts sizt.•s fidem nutrition to maintain YOLlr healt h ancl. .g along wi h periods of nor-so-heavy lifting.:riodh:a[ion itself hi. some in.ased Of!! a mlsconcepncn l5 the fact th~.is? Simply because ~t doesn"[ ex! r. althou h somewhat incongruous. throu rhout the course of a year.The concept of perlodlzarirm W.rer.." Not to mention the facl: tha muscle cells are living ol'~niSrrl~" not eornpo ~Jofpine and drywaU. goal 1 which r its proponents tell you ahead of time are required for ultimate 511CCe'SS. complete wil:h trs "Muscle RETH_fN}(_INGPERIODlZATIO Much has been writtenin muscle magastnes recently L h' tmpnrtance 0 f" pe rI 0 di' . and therefore cannot b treated 5 such. thi.~" roeult. A ].1ucpnnt. SImpLy no e\11dt!nc ttmt engaging tn acri nties that me mat 1 ha ve bee n shown W have no e tteClt on the process of . I was < ute metaphor. W1.'<l'l:' (m" ~ydes) hould be set aside for [wining with dlf~ ferent weights.." Mwde has one fuacrion: it contracts.1~n they were on steroid and gruwth.' drug cycles (hence the term If you [eaUy want for a dav's werk sornetlme. it had to be the result of following this system.anees. the lifting of heavy weights with (heir ltftl:if'.~ isn't crude oll we're des I ngwilh." ln a perfect textbook example of the faUaty Post 110c. WIlY do 1 say th. it Pld~:ncates maintain that certam months of the y. they were when they were aff the drugs. As far as the concert ~l [H..'5 'i cu te metaphor admittedly.[ train hard enough [0 stimulate gm\~It:hand then rest long en ugh between workouts' ) allow that growth lti manifest. A. it would be an ndJ-and lnfrequenrlv empl yed-arch It C i dCl:!dwho would propose di..pinto' eri ds of hes vy Hfl:in." up rhe construction of a house into "sea om. you are a ~~Iem " " c' athlete (one who doesn't usc teroi h. came after following this cyding system.coach assumed rhar DeC01U&e their S1LlCce. rev I and.JS created by the Russian Olvmprc hfrlng CIJ<l ihes in an attempt to sync.C. From thiswas born the entire pertodlsauoa concept. hormon . 1 'f reason ror penonnatton. "You can't 'build a hous -'ith· QuI:" preac h . i you've stimulated rr.. i. thcr i no \'va~'that amino acid supplerucnrs can hy themselves either rimula c r ~ celerate the muscle growth process. how ever. just not a VeT)'pracncal one.: (atrophy).Wh rL [he Sovie[ l.S. Yuu.!. e-rgo pmpter hoc. pan u:u I a:'ry I. And when u COn~ tracts agamst rcsistan e that is increased on progressive hasL ~it grows bigger and stronger" Quite apart from fact the entire pericdization concept i~ t.concerned.ard. allow' or the: growth of add itional muscle rna ss.iftc." [L '. i that mere exists no t: • .odybuHJer seeking to mcreos his muscle size must nn. Ill.. " or ~~ ].'.

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