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National Museum of Mankind

The instinct to collect and preserve artifacts has increased with the
evolution of the civilization and increasing curiosity. Cultural and
educational imperatives demand three-dimensional documentation -
display and so the museums are increasing in number. The role of
museums has become synonymous with that of the cultural centres,
where not only are design techniques being used to provoke greater
communication between viewer and exhibit, but space for lectures, audio-
visuals and get together are essential.
Previously the museum was only a collection of art objects, for
display, by the kings and the aristocracy. In Europe it was a
demonstration of power of the state anxious to educate and improve the
cultural standards of its citizens. They were the great pallazi, modelled on
the ideal of 'Napolean's Louvre'. It was a place where the inherited/looted
was put on display to a bourgeois avid for culture and prestige. They
flocked to use the artifacts, which were once the preserve of the
Even the museums built in the second half of the century echoed
the palazzo form. In the modern times, when the concept of rigid formality
has given place to a place of education through recreation, it has still
remained as a place set apart from the normal civic life. But the trend is
changing with museums like the VECHAAR UTENSILS MUSEUM" at
AND CRAFTS MUSEUM" at Delhi which have all come up in contextual
settings. The idea being to present the collection in accordance to its true
and proper environment. Hence the "VECHAAR MUSEUM", where
traditional utensils are kept, are in a scaled down vernacular design and
structure; the "ARTS AND CRAFTS" MUSEUM, which is in a truly ethnic

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National Museum of Mankind


MUSEUM" is in vogue with the modern times.
The architectural organisation of the museum is determined by the
total method of communication to the visotor. The visitor becomes a
participant, the exhibits as well as their backdrop (the museum
environment) becomes an experience. Instead of creating a conflict
between art and architecture - either by totally negating the museum
environment to emphasize the exhibit to be entirely free of its background;
we should strive for a working relationship between the two.

Open surrounding spaces.
Ample storage area
Conservation workshops
Space for adaptability and expansion
Climatic and site conditions
Zones of physical and visual refreshment along the movement of

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National Museum of Mankind, Pune
It will represents “The story of man highlighting the sociological and
cultural evolution.
The institution will tell the story of human kind with particular
reference to India highlighting (a) Biological and (b) cultural evolution.
A distinguishing feature of the complex will be an extensive indoor
complex, to be set up in their natural setting.
There are many types of museums in our country. The oldest and
the best known are the art museum. There are also museums which deals
with natural history, archaeology, science, industry, costumes, handicrafts
etc. over the past two decades, there has developed all over the world on
awareness of the need to present the story of human evolution and
richness and variety of human culture. The older museums have been
reorganized to highlight aspects of human evolution and variation, the new
museums have been started to display the peoples culture and life styles,
new experiments have been conducted to make such museums a living
experience. These museums have become centres of education, research
and training in advanced techniques of dissemination of knowledge by
means of the indoor and outdoor complexes.
The National Museum of Mankind is an institution will be
dedicated to the presentation of human saga in the time and space. To
this end the museum will seek to portray human evolution and human
biological and cultural adaptation. The museum will attempt to present a
unified and integrated vision of human life, it will bring the objectives alive
by imaginatively recreating the environment in which they acquire
meaning and functions.

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The National Museum of Mankind of Pune has, as its main
objectives, to create an awareness amongst the people that they belong
to a whole evolution process of inter-action between nature and
various other ethnic factors that have inhabited India throughout this
phase. It is to make the people aware of the immense bio-cultural variety
that is present within them and which makes them distinct from all others
and that the process of national integration, aims at creating an
awareness of Natural and Cultural Identity.
1. To present an integrated story of the evolution of Man and Culture
with special reference to India and the richness and diversity of the
cultural patterns in the country. Highlight will be especially on the
Tribal culture - their settlement patterns, social customs, arts and
crafts and technology.
2. Salvaging and preservation of the fast vanishing aspects of our
culture and the documentation and systematic research of the same.
3. Will act as a major centre for research and training and enhance the
museum movement in Indian to present and preserve the variety of
cultural life.

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The following three case studies have been done :
1) Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal.
2) Bharat Bhawan (Bhopal)
3) Regional museum of Natural history, Bhopal.

Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Snagrahalaya, Bhopal.

The Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (IGRMS) an
autonomous organisation of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture,
Government of India, is dedicated to the depiction of the story of
humankind evolving in time and space. The headquarters is situated at
Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh, in the central province of India
(between 77°25°,E longitudes, 23°17° N latitudes), about 200 acres of
undulating terrain near the bank of a seven mile long upper lake by 36
painted rock shelters. While the Southern Regional Centre of the IGRMS
situated in the historical Wellington house (near bus stand) on lrwin Road,
Mysore, Karnataka.
The objectives of IGRMS are:
(a) To present an integrated story of the evolution of man and culture with
special reference to India.
(b) To highlight the richness and diversity of cultural pattern in India and
its underlying unity.
(c) To promote national integration.
(d) To organise indoor and outdoor exhibitions on:
i. Human Evolution and Human Variation.
ii. Culture and Society in pre-and proto-hisloric times.
iii. Patterns of Culture.

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(e) To take steps lo salvage and preserve the fast vanishing aspects of the
Indian culture.
(f) To promote and conduct research in the related subjects and provide
funds and mate arrangements with other similar institutions for the
purpose of furtherance of the objectives of the Samiti.
(g) To act as a centre of research and training in museology of the
appropriate kind and generate, in the course of time, a new museum
movement in the different regions of India to present and preserve variety
of cultural life.
(h) To undertake all such activities as and when considered necessary for
the achievement of the said objectives.

Site Location :
The site of IGRMS is spread
over an area of 198 acres. It is
situated just at the outskirts of
Bhopal and is easily accessible
from the city through the lake view
drive on the northern side and
Bhadbhada road on the southern
side. The site id compromised of
rocky hilly terrain with gradual
slope merging into the Bhopal lake
on the northern side. The highest
point rises upto 605 mts. on the PREMPURA HILLOCK on the southern
side a large area of 650 acres has been allocated for wild life park.
There are rock shelters just west of the Regional College of
Education on the west slope and some cave paintings have been recently

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National Museum of Mankind

Rainfall :

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National Museum of Mankind

Average rainfall is 150mm. Rainfall is mostly concentrated in 3

months, namely July, August & September.

Wind Direction :
Wind direction is westerly and north westerly. Average velocity
of wind varies from 4 Km. to 9 Km. per hour. Variation in speed and
direction of winds on the lower reaches of the site and is because of
higher reaches of its east and south.


Wind in summer
from lake Wind in summer and spring
western winds

Vegetation :
Basically a scrub land with wild growth. There are few trees on the
western slope of PREMPURA HILLOCK. The ground is of hard soil mixed
with jutting boulders. The top soil is only 6".

Services :

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A powerline cuts through the site. Water is presently pumped

from a bore well which is essentially the sub-soil lake water within the site
the water table is low. All the rain water collects in the nalla and runs into
the lake. There is a windmill generating electricity near the entrance on
the western side.
Water Drainage :
The nalla formed in the rainy season sheds its water in the upper
lake on the northern side and in a pond on the southern side.

The museum building
has been designed with
large open halls, flowing into
one another, uncluttered by
columns, under split and
sliced shell and domes,
permitting flexibility in
display and the use of
natural light and atmosphere. The museums lectures and programmes

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including its musical and dramatic performances on arts and craft

workshops, presented by communities, traditional groups or guids are
targeted to both specialised and general audience groups, whole lists are
updated by advertisement or direct contacts.
1) Administration with huge
entrance lobby.
2) Library with other facility.
3) Auditorium
4) Research labs.
5) Technical labs with all
facility. 1500 sqm.
6) Seminar Hall 150 sqm.
7) Temporary exhibition area. 300 sqm
8) Museum gallries - Following
are the requirements of museum
a) Human evolution - 850 sqm.
b) Evolution of material culture
- 850 sq.m.
c) Human variation - 600 sq.m.
d) Habitation - 600 sq.m.
e) Food - 300 sq.m.
f) Traffic and transportation
- 600 sq.m.
g) Religion practice & cosmology
- 400 sq.m.
h) Music and dance - 400 sq.m.
i) Art and crafts - 400 sq.m.

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j) Costume and dresses - 400 sq.m.

k) Horticulture - 200 sq.m.
1) Kota stone - 12,000 sq.m.
2) Powder coated glazing with 6 mm glass - 1200 sq.m.
3) Sand stone cladding over domes - 6000 sq.m.
4) Acoustic plaster under domes, vaults - 6000 sq.m.
5) Aluminium sky light glazing - 700 sq.m.
The final design is in the form of two blocks, inter-connected by an
entrance lobby, which establishes the link between the two, the sitting
dimensioning and form of these blocks in determined with following
objectives in mind.
1) Comfort living areas
2) Easy and clarity in circulation
3) Agreeable condition for social interaction
4) Desired views from areas of major activities.
5) Built form to complete the topographical characteristic of the site.
6) A simple yet distinct architectural expression.
7) A low profiled built form with a landscaped terrain
8) Desired orientation from areas of major activities.

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National Museum of Mankind




This housing cluster is made for staff of various departments. It is
divided in five categories. One is for Director's residence and another four

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is for staff. Plan showing type II and type 4 IV cluster.

Section ‘AA’
Type II :- This consist of one courtyard, one living cum dining area, two
bed rooms, one kitchen and toilet and bath. No of unit are 12 this cluster
is made for class three officers.
Type IV :- This block also have one big courtyard, three bedrooms, one
living cum dining area one kitchen and two toilets and one bathroom. One
bedroom have one toilet this room can used as Guest room. The no. of
unit is 4 this block is made for class II officers.

Type III :- Type III has no
courtyard. But in place of
courtyard it has terrace. It
has two bedrooms one living
cums dining, one kitchen,
toilet and bath. This is used
for II class officers.
Following are the sizes of Type II, III, IV
Bed room 3.6 M x 3.2 M Type II
Living room 3400 mm x 3000 mm 52.5 Sq.m.
Kitchen room 2400 mm x 2200 mm

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Bed room (2 Nos) 3600 mm x 3200 mm Type III

Living room 6000 mm x 3400 mm 64.96 Sq.m.
Kitchen room 2400 mm x 2200 mm
Bed room (3 Nos) 3600 mm x 3200 mm Type IV
Living 6000 mm x 3400 mm 93.3 Sq.m.
Kitchen 3400 mm x 2200 mm
Attach toilet 2800 mm x 1800 mm



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Looking Back :

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National Museum of Mankind

Bhopal the city of lakes known for its natural splendor and cultural
heritage is named after Raja BHOJ. The catchment area of the lake
created at Bhojpur was so vast that it included in folklore as "Taal-Mein
Taal, Bhopal Taal, Baaki Sab Talayya".

In Brief :
Location : Bhopal
Ownership : Department of culture, M.P.
Architect : Mr. Charles Correa
Site Area : 1200 sq. mts.
Project cost : 194.0 lakhs
Cost per sq.ft. : Rs. 130.00
Work began : 1980
Work completed : 1982
The Requirements :
In 1974 a building was proposed to house a museum for art and
culture with requirements as follows :-
 Permanent museum
 Art gallery
 Library
 Indoor & Outdoor auditoriums
 Art workshop
 Theatre workshop
 Administrative areas.

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In 1978 the concept change from a museum for art and culture to a
place of MULTI ARTS COMPLEX providing interactive proximity to the
verbal, visual and performing arts. The requirements change to as follows:
 Galleries
 Permanent exhibition
 Temporary exhibition
 Graphic/ceramic/sculpture workshop
 Music library
 Indoor auditorium
 Open air theatre
 Green Room
 Restaurant
 Administration
The entrance is through an iron-gate 8 m wide and leads to a paved
approach towards the COURT OF FOUNTAIN.

Court of Fountain :
Courts form a major special element in the building. The MUGHALS
always planned their complexes around the courtyard. From the court of
the fountain one has a visual choice due to the level difference. This court
ANTARANG, BHAIRANG, & VAGARTH towards west and south. This is
the largest court in the 3 courts.

Folk Art & Tribal Court;

This court is also square in plan. The walls are barren and the
visitor traffic is less as compared to the other courts. Informal seating is
done on the steps like GHATS. SCULPTURE AND LOW LEVEL
LANDSCAPE are the dominating features of this court.

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ADMINISTRATION of the complex is housed in this court. At nights when

the INTERIORS get lighted the walls become dark and looks like a cave

Court of Antarang :
On one enters this court either from the circulation axis from the
court of fountain. The overbridge is the main gate for the entrance to
this court. The court leads to GRAPHIC AREA, PERMANENT GALLERY &
ANTARANG. The court performs as an extension and a out space,
passage, room for the visitor waiting to gain entry in the permanent
Roopankar - Tribal & Folk Art Gallery :
The gallery exhibits a
permanent museum of Tribal
& Folk Arts. There are three
levels in this museum and the
entrance and exit are in the
same level. Continuous low
ceiling has a clear height of 2.4 m. and makes the gallery even smaller
even though the area covered is a large one.
SLAB ROOF with coffers
makes the otherwise
heavy roof seem light.
Large cut outs in
breaks the monotony and
natural light is taken from
them. Wooden FLEXIBLE

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National Museum of Mankind

PARTITIONS sub divide the space and gives the sense of direction.
Cubical are placed in between areas to define the movement pattern.
Large pieces of art are place under the skylight and look dwarf even
though they are very huge.

Urban Art Museum :

The skylight over the
shells and along the bays
and edges form the
LIGHT". To avoid the direct
sunlight on paintings wooded vertical blinds are used as controlling
The entry is from a
6.0 meter wide gate. The
artificial lighting is done by
lamps placed in the waffle
slab and is directed towards
the exhibit. The images of
buildings from old Bhopal
are condensed in the
galleries of urban art. The
modern art section is sprea over three levels. The lowest level is plus
88.2 and houses the TRAVELLING exhibitions. While the upper level plus
Urban Art Gallery :
The -traveling exhibition has a low ceiling. The total height of the free
space is 2.4 meter with the height increasing at the middle level and
subsequently. This change in height was originally conceived so as to

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accomodate large paintings and sculptures. The column free space which
square in plan allows for maximum permutations and combinations and a
flexible use of space. The main considerations considered are as follows:
 Column free space
 Change, in level framing small spaces using structural columns
 Artificial lighting.
Antarang :
Antarang with U
SHAPED flooring and seating
pattern with a capacity of 350
people is a delight in itself.
The seating is on the steps
created as a GHAT. This is
one of the most casual and
intimate space wearing
theatre in the entire country.
Bahirang :
The Bahirang is
the multifunctional and
multi dimensional
arena. The steps seating made out of natural slope resembles the
TERRAI farming. In the hilly tracks of the Himalayas.
The lake view to the west
gives another dimension to the
entire theatre. The minarets of
the mosque in the backdrop
reminds of the traditional past of
the city. A control room on the
upper most tier controls the

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lighting and audio needs of the theatre. The total seating capacity is
650 people. The steps seating form the QUADRIANGLE of a full circle.
The levels are done considering the site lines. Though the focal points is
the stage mind is always diverted to the surrounding areas even the
land scapping doesn’t prevented.

Air Circulation :
Air slits - 8640 mm long have been provided for ventilation of the
galleries and exhibition theatres just below the roof slab. 16 large and 25
small air slits have been provided in the entire complex for better air
circulation. During the summers galleries becomes very hot and stuffy.
Due to non compact spread horizontal, horizontal planning, air
conditioning is a must and proves to be very expensive
In large galleries like the modern art gallery section of
Roopankar. The deep spaces lacks clear ventilation.
Terrace gardens are always wet as water cannot seep through. The
flower beds are filled with black cotton soil upto 50-60 cm. above the
coba. R.C.C. nitches of the flower bed rests over a coba finish.
Landscaping prevents the HEAT BUILT UP inside the complex by two
ways and saves energy.
(a) Provides an insulative layer for solar heat gains.
(b) Enhances the ventilation through air slits by convection.

Plus Points :
(a) Material Economy. Extensive use of local material like BASODA
STONE & ALANGA for masonry and external wall. These have a low
rejection factor of 33%.

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(b) Space Economy. The positioning of columns on a square grid of

9.2 x 9.2 mtr. gives a .large column free space.
(c) Energy Economy. Horizontal spread receives maximum solar
gains of 80% of the roof is covered with lawn and saves
extensive use of artificial energy.

Negative Points :
(a) Maintenance. High cost of maintenance of the terrace garden
is a lacking factor. 40% of the annual repair bill goes for this
purpose 40% is spent on water proofing of roof, skylights, on
walls, floors, stair and expansion joints.
(b) Restricted Future Expansion. With covering entire horizontal
space available if the- need arrive for expansion there is no space left
for this purpose. Existing exhibition area cannot be expanded due to
maximum horizontal coverage.

In the previous chapters we have tried to understand what the
institution called 'The Museum' is all about, in terms of what is and what it
stands for. This has been done in various ways, depending on what
aspect is being examined, by examining what it is today and why and how
it came to be the way it is. The development of museums as we can
realise is closely, linked to our history and to the outlooks, attitudes and
priorities of the society. In its own ways the Museum has always been
trying to understand what is expected of it and has been accordingly
redefining it aims to meet new challenges and fulfill its obligations. The
modern museum is very different from its predecessors and its function
has changed entirely. It shares very little with the original functions of
the first public museums. Not only has the form of the museum changed

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but also its content. The material exhibited has been intensively expanded
and diversified. Within the society the modern museum fulfills an active
and varied cultural role educational departments, orientation galleries,
slide presentations, catalogues, posters and other museum publications.
The modern museum is characterised used by more flexibility in its
planning, in keeping with the dynamic nature of the modern society.



The Regional
Museum of Natural History,
a Regional Centre of the
National Museum of Natural
History, New Delhi an
institution devoted to
promote non-formal
environmental education and
conservation awareness
among the public through

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various in-house and outtreach activities located in the Paryavaran parisar

in the lake city of Bhopal was opened to the public in 1997.
The museum provides a unique opportunity to explore the natural
world, diversity of plants and animals, bio-diversity of Central India as well
as the intricate network of nature around us. The exhibits in its galleries
provide a judicious mix of specimens, models, translites, audiovisual aids,
presentation of natural habitats in the form of dioramas sequenced on the
theme. There are temporary exhibition hall, a Bioscience Computer Room
and a 'Discovery Centre' where learning can be fun and enjoyable.
The broad objectives of the museum are as follows :
Develop exhibits : Depicting flora, fauna and geology of Central India.
Depict ecological relationships among plants and animals including
man and also to emphasise the importance of conservation through
exhibits and educational activities.
Provide special exhibits and activities to enrich school curriculum in
biology and geology to create environmental awareness among
Organise appropriate educational programmes for children, adults and
family groups, to create environmental awareness among masses.
Organise specialized educational activities for the disabled.
Publish popular educational material useful for environmental
Develop appropriate intra-institutional collaborations in the Region of
Central India to promote environmental education.
Conduct statewide programmes for environmental education through
activities at district levels.

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The entry area has a
Reception counter, where the visitor
will be able to get information and
orientation about the museum. A
family of wire-sculptured models of
Dinosaurs. Triceratops, welcomes
the visitors in the central courtyard of
the museum. Fossil excavation site showing exposed fossil fragments have
also been reproduced alongside of the models of dinosaurs giving a feel to the
visitors of how fossils are found in nature. There are special facilities
available with the museum to take care of the needs of disabled. All the
resources of the museum will be equally accessible to them.
There are two exhibition galleries 1)Nature’s Network 2)Discovery
Exhibits are the primary learning resource in any museum. The
strength and potential of the regional museums for imparting non-formal
environmental education basically emanates from its well planned and
well executed exhibits.
The museum gallery dealing with themes of 'Biodiversity, 'Flora,
Fauna Geology of Central India', 'Rivers of Madhya Pradesh', 'Inter
relationship in Nature', 'Conservation for development' and 'Man and the
The tour to Gallery begins with a Fascinating Panorama of 7
different Natural Habits- here shown some of.
1) The major ecosystems of the world.
2) Biodiversity of the central India.

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3) The story of Earth.

4) Rivers of Madhya Pradesh.
5) Prakriti-Putra biogas.
6) Ecology
7) Crisis- out creation.


The different forest types, animals and the geology of the central
region. Economic importance of plants, the variety and diveristy of plants
and animals of Madhya Pradesh are also depicted. Wetland is the next
theme emphasized mainly through lakes and three major river systems in
the wall. Exhibits on important minerals, fossils, geomorphology and other
rock forms of central region follow next.


Nature existed for millions
of years without man. But man
cannot exist without nature. He
depends on nature for all his
needs - foods, clothing, shelter
and sustenance. This is depicted
through a dramatic exhibit - a
large diorama showing Baiga tribe living in
harmony with nature.
The food made by plants is used by
them for their own growth and becomes the
principle source of energy for all other forms

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of life. Thus, herbivore animals that feed on plants get their energy. This
is again transferred to carnivores, which feed on herbivores. All this is
depicted in the exhibits on food chain, several interconnected food chains
forming into food web and tropic levels of energy transfer in the form of a
food pyramid.
When animals die they are fed upon by scavengers like eagles,
vultures, hyenas etc. The ultimate stage in the flow of energy in an
ecosystem is the decomposition of the plant and animal bodies by lower
forms of life like fungi and bacteria which split the dead organic matter into
their basic elements so as to return it to the nature for use by new life.
Life activities are inter-related with a continuous cycling of raw
materials such as water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and mineral salts. This
relationship between the living and the non-living environment is depicted
through a series of biogeochemical cycles. The water cycle explains the
endless circulation of the earth's water consisting of evaporation from the
oceans, lakes and rivers and its redistribution to different parts of the
earth. The nitrogen cycle shows the pathways through which nitrogen, an
essential ingredient of living matter, is utilized and returned to the
atmosphere. Similarly mineral cycle is also presented in the exhibit.
Today more species of animals and plant varieties are facing
extinction because of man's thoughtless exploitation of nature for his own
selfish ends. His own survival depends on the conservation of nature and
natural resources. This is the message for you when you leave the gallery
after seeing the Indian cheetah, which is no longer seen in India and many
other which live a precarious existence and are on the urge of extinction.
It is you who will decide what will survive tomorrow.

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The biological diversity that exists today is the result of millions of
years of evolution of life on earth. This fascinating story beginning with
the origin of the earth and life through the ages is presented through a
huge wall painting where the visitor unravels the mysteries of life over
time and space. Painting culminates with the emergence of modern man.
One of the attractions of the
museum is the Discovery Centre.
This is an area where efforts are
made to activate the various
senses of the visitors who are
allowed to choose one or several
of the activities provided. The centre consists of a discovery room and a
bio-science computer room.
The Discovery Room provides opportunities for visitors, especially
children to handle, examine and study specimens, participate in creative
activities as painting, modelling, making animal masks, animal foot prints
etc. They can discover information contained in several discovery boxes
and test their knowledge about nature in the Quiz Board.
This facility appeals to High School and College students. There
are facilities to use computer to study biology. The multimedia techniques
provide the visitors an entirely new experience of learning about nature
through interactive modules.

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A hall near the central courtyard provides the visitors with
exhibitions on various themes of contemporary interest. Since the exhibit
themes are temporary in nature, these will be changed in regular intervals.
A mobile exhibition van with a intension to create environmental
awareness among the rural public with exhibitions on various themes will
be changed in regular intervals and visits the surrounding villages of
A museum communicates to its visitors through exhibitions and
educational activities. The educational activities are aimed at stimulating
interest in natural history and creating an awareness among the public
about the importance of nature and the conservation of natural resources.
The proposed educational activities of the museum will include :

Guided tours to the visitors in the galleries.

Regular film shows and audio-visual presentations.
Several programmes for school children.
Special programmes for the disabled.
Teacher Orientation Workshops.
Creative activities like nature painting and animal modeling.
Study visits to nature reserves and protected areas.
Special programs for family groups.
Popular and scientific publications.
Special lecturers & exhibitions.
Seminars, workshops & symposia.

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Plan is in regular
square form. It is two strayed
building on ground floor there
is canteen made for visitors
and staff also and on first floor
there is guest house for V.I.P.
people. Canteen is connected
through a main building by a
covered passage. It has one
huge entrance lobby, one
sitting area. One kitchen
along with store office with
toilet facility is provided.
General ladies and gents
toilet are provided. It has
good natural ventilation.
Sitting area of canteen
There is small duct for
disposing the rain water aluminium glazing is provided in windows. One
common room is provided. Kitchen is provided with toilet facility for
workers. Area is big so circulation is good.
Guest house building is
made for all type of guests who
visit the museum. In guest house
building. There are four rooms
with attached toilet. Two dormitory
with attached toilet. One office for

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In charge the size of room is 7500 x 4000 mm [Four room]

size of Dormitory is 6770 x 5900 mm [Two room]
size of Office is 5150 x 4000 mm [One room]
Canteen is on ground floor 40 there is no difficulty for providing
service to guests.


Why Pune
It is situated at an attitude of 570 m on the Sahyadri hills in Western
Maharashtra , dies the historic city of Pune. Popularly known as the
"Queen of Deccan". If is spread over an area of 138.76 Sq.Km and has
population of 15.6 lakh. It is significant mile tone in history of India Pune
is get omidst the traditions of Saint , the soldier and Scholar. If 196 km
from Bombay. If has salubrious climate and surrounding hills.

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The city is nicknamed variously such as pensioner's paradise, "the

Oxford of East." petroit of India, the "cultural capital of Maharashtra".
a) About Site
Site is located in Khadki continement Pune district in Maharashtra.
The total area of site...........sqm having Murla & Mutha river on the South-
East and South-West side of site whole Poona City is located.
B) Historical Background of Pune :
From a tiny agricultural settlement called ‘Punnaka’ in the 8th
century, the city has grown into a metropolis covering more than 700 sq.
km. are a and supporting about 4 million people. The tiny settlement of the
8th century developed into a small town-Kasbe Pune, during the 11th
century under the Moghals. Since then till 1818, the city changed hands
from one dynasty to the other, especially between the Moghals of the
Marathas. During the IClmid-17th century, the city became the temporary
residence of Shivaji. The city rose to prominence when the Peshwas
established the seat of Marathas empire here (1749 A.D.) During the
Peshwa's rule, the City expanded considerably. The 1761 defeat at
Panipat affected the fate of the Maratha Empire and consequently that of
the city. The Maratha rule came to an end at Khadki near Pune, in 1871
when the British defeated them and the city and the environs came under
the British rule. Under the British, Pune became the ‘Monsoon Capital’ of
the then Bombay Presidency.
Pune today, is very much a modern city, but still retains its quaint
old values and traditions. It is one of the fastest growing industrial area.
Pune is the cultural capital of Maharashtra. It boost a fine University and
number of educational institutions. It is a Military Cantonment, the Head
quarter of Southern Command of Indian Army.

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C) Physical Settings And Climate

Pune (180 31' N, 730 51' E) is a plateau city situated near the
western margin of the Deccan plateau. It lies on the leeward side of the
Sahyadri i.e. the Western Ghats and is hardly 50 km from the crest of the
Ghat country. As the crow flies, it is 100 km east from the Konkan i.e the
west coast. It is almost 160 kms south-east of Mumbai, by road. It is
situated at a height of 560m above the mean sea level, near the
confluence of Mula and Mutha rivers. Two more rivers Pavana and
Indrayani transverse the north-western outskirts of the urban area. Mula-
Mutha later empty into the Bhima river. In a sense, the city is located in
the upper Bhima basin. The city is surrounded by hills on the east and the
south. The Simhagad-Katraj-Dive ghat range is the southern boundary of
the urban area. The highest point within the city is the Vetal hill (800 m)
whereas the highest point of the urban area is the Simhagad fort (1400m).
The climate is typical monsoonal, with three distinct seasons-
summer, rains and winter, as elsewhere in India. The height above sea
leveland the leeward location with reference to the Western ghats have
made the city climate moderate and salubrious. The mean daily maximum
and the mean minimum for the hottest month - May is 370 Celsius and
230 Celsius respectively. The evening sea breeze from west/northwest
keeps the city summer nights at bearable levels. The same for the coldest
month of December are 300 Celsius and 120 Celsius respectively. The
relative humidity ranges from 36% in March to 81% in August. Three
fourths of the annual rainfall of 70 cm occurs in just four months from June
to September.
SUMMERS : Summers here begin from early March to July. Though
not as hot as Northern parts of India, the daytimes are very sunny with dry
heat. Early mornings are pleasant and evenings after six, cool and breezy.

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Bright summery clothes are an obvious suggestion with sunglasses for

driving. The temperature ranges from 38 ° C to 20°C. Though, last year,
summer hit a new high with 40+ a common temp.
MONSOONS: Being on the leeward side of the ghats, Pune has a
good three months of rains from July-August to October. Clear skies in the
morning are not to be deceived by, as it does rain in the evenings.
Temperatures range from 18-19 degrees to 30 degrees.
WINTERS: From November to January, Pune has it's winter season.
80C was the lowest recorded last year.

From the case study and observation I have arrived at points to be
considered while designing National Museum of Mankind many positive
and negative aspect come to view. After the case studies this helps to
make design better by deducting negative points.
Design Consideration

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1. Planning was done at microlevel by determining the size of object or

any type of huts which are gorning to display.
2. Planning based on one main consideration and that of one human being
and his behaviour and psycology.
3. Orientation of the building in such a way that, to tackle sun movement
and natural ventilation issues.
4. Maximum use of natural light in areas, like main lobby, cafeteria, court
yards and all museum building.
5. Use of natural material wherever possible like in pathways, courtyards
6. Structural design on a grid which is based on interior planning grid in
order to avoid wastage of space.

Salient Features
1. Creation of courtyards landscape on site to encourage users to enjoy
natural element like light, greenery, water etc.
2. Creation of cafe intersection of landscape and museum bldg to give
healthy break between work time to relax and enjoy the surrounding for
visitors and staff also.
3. Creating landscaped courts terraces, pathways with natural stone.
Use of water as an important element, to give visual environment
relief planning recommended trees for foliage around the buildings.

Design concepts
Design based on two main parts
1) Indoor exhibition area.
2) Outdoor exhibition area.
In indoor exhibition area following galleries are include
1) Evolution of man with time.

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2) Temporary exhibition gallery.

3) Administrative building with exhibition gallery.
1) Human Evolution Gallery.
This gallery shows the evolution of life how man develops from his
prehistoric time to modern age and their culture.
The earth perhaps is the only planet of our solar system to sustain
life. Life appeared in water about 30 billion years ago in the form of single
cell creatures.
From the Microorganisms to primitive plants and animals without
back bones (inverte brates) and higher plants (Gymnoperms) to back
boned (vertebrate) animals life went through a herachial chain of events
The vertebrates, wills some of their invertebrate and plant cousins,
began their successful adaptation to life on land about 290 million years
ago first came the amphibians, then the great army of pre-historie reptiles
followed by birds and finally mammals.
It is curious to know what man was like as he existed before the
dawn of human history. It is also interesting to learn as to how modern
man Homo Sapiens evolves during his evolutionary history. The question
of human evolution is of special interest to us because the history of
human evolution includes our own history in a broad sense.
From the Microorganisms to primitive plants and animals without
backbones (invertebrates) and higher plants (Gymnoperms) to back
boneal (Vertebrate) animals life went through a hierachial chain of events
The vertebrates with some of their invertebrate and plant cousins,
began their successful adaptation to life on land about 290 million years
ago first came the

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1. Dryopithecus --- lived on threshold of forests and open areas and
livelihood from both.
2. Ramapithecus - truely man Existent in Asia and like Africa.
3. Anstralapithecus --- They lived in pleistocene about two million years
If is very close to modern man.
4. HOMO ERECTUS :- This man lived in Mid-pleistocene period about
million years ago.
It is believed that he could speak and some sort of language. No
Associated tools were found.
He used fire and implements of stones.
5. Homo – Neanderthalensis (1856) :-
They used to live in caves.
He was skilled tool maker and hunter.
He used fire, stone tools and weapons. He burrical the dead with formal
6. Cro-Magnon :- If was intelligent, progressive and was expert in making
tools and weapons. He was also an hunter and also an artist. He used
fine for cooking and they painted pictures of animals in their caves.
7. Homo Sapiens
8. Modern man : Mirror which is very much modern man i.e. we people.
The changes which have taken place during the evolution of
modern man were mainly mental rather, than physical. Intelligence

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greedly developed by which modern man get adapted to environment and

dominated on earth.
The early man lived as hunter gatherers, as wandering, unsettled
way of life with people restricted to smaller groups. Primitive men were
living in caves indicating that they were meat eaters and cannibals.
The first step is
Use of tools, Stones, bones of animals, long flint blades of stones serving
as knives, scappers, borers, spheanpoints and arrow heads.

Man came out from caves on open ground and started living in huts
invented fire started using it for cooking, warmth for driving a way the wild

Planting more and more plant development of agriculture.

Origin of speech for efficient communication.

Starting own permanent settlements indicating civilization.

Modern man

It is a separate building for showing the development of man with

time. Building is having good landscaped area with one courtyard and
also having terrace garden, helps to cool the internal galleries in summer
Administration with exhibition Gallery.
There is no separate building for administration it provided with the
museum. In administration building publication house, staff, library are

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Temporary Exhibition Area

1) It is square in plan with pyramidal roof for good asthetics.
2) Open brick masonry is used for wall.
3) On RCC pyramidal roof there is “Kawelu” which gives the traditional
look to the building.
4) Building having semi covered area for making painting, craft for
school or college students.
5) Building having open court yards which creates pleasant


1) It consists of an earthen plinth and circular conical roof. These are
three mud units known as exhibition space for art of Maharashtra
2) The wall made up of ‘Bamboo’ which acts like column and flexible
‘Kamchi’, which acts as a binding material for column.
Canteen is located inside in such a way that it easily accessible to all
units of the site. Like open exhibition area, administrative area and all
units of the site.


Following are the four parts of the exhibition area.
Outdoor Museum
The outdoor museum is conceived in form of large part within which
are accomodate a variety of exhibition areas. Each area depending on its
qualitative requirements is proposed to an appropriate landscape,
The outdoor museum is proposed to be laid on the North - West
side of the site.
The major componants comprising.

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About Outdoor Exhibitions area are :-

1. Tribal Habital
2. Coastal village
3. Himalayan Village
4. Desert village
5. Mythological trail
1. Tribal Habitat
Tribal habitat (ethno-architecture) is a unique outdoor exhibition
bringing out the interactive association of given environmental products in
the lifeways of different tribal communities.
Traditional dwellings with indoor and outdoor infrastructure are
common to Indian communities especially the tribals. The exhibition
consists of selective ethno-architectural patterns of tribal communities.
The adaptive lifeways of the tribals highlight the positive relationship
between man and nature. Display items within this component like
Ghotul, Morung, Dashahra Rath etc. form an important aspect of this
A special feature of the exhibition is the preservation of traditional
dwellings with ethnographic objects which are developed, by indigenous
technology, by using locally available materials, and not losing light of the
aesthetic aspects. The indoor introuctory gallery at the base of the
exhibition provides first hand information about the different tribal cultures.
2. Coastal Village
Coastal village, represents the different dwellings from various parts
of India like fisherman's huts of Kerala and Orissa, huts from Andhra
Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Gujarat. These are the typical traditional
dwellings representing the lifestyles and cultural identities of Indian
coastal communities.

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Some eco-friendly structures are exhibited which reflect the

economic conditions of the inhabitants, like the typical wooden house
(ARAPURA) from Kerala, two wooden racing boats (SNAKE BOAT)
acquired by the museum give an insight into the social and cultural
aspects of the inhabitants of Kerala, and are the main attraction for the
3. Himalayan Village
One of the interesting and unique items in the outdoor section in the
India Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya premises is the typical stone
building of Kothi. The dwelling complex of Himachal House. Shimla in
Himachal Pradesh. The imposing entrance gate known as "Parol or
Paraud" (constructed to protect and lend beauty to the courtyard) is a
reminder of the culture and ecology of Talsil.
The exhibit an excellent example of the indigenous knowledge
system about the traditional architecture focusing on the level human
adaptation of high altitude Himalayan ranges, as it is linked with weather
conditions, availability of material engraved monolith (in original form)
throws light on ancient practice of mortuary rites, and gives a sense of
originality to the whole structure.

4. Desert Village
This is represented by the typical dwelling type form Jaisalmer in
Rajasthan. A dwelling complex of Rajputs in this exhibition highlights the
process and degree of their adaptation with environment.
Various ethnographic objects displayed inside the dwellings
represent their lifeways and subsistence strategies.
5. Mythological Trail
This is new component of the museum exhibition which depicts
compositions as reflected in myths and legends in different media (terra-

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cotta, wood, stone, iron etc.) The exhibition helps to visualise the oral
traditions related to the tribal origin and its cognition. Crafts of various
artisan groups, incarnations of folk deities and traditional paintings form
the main attraction of the exhibition.

Tribe - Warli
Population - About 5 lakhs
Area - Thane district in Maharashtra, valsad district in Gujrat and
Dadar and Nagar Haveli.
The Warli women execute fine details of rituals, social ceremonies
and daily life in pictographs painted on inside and outside walls the place
is determined by tradition. "Many of the Warli paintings appear at the time
of marriages and at the celebration of the Gauri festival after the rains
when the Earth awakens to a new cycle of fertility" (popul Joyakar). The

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paintings camping symbolic representation of foot marks called pah tya,

are executed by married women on the 'new eating' ritual.
The Warli occupying a large forested territory are settled
agriculturists. They prefer to have fields around the houses. In villages
population of a clan or a lineage is concentrated in a small hamlet of 15 to
20 houses distanced by attached fields each hamlet separated from other
by miles of failow land and forest.

ribe - Toda
Population - About 12 hundred
Area - Nilgiri district, Tamilnadu.
Arsh the half barrel shaped dwelling ; of the todas are built on 'the
top and the slopes of hills, made with the bamboo, needs cane and grass.
In the front and back of house are walls made of wooden planks. Inside,
at one side, is a raised platform for sleeping and opposite to it another low
height platform for seating purpose. The rear corner Earmarked as
kitchen has a health and cooking parapherenalid.

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No less striking than the people themselves is the appearance of

traditional toda hemlet, popularly known as 'Munds' Toda hemlets or 'Mod'
are scattered widely across the temperate grassland of the high Nilgiris. A
typical toda settlement comprises of one to five dwelling huts, one to three
dairy buildings, at least one buffalo - pen and one or more calf-sheds.

Tribe - Bodo Kachari

Population - About 6 lakhs
Area - Goalpada, Kamrup , Kokrajhar, And Darang district, Assam.
The dwelling complex of a bodo - kachari family surrounded by a
high fence consist of four thatched structure around a central courtyard.
The hut structure are prepared mostly of bamboo and grass with partial
application of mud and wood. The main dwelling - house is built with the
purpose of a steeping facility and used in day time for household works.
For cooking, a separate hut is built. There is a grannary and hut for a
guests, used by a family members also and shed for loom worked at by

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both the sexes, is attached to the side wall of kitchen. Meals are served
in the courtyard where towards its northern corner is a place of worship in
housed by the supreme deity in size plant within a circular enclosure of
woven bamboo-splits.
Bodo Kacharis engage themselves in religious activities, coincided
by events of agricultural cycle throught the year , some of their dieties
known as madai are benevolent , other matevolent, all requiring service
and offerings on fixed occasions.

Tribe - Kota

Population - 15 hundred
Area - Nilgiri district, Tamilnadu.
Kota is one of the three major tribal groups of Nilgiris. According to
a Kota legend, the Kota, the Toda and the Kurumba were real brothers
and that they were the earliest inhabitants of the Nilgiri hills. These three,
as the legend goes, were created from the three drops of the
Kambatrayan god's perspiration. Their separation took place when the
God once asked them what they wanted; one of them said, "Give me
talents of art', and he became a kotal who later proved to be an able

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blacksmith, murican, hunter, potter and rope umbrella maker; another said
'Give me buffaloes who can be my friend, Relative and Saviour and he
became a Toda dory man; Give the power of destroy those whom I do not
like said their third brother who became a Kurumba, possessing powers of
sorcery and black magic which the other two dreaded".
Although their Economic activities include black smithy pottery and
basketry which are traditional, and rearing of cattle and salaried
employment which are recent phenomenon, their economy revolves
chiefly around agriculture and every Kota house hold has a piece of land
on which they grow food grains like Ragi and wheat and potato for self
consumption as well as for the sale if. Production is in surplus.

Tribe Gadaba

Population - About 56 thousand

Area - Koraput district, Orrisa

The Gadaba are agriculturists, their villages consist of two or one

hemlets and pastures surrounded by forest towards the outer periphery.
Sadar villages meeting place and the Hundi. The village are the two
distinct places of each village. Three different house types are found
among the Gadbas.
The most traditional house type, now rare, characterised by a
circular plan with conical roof is called “Chhendidien”. The houses of

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rectangular plan with four slopped house called “Mordien”. Such houses
consist of two to three adjacent room. The third type is a two-slopped
house called “Chhendidien”. with two rooms, with or without separate
cowshed. The third type is most frequent. In some villages, all the three
types are present together.
The Gadaba female clothes popularly known as Kerang are
manufactured by themselves from cotton-thread and vegetable fibre. The
fibre is carefully dried and dyed blue or reddish brown and then woven in
to a cloth on a kerang loom. Some Gadaba women wear immense ear-
rings made of long pieces of brass wire.

Tribe Saora
Population - 5 lakhs
Area - Ganjam dist. Orissa and Srikakulam district, Andhra
The saora houses are rectangular in shape and built with high plinth
and verandah. The stone and mud wall houses with straw-thatched roof
are proportionately low. About three fourth of the Inside room is covered
with a high wooden platform where grainbins and other possessions are
stored. The hearth is located under this platform. from the roof hang a
number of objects, baskets, Gourels. Baskets containing the special

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clothes of the dead or tutelaries are hanged against the walls which are
decorated with icons in honour of the Gods and ancestors.
A hilly, forested tract in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh is Abode of
Saora tribe. The Saora continue to practice shifting and slash-and-burn
cultivation on terraces more for the reasons of coping up with their
surrounding environment than any backwardness. The crops taken are a
variety of millets and paddy, Each requiring a particular condition for
desired growth, so the fields are found situated on hill tops, slopes and in

Tribe Agaria
Pop - About 20 thousand
Area - Balaghat, Bilaspur, Mandala district, Madhya Pradesh
Only a few agarias still follow their traditional occupation of iron-
smelting. Others make a few agricultural implements only. They get iron
are from the Maikal range selecting stories of a dark reddish colour only.
They mix are with charcoal in equal quantities in the furnace, the blast
being produced by a pair of foot-bellows and conveyed to the furnace
through bamboo tubes. It is kept up steadily for hrs, soon as the flow of
slag ceases, it is supposed that the process is over. The bellows are then

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removed breaking away the clay joints and deposited lump of molten iron
is picked, beaten for some time and when ready shaped in to various
kinds of objects.
Agaria's family God a Dulha Deo. In the forest tracts they also
worship Bura Deo, the chief God of the Gonds. The deity who presides
over their profession is Loha-sur the iron demon, who is supposed to live
in the smelting - kilns. They worship their smelting implements on the day
of Dashahra and during phagun.

Tribe Maria
Bastar, Chatisgarh.
Two Exhibit complexes related to Maria belief-system are presented
in the Exhibition.
(a) Maoli Mata cho Gudi is shrine of Maoli Mata replicated in same size
and form as one situated in Matnar village near Chitrakot water fall in
Bastar. It consist of two huts. The outer chip stone roofed hut is erected
on stone slabs as uprights supporting an intricate wooden frame-work of
roof. It is decorated with carved figure of the devotees themselves. It
enhouses “Bhairam” god is a vertical post. The inner mud-wall hut

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enhouses Maoli; the presiding deity, a form of danteswari the chief

goddess of Earstwhile Bastar raj. The village deity is seated in a
triangular stone housing in open.
Another thached hut outside the fence is housed by the clangod.
(b) The abode of spirits, situated about 300 steps away from shrine
towards the south, features menhiras erected at burial place for the spirits
of the dead to live in peace and memorial pillers erected by Marias in the
honour of important departed personalities of the village.
Maria posses an elaborate system of religious belief, shaped
through ages by their interaction with natural environment (hills, forests
and its animals, rivers, diseases) for survival and above all, by the needs
of an agricultural procedure. They have numerous gods and goddesses
related with each other by kinship. In an annual propitiation ceremony of
a particular deity held with definite agricultural and social purposes in
view. Ceremonies are conducted under the leadership of a hereditary
priest who knows Ritual procedures and demands of deity better than all.

Tribe Tharu
Population - 35 thousand
Area - Nainital district, Uttar Pradesh
The house are rectangular in shape , the length being almost three
times the width. The two slope roof is either thatched with local grass or
tiled. The entrances are always from the front, sometimes two or three.
In front is a continuous streteh of courtyards. Towards the entrance, a
small rectangular raised body of clay is made on the ground which is the
seat of family deities. Towards the opposite side in the same courtyard is
a cattle-shed. Situated at sight angle to the main house is a small kitchen

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hut. It contains a variety of hearths, cooking a water vessels and baskets

for grains and vegetables.
In the main house, large and small grainbins of clay having relief
motifs are put along the walls. Cots, stools and mats are used for
sleeping and seating. A large number of fish-nets, traps and agriculture
tools are kept both inside the house and on the roof.
The Tharus are primarily a paddy growing agriculturist population,
who periodically engage in activities of traditional fishing too. Their
territory is known as Tharvat. The settlement in villages is invariably very
compact. They build houses so close to each other that some times it is
difficult to isolate them from one another visually.

Tribe Rathva
Surrounded by a wattle fence the Rathva house face towards the
East. The house is rectangular structure. The roof is made of split -
bamboo covered with baked clay tiles or dried palm leaves. The walls are
made of split bamboo plastered with a mixture of cow dung, straw and
mud. A separate structure almost as large as the main house is built
parallel to the house wish no partition walls for cattle and goats.
The main wall of Varandah carries a sacred painting of pithora and
the side walls minor dieties. Well known for pithora ritual paintings in
bright colours against the white of houe walls matched only by colourful

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altire of the painters themselves, the rathvas are an agriculturist tribe

throught to be a sub-grop of Bhil.
The landscape of Rathva habitat is often composed of 20-25
houses belonging to one or two lineages, scattered on hill tops and their
gradual slopes spread over four to five kilometers. Houses are set apart
from each other by Jawar and maize fields with scattered clusters of palm
The life of Rathvas revolve around agriculture and rights connected
with it. They propitiate bobu 'ind' in anticipation of good agricultural yield
and general prosperity of families. "Akhadodev" is a sanctuary in the
forest where the tribals perform naval or the offering of new horeses for
the good of village.

1.Richman house
Tribe - Chakhesang Maga
Dist.- Phek, Nagaland
2. Morung ( Youth Dormitory )
Tribe - Konyak Naga
Area - Longmeang , Mon district, Nagaland
3. Tribe - Bhil
Pop - About 25 lakhs
Area - Thabua (M.P.)

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4. Ghotul ( Youth dormitory )

Pop - About 2 lakh 50 thousand
Area - Bastar district, Chhattisgarh
5. Tribe - Kamar
Pop - About 18 thousand
Area - Raipur, Chhattisgarh.
6. Tribe - Lunghar
Pop. - About 85 thousand
Area - Ukhrul district, Manipur.
7. Tribe - Reang
Village – Bagafa, Dist. South Tripura
8. Tribe - Mishing
Area - Assam
9. Tribe - Birhor
Area - Hazari Bag, Ranchi District, Bihar
Pop - 4377 (1981)
10. Tribe - Karbi
Area - Karbi Anglong, Assam.
11. Rabari Dwelling Complex Dist. Kutch.

Tribe - Chowdhari.
Pop - About 3 lakhs
Area - Surat and Bharoach District Gujrat.
The principle deity of Chowdheri Mongra Deo, the crocodile god.
The wooden figures of crocodile are carved following an elaborate site and
installed at a fixed place annually and propitiated there by the entire
village on Shivratri.
Towards the outer periphery of fields, clay-domes called ghumat are
placed in rows along with terracotal offering. Each row or a cluster

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belonging to a particular lineage. They are supposed to enhouse the spirit

of the dead.
The traditional four slopped roof of Chowdhari houses has been
almost completely replaced by a two slopped roof type. Built on a
rectangular ground plan the houses have about eight feet high mud
plastered wattle-wall on all four sides. The main entrance is provided
through a portely open verandah. The inside space is divided into several
functional areas by placing square and rectangular clay grain - bins for
separation. The area of cattle inside the house is provided with a door of
bamboo splits.
The Chowdhari, an agricultural tribal population builds houses in
linear - clusters along one or both sides of village - street. Multi ethnic
villages, their population is invariably concentrated in a hemlet.

Tribe - Kamar
Pop = 17517 (18)
Raipur District

Tribe - Santhal
Area - Dumka, bust Tharkhad

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Mythological Trail
Following exhibits are included in exhibition
1. Creation mythology of Saora Tribe.
2. Mythology of rivers Narmada & Jrhala
3. The myth of creatia, among the santhal tribe
4. Bil myth of the restoration of laughter and festivity.
5. Lan Kapuri Hanuman
6. Kamdhenu
7. The details of Bastar
8. Significance of dokra bev & Rav dev in farming
9. The myth of buma dev.
10.The myth of the kingdom of Jalmata or Kaina people.
11. The shrine and Ritud of Jimidarin Mata
12.The myth and the Ritual of Kunwav da
13.The myth of Godders danteshwaria coming to bastar.
14.The myth & shrive of Mansa. The snak Goddess.
15.Myth of Genesis of patua painting.
16.Myth of ongu of santahas according to the patua artist.
17.Myth of the battle between Ganga & Durge as sun of by patua
18.The xlaga shrine.
Intro Mythological trail
Intent on Creation, Barg dev rubbed his hands to create a crow and
ordered him to look for the earth. The crow went first to the snake and then to
Kakramal, the crab who pressed Kichakmal's the Earth worm's neck so hard
that the latter spate out the earth, which was plastered on the web woven by
makramal, the spider over the aquatic surface. Creation proceeded apace -
Bara Dev's fallen hair turned in to trees which in turn produced the plough. As
the plough dug in to the earth the grain deity. Sprang forth. Ant hill served as

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the perfect model for making of the Lillar kothi - the ideal vessel for storing
grain for the entire world. flera on the Lillar kothi itself is depicted the

Under the traditional
root, a Sarp Nauka has
been kept and brought
from pathnam chitta district
of Kerala. This boat has
won hearts hundreds or
village residences,
securing for year the first
position in the boat race engineers on the occasion of oram festival in the
river pampa more than hundred people at a time soil the boat and hundred
such boats joints the boat race.
Since times immemorial different population groups have been
living intraditional circular huts known as Bhunga. A group amongst them
is of semi-no medic pestorals known as Rabaris. Different house patterns
although come to be adapted now.
Then are some villages thought rendered isolated due to marsh and
sandy regions in which people have still been living in Bhunga one such
village is Tunda Vori Vand situated 200 m way from the sea shore.
A feature or this villages been recreated in open air exhibition.

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Traditional house
in Kerala have mostly
been built up of bricks by
cutting laforiitc with roof
on coconut leaves. None
in the village has
permission to construct
house higher then the
temple height. Only high custe people could use the roof tiles. All things
have now undergone change.
Only few houses that were made of wood to house the big joint
families (taravad) have been remaining Nairs on account of their important
contribution in a army and administration used to occupy a prominent
place in the villages. To construct a house without use of an iron nail has
been unique feature of Naluketta.
1. Naluketta : Keral
2. Arapura : Keral
3. Bhadrakali : Ambalam
The fishermen build up their houses on the coastal rigions of the
bay of Bengal such as suit the heavy winds Gudessa a house with the wall
made up of mud and slanting conical roof laden with palm leaves resting
upon circular land base collected from Baravleera ( a caste of fishermen )
people pentkota district Vishakhapattam, Andhra Pradesh is an example of
such house types in the exhibition.

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In the exhibition a corner of fishermen village of Arataguda village of

Alappy district Kerala have been recreated. Inside the houses the objects
associated with domestic and economic activity have been kept in original
style. The boats being used by them have also been kept under their
traditional roof.
Bhadrakali Ambalan
Situated on an end of a fishermen
village (Arataguda district Happy Kerala) a
wooden temple has been replicated. In its
span it has room for worhsippers, a space of
religious dance and lamp pest for gods.
Ayyanar Complex
On one corner of exhibition, an exhibit
of Ayyanar place of god from pudukotti district,
Tamilnadu has been displayed, Hundreds of
terracotta objects received as traditional offering in worship of God from
people acquaint us with the importance of potters in prevalent ritualistic
ceremonies in the region.
A Arapura
After the process of desintegration of joint family system in this
century. New house patterns came up substituting the old ones. One of
them Aurapura has been created for display in this exhibition.
Aarapura :- The unique timber structure brought from Kerala is an
example of newly adopted and replacement of traditional house type
disorganisation of traditional form of Indian family the joint family system
is a landmark of 20th century. Joint families are replaced by nuclear
families and so the form of dwelling has also undergone change.



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Museums came into being as a reflection of basic human propensity

towards inquisitiveness, acquisitiveness and a wish to communicate with
The inclination toward acquisition is to be found from pre-historic
times in the grave goods accompanying palaeolithic burials. The Venetian
Republic appears to have been one of the earliest public bodies to
receive collection bequeathed by Grimani family in 1523 and 1583
which formed the basis of the present archaeological museum in Venice.
Paintings, antiquites and manuscripts taken over by the municipalities in
16th Century, Switzerland contributed to leading museums like National
Swiss Museum, Zurich and historical Museum Berne. In the United States
and Canada private museums were still increasing in large number
prominent among them being the - Royal Ontoria Museum (Toronto
1912), Metropolitan Museum of Art (N. York, 1970) American museum of
National History (N. York, 1969). In colonial countries the European
colonisers took initiative in the opening of museums based on existing
European models. The two decades from 1950-1970 saw a renaissance
of museums, even though the essence was still the same they were being
adopted to the whole new set of circumstances. UNESCO came into
being as a patron of international art and culture.
In the Indian context a large number of aristocratic families
were known to have private collections. The two major pre-independence
museums were the Indian museum of Calcutta (founded in 1984)
earliest museum in Asia and the Prince of Wales Museum of Bombay
(founded in 1905). These were founded under colonial influence, on
European lines. The next phase of major boost is seen in the time
immediately after independence. This was because a large number of

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aristocratic treasures were made public and also due to the formation of
the National Museum (New Delhi) in 1949.
The origin of museums is found either in the royal treasures of
the middle ages or in small collections of curious. and specimens
originating between the 16th and 18th century. In a general way art
museums may be said to have sprung from these royal treasures of
princely collections while the science museums have inherited the small
collections of curious and specimens. The classification of museums into
categories, according to the terminology of the disciplines to which
the collections belonged, was started by scholars towards the late 18th
to early 19th century. On this basis it seems more justifiable to divide
museums into these three basic categories artistic or aesthetic, historical
and scientific.
Art Museum
Art museums are those whose collections are conceived and
displayed essentially for their aesthetic values, even if the objects they
enclose are not all works of art in the intention of their creator. The state
of preservation of the work, the quality of restoration, the environment it
is given, notably the background and lighting, assume special
Historical Museums :
All museums where collections are conceived and presented in
a historical perspective are classified as historical museums, their object
being essentially to document a chronological sequence or an
ensemble representative of a moment in an evolving pattern, the Musie
de I Historic de France created by kind Louis Phillipe at Versailles
displays with the aid of pictures the outstanding events and persons in
the country's history during more than a thousand years. Other kinds of

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history museums include those at archeological sites, museums installed

in a historic monument or on a battle field and personal memorial
museums. Example Archeological Museum (Taxila).
Science Museums :
Museums of natural science, of exact or applied science, and
technical museums (except for museums of history of science and
technology which are accepted as historical museums are classified as
science museums. The task of science museums is to communicate in
three- dimensional form a scientific spirit and mentality, to arouse
natural inclination for science, to give information on research and
progress, to give each person a sense of sharing in technological
development, to make people wish to understand, appreciate and
conserve nature and natural environment in an ecological and
historical perspective, so as to demonstrate the evolution of nature
and man. All these museums associated the real object with model and
with demonstration in physical experiments, planetariums, exhibitions,
field trips. Science museums are probably the best attended and most
active of museums. They have made the most vital progress in
muscology and techniques or presentation.
Specialized Museums :
These museums are a part of earlier classifications but are different
in the way that they appeal to only a particular section of society like
museums for children. These museums have their systems of
preservation and collection and have programmes of activities determined
in application by the homogenity of their aduience. Thus one can have
museums of clock making, fabrics, wines, musical instruments, ceramics
and other subjects. Many of these describe limited economic activity and
are more or less tied to the industry they illustrate. Others may depict

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artistic activity (theatre, music, cinema) and have a threefold aspect -

historical, artistic and technical.
In a sharp contrast to the aspect of exhibitions, displays or
demonstrations put by the museums about which there is a reasonable
amount of public awareness and interest there seems to be a lack
of realisation about the basic organisation of the museums in terms of
administration and infrastructure and also about the great deal of effort
which goes behind both the temporary and permanent exhibitions put
up by them. Some of these may actually be a result of purposeful
effort by the museums to underplay this aspect of their functioning.

1 Status :
There are basically two types of museums public museums and
private museums. The first kind of museums that is the public museums
is the most common kind of museum specially in Europe, and the
developed countries of Asia, Africa and the Americas. These kind of
museums are controlled directly of indirectly by the state through one
of its organs or agencies. The major Indian museums are either
managed directly by the central government or indirectly through a
board of members or trustees. The museums in the country have grown
either out of private collections of the individuals or the central
government itself have established the museums like the National
museum, New Delhi to house the collection of the archeological survey
of India and those donated by some state governments; those
administered as subordinate offices and those taken over by an act of the
Parliament. In addition to these museums there are state museums,
university museums, municipal museums, the site museums of the
Archeological survey of India and a few private museums.

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2 Finance
The financial resources and funds of a museum can be ranked
under four headings. Allocations and subsidies received from public
funds constitute the main element of the budget of public museums
regulated by statutes and often form a not inconsiderable part of that of
private museums. There is a tendency to believe that entrance fees to a
museum constitute an important source of income. They can however be
considered negligible for a number of reasons.
3 Personnel :
Museum personnel can be classified under three major headings -
scientific, technical and service.
The scientific personnel which is a term applied to the directors
curators (keepers, assistants) specialists in education, conservation and
restoration have had university training adapted to the museum's needs
and if possible a complementary professional training in museology,
teaching conservation and restoration.
Technical Staff - this category includes museograpers, draughtment,
documentalists, libraries security specialists, and restorers. It is required
that they have sufficient qualification in their particular crafts for example
museographers should have received special training in techniques of
presentation, cataloging etc. Service perssonnel include attendants,
maintenance workers and secretaries.
4. Collection :
Even though museums today have involved themselves in a diverse
range of activities 'Collection' can be identified as the oene activity
necessary for sustainance of the institutions called 'museum'.
Museum collections can be examined under their three basic aspects.
There concern programme, acquisition and management. The programme
is very essential, it has to be established scientifically and has to be in

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accordance with the needs of the community and the aims of the
museums. The programme determines the type of objects that ought to
be acquired to serve the objectives set by the museum both for
exhibition and for research. The programme is indespensable if the
museum is to function smoothly and expand its energies and finances to
some reasonable purpose. Acquisition itself depends above all on the
available means expeditions and gifts and legacies, it can be made in two
ways directly and indirectly. Direct acquisition is essentially the collection
of object fom the field by means of excavation, ethnographic or natural
science expeditions. The objects or specimens recovered- are
scientifically documented and immediately available for research,
education or exhibition. Indirect acquisition are brought about with the
aid of one or more intermediatries, collectors and art and antique dealers.
The management of collections begins in the course of field
exhibitions (summary identification) or with their entrance into the
5 Storage :
After a museum has acquired an object the problem of its storage
becomes important. The need for storage arises under two main
circumstances the first when he object is to be stored till it has been
studied and documented, the more common case however to when a
museum cannot display its entire collection and has to keep a large part
of it in a way that they are not harmed and also so that they can be
accessible to research scholars. In most modern museums basements are
used for storage and this is found to be functional provided due care is
taken against seepage and other such problems. However moving of
heavy objects can still be a problem and this creates a feeling that
storage and study are being 'tucked away' from main public areas even

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though facilitating study and serving the purpose of the scholar is as

much a part of the museum's role.

6 Exhibition :
Exhibition techniques have evolved considerably in the last 100
years. Under the influence of technical progress, static exhibitions of
the past tied to monumental architecture has yielded place to much
more varied display arrangements. To take only a few example in the field
of modern art light and sound complete the object, in scientific and
technical museums animated models which can be manipulated by the
visitor are being encouraged. Of late, research and literature on display
techniques have appeared and since the 1960's private firms specialising
in museography have appeared. Also research on the museum public had
led to the constant adaptation of display to meet the needs of the visitor.
7 Conservation and Restoration :
The conservation or preservation of objects which a museum has so
that they can be passed on to the future generations is an important
responsibility of the museums. Therefore, it is very necessary for
museums to have adequate conservation facilities both in terms of
laboratory infrastructure and trained personnel. The pattern of the
conservation department has to be in keeping with the range of its
collections and special care has to be taken in case of museums with
large varieties.
8 Research
Museums are now facilitating research and studies by scholars and
giving the researchers as much importance as to the public, which visits
its exhibitions. For obvious reasons of conservation and management, a
museum cannot lend its collections out for people to consult as a library
does. Keeping with the importance of this discipline every museum is

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also becoming a documentation, centre, where objects, photographs,

films, recordings and texts are readily available. The library formerly
reserved for the exclusive use by its own scientific personnel, has become
a general library covering the range of discipline represented in the
museum. The film, photographic & phonographic libraries fill a threefold
role, as archieves, as museographic reserves for use in display to
the public and for cultural activities, as centres for consultation.


The most important feature of museum work today is it's dynamic
approach in order to overcome the unfortunate seperation of the past from
present and that of man from man. The museums are meant to
encourage the coming together of the cultural exhibits and their users,
thus acquiring a communicative and educative role in our society.
Design Parameters :
The making of a museum begins with the director/curator
of the museum, who, assisted by his scientific personnel lays down the
programme and chooses the architect, or gives his approval to the choice
of one. The architect prepares the project in accordance with the given
prograrnne. Simultaneously the programme is perfected by the
collaborated efforts of both the architect and his employer, and the
project is derived from it until the building is completed and the
collections and displays installed.
Place :
The location of a museum greatly influences the museum's ability
to discharge it's internal and external functions satisfactorily, it also
determines the image of the museum and it's potential to attact
visitors. Attribute to location, museums can be broadly grouped into three
main categories, each with a specific character and a definite role.

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1. Museums in Urban Areas :

A museum in a city can be regarded
as a "cultural centre" of sorts which provides
opportunity for the most varied types of
communication; open discussions, lectures,
adult education, day courses, further education
in the museum library, music evenings, art
happenings, refreshment in museum restaurant or cafe's together with
many arrangements for leisure activities.
2. Museum in rural areas
Another type of museum emerges outside
the town preferably in a scenically attractive
area popular for holidays and other leisure
activities. A museum in a rural area will
therefore receive most of its visitors at
weekends, and public holidays in general.
Museum in Rural Area
Thus in addition to its traditional functions, such
a museum attempts to provide the visitor with an atmosphere of informality
and freedom from the routine and stress of everyday life.
3 Site Museums
This third type of museum is one, which is associated with a
particular site. This site can be one in which the exhibits of the museum,
originated or are linked due to their nature with a certain area or town, for
example a salt museum in a saltmining area. Here the visitor is able to
view the object in their context and original surroundings.
Visitor :
Due to the pluralistic nature of the sociological composition of the
visitors, a museum might be faced with certain difficulties giving rise to a
multitude of requirements and demands. Thus, an attempt has to be

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made to try and achieve the most harmonious balance between the
architectural environment and the needs and tendencies of the users. The
starting point could be an analysis of the circle of people participating in
the museum event along the following lines :
statistics on demographic characteristics, origin, occupation, education
and ecological data.
the catchment area, as a museum caters for widely scattered groups of
people besides the local users.
the sociological development, as a museum will not have the same
features in an industrial society as in an agricultural society.
a distinction between the actual and potential visitors, and the circle of
people who are likely to be involved in the museum activity.

1. Publicity :-
Today's museum help in the search for values and therefore stands
open and inviting to the visitor. This could be achieved by adaptation of
existing buildings, a transparent display case architecture or semantically
symbolic forms.
2. Information :
Nowadays the unprepared visitor, who may be from any social
group or strata expects to be offered information which he can avail at any
time. In architectural terms this may mean providing special rooms or
additional space for information purposes.
3. Exhibit :
Another innovation in the design and running of contemporary
museums in the broadening range of themes a museum can handle,
going far beyond the plastic arts to include the decorative arts,
architecture industry, science, technology, cars, ships, planes,
photography film, anthropology, archaeology etc.

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an archaeological or ethnographical museums collection is mainly

a museum of art, paintings or sculpture possesses work of great
aesthetic importance and value with an atmosphere in which their aura
can be contemplated completely.
museums collecting objects of industrial production tend to exploit the
more participative and festive aspect of buildings.
a collection of small works of art such as jewellery, small bronzes,
medallions miniatures etc. need rooms of comparatively smaller size.
Even a picture gallery cannot be designed such to serve equally well
for the exhibition of old pictures and modern ones; for, aesthetic
considerations recommend different settings for the two groups and a
gallery of old paintings is comparatively stablized, whereas a
modern gallery is frequented with additions, changes and re-

5. Design Programme :
As mentioned earlier the architectural organisation of a museum is
determined by the functions it is expected to perform i.e. exhibition,
collection, storage, restoration, education, research along with provision
for leisure activities also. Museums space can be broadly classified into
the following categories, according to the usage of these areas.
1. Public
2. Semi-Public
3. Semi-Internal
4. Internal.
1. Public : The totally public areas of a museum are for the under
mentioned :
(a) Entrance and reception

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(b) Exhibition areas

(c) Temporary exhibitions
(d) Creative Activities
(e) Hospitality.
2. Semi Public: include the following
(a) Administration
(b) Education
(c) Lecture Hall
(d) Library.
3. Semi - Internal :
(a) Administration
(b) Store
(c) Research
4. Internal :
(a) Workshop
(b) Storeroom
(c) Packaging
(d) Restoration
(e) Staff Entrance
The programme however, is subject to specific requirements based
on museographic and architectural requirements. And will be further
discussed in the light of these in the next section.
6. Location and Accessibility :
A museum calls for an effective link up with the urban structure, it
should be located such that it can exert the greatest possible influence on
the surrounding community and at the same time afford the freest possible
access to it. In this context the following considerations are important.

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a) Enhancing the vicinity of the museum by providing appropriate

additional amenities such as shopping malls, recreational facilities, and
public meeting places.
b) Exploiting these amenities on behalf of the museum, in order to gain
publicity for example; transparency, action programmes etc., show-
windows for temporary exhibitions.
c) The museum should be readily accesible from all part of the town the
within easy reach of schools, colleges, universities and libraries.
d) Abolishing the distance by changing or improving the layout around
a museum into a harmonious space, so as to make a voluntary detour to
the museum seem worth while to the visitor. A belt of trees and some
landscaped areas around the museum can serve as effective element to
create pleasant surroundings besides acting as an natural filter for dust
and chemical discharge, it also helps stabiles the humidity of the

7. Entrance :
The entrance into museum is specially significant since it plays an
important part in providing a bridge between the public and the collection
and thus should be designed as an independent but closely integrated
architectural element.
Though many outside doors may be found necessary for the various
museum services, there should however be only one public entrance,
placed quite separately from the rest, for security reasons.
This should lead into a vestibule where essential services like-sale of
tickets, information service, sale of catalogues, books etc. will be

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The entrance hall should

provide an easy introduction
to the building such that the
visitor can find his own way
and large enough for big
groups to be greeted and
The show window principle
can be extended to the design of an
entrance hall with a wide range of
indications of what is on show.
Here a system of signs such as the
display of typical works, which
convey visual information, is
preferable to the use of written
panels or texts.
In order to produce an effect of
intimacy and attraction the
contemporary architect, unlike the
past, when the entrance halls were
designed on a pompous scale, tend to reduce overhead space and
give the greatest possible width
and depth.
Symmetry is an effective answer to
the factor or order, but symmetrical
spaces demand a hierarchical
organization of the collection,
which is not justifiable .

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The fan shape, symbolize the freedom of choice

but should be used with a restraint to avoid the
confusion of being offered too much to the visitor.

The rectangle is the most easily perceived, with

it’s simple and unambiguous lines.

The circle and the curve have no fixed axis,

and but is difficult to perceive them steadily.

Free forms are

unsuitable for a large
organized space, but can be introduced into a
limited space.

An arrangement in cubicles in a series of inward

looking spaced encourages the visitor to linger in
them, but a compulsory circuit should be decided
in such case.

Systematic arrangement, either horizontal or

vertical. On the basis of scientific considerations, a specific,
continuous sequence leads to the principle of the arrangement in

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Requirements of access/ entry and position in relation to public entrance

Direct Position Open Restricted Needs Needs
Area access near the to all entry special special
from public security entrance
public entrance
Exhibition Gallery * * * *
Library * *
Auditorium * *
Reception * *
Books and Cards *
Information centre * *
Cafeteria * * *
Amphitheatre *
Administration * *
Sp. Administrative sectors
Receive room * * *
Storage & Workshop * * *
Curatorial workshop * * *
Technical Laboratory * * *
Mechanical Department * * *
Meeting Room * *

8. Area Usage :
A museum has, a very clear organisation of served and servant
spaces. The primary areas are those directly devoted to communication
display galleries, lecture rooms, class rooms, libraries, book and pest
card counters-and these are served by spaces-work-shops,
laboratories, storage rooms, offices, mechanical plant rooms-which

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make the functioning of the primal spaces possible. The first group is the
zone to which the public has immediate access, the second is a private
zone of internal housekeeping. Before considering the planning of the
museum it is essential to determine the size and location of the various
Generally an area, which may be as much as 50 per cent of the
total space available is set aside for these functions. However, the
relative sizes vary with the nature of the museum.
There is third zone of ancillary spaces restaurants, washrooms,
coat rooms, club rooms, which are of this group will depend on the
number of visitors expected during peak hours.
9. Space Planning :
The most essential aim of a museum is the exhibition and display of
a vast variety of objects and exhibits, and good museum planning greatly
influences the viewing sequence and subsequent popularity of its
possessions. The fundamental approach in order to facilitate a
visitor's understanding of the museum spaces is that towards open
architecture, that is the visitor should be able to have an overall view of
the sapce he moves in, or he should be able to find his bearings, at any
moment, to see where he is, in relation to a known point in the museum
building. Some of the elements which impose visual order and
orientation have been analysed by Kevin Lynch in 'The Image of the City'.
He has listed those which are important within an urban framework as
paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. Each has a
recognisable architectural equivalent relevant to orientation within a
museum and to it's total image.
Paths are of course, the routes of movement and in a museum usually
the spaces left between the exhibits. These can be controlled and
challenlled by screens or rigidly defined by walls, cubicles, etc.

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Edges are linear elements which are not paths be a long glasswall, a
change in level etc. Each edge defines, separates, yet makes the whole
Districts are sections which can be distinguished and grasped mentally.
Such a pause provides a pause between sections of a museum and
makes each one a recognisable and easily memorable division.
Nodes are focal points from which, and to which paths converge because
at these points there is a concentration of activity. These need not be
central and each district can have its own node. Nodes can be created
by having dominant enclosed volumes of service elements or storage
areas with open or partially screened areas.
Landmarks are points of reference which provide a clue of the position to
a visitor, like courtyards etc.
Arrangement :
The more specific apportionment of the spaces within a museum
are closely bound with it's purpose end the nature, quality and principal
components of it's collections. Each type of museum has different
architectural requirements. A brief classification of these is as follows;

Analysis of Museum Spaces in Relation to Functions

Collection Preservation Exhibit Interpreting Social and
of collection collections personal

Exhibition Gallery * * * *
Library * *

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Auditorium *
Educational activities *
Books counter * * *
Information counter * *
Administration office * * *
Study collection * * *
Storage & Studio * *
Research laboratory
Meeting room

Museums of Art & Archaeology :

The sizes of the rooms and the height of the ceilings will be
determined by the nature and dimensions of the works to be exhibited.
 For old paintings which are large or for medium sized modern
canvases a practical minimum room will measure about 5x7 with
wall accomodation to a height of about 4m.
 The settings for pictures & sculptures is different from the point of
view of space & lighting.
 For silver, jewellery or precious objects, showcases set in walls
should be used.

Historical and Archival Museums :

These need less space for the showcases, and comparitively
large and numerous store-rooms for the documents kept in reserve.
Rooms should be provided with artificial or indirect natural lighting.
Ethnographical and Folk Museums :

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The exhibits are usually displayed in showcases, which are often

large and cumbersome, requiring a good deal of space. Considerable
space is also required for reproducing typical surroundings with genuine
pieces or full sized replicas. Artificial lighting is found to be more
Museums of Physical & Natural Sciences :
Owing to a great variety of collections involved, their division into
sections is necessary according to scientific cataloguing, which differ in
architectural and functional characteristics. When the arrangement is in
series the rooms required are medium sized, whereas reconstructions
and built up displays need laboratories for the preparation and upkeep of
certain exhibits.

Systems of Arrangement :
The spatial arrangements in a museum is directed by the direction-
finding point of view and in accordance with different internal schemes of
display. According to the former the following arrangements can be
recognized :
Symmetry is an effective answer- to the factor or order, but
symmetrical spaces demand a hierarchical organization of the
collection, which is not justifiable
The fan shape, symbolize the freedom of choice but should be used
with a restraint to avoid the confusion of being offered too much to the
The rectangle is the most easily perceived, with it's simple and
unambigous lines.
The circle and the curve have no fixed axis, and it is difficult to
perceive them steadily.

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Free-forms are unsuitable for a large organized space, but can be

introduced into a limited space.
An arrangement in cubicles in a series of inward looking spaces
encourages the visitor to linger in them, but a compulsory circuit should
be decided in such case.
Systematic arrangement, either horizontal (for example, according to
the materials) or vertical (for example, chronological). On the basis of
scientific considerations, a specific, continuous sequence leads to the
principle of the arrangement in series.
Exhibition rooms-shape and requirements :
As discussed earlier, the requirements depend largely on the nature
of the exhibit, however the following considerations are important).
 The room size depends upon picture or showcase size but
guidelines can be useful.
(a) Normal human angle of vision (54°) is achieved with well lit pictures
10 m away.
(b) Space/picture = 3.5 m2 /hanging surface.
(c) Space/sculpture = 6-10 m2 /ground surface.
(d) Space/400 coins = 1m 2 cabinet space.
 A museum with uniform room sizes becomes very monotonous
which can be broken by varying their dimensions and the relation
between height and width.
(a) Overhead lighting allows greater diversity of shape- rectangular,
polygonal, circular etc.
(b) lateral lighting give rise to shallow rooms.
The door should be placed in such a way that a visitor coming
through it will see the full length of the opposite wall. It should not
face a window, which dazles the visitor as he comes in.

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The colour of the walls and the kind of flooring can be varied for
similar reasons.
Monotony also results when a number of rooms follow one another
in a straight line.
10. Construction & Equipment :
The following requirements are important for design of museum
(a) The building must be protected from vibration, damp rising from the
ground, and the danger of fire spreading from neighbouring premises.
(b) In the exhibition rooms and in all public parts of the building, floors
and their supporting walls should be designed to carry a weight of at
least half a ton per square yard, with a very wide margin of safety.
(c) The materials chosen should aim at reducing the noise to a maximum.
(d) The room should be protected from extremes of temperature and

Ceiling and Roof :

(a) Rooms - with lateral lighting may have ordinary ceilings (flat,
vaulted, smooth or with mouldings), all that is required being a suitable
refraction of diffused colourless light;
(b) The best method is a compromise in which the ceiling of the room
consists completely or partly of glass while the roof above it, is a of a
type which shelters the building from atmospheric influences but allows
the quantity and quality of light best suited for museum.
(c) The glass ceiling through which the light is diffused from the
skylights above it, must be far enough below the latter for the light to
spread regularly. A distance of from 1 to 10 feet will be enough; if it is
greater, the light which filters through the panes tends to lose some
of its infra-red rays and sheds an unpleasant greenish tint on the works
exhibited - which should be prevented.

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(d) The space inside, between the roof and the transparent ceiling, should
be equally accessible, to facilitate security measures, maintenance and
cleaning of this area, all of which are so essential to the smooth running of
a museum.
(e) The ceiling must also carry the apparatus required for the artificial
lighting of the room and its exhibits; it is preferable for this to duplicate
the effect of the daylight,
by means of tubular fittings
running parallel to the
strips of glass.

Windows & Doors

The windows, at whatever height they may be placed, must be
a) of suitable size for lighting the room.
b) strong and able to be securely closed.
c) non-conductive of heat from outside.
d) The glass should be chosen for its brightness, colourlessness
and capacity to diffuse light to the best advantage.
e) The Outside doors should be as few as possible and all outside
doors should be strong.
f) There should be no doors inside the museum except where a
part of the building requires to be permanently cut off for
functional reasons.
g) The doorways should be of
uniform height throughout

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the museum and that height should be such that the largest sized
exhibits can be moved as easily as possible from room to room.
a) The treatment of the walls can do much to make the rooms pleasant,
varied and serviceable and to set off the exhibits, especially in art
galleries, where appearance is obviously of particular importance.
b) The larger the room and the greater the wall space, the lighter should
be the colours used on the walls. To avoid monotony, large surfaces
may be treated with stucco-stippled or slightly pitted.
c) A museum must use colours that absorb light for good visibility.
d) Where the walls are excessively high in relation to the size of the
objects displayed, they may be colour-washed only up to a certain
height, leaving the rest white.

The choice of flooring for a museum is a matter of considerable
importance. The nature of the floor may have its influence both on the
fatigue and concentration of visitors.
(a) The colour and texture of the floor must be such as to set off the
exhibits. Generally speaking, the floor should be darker than the walls,
with a reflecting capacity of less than 30 per cent.
(b) Two points should be borne in mind when selecting a type of flooring,
are durability i.e. resistance to the wear and tear to which the floor of the

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average museum is exposed, with the resultant danger of creating dust

which is harmful to the exhibits), and maintenance requirements (ease,
efficiency, and cost of cleaning, and the time required for it).

11. Circulation
The functional capacity of the chosen form of organisation is
deduced from an examination of the internal system of access and
the distribution of visitors. The question can be approached in terms of a
general distribution along certain main directions of traffic flow and a more
detailed breakdown within groups of rooms. In museums a basic
distinction must be made between the circuit followed by the visitor, on the
one .hand, and the paths taken by staff and transport on the other.
The single storey display area offers the maximum possibilities, as
far as adapting space and natural light in order to show exhibits to their
best advantage is concerned. Differences of level can further enhance the
advantages of this type of layout, which allows considerable flexibility and
scope for extension, whether of the museum as a whole or of individual
sections. The single-storey arrangement is ideally suited for small
museums is likely to extend over a very large area.

Centralized systems of Access :

The main advantage of such systems are the possibilities of control
and surveillance which they afford. In such systems the visitor can be
systematically guided along a predetermined path a conducted four. The
visitor may be conducted more or less noticeably, by means of different
architectonic forms, which will lead him onn from start to finish, even
though he may be able to cut short his visit at certain points.
The arterial flow may be :

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1. In a straight - or more of less straightline, as in the case of suites of

rooms to be found in old museums, and also some new ones.
2. Twisting so as to follow the line of the
atriums or meanders of the ground plan,
on one or on several floors. Museums
depending on daylight are built along
these lines.

3. A comb-type layout functions

according to the principle of a Twisting circuit
central axis, with ancillary loops
which may at the same time
correspond to the system of
classification of the museum's
4. A chain layout represents a loose
sequence of self-contained display
units/ each of which may be designed to
blend with the contents, in respect of
configuration, lighting, and so forth. The
transitions from one unit to another can
be so arranged as to enable short-cuts
to be taken.
5. A star layout. Radiating out from its central
points, it provides access to sections of more or
less equal significance, which, have no through-
flow of visitors and so can be isolated.

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6. A fan type of layout offers the visitor

a broad range of possibilities,
obliging him to make a rapid choice.
In the case of large collections, this
may be transformed into a
psychological disadvantage as the
visitor might feel overtaxed.
7. A block
arrangement leaves the choice of circuit
free, according to where the point of
access is situated. The distribution of
visitors can be regulated as desired.

Decentralized systems o£ access :

Here, since there are two or more
entrances and exists, the visitor is not required to follow a particular
circuit. He could be allowed to move about freely, and since it is not
always possible to see everything. In free-range system at a single visit,
further visits will be required, enablingaa him to make further discoveries,
the socio-psychological advantages of such an approach are nullified
by organizational difficulties. However, it can be put into practice in the
somewhat similar form of the exhibition street.



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binocular visual
field (i.e., vision
by both eyes)
vertically 1300
and horizontally
more than 1200
when both eyes
are focused on
a fixed object. Vision by one eye alone is called monocular vision. The
sketch below shows the extent of binocular and monocular visual fields.
Brightness is a
sensation which can be
expressed as bright,
brilliant, or light. The
apparent or perceived
brightness is modified by
surroundings, condition
of eye adaptation, and
other factors. Measured
brightness, or luminance
(L), is the amount of light
reflected from or
transmitted through an
object, expressed in footlamberts. The percentage of incident light which
is reradiated from a surface is its reflectance (p). Shown below are rooms
with low-and high-reflectance surfaces.

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Matte reflective surfaces reradiate incident light in a diffuse pattern;
specular or glossy surfaces reflect light like a mirror when angle of
incidence (Li) equals angle of reflectance (Lr). Avoid specular finishes for
surfaces surrounding reading tasks (e.g.,desk tops, partitions for task
ambient lighting layouts in open plan offices). Example matte and glossy
materials are listed below.

Matte (or diffuse) Glossy (or specular)

Brick, rough Aluminum, polished
Concrete Enamel paint
Flat paint, low gloss Glass
Limestone Marble, polished
Plaster, white Plastics, polished
Plastics, low gloss (ABS, MF, PVC) Stainless steel
Sandstone Terrazzo
Wood, unfinished Tin, Wood, oiled

Transmittance (τ) is the percentage of incident light that is
transmitted through a material. Luminance (L) of a diffuse transmitting
material is the incident illumination level times the transmittance.
where L = luminance (fL)

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E = illumination level or illuminance (fc)

τ = transmittance (%)
Typical transmittances are given below.

Material Transmittance
Direct transmission: REFLECTION OF LIGHT
Clear glass or plastic 80.94 SOURCES
Transparent colored glass
or plastic 3.5
blue 8.17
red 10.17
green 30.50

Spread transmission:
Etched glass, toward 82.88
source 63.78
Etched glass, away from
Diffuse transmission : 20.50
Alabaster 40.75
Glass block 5.40
Marble 30.65
Plastics (acrylic, vinyl, fiber
glass-reinforced plastic)

Glossy surfaces can act like a mirror by reflecting light sources or

bright objects into the view of observers. Consequently, light sources
should be located away from mirror angle in concealment zone as shown
below. The mirror angle is the angle equal to (and opposite) the viewing
angle between line of sight and plane of surface under observation.

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Accent or focal light
is used to emphasize
objects such as paintings,
graphics, etc., or to draw
attention to a part of the
visual field. Most recessed
adjustable and "eyeball"
fixtures have aiming angles
of 0 to 35 0. At aiming
angles >500, hot spots or
streaks of light will occur on
ceilings. Damage to
sensitive objects from light
depends on the illumination level and duration of the exposure to light.
UV filters can be used on glazing to mitigate the damage from daylight.
To prevent specular reflections at the mirror angle, accent light
should be positioned away from walls as suggested by the following
x = 0.6H-3
where x = distance from wall (ft)
H = floor to ceiling height (ft)
In a museum visual stimuli exert a deep influence on the over-all
efficiency and general state. In terms of museum architecture, this means
that the lighting of the exhibitions influences the visitor's readiness to react
and may induce activity or fatigue. The luminous interpretation must
therefore be chosen in terms of the contents of the collection and the task
to be performed.

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The level of illumination in the various parts of the museum could

be as per the following table:
The level of general lighting must be such as to avoid excessive
contrasts. In the cases where there is a sharp increase or decrease in
lighting, an intermediate adjustment or transition zone should be provided
so as to enable the visitor to become accustomed to the new level of
illumination as it were in two stages.
Lighting from above
If overhead lighting is chosen,
the exhibition sector can cover only
one floor. This ensures a free and
steady supply of light, saving of
wall-space, latitude in planning
space inside, facilitation of security
measure and the possibility of regulating the amount of light giving good
visibility with minimum reflection or distortion. However, there is an
excess of radiating light, monotony and other disadvantages associated
with skylight.
Lateral Lighting :
When side-lighting is
chosen, the depth of the
building from back and front is
limited. This kind of lighting has
the advantages of simplicity of
building style, construction of
more than one floor, brings out - the luminous qualities of painting and
sculpture and allows for relief by allowing for views outside, gardens or
architecturally interesting courtyards. However one serious drawback is
that the wall in which they are placed is rendered useless and wall

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opposite practically useless because of interplay of reflections on smooth

surfaces which impedes visibility.
Artificial light :
Artificial light can be used very
effectively to supplement daylight, for
example at dusk, but it must be
installed according to its own laws.
Parallel use of the two types of lighting
must be organized in such a way as to
avoid slipping uncomfortably from one
to the other. The exclusive use of
artificial light presents great
advantage, it is possible to regulate to
a large extent the intensity and the
spectral composition of the light;
sources of light may be arranged flexibly and made to pinpoint the objects.

13. Climatic Control :

Every museum has an obvious responsibility to make certain that
the objects in its care will survive and will remain intact to communicate
in the future.
Deterioration is caused by mainly 2 factors :
(a) the action of atmosphere
(b) and the effect of light.

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Temperature Humidity & Air Pollution :

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 The greatest danger comes from excessive humidity, causing mould

growth, metal corrosion and some chemical reaction in textiles and
paper as well as extreme dryness, often the result of heating,
producing shrinkage and brittleness.
 Building mass can provide a reservoir with considerable thermal
capacity which can reduce the temperature between day and night
and between seasons and the lining of walls with timber or fabric or
other moisture - absorbant material can stabilize relative humidity to
a considerable degree.
RH Level
65% Acceptable for mixed
collections in the humid
tropics. Too high, however
to ensure stability of iron
and chloride-containing
bronzes, air circulation
very important.
50-55% International exhibits
require international
agreements on RH levels &
introduce a bias towards
the medium levels 55-55%
40-45% Ideal for metal only
collections. Acceptance for
museum in arid zones
exhibiting local materials.

Air Conditioning

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This is very essential for the Indian climate and for the welfare of
delicate objects. It should be provided in exhibition galleries, study
collections, work rooms, and laboratories and auditorium. Possibilities of
harm to museum materials are many. Besides adverse temperature
and humidity conditions, common causes of deterioration are the
effects of light, dust, air pollution, and to some extent, impurities in
the materials themselves. Adequate air conditions rewards or changes.
Further, it keeps out dust that might otherwise cause damage and
accelerate discolouration. It prevents substances from brittling, decaying
and softening and lengthens the life of adhesives. It protects against
damage due to sulphur-di-oxide, and minimizes tarnishing of silver and
surface changes in iron, copper and other metals.
14. Flexibility, Extensibility :
In the planning of
each particular museum, it
is essential to clarify at the
very outset whether, and if
so what, modifications are
necessary and what limits
can be drawn.
The properties that
make it possible to modify
the function of an existing
space to meet a new Extension
requirement are adaptability and extensibility - a building is considered
(a) adaptable if it is specially designed to allow its functions to be
modified with a minimum of technical resources and organizational
work; (b) extensible if its design principle is such as to enable structural
uniformity to be preserved as the building grows.

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Open Air Display :

Display outdoors does not differ in its essentials from that inside
building except that there is a varying but known light source, the sky.
Objects still require support, may need protection, ought to be made
visible by being with in a controlled field of vision -and are seen in
It is possible to provide such conditions as well as some control of
the light source either by built from - walls, canopies, pedestals, platforms
- or by the use of planting, of course, both.
Activity Areas :
These areas are designed to
encourage creative action. It is
here that a deliberate attempt is
made to facilitate communications.
The design criterion is the wide
range of possibilities and easy
adaptability. Daylight is desirable,
less for aesthetic than for practical reasons; also access to a workshop.
Education & Research :
The areas set aside for education place the emphasis is on
analysis and reasoning. The location of the education area in the over-all
plan should be take account of the various groups of users :
(a) Everyday visitors; easy access (lecture and reading rooms).
(b) Special visitors, such as school children, students and research
workers; special classrooms should be provided where possible, with
easy -access from the official entrance.
The lecture room is designed in the light of its special functional
requirements, with stepped rows of seats, a projection booth, etc., daylight
is desirable, in addition to essential lighting and ventilation installations.

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The library also depends upon the nature of the museum for
example the library is a history museum is likely to grow more rapidly than
in an art museum.
(a) Library should be placed close to the entrance and administrative
(b) Ethnographic museums are obliged to keep a collection of recordings
of folk songs or music, which they can make available to students.
But even history, art and similar types of museums now feel called upon to
include a music section.
Class rooms and study rooms but should be fitted up with some
decree of comfort, so that those who spend some time in the museum
may find it an agreeable experience.
The research premises and experimental laboratories are variously
designed and equipped for each individual programme.
The museum should
cater for the visitors's needs,
and extend him a invitation
to linger and enjoy himself.
Thus a blend of private and
public should be offered, a
place which enables the
visitor to enter into contact
with people and objects. In architectural terns, these functions may be
performed by: rest rooms for brief relaxation within the display area
refreshment areas (a cafeteria, restaurant, etc.), their location within the
museum complex.
Store room & reserve :

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In a museum it is neither possible nor desirable to put the

entire collection on public exhibition; on the other hand, specialists in a
particular subject must always have access even to what is not displayed.
(a) The store rooms need not be on the same level as the exhibition
rooms. They may be in basements, in separate rooms or the floor above
museum offices.
(b) They should be dry, safe, easy
to inspect, and adequately lit with as
much are as for display rooms.

Offices, laboratories and workshops :

The space set aside for the offices of the management and
administration will vary according to the size of the museum, the extent
of its cultural activities and the size of the staff. Large museums which
have an independent administration or are controlled by a board of
governors or trustees, will need a room for board meetings, a small
waiting room and an office for the chairman.
The laboratories and workshops is also proportional to the size of
the museum, with provisions for restoration of the works of art and
other possessions.
It is extremely useful for even a small museum to have a
photographic laboratory for records and studies, which are a daily
necessity. This may be situated either among the offices or in the
service section.

Museum Security :
Protection from fire, theft and environmental damage is an integral
part of the museum's design, This can be done by :

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(a) There should be nearly fire and police stations and the general
organization of exterior space should permit easy access for emergency
service vehicles.
(b) A survey should be made to deny penetration through roofs, sewers,
abandoned pipe lines, subway tunnels and walls of adjacent buildings.
(c) Another consideration is that of flooding both internal through
sewer pipes and natural and structures should be designed for vibration
due to earthquakes, traffic etc.
(d) Exterior structures such as fences, gates doors and walls should deny
easy accessibility.
(e) The building should be floodlighted with no areas that can't be
monitored as dark corners, riches etc. There should be no trees and
shrubs in immediate contact with the building.
(f) Doors for public entry and exits should be minimum.

Requirement for national Museum of Mankind, Pune

1. Administrative area
2. Library
3. Publication house

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4. Engineering section
5. Canteen
6. Museum Galleries
a) Human Evolution
b) Evolution of material culture
c) Food
d) Traffic and Transportation
e) Religion Practice and cosmology
f) Music and dance
g) Art and craft
h) Costume and Dresses.
7. Temporary Exhibition area
8. Outdoor exhibition
a) Tribal habitat
b) Costal village
c) Desert village
d) Himalayan village
e) Mythological trail
9. Parking, landscape and Garden with drinking water facility and
adequate toilet facility with one care taker room.
10.Store rooms for paintings, models etc.

In -the previous chapters we have tried to understand what the
institution called 'The Museum' is all about, in terms -of what is and what
it stands for. This has been done in various ways, depending on what

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aspect is being examined, by examining what it is today and why and how
it came to be the way it is. The development of museums as we can
realise is closely, linked to our history and to the outlooks, attitudes and
priorities of the society. In its own ways the Museum has always been
trying to understand what is expected of it and has been accordingly
redifining it aims to meet new challenges and fulfill its obligations. The
modern museum is very different from its predecessors and its function
has changed entirely. It shares very little with the original functions of
the first public museums. Not only has the form of the museum changed
but also its content. The material exhibited has been intensively expanded
and diversified. Within the society the modern museum fulfills an active
and varied cultural role educational departments, orientation galleries,
slide presentations, catalogues, posters and other museum publications.
The modern museum is characterised used by more flexibility in its
planning, in keeping with the dynamic nature of the modern society.
It is therefore obvious that if the MUSEUM continues to utilise as
much of energies as it has been, realizing what is required of it and is
equally open about adapting itself to this new requirement it will continue
to be an indespensible organ of society.

1. MICHAEL BRAWNE. The New Museum. The Architectural Press, London,
1965: p. 5
2. PETER DAVEY. The Architectural Review. The Architectural Press,
London, Oct. 1987; p. 27

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3. JOHN,M.A. THOMPSON. Manual of Curatorship. Butter worths, 1978;p. 7

Generation. Academy Editions, London, 1986; p.7.
5. YUDHISTHIR RAJ.Mimar-museums in the developing world,1990;p. 18
6. Museums - The Right Place for conservation, Bernard M. Feilden and
Giovanni Museum, UNESCO Sept. 1982; p.27
7. Museum - House of Muses; Marg special issue, Sept. 1971, p. 5.
8. Montainer and Oliveras op. cit. p. 9
9. Museum - Factors affecting Museum design; UNESCO journal, Oct. 1967.
p 25-32.
10.BRUNO MOLAJOLI. Museum Architecture. Naples, 1967, p. 28.
11.Museum Architecture, Museum Association of India, New Delhi, 1971, p.
12.Museum Architecture op. cit. p- 67-73.
13.BRAWNE, New Museum. The Architectural Press, London, 1967. p.8
14.BRAWNE op. cit. p. 11-13.
15.BRUNO MOLAJOLI. op. cit. p. 56-58.
16.Museum - Museum Architecture - UNESCO publication,Jun,1977.p.73-89.
17.ERNST NEUFERT. Architects Data. Collins, London, 1980. p. 359.
18.Museum II op. cit. p. 92-96.
19.BRAWNE. op. cit. 234-235.
20. Museum 71 op. cit. p. 127-133.

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