Infra Red Remote Control

Chapter 1

1. INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION TO IR REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM :
In modern electronics, electronics remote control system is well known system. Infrared remote control kit’s available in the market are quite expensive and it some one wishes to assemble one, their IC’s may not be easily available. More over for simple ON-OFF function such as controlling a lamp or fan we do not need very complex circuit. The IR remote control circuit using photodiode and phototransistor sensor suffer from major drawback of being affected by ambient light and a very low range. The IR remote control circuit described here can be used for any simple ON-OFF function. This system has memories application than other remote control system. The advantage is that this circuit is absolutely free form ambient light interference and provides control range of any to focusing lens. The components use in this system is in so convenient manner that whole assemble is easier to built. This reduce complex city of the system.

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

The advantage of this circuit lies in the fact that it can easily be converted into a multichannel remote control system. The system comprise two unit transmitter, Receiver Both transmitter and receiver can be assembled on a general purpose PCB. Transmitter section consist of power supply, on oscillator and in output stage including IR LEDS in the transmitter section IC 555 is wired as an a stable multivibrator with a Centre frequency of about 36 KHZ. The transmitter is powered from a GP 22 size gv. battery. The receiver uses IR sensor module which is commonly used in colour T.V. for sening IR Singal from transmitter section. The IR singal from the transmitter sensed by sensor and it’s output at pin and goes low which is in turn switch on transistor T1 (BC 557) consequently capacitors start charging through resister R5, when voltage across capacitor C8 reaches about 3.5V IC 2 (Decade counter 4017) receive a clock pulse at pin 14 and it’s output at pin 2 goes high. This result in forward biasing of transistor to (be 148) which energies a really connected at it’s collector. The output of IC 2 (pin 2) is also used for lighting LED, indicating presence of singal for this circutary 12 v-0-12v 25 mA transformer is used for supplying the power & IC 7805 is used for 5 v regulation purpose at it’s output. This regulated 5 v output is given to receiver section (4017).

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Infra Red Remote Control

Chapter 2

CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION
The IR remote control circuit described here can be used for any simple ON-OFF function. The advantage is that this circuit is absolutely free from ambient light interference and provides control range about 10 metres without the use of any focusing lens.

DISCRIPTION :
Block diagram of the circuit is shown in Figure. Transmitter section consists of a power supply, an oscillator and an output stage, where as the receiver section comprises power supply, an infrared detector module, time delay circuit with noise filter, bistable flip flop and a output section. The complete schematic diagrams of the transmitter and receiver sections are shown in Figures respectively. In the transmitter section ICI (555) is wired as a stable multi-vibrator with a center frequency of about 36 KHZ. When switch SI is pressed, the circuit gets energized. Output of ICI is a square wave. The two infrared LEDS connected at its output transmit IR beams modulated at the same frequency (36 KH Z). The oscillator frequency can be shifted slightly by adjusting preset VRI.

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

The receiver uses an infrared sensor module which is commonly used in colour television for sensing the IR signals from the transmitter section. The sensor module shown is figure incorporates a detector diode, an SMD ( surface mounted device) IC which consists of a band pass filter, an amplifier and a demodulator on a small PCB placed inside a small tin cube enclosure to get rid of unwanted electromagnetic interference. When switch S 1 on the transmitter is pressed, the IR LEDs radiate IR beams with a modulating frequency of 36 KHZ. It may be noted that the IR LEDS are directly driven by the 555 timer output, and no series current limiting resistor is used with them. This is because at the high operating frequency, the internal resistance of the battery and the independence offered by the wires and components leads are enough to keep the average LED current within its specifications. The IR signal from the transmitter is sensed by the sensor and its output at pin 2 goes low. This in turn switches on transistor T1, consequently capacitor C8 start charging through register R5. When voltage across capacitor C8 reaches about 3.5 V IC2 receives a clock pulse at pin 14 and its output at pin 2 goes high. This results in forward basing of transistor T2, which on conduction energises relay RLI connected at its collector. The output of IC 2 (pin 2) is also used for lighting LED1, indicating presence of signal.

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Infra Red Remote Control

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

When no signal is available, output of the sensor module goes high and transistor T1 is switched OFF. Now capacitor C8 starts discharging through resistor R6 and voltage across it gradually decreases to Zero. When another signal arrives after about 300 ms, capacitor C8 again charges through resistor R5 and pin 14 of IC2 gets another clock pulse. But as Q2 output of IC2 is connected to its reset pin 15 through diode D4, the output at pin 2 toggles. That is, IC2 works as a bistable flip-flop. If another pulse arrives from the transmitter before a delay of about 300 ms with respect to previous one. Transistor T1 again turns on and voltage across capacitor C8 cannot fall below 1.5 V, i.e., the V1 value (the maximum input voltage required to sense a logical low by IC2). Hence, the output of IC2 does not change, as there is no low to high transition. This feature prevents false triggering due to switch bouncing and other such reasons. The same resistor capacitor (R5, C8) network provides immunity against IR noise from other sources. This is explained below. If an unwanted signal with the same modulating frequency as that of the transmitter happens to arrive at the sensor its output will go low and IC2 would have charged its output state. But, fortunately, the noise signals are of very short duration, and hence they cannot interfere with the circuit. Because, within this short time period capacitor C8 cannot charge to a voltage equal to Vh value (i.e., the minimum input voltage required to a sense logical high by IC 2) through resistor

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Infra Red Remote Control

R5, and so these noise pulses do not have any effect on the circuit. However, sustained noise with modulating frequency equal to that of the transmitter will, of course, change the output. But the chances of the same happening are very remote. This can be easily understood from the waveforms shown in Figure.

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

Chapter 3

COMPONENT STUDY
A) DIODE :A P-N junction is known as semiconductor diode or crystal diode. Symbol

A

K

The property of a crystal diode is to conduct to current in one direction only. A crystal diode can be represented by a symbol shown in figure. The arrow in the symbol indicate the direction of conventional current flow a crystal diode. It has two terminal anode and cathode. If anode of diode is positive w.r. to cathode the diode is forward bias. If anode of diode is negative w.r. to cathode diode is set to be under reverse bias condition.

B) LED :- (Light emitting diode )
Symbol : A K

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Infra Red Remote Control

The LED is a PN junction device which emits distant when a current passes through in the forward direction. (i.e. when LED is forward bias). The charde carrier recombination occurs at a PN junction as electrons cross from N side and recombines with holes on the P side. When recombination takes place the charge carrier give up energy in the form of heat and light. If the semi conducting material is translucent, the light is emitted and junction becomes the source of light.

C) INFRARED EMITTERS :Symbol :

A

K

If the PN junction results from a diffusion in Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) transient energy is infrared with a typical peak of 9000 A. This ideally matches the response of silicon photodiodes and phototransistors.

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Infra Red Remote Control

D) DECADE COUNTER IC 4017 :CD4017BC is a 5 stage divide by 10 johnson counter with 10 decoded outputs and a carry out bit. This counter is cleared to these zero count, by a logical “1” on their reset line. These counters are advanced on the positive edge of the clock signal when the clock enable signal is in the logical “0” state. The configuration of the CD4017BC permits medium speed operation and assures a hazard free counting sequence. The 10/8 decoded outputs are

normally in the logical “0” state and go to the logical “1” state only at their respective time slot. Each decoded output remains high for 1 full clock cycle. The carryout signal completes a full cycle for every 10/8 clock input cycles and is used as a ripple carry signal to any succeeding stages.

FEATURES :
* Wide supply voltage range * High noise immunity * Low power TTL Compatibility * Medium speed operation 3.0 V to 15 V 0.45 VDD (typ.) Fan out of 2 driving 74L. or 1 driving 74LS 5.0 MHZ (typ.) with 10 V VDD * Low power *Fully static operation
R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

10 u W (typ.)

Infra Red Remote Control

APPLICATIONS : * Automotive * Instrumentation * Medical electronics * Alarm systems * Industrial electronics. * Remote metering.

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Infra Red Remote Control

IR SENSOR :
The receiver uses an infrared sensor module which is commonly used in colour television for sensing the IR signals from the transmitter section. The sensor module shown in Figure incorporates a detector diode, an SMD ( surface mounted device ) IC which consists of a band pass filter, an amplifier and a demodulator on a small pcb placed inside a small tin cube enclosure to get rid of unwanted electromagnetic interference. Photodiodes and phototransistors are often used as the sensing elements at the receiver end of an optodata transfer system, such as a light-beam switch or alarm or remote control system, etc., in which data is sent to the receiver via an opto carrier wave. In such applications, to signal reaching the photosensor may at some times be very weak and at other times very strong. Also, the sensor may be subjected to a great deal of noise in the form of unwanted light ( visible or invisible) signals, etc. Top help minimize these problems, the link is usually operated in the infrared range, and the opto sensor output is passed to processing circuitry, viz., a low noise pre amplifier with a wide dynamic operating range. Figure show typical examples of such circuits, using photodiode sensors.

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

The circuit is designed for use with a 36 KHZ. carrier wave, and tuned circuit L1-C1-C2 is wired in series with D1 and damped by R1 to provide the necessary frequency selective low noise action. The output signals are taped off at the C1-C2 junction and then amplified by Q1 and then this amplified signal will demodulated using detector diode and the output we get a original signal which we transmitted.

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

Chapter 4

PARTLIST
Semiconductors :IC1 IC2 IC3 T1 T2 D1-D3 D4 LED1 : : : : : : : : 555 timer 4017 decade counter 7805 voltage regulator BC557 pnp transistor BC148 npn transistor IN4001 rectifier diode IN4148 switching diode Red LED

Resistors :( all ¼ watt, ± 5% carbon, unless stated otherwise ) R1, R5 R2, R4, R8 R3 R6 R7 R9 VR 1 : : : : : : : 4.7 Kilo-ohm 10 Kilo-0hm 100 ohm 470 Kilo-ohm 220 Kilo-ohm 1 Kilo-ohm 10 Kilo-ohm

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Infra Red Remote Control

Capacitors :C1 C2 C3 C4 C5, C9 C6 C7 C8 C10 : : : : : : : : : 10 µF, 16 V electrolytic 0.001 µF ceramic disc 0.01 µF ceramic disc 1000 µF, 25 electrolytic 0.1 µF ceramic disc 100 µF, 16 V electrolytic 47 µF, 16 V electrolytic 1 µF, 16 V electrolytic 2.2 µF, 16 V electrolytic

Miscellaneous :XI : 230 V primary to 9 V-0-9V 250 mA secondary transformer B1 S1 RL1 : : : 9V battery Push to on switch Infrared LEDs Infrared sensor module.

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

Infra Red Remote Control

Chapter 5

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES :
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) The circuit is absolutely free from ambient light. It’s provide control range at about 10 meter. It is a cheaper. It is not a complex circuit. The component’s are easily available in the market. It can easily be converted into a multi channel remote control system. Noise pulse do not have any effect on the circuit.

DISADVANTAGES :
i) ii) iii) IR LED are costly. IR sensor is costly. This circuit only work as an ON-OFF another circuit.

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Infra Red Remote Control

CONTENTS
PAGE NO. 1 3 9 15 17

SR.NO 1 2 3 4 5 INTRODUCTION

PARTICULARS

CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION COMPONENT STUDY PARTLIST ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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Infra Red Remote Control

The completion of project report on "INFRA RED REMOTE CONTROL" has given us immense pleasure and knowledge. Obligations were heavy during our project work and it is a great pleasure to acknowledge deep sense of gratitude to our guide

Prof. R.G.

Chavan (H.O.D.)

for his valuable guidance, advice, positive criticism,

suggestion and constant encouragement throughout the project. We would like to thanks sincerely to all the staff members of Electronics Department and our friends for their help and guidance during this task. Last but not least we are thankful to all of them who directly or indirectly helped us in computing this report successfully.

Mr. Pankaj M. More Mr. Rahul H. Chaudhari Mr. Rajikshah Chandshah Shah
Final Yr. B.Sc. ( Electronics)

R.L.T. College of Science, Akola.

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