Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

SYNOPSIS
India is an agricultural country, In which 70% people are farmers. As, the population of India is growing, the demand of food is also increasing. Therefore, we should try to bring more land under cultivation. Under these circumstances, we are in need of fast cutting process instead of traditional cutting methods. In past, agri-related activities were taken care by means of manual force. But now a days in most parts of our country there is scarity of labours; hence labours are not available when required. So the labour cost is increased as for cutting of sugarcanes only skilled labours are required. To minimize the labour cost and to get work done in minimum, time at cheap cost we have designed “SUGARCANE CUTTER’. construction. It does not need skilled labour. It is simple in

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

“FUTURE ADVANCEMENT”
TROLLEY ARRANGEMENT : As the designing of the cutters is done on the tractor. But from the more economical point of view of the middle class farmers, everyone can not effort the tractor arrangement. So from this view cutter could be mount on the trolley arrangement. TROLLEY :The trolley is some what similar to the trolleys used on the railway station. A three wheels based trolley is used. A 50 cc two stroke petrol engine is mounted on the horizontal plate mounted horizontally on the trolley. The cutters are mounted on the plate parallel to the Engine. The cutter’s are fitted to the pulley, one is single grooved and another pulley is double grooved. The cutter’s rotates along with the pulley belted crossed with the engine. Specification :Material - Mild Steel Trolley - 31 inch x 17 inch Height 37 inch

Wheels – 6 inch in diameter Plate - 6 mm thick, 36 inch x 3 inch.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

SUGGESTION AND REMARKS IN DIPEX 2003
1. Very useful project for poor farmers but try to minimize it’s costs as much as possible. 2. By this machine/project Indian agriculture will be progress. 3. This instrument is useful for the farmer to cut the foods/grain of the animals. It is useful for multipurpose use to the farmers in the moral areas. 4. Useful for poor farmer and any development of petrol tank very nice. 5. This machine is useful for the farming and sugarcane producers. 6. Excellent for the farmers . Good project less cost. 7. Good explanation and since it is economic anybody can purchase it easily. 8. Future development is to adjust the cutter height and increase the wheel diameter for smooth running as per requirement. The it is very useful and labour consuming machine. 9. A very good invention, but suffers from some draw backs which must be improved for better economic efficiency. 10. It will helpful for saving time and money.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

INDEX
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Contents SYNOPSIS INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE IMPROVED SUGARCANE CUTTING MACHINE DETAILS OF SUGARCANE CUTTING DESIGN OF COMPONENTS ECONOMICS VIABILITY OF SUGARCANE CUTTER FUTURE SCOPE CONCLUSION SUGGESTION AND REMARKS IN DIPEX 2003 REFERENCES Page No. 1 2 5 6 8 16 17 18 19 20

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Govt. Poly. Washim

Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
In primitive India, agri-related activities were taken care of by manual means. But in most of the parts of our country, there is a scarcity of labours and hence labours are not available when required. This gives an opportunity to develop some new method. So, mechanization of agriculture equipment becomes necessary. INDIA is the country of farmers and near about 70% of it's Population depends on agriculture. The History of Indian farmers tells us today how they have achieved the comfortable position. He acquired the skill of raising crops which provided food whenever he found good fertile land, he settled down and took to agriculture and also followed other pursuits of its which made him richer and more comfortable. As the population Increased food was not sufficient and surplus population of more on the other areas not so productive. As a result of demand of food is increased, man is trying to bring and more land under cultivation, under these circumstances we are in need of fast cutting procedure instead of manual crop cutting. So we have to adopt mechanical means for the purpose of cutting crops. This alternative is not only fast but also very cheaper than the conventional manual crop, cutting.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Manual Sugarcane Cutting By Sickle Generally manual sugar cane cutting involves slicing and tearing action that results in plant structure failure due to compression, tension or shear. This manual sugar cane cutting practice is followed by majority of farmers because of socioeconomical and agro-technological reasons. Different types of sickles are used in different part of country. 2.2 Principle of Sickle Designs of sickles are based on principles of two types of cutting friction and shear. It is assume that the cutting action is taken place due to friction when the knife-edge of the cutter slips around the stalk. The serrated sickle combines the slicing and sawing action. The Serrated edge used in cutting devices restricts the sliding action of the plant on the blade for adequate action of the plant on the blade for adequate cutting. It has been Reported that sickle with serrated edge do not required the repeated sharpening needed by smooth edge sickles. 2.3 Single Impact Cutting Cutting energy as affected by various engine parameters. Cutting energy is defined as a energy require to cut the plant stem, a process of cutting of stem is done through shearing action. Liljeghl (1961) while working with element, of shearing energy suggested some variables, which affect the energy, required. The variables are :-

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

1] Plant Variables a] Moisture Content, b] Maturity of crop c] Variety of crop. 2] Design variables a] Thickness of cutter. b] Speed of cutter c] Feed roll force. 2.4 Cutter Blade A] Blade Sharpness :The sharpness of blade is an important parameter in cutting process. It was observed that sharpness is affected power requirements. A blade having Leading edge thickness less than 0.127 -mm required 35% less energy. B] Blade Velocity :Blade velocity is the another important parameter in cutting process. This velocity depends upon diameter of blade and no. of RPM. As diameter & RPM are less the time and force required for cutting will be more and vice- versa and hence optimum value of diameter & RPM must be taken into consideration. πDN 60

V=

V = KDN Where K = π 60 V ∝ DN Prasad & Gupta (1975) observed that the cutting energy per unity area and cutting stress were minimum at a velocity between 2.5 to 3.0 m/sec. And optimum value of velocity was 2.65m/sec.
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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

C] Dia. of Stem :Cutting forces are changed according to the dia. of stem. According to the category of sugarcane. The strength & diameter of stem varies and thus the Cutting force also changes. Diameter of stem = 2.5 cm to 3.0 cm. D] Determination of Shear Force :In contrast to compressive and tensile stress, which cut normal to plane shear stresses, act parallel to the shearing plane. If tensile and compressive stresses are act only in one direction the shear stresses but oppose force acting through the centroid of sections of material are spaced theoretically infinitesimal distance apart. In practical situation, however the case of a rivet in shear is approximation of this condition. If the parallel and opposed shearing forces do not lie in a plane containing longitudinal axis of the body a couple is set up which produces twisting action termed torsion. In agricultural material sometime the term shearing has been used for process which is actually a cutting process and not true shearing. 2.5 Drawbacks in Conventional Sugarcane Cutting Process :1] Time require for completing process is more . 2] The farmer cannot get the proper no. of workers at proper time. 3] Loss due to idleness of labour is more . 4] Wages problem arises. Due to these drawbacks in conventional cutting many numbers of industries, economists are doing research to solve this problem. Till now crore of rupees have been spend but new problem arises, as pieces of land in India are small. The research made by them is not suitable for small agriculturists. Hence they are trying to fabricate that will suit small agriculturists of India.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Chapter - 3

IMPROVED SUGARCANE CUTTING MACHINE
In previous article we have discussed the limitation of conventional sugar cane cutting operations. Considering this problem we have made the sugar cane cutting machine with two rotary cutters run by tractor engine. This machine performs the same operation as that of manual cutting by sawing the labour work. In this machine, the engine power is transmitted to pulley, which is directly mounted on the spindle. This speed is transmitted to the cutter through spindle shafts. By considering the friction loss in the flexible shaft, the speed at both cutters is near about 1000rpm. (Considering losses in flexible shaft is 5-10%). These losses due to the friction between can be reduced by the use of proper lubricants. On both sides of machine the cutters which are rotating are mounted. Both cutters rotate in same direction. Thus the rotations of both cutters are in such direction so that cutting operation the tendency of cutters is to throw the sugar cane outward. So after cutting it will not fall on the frame of the machine.

Principle :The working principle of sugar cane cutting is as follows; It works on the shear cutting principle. When the blade having very small thickness imparts on a cylindrical surface, the surface gets cut in a plane. The equation can be written as follows: F = A x fs Where, F = Force require to cut the crop in Newton A = area of shear fs = Shear stress. As sugarcane are having their stems of circular cross section. Therefore, F = π / 4 x d2 x fs

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Where

d = diameter of sugarcane stem.

Chapter-4

DETAILS OF SUGARCANE CUTTING
4.1 Sugarcane Considerations :The soil and water are two variables, which either have to be suitably adjusted for the plant to grow. The plant showed be so bred and adjusted that it will adjust to given soil and water conditions, sugar cane takes one year to matured on the basis of life of crop. It is known as a seasonal, annual and perennial. India is a country of small farmers whose holdings are not only small but fragmented. They carry-out many farm operation with hand tools. 4.2 Parts Description of Sugarcane Cutting Machine :4.2.1 Frame :Frame is the body of machine which is made of mild steel (90x690xl6)THK. The frame is of rectangular shaped. Frame acts as a chassis. This is made by welding the M.S. Plate. 4.2.2 Pulley :Pulleys are used to transmit power from driver shaft to driven shaft with the help of belts. 4.2.3 V-belt :V-belt is used to transmit power from driver pulley to the driven pulley Vbelts are advantageous over the other types by it has negligible slip. The design for V belt is explained in chapter no.5. 4.2.4 Cutter :Cutters are used to cut the sugarcane. It is circular in shape. Cutter is of 12 inch (both) in diameter and 3mm in thickness. There are two number of cutters.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

4.2.5 Bearings :Bearings are used to support the shafts and to prevent the overhanging of shaft. These are total 4 in number, bearings used in our assembly. This bearing should be greased properly. Two are ball bearings, 2 are taper roller bearings, sustaining all types of loads. 4.2.6 Stepped Spindle :Shafts are used to transmit the power. There are 2 shafts in our machine Both are made in 4 steps. On first step pulley is mounted. On two succeeding steps, housing arrangement with seal for bearing is made. On last step, cutter is mounted. 4.2.7 Special Purpose linkage :The sugar cane cutting machine is attached with the Frame of cultivator by making the additional T-arrangement. This T-section is bolted with Frame of Cultivator. Finally the Frame is connected with top link and load link of tractor. The cutter height from the ground level is adjusted by using hydraulic arrangement, which is in built with tractor.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Chapter - 5

DESIGN OF COMPONENTS
5.1 General Design Consideration In Machine :Following are the general consideration in designing a machine component. 1) Type of Load and stresses caused by the load. The load on a machine component may act in several ways due to which stresses are set-up. The load acting on the frame is the steady loads i.e. the weight of machine itself. The cutter is acted by various forces. Due to this load and forces internal stresses are set up. 2) Motion of parts on kinematics of the machine. The successful operation of any machine depends upon the simplest arrangement of the parts, which will give the required motion. The machine is capable to withstand the rotary & vibratory motion. 3) Selection of Material. It is essential that the designer should have thorough knowledge of the properties of the material under working condition. The important characteristics of the materials are strength, durability, weight, resistance of wear and corrosion ability to cost or hardened machinability. Fro the induced stresses on the components we have selected the required materials from design data book. 4) Form & Size of part. Form and size are based on judgment the smallest particles cross-section may be used but it may be checked that stresses include in the designed cross-section are safe. On basis of required forces acting on the parts of machine who have designed the required sizes of arts, which is shown in Chapter 5. 5) Frictional-Lubrication and Resistance. There is always loss of power due to friction. It is there fore, essential that a careful attention must be given to the matter of lubrication of all surfaces, which move in the contact with other. Following are the parts, which requires lubrication. 1. Ball bearings 2. Adjustable cutter arm
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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

3. Adjustable cutter height 4. Back axle bearing 5. Pulley shaft Flexible shaft does not require any lubrication. 6) Convenient & Economical Features. In design ratings features of machine should be carefully studied. The starting controlling and stopping level should be located on the basis of convenient handling. The adjustment for wear must be provided expelling various take up devices and arranging them that the alignment of part is preserved. 7) Safety of Operation. Some machines are dangerous to specially those, which are up to ensured production at a maximum rate. Therefore any moving part of the machine, which is within the zone of the worker, is considered an accident hazard & may lead to injury so the safety appliances should be used. Likewise for cutter there must be protective cover to the both cutter which must be adjustable cover. 8) Workshop facility. A design engineer should be familiar with the limitations of his employers workshop in order to avoid necessity of having work operation and to draft methods for casting, handling and machining special parts. On the basis of material procured from the workshop, operations on .lathe, welding, grinding, drilling by using tools like hacksaw blade, bastard files, single point cutting tool the required machine is being fabricated. 9) Number Of Machine To Be Manufactured The engineering and shaft cost, which are called fixed charges, are distributed over the no. of articles to be manufactured. And order calling for a small no. of products will not permit an undo expense in the workshop processes so that the designer could restrict his specification and standard parts. 5.2 Design as per Sugar Cane Cutting Machine 5.2.1 Design of Pulley (On centrifugal stress consideration ) Designing the pulley on the basis of centrifugal stress consideration.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

let D = Diameter of driven pulley. N1 = Speed of P.T.O. shaft. 1) We know centrifugal stress σ = ρ × v2 Assume, tensile stress σ = 0.7 x 106 N/m2 Density of CI, σ = 7250 Kg/m3 0.7 x 106 = 7250 x v2 v = 9.83 m/s Velocity of Pulley v = 9.83 = d= πdN 60 π × d × 1600 60 9.83 × 60 π × 1600

= 0.1173 m d = 117.3 mm For power ranges 0.7 - 3.5 kW Width of belt (b) = 13 mm Thickness of belt (t) = 8 mm ( Type of belt - A - A - 525 mm long ) 2) Width of smaller pulley The width of smaller pulley or face of pulley (b) b = 1.25 x k ( k=17, from machine design by Khurmi and Gupta ) = 1.25 x 17 = 21.25 b = 25 mm 5.2.2 Design of Driven Pulley Shaft Let d= diameter of shaft N2 = speed of pulley Power transmitted = 1.119 KW

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

RPM of pulley = 1400 We known that torque acting on the pulley shaft P × 60 1.119 × 103 × 60 = T= 2N2 2 × π × 1400 ≅ 8 Nm Assuming 25 % overload T pulley = 1.25 x 8 = 10 Nm Also the axial load on the pulley ft = 2T 2 × 10 = Dp 0.2 = 100 Nm and bending moment, M = ft x Dp /2 = 100 x 0.2 /2 = 10 Nm Now we also the equivalent twisting moment Te = M2 + T2

Te = [10]2 + [10]2 Te = 14.14 Nm ≅ 15 Nm This twisting moment is equal to Te = π × fS × d 3 16

d = 13.65 mm ≅ 14 mm Take, d = 19mm (std. Diameter ) Assuming fluctuating load condition, take diameter of shaft = 25 mm and the shaft is made in step having bearing size 20 mm. Design of Key From data book for the range of shaft dia. 22 to 33 key cross section are as follows :

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

i.e. width b = 8 mm Height h = 7 mm 5.2.3 Cutting Force and Power We know that the force required to cut is given by F = Area x Shear stress Where & and Force A = area of sugarcane A = π /4 d2 d = dia. of sugarcan = 30 mm f = A x fS = π /4 d2x fS = π /4 (30)2x 2 = 1413.71 N This force f is required to cut one sugarcane by one cutter. But our machine has two cutters and at a time 2- stems are cut Forced required to cut 2 stems F=2xf = 2 x 1413.71 = 2827 .42 N Therefore power required for cutting P = force x velocity 1.119 x 103 = 2827.42 x V V = 0.3957 m/s = 23.7460 m/min ≅ 25 m/min Since the velocity of the machine calculated is high. And there are many difficulties in moving the machine in the field, such as the weight of the machine itself and the field condition ( including human condition). Therefore, considering V = 15 m/min = 0.25 m/sec.

and considering the shear stress of a sugarcane is 2 N/mm2

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine DET NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16A 16B 17 18 DESCRIPTION MAIN PLATE STEEL CUTTER (WOOD -SAW) DOWEL PIN SPINDLE WASHER SPRING LOCK WASHER ALLEN BOLT OIL SEAL ALLEN BOLT TAPER ROLLER BEARING BALL BEARING V BELT 'A' SECTION V BELT PULLY A SEC, WASHER ALLEN BOLT HOUSING HOUSING BODY PLATE HOUSING KEY MATERIAL MS STD STD EN-8 MS STD STD STD STD STD STD STD CI MS STD MS MS MS MS MS QTY. 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 SIZE 1D32 X OD 300 X 3MM THK DIA 16 X30 LONG DIA 80 X 115 LG. DIA 80 X 12 THK TO SUIT M20 DIA BOLT M20 X 30 LG 32 X 52 08 M10 X 25 LG SKF NO - 30205 SKF NO - 6004Z A - 525 MM LONG DIA 70 X 25 LG DIA 70 X 25 LG M12 X 25 LG FABRICATED DIA 65 X 50 LG 75 X 115 X 12 THK DIA 65 X 50 LG 5 X 4 X 20 LG REMARK

WITH DRILL HOLE

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Chapter - 6

ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF SUGARCANE CUTTER
Results: I) II) III) IV) The power required for cutting P = 1.11 kW. The force required to cut 2 stems = 2827.42n The cutting speed = 15 m/min Time required to harvest 1 hector =14.085hrs.

Comparison between Previous Sugarcane Cutting Machine & Improved Sugarcane Cutting Machine
Previous Sugarcane Cutting Machine 1. Manual feed is given so, skill also comes into picture. 2. Time required for sugarcane cutting is more. 3. Separate power transmission unit is required, so system is more bulky. 4. Cost of machine to is much compared improved Improved Sugarcane Cutting Machine 1. Feed is given by tractor, so skill required is less. 2. Time required for sugarcane cutting is less. 3. Power to drive machine is taken from p.t.o. shaft of tractor. 4. Cost of machine is less. high 5. More safety in operation. 7. More versatile in operation. 8. Vertical & horizontal movement can be done with ease & comfort i.e. while in operation the vertical movement of cutter is possible.

sugarcane 6. Maintenance cost is less.

cutting machine. 5. Less safety in operation. 6. Maintenance cost is more. 7. Less versatile in operation. 8. Vertical & horizontal movement of cutter is much tidious work i.e. while in operation we can't change position of cutters.

Chapter - 7

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

FUTURE SCOPE
In present machine there are still modifications to get better results, better efficiency and easy operation. Hence we suggest following some modifications. 1) Gear Box :In place of direct pulley transmission. If gearbox is used then different types of speed range are available on the cutter. Gearbox prevents the entry of dirt and dust particles in the gear. Also gearbox absorbs the damping and makes the operation noiseless and hence the life of gear increases. 2) Automotive :By giving the same engine power to the wheels by the use of suitable arrangement the machine can made automotive. Due to this operator does not require to push the machine and hence he can operate machine easily. 3) Clutch :Clutch is used to connect the engine shaft to gear shaft. Thus while starting the machine clutch is disengaged by operating clutch lever this reduces the load on engine at the time of starting. Also it is very essential to stop the machine at required position. Hence by disengaging the clutch machine and cutter stops at required position without stopping the engine. If this is not done at required time, these create problems and there are chances of accident, so clutch is very essential in machine. 4) Steering Arrangement :By using front wheel castor and giving some steering to it. It is very easy for operator to turn the machine without lifting, the machine thus it can save the energy and time of operation. 5) Gripping and collecting Unit :While harvesting the major problem arises is that falling of sugarcane on and in front of machine. This creates problem in operation of machine. So thee must be auxiliary gripping and collecting unit and that is proposed.

Chapter - 8
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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

CONCLUSION
On the basis of results from analysis, following conclusion have been drawn. 1. For rotary cutting blade, higher speed is advantages. Increase in the speed of rotating cutter causes reduction in chatter losses. 2. The blade speed affects the cutting power and energy i.e. as the speed increases the power required will be more. 3. The cost of this machine is very less as compared to the manual cutting operation. Thus it is very economical for the medium class farmer. 4. The machine is simple in construction and is less complicated. 5. For handling this machine is field, the skill required is very less. 6. For performance of machine is good at present level of development. The cost of automatic sugarcane cutting machine made by Brazil is.152 lakhs. Their labour charge is negligible as compared to India. Hence their sugar rates is 5 Rs/Kg with all taxes and our India sugar is 13 Rs/Kg. As a result of this they have captured the foreign market. Farmers of India are not economical to use this machine though it is advanced. Our machine is designed considering Indian farmer's economy. Therefore it is fruitful to Indian agriculture.

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Design & Fabrication of Sugarcane Cutting Machine

Chapter - 9

REFERENCE
1 ) Donnel Hunt, "Farm & Machinery Management" 2) Shingley, "Machine Design" 3) Khurmi R.S., "Machine Design" 4) Mahadeevan, "Design Databook"

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