Sludge and Biosolids Management T h l i M t Technologies

ADB Workshop, Manila 16-17 November 2011

Ms. Echo Leong Associate Director, AECOM Asia Co. Ltd.

Outline of Presentation

Current Sludge Management Practices

Raw Sludge: g
•By-product of sewage treatment •High organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents •High pathogen level High •May contain heavy metals in trade effluent

Primary Sludge

Secondary/ Tertiary Sludge

Trends in Sewage Treatment
GHG / Energy Micro-constituents Resource Management

1. Increased levels of pollutant removal
2. Protection of public health

What & Where?

Nutrient & CSO

Organics

Tertiary Treatment

Secondary Activated Sludge

Solids

Clarification

Enhanced Water Quality Q y

Result in increase of sludge production

Developing Countries - PRC (for example) ( p )

Million dry tons Milli d t

• Total sewage sludge production of 2010 was about 9.7 M dry tons • Majority of the raw sludge after thickening and dewatering at 80% moisture content is usually disposed of at landfills • Only about 20% of the sludge is further stabilized, of which about 6% is utilized

Developed Cities - Hong Kong (for example) g g( p )
At present, landfilling is the only means for disposal of sewage sludge in Hong Kong. Sludge generated from sewage treatment works is transported by vessels (75% i t t l) l in total) and by trucks (25% in total) to landfills for disposal. p About 250 dry tons of sludge is currently disposed of at landfills daily.

Landfilling Dewatered Sludge: Non-sustainable Non sustainable
• Emission of greenhouse gases e.g. CH4 • Emission of odour (strong for raw sludge) • High moisture content (70-80%), affecting landfill stability • Occupying landfill space

Developed Countries - Europe
50% 2001 2002 40% 2003 2004 2005 2006 30%

20%

10%

0% Land recycled Landfill Compost Incineration

Developed Countries -US U.S.
Year 1998 2000 2002 2004* Land Application Class A Class B 13% 48% 14% 18% 23% 45% 40% 34% Landfilling Raw 19% 26% 25% 23% Incineration Raw 20% 15% 17% 20%

• Class A processing has been increasing • Class B land application has been decreasing pp g • Incineration and landfill disposal of raw sludge remain economical solutions for some regions * 2004 data was published in July 2007 July,
10

Drivers for New Sludge Management Practices

Trends in Sludge Management

- Sludge recognized as resource a d utilization is S udge ecog ed esou ce and ut at o s a trend: - Nutrient: land application & fertilizer - Energy: heat and/or power - Alternative fuel to industries - Also, technology advancements

Sludge to Energy

Sludge to Products

Method Benefits

Sludge to Fertilizer

Sustainability
12

Carbon Footprint Distribution - UK Water Industry
Process  Emissions,  Emissions 17% Transport,  5% Other, 1%

Electricity,  77%
Pumping + Aeration • • • Biosolids influences all of these parameters UK Water industry > 5 million tonnes CO2e Only the power industry emits more carbon footprint

Energy
120 100

- Energy Inflation
• • • • Oil (in excess of $100/barrel) ( $ ) Electricity up by a third between 2003 – 2010 Gas price doubled in same p p period High volatility

Oil Price [$/barrel]

80 60 40 20 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

- Technology which consumes large gy g quantities of energy will be exposed
• Drying, incineration, treatment without digestion g

Energy
- Energy Security
• UK has become net importer of natural gas for first time since 1968 Russia switching off supplies to Ukraine

- Fertilizer costs closely linked with energy prices

Energy Cost Fertiliser Prices

Phosphorous
- World population increasing
• • • Becoming urbanized Changing food habits Global demand increased 4 7 million 4.7 tonnes in 3 years (equivalent to USA consumption)

- Peak P predicted at 2035?
• • • <100 years of easily mined P remain 40% of all reserves in Morocco China imposed P export tax

Supply y

Demand

Phosphorous
- Biosolids is a good source of phosphorous……and nitrogen
• 1 tonne dry solids contains approximately 30 kg P and 120 kg N  Currently worth $50/t

- Thermal destruction does not recover this resource - Recycling of sludge to land
• Or recovery techniques  •  Struvite (Magnesium ammonium phosphate MgNH4PO4.6H2O), good slow release fertilizer, Main technology involves addition of magnesium oxide • F ll Full-scale since 2006 l i Extraction (e.g. super critical wet air oxidation, SCWAO)

Nutrient for Land A li ti N t i t f L d Application
- More restrictive environmental regulations, Class A - P bli perception/ opposition Public ti / iti - Marketable end-products - Long-term issues: • • Pathogen regrowth P th th Contaminants of concern

Energy from Sludge
- Rising energy costs - A promising option to reduce GHG emission, renewable incentives - Biogas upgrading - Using advanced digestion to increase biogas production - Co-digestion - Closure to energy intensive facilities

Sludge Treatment Technologies

Common Technical Routes for Nutrient Recovery
Raw Sludge (Thickened)
Dewatering Dewatering Dewatering

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic Digestion Dewatering

Composting Dewatering

Heat Drying

Composting

Lime Treatment

Stabilized and Sterilized Sludge for Land Application

Common Technical Routes for Energy Recovery
Raw Sludge (Thickened)

Dewatering

Dewatering Anaerobic Digestion Dewatering

Dewatering Thermal Hydrolysis

Dewatering Heat Drying

Incineration

Heat Drying

Heat Drying

Anaerobic Digestion Dewatering

Pyrolysis/ Gasification

Heat Recovery, Biogas or Alternative Fuel for Power Generation Residual Disposed to Landfill or Land Application

Sludge Treatment Technologies for Nutrient Recovery

Sludge Treatment Technologies for Energy Recovery

Option 1 – Raw Incineration

Thermal Hydrolysis

Conventional Digestion vs Advanced Digestion vs.

Gasification
• Operation: 700-1000oC under limited air or oxygen condition • Converting carbon to syngas, i l di CO H2 including CO, and CH4,high energy recovery efficiency • Limited installations, mainly located in Germany, Japan and Switzerland • High cost

Sludge Syngas Flue gas

Air Bottom ash

Considerations in Selection of Technology

Development of Sludge Master Plan
What are Feasible Sludge Applications? Treatment T t t Practices? Evaluate and Recommend Sludge Management Strategy

What are the Project Objectives?

What is the Current Situation?

What should be considered in the Development of a Sludge Master Pl ? M t Plan?

Sustainable S t i bl Sludge Master Plan

Potential technical routes (TRs) for sludge utilization and disposal - Study for PRC (for example)  TR Identification: 9 core treatment technologies with 15 TRs
1) landfilling of partially dried sludge ) g y g 2) anaerobic digestion (AD) + utilization of biogas and digested sludge 3) thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment (THP) + AD + biogas and digested sludge utilization 4) li lime stabilization + l d application t bili ti land li ti 5) incineration + heat recovery 6) thermal drying + pellets applied to land 7) gasification + energy recovery 8) thermal drying + substitution of coal in cement kilns/ power plants 9) composting of dewatered sludge

1 Landfilling of partially dried sludge
a …without LFG recovery TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying ( % MC) + Landfill g g( % ) y g (60% ) b …with LFG recovery TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying (60% MC) + Landfill

2 Anaerobic digestion ( ) with biogas recovery and digested sludge g (AD) g y g g
a …applied to land TR: Thickening + AD (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Land Application b …composted and applied to land TR: Thickening + AD (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Composting + Land Application c …to landfill with LFG recovery to TR: Thickening + AD (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Landfill d …to landfill without LFG recovery TR: Thickening + AD (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Landfill

3 Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) followed by AD with biogas recovery and digested sludge…
a …applied to land TR: Thickening + Dewatering (84% MC) + THP + AD (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Land Application b …heat dried as coal substitute for cement kiln or power station TR: Thickening + Dewatering (84% MC) + THP + AD (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying (10% MC) + Coal Substitute

4 Lime stabilization, application of stabilized sludge to land
TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Lime Treatment (65% MC) + Land Application

5 Incineration with heat recovery
TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Incineration (Heat Recovery) + Ash for Disposal

6 Heat drying of sludge with pellets applied to land
TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying (40% or 65% MC) + Land Application A li ti

7 Heat drying of sludge with pellets applied to land
TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying (10% MC) + Gasification g g( ) y g( ) (Syngas) + Tar/Ash for Disposal

8 Heat drying of sludge used as coal substitute in cement kiln or power station
TR: Thickening Dewatering (80% MC) + H t D i (10% MC) + C l S b tit t TR Thi k i + D t i Heat Drying Coal Substitute

9 Composting of dewatered sludge with sludge compost applied to land
TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Composting + Land Application

Potential technical routes (TRs) for sludge utilization and disposal - Study for PRC (for example)  Assessment and comparison of TRs based on the following
framework
Criteria Engineering Feasibility Environmental E i t l Efficiency Social Acceptance Financial Feasibility Sub-criteria Flexibility; compatibility; reliability; side-stream effects; track records; implementation feasibility; occupational safety. Compliance with l C li ith local environmental di h l i t l discharge standards; t d d potential for beneficial sludge utilization (resource recovery); risk of secondary pollution; carbon footprint (CFP) Users of sludge products; charge paying wastewater charge-paying customers; nearby communities; general public Life-cycle costs; capital investment; O&M costs; financing and debt service costs; product sales revenue

Estimation of the relative carbon footprint (CFP) of the 15 TRs: - UK Water Industry Research (UKWIR) and its Carbon Accounting Workbooks ith d t W kb k with updates - Primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide tons - CFP presented as “tons of equivalent carbon dioxide per annum (CO2e p.a.)” - Relative CFP assessment of different TRs based on the following assumptions:  Population served: 250,000 to 300,000 persons  Wastewater treated: approximately 100,000 m3 per day  Dewatered sludge cake produced: 80 wet tons per day (80% MC)  Total annual production of sludge: 5,840 tons dry solids

Carbon Footprint Assessment

1,295

Carbon Footprint Assessment
TRs 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b and 8 -Low CFP with energy recovery -Achieve, or are close t achieving, “ A hi l to hi i “carbon neutrality” b t lit ” -Energy recovery in sludge processing as a means of reducing CFP TRs 1b, 2d, 4, 5, 7, and 9 -Medium CFP, some TR with l M di CFP TRs ith low capital cost it l t -Results are sensitive to the assumptions made and particular local circumstances TRs 1a, 6a and 6b -High CFP d t energy-intensive d i process ( ith no energy recovery), or th Hi h due to i t i drying (with ) through h fugitive emissions from landfill gas Summary -The wide range of CFPs suggests that CFP is a key factor in selecting sludge TRs -CFP results for a given TR will vary due to local factors - a project by project basis with assumptions and values adjusted to the local situation p j

Pros and Cons of Some Technical Routes
2
2a

Anaerobic digestion with biogas recovery and digested sludge…
…applied to land TR: Thickening + Anaerobic Digestion (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Land Application Strengths -Near carbon neutrality (CO2e: 957tons/yr) Near -Nutrient and energy recovery - Low capital and operation costs - AD is a well-developed and common technology used in other countries -Not pathogen and odour-free, restricting land application - Biogas production depends on the organic content of sludge - Medium land requirement for sludge treatment - Skill requirement f operating an AD system Skills i for i -Should be promoted – take into account sludge characteristics and sludge product marketability

Weaknesses

Suggestion

Pros and Cons of Some Technical Routes
2
2b

Anaerobic digestion with biogas recovery and digested sludge…
…composted and applied to land TR: Thickening + Anaerobic Digestion (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Composting + Land Application Strengths -Near carbon neutrality (CO2e: 439tons/yr) Near -Compost sludge is usually pathogen and odour-free for unrestricted land application -Nutrient and energy recovery - Low capital and operation costs p p - AD and composting are well-developed and common technologies used in other countries -Potential odour concern - Biogas production depends on the organic content - High land requirement for sludge treatment - Skills requirement for operating an AD system -Should be promoted; take into account sludge characteristics and sludge product marketability

Weaknesses

Suggestion

Pros and Cons of Some Technical Routes
3 Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) followed by Anaerobic Digestion with biogas recovery and digested sludge sludge…

3a …applied to land TR: Thickening + Dewatering (84% MC) + THP + Anaerobic Digestion (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Land Application Strengths -Near carbon neutrality (CO2e: 211tons/yr) -Enhanced nutrient and energy recovery - Pathogen and odour-free product for unrestricted land application - Lower land requirement - M di Medium capital and operation costs it l d ti t -THP is a proprietary process with limited vendors and its performance under the conditions of the PRC will be subject for e e review. - Requires specially trained staff for operation -Should be promoted – consider sludge characteristics, financial capability, and sludge product marketability.

Weaknesses

Suggestion

Pros and Cons of Some Technical Routes
3
3b

Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) followed by Anaerobic Digestion with biogas recovery and digested sludge sludge…
…heat dried as coal substitute for cement kiln or power station TR: Thickening + Dewatering (84% MC) + THP + Anaerobic Digestion (Biogas Recovery) + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying (10% MC) + Coal Substitute Strengths At carbon neutrality (CO2e: -543tons/yr) Enhanced nutrient and energy recovery Pathogen and odour-free product, wider application Feasibility depends on the reliability of product users Medium capital and operation costs

Weaknesses

Suggestion

- THP is a proprietary process with limited vendors and its performance under the conditions of the PRC will be subject to review. - Requires specially trained staff for operation operation. - Suitable for large cities with strong financial capability and with a cement kiln or power station nearby for utilization - Not recommended for small and medium-sized cities

Pros and Cons of Some Technical Routes
8 Heat drying of sludge used as coal substitute in cement kiln or power station
TR: Thickening + Dewatering (80% MC) + Heat Drying (10% MC) + Coal Substitute Strengths - Near carbon neutrality (CO2e: 1,295tons/yr) q g -Small land requirement for sludge treatment -Relative low capital cost compared to other energy recovery options -High operation cost -Feasibility depends on the reliability of product users - Suitable for cities with limited available land for beneficial uses and with cement kiln or power station nearby

Weaknesses Suggestion

Case Study - Hong Kong Sludge Management Practice
• Sludge quantity: will increase from about 900 wet tpd in 2010 to 1,500 wet tpd in 2014/2015 p • Current practice: landfilling • Practice after 2013:
• Fluidized bed incineration with heat recovery • DBO contract • Under construction • I l d d i sewage charge Included in h • Community facilities e.g. SPA • About 260,000 tonnes GHG reduction per year

Conclusions

Conclusion
In Developing Countries… Countries 1)Drivers for a modern approach to sludge management: - rapidly increasing sludge production due to stricter legislation, population increase, more urbanization i b i ti - growing scarcity of landfill resources - Energy is becoming increasingly expensive - Global push towards carbon footprint reduction need for sustainable solutions reduction, Advanced digestion processes especially thermal hydrolysis Alternative uses for biogas Energy recovery

2)Sludge management developed in line with government policy: - Sustainable means for utilization or disposal - C Corresponding TR di TRs - Recovery of resources and energy - Low carbon solutions

Conclusion
TR Selection Selection…. 1)Where land application is viable, sludge utilization is likely to give the best balance of environmental benefit and cost. Most of the TRs for land application are with AD as energy recovery prior to land application application. 2)Thermal hydrolysis is becoming more popular to enhance the performance of the downstream processes for energy recovery or dewaterability viable, 3)Where land application is not viable sludge utilization as a coal substitute should be explored 4)Where landfilling is necessary, pre-treatment should precede the landfilling process for energy recovery and volume reduction. But, landfill cost is rising sharply in developed countries and these trends will quite likely happen in developing countries too.

Conclusion
TR Selection Selection…. 1)No “one solution fits all” 2)CFP a key factor in selecting TRs -Low CFP: options with energy recovery -High CFP: options involving thermal drying without energy recovery, or landfilling without landfill gas management/ utilization 3)Other factors: land, sludge volume and quality, financial and technical capacities, quality assurance and public acceptance Need to… to Increase awareness of the benefits of sludge utilization and adoption of low carbon solutions

Thank You
Contact: Echo.Leong@aecom.com E h L @

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