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Malaysias Experience in Upgrading Existing Wastewater Treatment Plants

Presented By: Ir. Mahesan Kandiah h d h Senior General Manager Indah Water Konsortium Sdn. Bhd.

Governance Structure of Sewerage Services

Ministry of Energy, Green Technology & Water Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment

Ministry of Finance 100% Equity Govt. Support Loan & Subsidy

Regulator of Sewerage Services

Policy & Control of National Sewerage Agenda
1. Sewerage Services 2. 2 Operator in 88 Local Authority Areas. 3. Sewerage Services Billing & Collection. 4. Undertakes Refurbishment/ Upgrading Projects Funded by Govt.

g Regulator of Effluent Standards

IWK at a Glance
IWK covers most parts of Malaysia for operation and maintenance whilst providing technical expertise to the i i i d remaining un-serviced area.
9,347Public SewageTreatment Plants

826Network PumpStations

14,825km Pipelines AsatSeptember2011,IWKservedapopulationequivalentofabout 23millionusers &responsibleforoperating&maintaining9,347STP, 826NPS&14,825kmsewernetworks.Provideresponsivedesludging servicesto1.8millionIST/PourFlush.

IWK TOTAL OPERATIONAL AREA AND POPULATION SERVED AREA (Sq. Km) IWK NON-IWK TOTAL 68,505.88 63,769.54 132,275.42 % POPULATION EQUIVALENT (PE) 19,333,568* 7,361,729 26,695,297 %

51.79 48.21 100.0

72.42 27.58


Indah Water Services

Operation & M i O i Maintenance P bli S Public Sewerage S Systems
Provide regular and scheduled operation and maintenance of 14,342 km of public sewers, 778 pumping stations and 5,605 public sewage treatment plants within service areas. Provide corrective and preventive maintenance of public sewers, network pump stations, sewage and sludge treatment facilities to meet the regulatory requirements.

Septic T k D l d i S i Tanks Desludging S i Services

Scheduled desludging services for government offices communal septic tanks and responsive desludging of communal and individual septic tanks.

Sewerage Capital Works and Refurbishment Management

Sewerage project management, monitoring on compliance of capital works and refurbishment of national and regional sewerage projects.

Research and Development (R&D) Works in Sewerage Sector

In-house R&D works and Continuous Improvement Projects, External Vendor Led R&D, Structured Institutional/Universities R&D and Academias Student Research Initiatives R&D, Academia s Initiatives.

Sewerage Technical and Operational Skills Training

Professional technical and non-technical training on sewerage planning strategy, engineering, environmental monitoring and analysis, operational, preventive maintenance, health and safety in sewerage systems, etc. Local and international training on sewerage management and operation / i d i /maintenance.

Sewerage Technical and Environmental Services / Consultancy Works

East, etc) Hazard d Operability Study di ) for d d i H d and O bili S d (HAZOP studies) f water and wastewater iindustries

International consultancy on sewerage management, policy, public awareness, etc. Conduct audit of sewerage systems/companys (international projects, Indonesia,


Evolution of WW Treatment Technologies in Malaysia

Prior to 1950-s


Pour Flush

Septic Tank

Imhoff Tank


Activated Sludge/ Fully Mechanised Biological Filters Plant

1950 s 1950-s

1960 s 1960-s

1970 s 1970-s

1980 s 1980-s

1990 s 1990-s



Address Public Health

Primitive/Primary Treatment

Partial/ Full treatment


Address River Pollution

Future Tertiary Address Treatment


Sewage Discharge Quality

Upstream Of Water Intake (Standard A)
Reservoir Water Treatment Plant

Downstream Of Water Intake (Standard B)

Water Supply Distribution Collection Of Sewage

Category 1 (Rivers) Standard A Standard B Category 1 (Lakes) Standard A Standard B Category 2 Standard A Standard B Category 3 CST IT OP AL MP (STD A) MP (STD B)

Temp 40 40 40 40 Temp n/a n/a Temp n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

PH 6-9 5.5-9 6-9 5.5-9 PH n/a n/a PH n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

BOD 20 50 20 50 BOD 20 50 BOD 200 175 120 100 60 80

COD 120 200 120 200 COD 120 200 COD n/a n/a 360 300 180 240

SS 50 100 50 100 SS 50 100 SS 180 150 150 120 100 120

NH3N 10 20 5 5 NH3N n/a n/a NH3N n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

NO3N 20 50 10 10 NO3N n/a n/a NO3N n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

P n/a n/a 5 10 P n/a n/a P n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

O&G 5 10 5 10 O&G 20 20 O&G n/a n/a n/a n/a 20 20

WWTP By Group
5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 CST IT OP MP WITH MEDIA MP WITHOUT MEDIA 735 422 3,632 4,345



54% of STPs are capable of providing primary and partial treatment. Hence, upgrading is necessary to achieve required effluent standards. standards

Objective of Upgrading
Main objectives of WWTP Upgrading : To improve treatment performance of existing system in order to comply with standard requirement (Non compliance to requirement. Standard) To amplify treatment capacity of system to cater for additional load. To identify plants which can be y p decommissioned and transfer flows to the upgraded plant. (Rationalization Economic efficiency)

Potential Treatment System to be Upgraded

Bio Soil (23 Nos.) Imhoff Tank/Comm. Septic Tank (4,367 Nos.) Oxidation Pond (432 Nos.) Rotating Biological Contactor (32 Nos.) Bio Drum (26 Nos.) Nos ) Bio Filter (113 Nos.)

Consideration for Upgrading Works

Land Area Availability/ Land Status Catchment Strategy Existing Process Existing Structure Existing Capacity Plant located Above Water Intake Financial
to consider orientation of new structure to fit in reserve area can only be done if land is surrendered to Government parallel with long term Catchment Strategy design PE to future growth upgrade to same system (EA, AL, SBR) upgrade to mechanized system (BS, BF, IT) <10% PE* increase, no structure change Sufficient free board required

calculate existing capacity to determine actual capacity

upgrade to fully mechanized plant higher treatment imposed joint scheme to have own funding SCC discounted based on offset from construction cost

Types of Upgrading Works

Minor upgrading, e.g. small change of pumps or retention time, time raise of water level level, setting of blower/blower capacity or extra area of sludge drying beds and no structural change The capacity of upgrading works usually <10% of existing capacity
Minor Upgrading

Major upgrading includes changing system type to capture the extra flow from new development Involves whole STP, e.g. changing of pumps, blowers, new additional structure, scrapers, etc. The capacity of upgrading works usually >10% of existing capacity

Major Upgrading

Upgrading Works Procedures

Procedure currently available
Method Statement (QP) LTC if needed (UO, DEV) Inventory List verification (after) (QP, CA, UO)

Kick Off meeting (CA, UO, QP)

Periodical Inspections (QP, CA, UO)

Monthly Progressive report and effluent sampling (QP)

Letter of Undertaking & Indemnity (DEV)

Bank Guarantee (DEV)

Hand over system to SL (QP, DEV, UO)

Inventory List verification (before) (QP, CA, UO)

Notice of Commencement of Works (QP)

Bio Soil
Strategy Proposed: Due to large area available on existing, most suitable retrofit system is Extended Aeration. y PE < 5,000 economical to convert to Package Plant.







0 M Mar-2000 Sep-2000 M Mar-2001 Sep-2001 M Mar-2002 Sep-2002 M Mar-2003 Sep-2003 M Mar-2004 Sep-2004 M Mar-2005 Sep-2005 M Mar-2006 Sep-2006 M Mar-2007 Sep-2007 M Mar-2008 Sep-2008 M Mar-2009 Sep-2009 M Mar-2010 Sep-2010 M Mar-2011

Bio Soil to Packaged STP

Taman Bukit Belimbing STP Bio Soil to Packaged STP 4,600PE (1,035m3/day)

100 300 350 400





BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS BS 11/02/1998 14/05/1998 14/01/2010 28/01/2010 04/08/2010 08/09/2010 30/11/2010 14/12/2010 20/04/2011 03/10/1997 11/11/1997 13/08/1997 12/06/1997 29/05/1997 11/09/1996 12/03/1997 29/03/1996 14/03/1996 09/10/1995 02/10/1995


Bio Soil to IDEA System


BIOSOIL to IDEA Performance for SEN052

14/06/2011 27/06/2011 27/07/2011 09/08/2011 29/09/2011 IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA IDEA

Taman Senawang Indah Bio Soil to IDEA System 1,860PE (418m3/day)

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Jan-2000 J Jul-2000 Jan-2001 J Jul-2001 Jan-2002 J Jul-2002 Jan-2003 J Jul-2003 Jan-2004 J Jul-2004 Jan-2005 J Jul-2005 Jan-2006 BOD O J Jul-2006 Jan-2007 CO COD J Jul-2007 Jan-2008 AMM J Jul-2008 Jan-2009 OG J Jul-2009 Jan-2010 SS J Jul-2010 Jan-2011 J Jul-2011

Bio Soil to Extended Aeration System

Taman Shamelin STP Bio Soil to Extended Aeration System 28,000PE 8(6,300m3/day)

Imhoff Tank/Communal Septic Tank

Strategy Proposed : Due to integrity of tank structure, space limitation for upgrading. Approach for effluent to comply Std B., refurbish like-to-like. With additional loading and/or effluent to comply Std A Upgrading is required Std. A, with total demolish of existing system.

Needs to upgrade IT/CST: Majority partially functioning or disrepair Effluent does not comply to requirement.

Imhoff Tank to Packaged STP

Taman Badlishah STP Imhoff Tank to Packaged STP 2,500PE (562m3/day)

Oxidation Pond
Strategy Proposed : Upgrade to Aerated Lagoon by installing mechanical aeration. Provision for desludging and baffles to partition the aerobic zone and settling zone is necessary necessary. Confirm depth of existing pond for mechanical aeration device.

pg Needs to upgrade OP due to : Problem encountered such as overloading, algae mats, duckweed cover & bad odor Increase of loading.







0 Feb b-2000 Sep p-2000 Jun n-2000 May y-2001 Nov v-2001 Jun n-2002 Mac c-2003 Nov v-2003 Nov v-2004 Apr r-2005 Jul-2003 Nov v-2002 Dec c-2005 Aug g-2006 Nov v-2006 Feb b-2007 Apr r-2006 Sep p-2005 May y-2007 Dec c-2007 Mar r-2008 Sep p-2008 Dec c-2008 Mar r-2009 Sep p-2009 Dec c-2009 Mar r-2010 Sep p-2010 Dec c-2010 Mar r-2011 Sep p-2011 Jun n-2011 Jun n-2010 NAMM Jun n-2009 COD Jun n-2008 Sep p-2007 BOD

Oxidation Pond to SBR System

Bandar Tun Razak - Aerated Lagoon to SBR System 100,000 PE (22,500m3/day)

300 270 240 210 180 150 120 90 60 30 0 Jan n-2000 Jul l-2000 Jan n-2001 Jul l-2001 Jan n-2002 Jul l-2002 Jan n-2003 Jul l-2003 Jan n-2004 Jul l-2004 Jan n-2005 Jul l-2005 Jan n-2006 BOD Jul l-2006 Jan n-2007 Jul l-2007 Jan n-2008 Jul l-2008 Jan n-2009 Jul l-2009 Jan n-2010 Jul l-2010 Jan n-2011 Jul l-2011 COD

Aerated Lagoons to Conventional Activated Sludge System

Pantai STP - Aerated Lagoon to CAS System 377,000 PE (84,825m3/day)


100 200 600 700 300 400 500 BOD

0 Jan-2000 J Jul-2000 Jan-2001 J Jul-2001 Jan-2002 J Jul-2002 Jan-2003 J Jul-2003 Jan-2004 J Jul-2004 Jan-2005 J Jul-2005 Jan-2006 J Jul-2006 Jan-2007 J Jul-2007 Jan-2008 J Jul-2008 Jan-2009 J Jul-2009 Jan-2010 J Jul-2010 Jan-2011 J Jul-2011 COD

Oxidation Pond to Modified Oxidation Ditch

Bayan Baru STP Oxidation Pond to MOD System 200,000 PE (45,000m3/day)


Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) to Rotating Biological Disc (RBD)

Taman Puteri Gunung STP RBC to RBD System 5,000PE (1,125m3/day)

Bio Drum to Bi Act System

Taman Jentayu Bio Drum to Bi Act System 1,477 PE (332m3/day)

WWTPs Upgrading Cost/PE

STP Upgrading Cost
6000 5,025 4,600 4,348 3,500 3000 2,600 2000 1,090 593 614 473 800,000 352,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 835 244 60,000 1,675 1,050 450 600 320 251 440 450 295 16,000 12,500 11,800 2,319 1,991 1,650 1,297 1,353 1,250 1,100 1,800 1,800 2,900 4,500 4,605


4000 COST/PE






















STP Undergone Upgrading Works

40 35
33.7 17

18 16 14

Upg grading Cost ts(RM) Million

13 22.4 19.8 11 15.0 7 11.9 9.6 19.6 10

25 20 15 10 5 0
3.7 1

10 8 6 4

4 3.3

4 3

2 0










CAPEX Upgrading Cost (RM)

No.of STP

70 STPs were upgraded with a total cost of RM140 million. Additional cost of RM2 Billi Billion was allocated t upgrade 13 major STP under th t f ll t d to d j STPs d the JBIC Loan. To date about 100 Nos. of non performance STPs were upgraded to a better system

No.ofST TPs


Sludge Management

Drying Beds (3 Sites)

Trenching System (25 Sites)

Lagoon System (1 Site)

Integrated Sludge Reception (4 Sites)

Mobile Dewatering Unit (21 Sites)

Geotube (5 Sites)

Interim Treatment Using Microbe, Enzyme & Chemical

Interim dosage to improve STP performance pending STP upgrading

Treatment cost is in the range of RM1/PE to RM3/PE

Annual O&M Cost

No. of STP by Plant Type and Cost/PE
10,000,000 2,677,566 1,000,000 114,258 417,802 75,740 123,592 143,306 59,487 1,846,506 2,179,733 2,177,379 444,807 117,927 5,935,274







Nos of plants PE O&M Cost per PE (RM)

OP 109 75,740 5.50

AL 165 7.18

BS 23 9.47

CST 3632 11.80

IT 166 13.07

TF 41 14.75

AS 163 15.24

BF 113 16.48

SBR 178 18.21

BD 27 59,487 19.57

OD 176 20.50

RBC 32 24.84

IDEA 56 26.22

EA 3010 29.89

2,677,5 114,258 417,802 123,592 143,306 1,846,5 367,252 2,179,7

2,177,3 117,927 444,807 5,935,2

Creating Value for Sewerage Developments

- R&D Findings for Operational, Environmental & Socio-Economic Benefits Socio-

Treatment Technology
(e.g: Sewerage system improvement, Energy Efficiency & Savings)

Environmental Solutions
(e.g: Sewage by-products recycling & environmental assessment)

Socio-Economic Evaluation
(e.g: Social study, economic evaluation of treatment system

-Technical Training Certification & R&D Technical Training,

O&M Operators Training

(e.g. O&M of sewer network, STP equipment Maintenance

Construction Contractors Training

(e.g: M&E of STP construction, Health & Safety)

Specialized Training
(e.g: Planning & Design Sewerage System, Nutrient Removal Process, CCTV Training, )

Upgrading of WWTP focused on the non-compliance WWTP to meet effluent quality standard and operation & maintenance requirements. Upgrading of WWTP has improved efficiency and productivity of WWTP. Upgrading of WWTP was implemented largely using the existing plant structure through detail engineering study. Th upgraded WWTP h The d d has also allowed th f ilit t h dl l ll d the facility to handle additional capacity without violating effluent discharge quality. Upgrading was able to reduce the nos of WWTP through rationalization of nearby WWTP. Upgrading may increase O&M cost cost. mahesan@iwk com my