Vietnam

Innovation in the water supply sector
by Hans Kriele, Country Manager Vietnam

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Water Supply in Vietnam pp y
Current situation • • • • • • sector technology issues what to improve available technology gy 3 examples

Need for innovation

p Experience with innovation in Vietnam
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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Tap water access • 2008 26 % total population 10% rural, 67% urban Clean water access • 2008 64 % total population 77% rural, 31% urban

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Water sources • • • 60 % surface 35 % groundwater 5 % others

Water Quality Standard • VN standard complies with WHO or better p

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Available technology Domestic market • mainly conventional treatment (surface water: coagulation – flocculation – sedimentation – disinfection - sedimentation) + additional filter treatment at home Industrial market • all technologies are available, some produced/supplied/supported from within Vietnam

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Water Issues Quality/Quantity • • • • • Increased demand / insufficient good quality source poor testing in the domestic water supply market insufficient treated wastewater pollutes the source reluctance to know the real quality of drinking water p p people in the city don’t trust the supplied water y pp

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Water Issues Treatment Plant – remarks of people in the water supply sector • • • • Insufficient training or participation in O&M phase BT projects may and have resulted in poor O&M of the plant If O&M is carried out as supposed, the plant works fine (wrong O&M of home filters)

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Water Issues Distribution system – remarks of people in the water supply sector • • • • Official reported leakage ±30% Expected leakage is higher Cases of actual leakage lower than reported are known Management of distribution system could reduce UFW

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Water Issues water tariffs • Decree 88/CP allows for full cost recovery policy, based on affordability to pay • applied tariffs are far from sufficient to cover O&M costs • The PPC covers the annual deficit in O&M costs • Urban operators are heavily depended on subsidies example tariff: HCMC 0,33USD/m3

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Water Supply Current situation pp y
Water Issues Industry • Many treatment technologies are available • current water issues: Quantity and quality issues, but solved by applying the proper technology • pricing: for industrial zone slightly less problematic, can ask higher price, but still a great concern for owner

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Need for Innovation
most important to improve for now: • • • • • • Operation & Maintenance (simplify, training, involvement) cost reduction increase quality control increase awareness of good water quality increase actual water quality willingness to pay

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Need for Innovation
Available techniques • all of them • issues: O&M, Support, costs • solved by: • • • • • local presence produced (partly) in Vietnam innovative solutions O&M involvement financing

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Need for Innovation
Example 1: l‘Eau Pure: • • • • • Stainless steel skids - easier maintenance and increased lifetime Traditional treatment process, standard extra GAC treatment step Capacity of 250-12500 m3/day, or even 24000 m3/day Mainly produced in Vietnam (costs 50% lower than import) Support from office in Vietnam.

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Need for Innovation
• • • • M&O by l'eau pure (increased involvement) Focusing on BOT projects. (concern about M&O) Currently considering lease project (short term<3 years) Specific plants for fluoride or arsenic in water source (other plant)
Sand Filtration Lamella Settling Outflow Coagulation – Floculation mixing  tank Storage tank

Inflow

Chemical storage

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Need for Innovation
Example 1: l‘Eau Pure: • • • • • • Easy O&M Footprint similar to concrete structure Costs effective compared to concrete structure Support from supplier in Vietnam short installation time modular system and easy to relocate y y

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Need for Innovation
Example 2: Taprogge – Terrawater Specific solution for small scale desalination: • • • • • • remote locations, poor source quality no distribution system easy O&M at very low costs support from Vietnam office pp energy cost nearly 0 (use of waste heat/solar heat)

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Need for Innovation
Example 2: Taprogge – Terrawater

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Need for Innovation
Example 2: Taprogge – Terrawater Specific solution for small scale desalination: • • • • • • high water quality from any source no chemical usage, no CO2 production hardly any O&M modular system (10 in 40 feet container) small footprint ( p (compared with RO solutions) p ) investment costs are higher than RO, but ‘no’ O&M costs
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Need for Innovation
Example 3: PWN-T : Perfector-R • • • • Optimized traditional surface water treatment plant Optimized water intake modular system standard capacity of 5000, 10000, 20000 m3/day and jumbo of 200.000 m3/day

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Need for Innovation
Example 3: PWN-T : Perfector-R all treatment steps are improved: • special design of mixing weir > smaller and more effective (less chemical usage) site specific design of flocculation compartments. -> smaller and more effective ll d ff ti

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Adding PAC at the mixing weir

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Need for Innovation
Example 3: PWN-T : Perfector-R all treatment steps are improved: • • • Sedimentation tank: side inflow instead of standard bottom inflow -> increased efficiency Sand filter: backwash with water only ->simplified O&M minimum moving parts (traditional 49/Perfector-R 7)

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sedimentation tank with lamella plate

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Need for Innovation
Example 3: PWN-T : Perfector-R Improved water intake • automatic adjustment to river level • water intake from top layer of river: t i t k f t l f i • most sand flows underneath pontoon y ( ) p p • only little (small) sand is pumped to treatment (no need for additional sand pre-sedimentation) pre• use of standard centrifugal pumps • cheaper than submerged pumps • higher energy efficiency • easier/cheaper maintenance
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Need for Innovation
Example 3: PWN-T : Perfector-R Advantages • • • 30-40% less concrete than traditional plant low chemical & energy usage small footprint (25% of traditional plant)

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Experience p
Domestic market • Little experience with other systems than traditional, except UF for household market • • Can Gio – pilot for the taprogge-terrawater Cao Lanh – Perfector R

Industrial market • experience with all (major) techniques

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Experience p
Remarks of people from the water sector in Vietnam: • innovation is sometimes blocked due to: • experience with traditional system, but hardly with other systems – reluctant to change • big local consultants are not very open for new ideas. Current business runs well, they control most of the market. No need for innovation. • insufficient quality control supplied water. q y pp y p Current quality of supply is ‘accepted’

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Experience p
• • Denail of problem (for example no arsenic problems) People don’t trust the quality of piped water

Experience with innovation • Good experience with the Perfector-R of PWN-T in Cao Lanh (2 units of 5000m3/day each) • Good review of the recently introduces small scale desalination unit of Terrawater-Taprogge • preference for good from Europe/Japan/USA f f df E /J /USA (lots of experience with poor Chinese quality)

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Thank you
Contact person: mr. Hans Kriele, MSc. tel. tel +84(0)121 51 123 51 e-mail: h.kriele@witteveenbos.nl Witteveen+Bos Vietnam 31 Le Quy Don ward 7, district 3, HCM City Vietnam Vi t www.witteveenbos.com

Address:

Internet:

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