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UNIT NO. 1
Q.1. What are the sources for obtaining magnesium? Q.1. What are the non ferrous OR metals ? State OR their

advantage in Engg. works.

Q.1. Describe the extraction method, properties and uses of the following Non-ferrous Metals. 1) Copper 2) Lead 3) Magnesium

Ans:- Extraction, properties and uses(advantages)of nonferrous metalsAluminium:-Aluminium ore is found as a hydrated aluminium oxide, called bauxite. The impurities present in it are

oxides of iron, silicon and titanium. The first process, therefore, impurities electric is For to separate aluminium bauxite is added oxide is to from these in an the

this and

purpose, carbon

fused

furnace

reduce

impurities, which form a sludge and can be removed, As a result of this refining, pure aluminium oxide is

separated from the impurities. Then an electrolytic bath is used to reduce the aluminium from its oxide. electrolytic processes proceeds the oxygen As the escapes

through the bath and molten aluminium collects at the bottom (cathode), from where it is periodically tapped off. Properties and uses 1.High electrical conductivity. Used for heavy conductors and busbar work. 2. High heat conductivity: Used in various domestic

utensils and other heat conducting appliances.

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3.Good resistance to corrosion:- Used in manufacture of containers for chemical industry and window frames etc. 4. It can be readily worked extruded, rolled, drawn and forged. 5. It has high ductility and is extremely light in

weight.

Widely used in aircraft industry.

6. Its corrosion resistance can be considerably increased by anodising. 7. It becomes hard by cold working and, therefore,needs frequent annealing. 8. Its low tensile strength can be sufficiently improved by adding 3 to 4 percent copper. Copper:- The copper ore is first roasted to driven off water, CO2 sulphur. It is followed by melting in a

reverberatory furnace of the type used for wrought iron. Silica is added to the charge to form slag with

impurities like iron and alumina etc.

The molten metal

is tapped and transferred to a converter where air is blown through it to burn the impurities. This result in the production of a crude form of copper, known as

blister copper,containing 68% purity. Final refining is done by an electrolytic process, pure copper depositing on the cathode. This gives a highly pure(99.96%) copper

which is remelted and cast into suitable shapes. properties and uses 1.High electrical conductivity:Used-as electrical

conductor in various shapes and forms viz., wire, sheet and contacts etc.

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2. High heat conductivity.

3
Used in beat exchangers and

heating vassels and appliances. 3. Good corrosion resistance. Used for providing base

coating on steel prior to nickel and chromium plating. 4. High ductility:- Can be easily cold worked, rolled, drawn and spun. Loses ductility in cold working,

requiring annealing. 5. Light in weight. Used in various appliances where

light weight with good corrosion resistance is desired. Magnesium. Principal sources for obtaining magnesium are natural salt brines, sea water, water liquors obtained from potash industry and ores.The principal ores are

magnesite, dolomite and dolomite and carnallite, Various processes have been developed for its extraction, but the most popular and widely used one is the electrolytic

process. Properties and uses 1. It is the lightest of all metals, weighing about

two-third of aluminium. 2. It may be sand, gravity and pressure die-cast. 3. Its surface castings finish. A are pressure tight few examples of and obtain good

magnesium

castings

include motor car gear box and differential housing and portable tools. 4. It may lie easily formed, spun, drawn, forged and machined with high accuracy. 5. and Additions of 10% aluminium and small amounts of zinc manganese improve its strength and casting

characteristics.

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6.

4

Addition of 2% Mn helps in its easy forming into

plates and sheets and extrusion work. 7. -In finely fire divided form it is4ikely should to be burn, and

adequate observed. Zinc:-

protection

measures

strictly

The zinc ore is first concentrated through a This concentrate is fed into a retort amount of carbonaceous material (say

suitable process. with a suitable

coal).

Several such retorts are housed in one furnace Zinc emerges as

and their temperature raised to llOOO C.

vapour and is passed through a condenser, where it is collected w a liquid. The impurities arc given out as

gases and burn at the month of the condenser. By rapid cooling the zinc vapour may be quickly converted into powdered zinc. Properties and Uses 1. High corrosion resistance. Widely used as protective coating on iron and steel. dip galvanising, can also It may be coated either by or sheradising. painting or The hot

electroplating be provided

coating

through

spraying. 2. Low melting point and high fluidity. Make it the

most suitable metal for pressure die-casting, generally in the alloy form. Lead:Lead ores are generally found as oxides or

sulphides. Other impurities present in the ores are iron, copper and zinc ete. The prepared ore concentrate,

together with the flux (lime and silica) is fed to a small blast furnace where the temperature is raised to about 1010°C. The lead is incited and a liquid slag

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formed of the impurities. Both slag and molten lead are tapped at intervals. Further refining is carried out in a reverberatory furnace where and oxidising atmosphere is maintained to burn out the impurities. Properties and uses 1. Good corrosion resistance. Used for water pipes

and roof (protection. 2. Good resistance to chemical action. Used for acid

baths and containers in chemical industry. 3. It is soft, heavy and malleable, can be easily

worked 4.

and shaped. making soft

It is used as an alloying element in

solders and plumber’s solders. 5. It is also alloyed with brass and steel to impart

them free cutting properties. Q.2. Draw neat diagram of blast furnace indicating temp in different parts. OR How the

Q.3. Explain different zones of blast furnace. heat of hot gases is utilized ? Ans. According to these temperature ranges

the

blast

furnace can be divided into the following zones : 1. Preheating zone— 2. Reduction zone—

3. Fusion zone— Preheating zone. the charge. The It consists of only the top layers temperature in this zone of

ranges

between 200°C to 350°C, which provides only a preheating

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effect on the charge and helps in evaporating

6
the

moisture content from it.

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Reduction zone. In this zone the temperature

8
ranges

between 350°C to 1200°C. For convenience of explanation of the chemical reactions this zone is further subdivided into upper reduction zone and lower reduction zone. The

chemical reactions taking place in these zones are as follows : Upper reduction zone. (350O C—700°C) iron In this zone the by reacting with

iron oxide is reduced to metallic the ascending carbon monoxide.

For this reason this zone

is also called iron oxide reduction zone. The reaction is as follows : Fe2O3 +3 CO 2Fe+3CO2

In this zone limestone (flux) also starts dissociating as follows : CaCO CaO+ CO2 Lower redaction zone. (700OC—1200OC). In this zone the

charge becomes hotter as it descends. The decomposition of CaCO3 started earlier, is completed at about 850°C. The CO2 formed due to this decomposition reacts with the

carbon of coke to reduce to CO. CO2+C 2CO Reduction of iron oxide, if remaining after the previous zone, is completed here. Fe2O3 +3C 2Fe+3 CO The calcium oxide formed by the decomposition of limestone combines with all it the to impurities form the like silica The and

aluminium

slag.

higher

temperature of about 1200O C also causes the reduction of other oxides in the ore, like P2O5, MnO2 and Si02 etc., into respective free elements P, Mn and Si. They are

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absorbed by the metal formed (Fe) as above.

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As a result

of all these, the melting point of iron is lowered and it starts melting at about 1200°C instead of 1530°C. the melting point of pure iron. Fusion zone. (1200°C—1600°C).Evidently this part carries melting of

highest temperatures and in this region the charge is finally completed.

The iron gets superheated On

here and trickles down to the bottom of the furnace. its top floats the slag.

The slag and molten metal are

tapped separately from the furnace. The molten metal is poured into the moulds, where it solidifies to form. What is known as Pig iron. This, iron contains 2 to 5% C, upto 3% Si, upto 01% P, upto 03%S and upto 1% Mn, the

remainder being iron. Hot gases The hot gases passing out of the blast If

furnace carry a temperature Between 800°C to 1200°C.

they are allowed to escape as such into the atmosphere, a lot of beat will be wasted. This heat is, therefore,

utilised in many ways.

However, before using these gases

they are passed through dust catchers and gas washers to remove any dust or coke particles present in them. After that a part of their beat is utilised in driving the gas blowing engines supplying the air blast. Some of the beat is utilised in blast stoves for preheating the air blast before sending it to the furnace. Waste gases may also

be utilised in gas turbines to electric power. Q.4. Draw neat cross sectional diagram indicating its various zones and describe the following : 1.Its construction 2. Preparation before operation

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3. Method of charging. 4. Difference zones and their function. OR

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Explain with neat diagram the principal and working of cupola furnace. Ans. In foundry, molten metal is required for casting. The metal is melted in melting furnaces. Only cupola

furnace used in foundries for melting and refining pig iron along with serap. The cupola furnace consist of a

vertical cyclinderical steel sheet, 6 to 12 mm thick, and lined inside with refractory in the are bricks. lower higher The lining where the is the upper

generally

thicker

region than in

temperatures region.

encountered

The shell is mounted either on a brick work

foundation or on steel columns. In the bottom region wind box is provided through which air is circulated ground the shell and then into the furnace through number of openings called Tuyeres. In each row number of tuyors varies from 4 to 8. In the bottom of the shell, two semi-circular doors are fitted with bottom plate. these doors are closed and When cupola is to be used, every time after use of

cupola, these doors are opened to remove (fall out) the slag and burnt coke. green sand and it The bottom of cupola is built with is sloped towards tap hole after

ramming.

Little above this hole another hole is provided Slag hole is

for slag to go out is called slag hole. kept closed when not in use. CUPOLA OPERATION :

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1.Clean the slag etc from previous run cupola. it is charged again the lining is repaired. bottom doors.

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So before Close the

The sand bottom is then prepared with

green mould sand, ram it thoroughly and slope it towards the tap hole. 2.The cupola is then fired by wood at the bottom usually it is fixed least 2-3 hours before the molten metal is required. On this fire, a layer of coke is put.

Depending on the size of cupola this layer thickness may vary from 50 cm – 125 cm. 3.Wait, till the coke bed is thoroughly lighted. Once

the cake starts firing properly, layers of pig-iron, cake and flux limestone are charged through the charging door. The thickness of each layer may vary 150 – 200 cm. layers are to be put alternately. 4.Once, the cupola is fully charged, maintaining it as such for about 45-60 minutes without air blast. gives proper soaking to iron . 5.When soaking time is completed, the air blast blower is started. At this time, the tapping hole, and other This These

outlets are plugged.(Closed), when the metal gets molten and accumulated in sufficient quantity, then the slag

door is opened to letout the slag. 6.When sufficient quantity of molten metal has been

collected in the cupola over the sand bed and the slag is letout through the slag hole. hole is removed. Now the plug of tapping

The molten metal starts flowing and

collected into ladles and through ladles the molten metal is poured into the moulds. The same procedure is adopted

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to collect the molten metals repeatedly till

12
the

requirement is met. 8. When the required amount of molten metal is taken out and no additional metal is needed, then shut the air blast and blouer. After sometimes, the bottom plates are

opened and the corn plate fillings have been dropped out in the floor. They are quenched and collected from the

under neath of cupola. Q.5. State the metals used in nuclear Energy. Ans. Leads having density as high as 11.3 is used in X ray protection against deadly rays from nuclear fission and radio active isotopes. Q.6. What are the constituents of gray C.I.? vary in 1. Gray C.I. 2. White C.I. 3. Nodular C.I. Ans:-Gray cast iron contains 2.5-3.8% C,1.1-2.8% Si, 0.41.0% Mn, 0.15% P and 0.10% S White Cast iron contains1.8-3.6% C, 0.5-2.0%Si, 0.2-0.8% Mn,0.18%P and 0.10% S. Nodular Cast iron contains 3.2-4.2% C, 1.1-3.5% Si, 0.30.8% Mn, 0.08 % P and 0.2% S. Q.7. What is brass? Explain properties composition and uses ? Ans. Brasses:- All brasses are basically alloys of copper and zinc. There are two main varieties of brasses : 1. 2. Alpha brass (upto 37% Zn)—for cold working. Alpha Beta brass (33% to 46% Zn)—for hot working. How do they

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Alpha brasses are very ductile and can be readily cold worker without any chances of fracture. They can be cold

rolled into sheets drawn into wires, deep drawn and drawn into tubes. In these brasses’ as the proportion of zinc increases decreases. They are work hardened when subjected to intensive their strength increases but ductility

cold working, but ductility can be regained by annealing them at 600”C. but for common of this Slow cooling provides maximum ductility, uses they maybe water quenched. Deep

drawing

brass

requires

periodical

annealing

during the process. An alpha-beta brass loses strength at high temperatures responds hot but very becomes well and to very hot etc. plastic. rolling, When It, hot cold

therefore, extrusion,

stamping

casting

worked, fractures are always likely to develop. Common types of brasses in engineering use are the

following : Cartridge brass. It has 70% Cu and 30% Zn. It is very

strong and ductile.

It is used for a wide range of drawn

components like cartridge cases, head lamp reflectors, radiator shells and drawn tubes. Muntz metal. cast, rolled, It contains 60% Cu and 40% Zn and can be extruded alloy and stamped. good It is sort of to

general

purpose

having

resistance

corrosion. It is used for casting pump parts, valves, taps and other similar items. Naval brass. It contains 60% Cu, 39% Zn and 1% tin. It

is more or less similar in composition to Muntz metal except that 1% Zn is replaced by 1% tin. As a result of

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this change the resistance to sea water corrosion

14
is

vastly improved.

This alloy is, therefore, widely used

for cast and forged fittings for ships. Admiratly brass. It contains 70% Cu, 29% Zn and 1% tin.

It is similar to cartridge brass in composition except that 1% Zn is replaced by 1% tin. It can be cold worked It is

and has good resistance to sea water corrosion.

cold drawn into tubes and rolled into sheets and brass. It is widely used in ship fittings, bolts, nuts, washers and other items subjected to sea-water corrosion. also used in condenser plant. Gilding brass. It contains upto 15% Zn and the rest Cu. It is

It is a very good cold working alloy and is used for jewellery, commercially sheets. decorative available and as ornamental cold rolled work. strip, It wire is or

Its colour, according to the percentage of Zn, It is also called

varies from red to bright yellow. Gilding metal. Delta brass.

Also known as Delta metal, it consists of It can be easily hot worked, It has a fairly good It also susitably

60% Cu, 37% Zn and 3% iron.

forged, rolled, extruded and cast.

tensile strength after hot working and casting. has a good corrosion resistance. It can

replace steel castings. Free cutting brass. Pb. It is specially components lathes. stamped It It contains 60% Cu, 37% Zn and 3% used from is in machining stock used be work, on for used such as and cast,

producing automatic forged or

bar also to

turret making for

blanks

further

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machining.

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With this metal very high speeds and feeds

can be employed in machining. Q.8. Discuss the effect of following alloying elements on C.I. Ans. 1. Carbon 2. Silicon 3. Magnese.

Effects of different alloying elements on cast iron Carbon. It generally varies from 2 to 4 percent in cast

iron, and its presence is due to the carbon present in pig iron scrap and coke. AH these materials contribute in adding this content to iron, and more the amount of

carbon present in these materials the higher will be the percentage of this constituent in the composition of cast iron. form. It may be present either in free state or combined The form in which this element is present, greatly Its presence in and of increases carbon in

effects the proper-ties of cast iron. free state renders and the iron weak

machinability

brittleness.

Presence

combined form makes the iron hard and strong. Silicon. It acts as a softener as it promotes the

formation of free graphite by combining with iron and forming silicates. If this content is, however, allowed

to increase beyond a definite limit (approximately 3.2%), it acts as a hardner. Its proportion should be kept lower for big castings and higher for small ones. ranges between 2.5 to 3.0 percent. Sulphur. It renders the iron hard by promoting the It normally

formation of combined carbon.

With the result the iron

loses its due fluidity and it leads to the production .of blow holes in the casting. To minimise its effect

manganese should be added.

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Manganese. It is added to cast iron mainly with a view to mitigate the ill effects of sulphur by the formation of manganese sulphides. The normal range of manganese in

cast irons is betwee6 05 to 0’8 percent. Its presence below 0’5 percent has no significant influence. Phosphorus. It improves the fluidity and castability

of molten metal into thin sections, and promotes graphite formation. Its higher percentage increases hardness and

brittleness and decreases toughness. Nickel. It acts as a graphitizer in cast iron. With

its addition, therefore, machinability of cast iron is improved. For common engineering applications it varies in cast iron between 0.25 to 2.0 percent. Higher

proportions are, however, used in alloy cast irons. Chromium. iron and, It forms its own stable thus, acts as a carbide carbides in cast Its Its

stabiliser.

proportion normally varies from 0.15 to 0.9 percent.

addition increases wear resistance, tensile strength and hardness and aids chilling. Higher proportions of

chromium are used in alloy cast irons. Molybdenum. to 1.5 Its proportion normally varies between 0.25 It may be added cither as free

percent.

molybdenum or combined with other elements. It improves tensile strength, increases hardness and resistance to shock, improves toughness and machin-ability. Vanadium. It forms carbides and reduces graphitization.

It is normally used in proportions varying between 0.1 to 0.5 percent. It increases strength, hardness and

machinability of cast iron.

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Copper:It promotes graphite formation and

17
improves 0.25.

strength. Its proportion normally varies between to 2.5 percent. Q.9. What is difference between brass and bronze ?

OR

State the composition, and two common uses of a bronze commonly used in engineering. OR

What is the general effect of adding a small proportion of (i) phosphorus, (u) lead, to a bronze? Ans. (a) A brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, the major constituent being copper. A bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, the major

constituent being copper. (b) A bronze commonly used in engineering and commonly known as ‘eighty-fives’, three fives’ consists of 85% of copper, with 5% each of tin, zinc and lead. Because of its improved machining qualities, it has replaced the

traditionally used admiralty gun metal. It is used for low pressure pipe fittings and small pump castings desired. c)If phosphorus is added in very small quantities, often roily a trace, improves from fluidity about 0.05 of to casting. 0.25% If the a where reasonable corrosion resistance is

phosphorus

ranges

as

in

phosphor-bronze, it forms cuboids which resist wear and can carry heavy loads. It thus becomes an excellent

bearing material. (ii) Lead is distributed throughout a bronze as globules. It allows chip cracks to propagate easily and hence the addition of lead improves machining quantities.

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Q.10. State composition and uses of following :

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Muntz metal - It contains 60% Cu and 40% Zn and can be cast, rolled, extruded alloy and stamped. good It is sort of to

general

purpose

having

resistance

corrosion.

It is used for casting pump parts, valves,

taps and other similar items. Admiralty brass28%, and Sn 1 %. - The small amount of tin added to brass improves its resistance to certain types of corrosion. Admiralty brass, though, it has been to a greater Admiralty brass contains Cu 71 %, Zn

extent superseded by better materials for the exacting conditions of marine condensers, it is still widely used for the tubes and other parts of condensers cooled by fresh water and the for many other alloy purposes. contains For such 0.04%

applications,

modern

about

Arsenic, which improves resistance to a penetrative form of corrosion known as dezincification. Gun metal - It is a phosphor bronze having 2 to 5% Zn. Small amount of lead is also added to improve castability and machinability. It is used for bearing bushes,

glands, pumps and valves etc. Aluminium branze Aluminium bronzes have the following compositions: Cu 89 91 Al 7 6.8 Fe 3.5 1.5.3.5 Sn 0.35 Mn (%) 1 (max)

Aluminium bronzes possess the following properties: Good strength Good heat resistance High corrosion resistance Good cold working properties,etc.

Aluminium bronze finds the following uses :

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Bearings Gears Slide valves Imitation jewellery Valve seats Propellers Cams Pumps parts etc.

19

Q.10. Explain with neat sketch a direct Arc furnace.

It consists of a steel shell having a as shown in Fig. The complete

spherical is

bottom, on

furnace

mounted

rollers, so that it can be titled

for pouring the melt

into the ladle. The hearth inside has a bowl shape and is provided with a basic lining with magnesite or dolomite. Two spouts are provided on opposite sides, one for the slag and the other for the molten metal. The roof is of detachable type and the charge fed through it. Three

vertical electrodes are suspended through the top through which a 3-phase current is led into the furnace. electrodes can be raised up flowered desired. These

After charging the furnace the top is c]0iedaad the electrodes lowered. The current is switched on to

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generate the arc, thereby producing a high temperature of about 2000°C or above. This intense heat melts the

charge. electrodes

As the level of the molten metal rises, the are also raised automatically. The charge

usually consists of light and heavy steel scrap together with suitable made amount later of on flux. for Alloy additions the are

usually

controlling

final

composition. Q.11. Difference between Gray C.I. and White C.I. The points of difference between white cast iron and grey cast iron are given below (a)White cast iron contains all the carbon in the

combined form while in grey cast iron, most of the carbon is in the free form. (b)White cast iron contains pearlite and cementite while grey cast iron may show a ferrite and graphite, or

pearlite and graphite or a mixture of the two. (c)White cast iron is very hard and brittle while the grey cast iron is softer and brittle. White cast iron can not be machined while grey cast iron can easily be

machined. (d)If a rod of white cast iron is fractured, the

fractured surface is bright metallic. the name “white surface cast of iron”. grey cast On

Hence it is given other is hand the

the

fractured

iron

“Gray”

which

explains the name given to it. (e) White cast iron has very poor damping capacity while grey cast iron has an excellent damping capacity.

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Q.12. What are alloy steels? Discuss the reasons

21
for

alloying steel with different element. All steels, in addition to iron and carbon, contain other elements in like silicon, manganese, In sulphur and

phosphorus

varying

,amounts.

carbon

steels

manganese normally varies upto 1 percent and silicon upto 0.3 percent. Against this, there is another variety of steel in which manganese is more than 1 percent and

silicon more than 0.3 percent. and carbon, they carry and

A1so,in addition to iron phosphorus, etc. in nickel, varying

sulphur, vanadium

chromium,

molybdenum

proportions. they owe

Such steels are called ‘Alloy steels’ and different They properties normally mainly named to these the

their

alloying principal

elements· alloying

are

after

element

These

elements

are

alloyed

with steel for one or more of the following reasons: 1. To improve tensile strength without adversely

affecting the ductility. 2. To improve hardenability. 3. To improve toughness. 4. To improve corrosion resistance. 5. To improve wear resistance. 6. To impart capability to retain physical properties at high temperatures. 7. To improve cutting ability and ability to retain shape and resist distortion at elevated temperatures 8. To promote fine grain size. 9. To improve case hardening properties. Q.13. What are phosphor bronzes ? Discuss their uses. Phosphor bronze. Various compositions of this alloy are That having about 0.5% P

available for different uses.

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is widely used for different types of springs

22
in

electrical instruments. systems and instruments. for bearings and gears.

Its drawn tubes are used in fuel Cast phosphor bronze is used Bearing bronze contains 10% tin Gear bronze contains 13%

and small addition of lead. tin for greater strength. cast, centrifugally cast,

Phosphor bronze can be sand or cast through lost wax

process.

It carries good load bearing capacity, enough

plasticity and good wear resistance, which make it an ideal bearing metal. Q.14. Discuss the effect of following elements on the

properties of steel. i) ii) Nickel Chromium

iii) Molybdenum iv) v) vi) Cobalt Tungsten Vanadium

The various alloying elements affect the properties of steels as follows: Nickel:ductility Chrominm:It improves and toughness, corrosion tensile strength, resistance.

It is added in varying proportions upto 18%.

Below 1.5% addition increases tensile strength and 12% addition imparts high corrosion resistance. chromium addition improves bardenability In general, and toughness

simultaneously. Cobalt:It improves hardness, toughness, tensile It

strength, thermal resistance and magnetic properties. also acts as a grain refiner.

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23

Manganese:- In lower proportions, say from 1.0 to 1.5 percent, its addition increases strength and toughness. Higher proportions up-to 5 percent impart hardness

accompanied by brittleness. Still higher proportions, say between 11 to 14 percent, provide very high degree of hardness. Silicon:improves It acts as a ferrite It strengthener improves and

elastic

limit.

magnetic Higher

permeability

and decreases hysterisis losses.

percentage of silicon gives rise to corrosion resisting alloys. Molybdenum:thermal Its addition increases wear resistance, to retain

resistance,

hardness,

ability

mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and helps to inhibit temper brittleness. When added with nickel, it also improves corrosion resistance. Tungsten:resistance, ability to It increases hardness, magnetic toughness, reluctance at wear and

shock retain

resistance, mechanical

properties

elevated

temperatures. Vanadinm:- It improves tensile strength, elastic limit, ductility, shock resistance and also acts as a degaser when added to molten steel. Q.15. Explain important characteristics of bearing metal. Ans:- Bearing metals :- Bearing metal should possess the following important characteristics: 1. It should have enough compressive strength to

possess adequate load canying capacity.

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2.

24

It should have good plasticity to allow for small

variations fa alignment and fitting. 3. It should have good wear resistance to maintain a

specified 4. It should have low co-efficient of friction to avoid

excessive heating. x Q.16. Explain the physical properties of metals. Ans:-Physical Properties of Metals 1. Plasticity. It is fhe property of a metal on account of which it can be converted into a desired shape so as to make it suitable for use in engineering work. This conversion into different shapes is effected’ either both. by the application of beat or pressure or

This property renders the metal to flow under

the action of this pressure or beat so that it can be suitably shaped. 2. Elasticity. It is the property due to which a

metal is capable of resisting permanent deformation into a new shape and size, from its original shaps and 3. size, under the It is action the of external forces. due to which a

Stiffness.

property

metal is capable of resisting deflection due to an externally applied force. This is very important for

those parts which are required to remain perfectly aligned under applied loads. 4. Ductility. can be It is the property due to which into the form of a wire, a metal without

drawn

rupture, at the same time retaining enough strength.

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25

Most of the metals are more ductile in cold state than when they are not. 5. Malleability. It is the property of a metal on

account of which it can be extended in all directions by hammering or rolling. Production of the metal

sheets has been possible only due to the presence of this characteristic in the metals. 6. Toughness. is able to It is the property due to which a metal withstand bending or torsion without

fracture. 7. Fusibility. It is the property due to which a metal

becomes fluid when it is heated. Castability of a metal entirely depends upon this characteristic. 8. Refractoriness. which It is the property on account of

a metal is able to withstand high temperatures

without fusing. 9. Hardness. capable of It is the property which renders a metal resisting surface penetration by other

materials. 10. Impact resistance. It is the property due to which a

metal is able to withstand heavy shocks such as in power hammering. 11. Machinability. It is the property due to which a

metal can be easily cut by cutting tools to produce a desired shape and surface finish on its surface. 12. Strength. It is the measure of ability of a material to withstand external forces.

Q.17. Write short notes on

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i) ii) Preparation of Cupola Charging of Cupola

26

iii) Cupola Zones Ans:- Preparation of Copula To start with, the waste material and slag etc., dumped under the furnace after the previous meltings, Inside the

are removed

and the surrounding cleaned.

furnace the projecting pieces of iron and slag etc, are chipped off the of wall. This is followed over by the ,the burnt

application

refractory

material

portions of the firebrick lining. If any brick is noticed to have been burnt to the extent of being unusable, it is replaced by a new brick. Thus the firebrick lining is reconditioned and brought to its original shape, and the required internal diameter of the cupola is obtained.

After the repair of the lining is over the bottom door is brought and secured in position, followed by the ramming of a property riddled and tempered floor sand to form a tapared sand bed. The moisture content of the sand

mixture is kept about 5 per cent.

The sand bed is made

sloping towards the spout to ensure better flow of the molten metal. The average thickness of this bed is kept about 10 centimeters. Charging the Cupola The kindling material, generally soft and dry of wood, is first placed over the sand bed followed by a small amount of coke charge, known as bed charge. The

choke for this charge is put gradually in the furnace through the charging door. The kindling material is

ignited through the tap bole.

This fire spreads slowly

Mech Tech – Unit 1
into the coke around the kindling material.

27
Additional

coke is filed until the bed charge acquires the required height. Cover plates opposite the tureyes are opened to

allow the free entry of air to aid combustion and they are left A open till the entire bed charge is fully of

ignited.

carefully

weighted

proportionate

amount

metal, pig iron, scrap and flux is then fired over the bed charge followed by a weighed quantity of coke. are repeated in alternate layers, of They a

course

predetermined quantity of each, until the cupola ii full to the charging door. If the cupola, on account of its fixed capacity, is unable to takeup the entire material to be melted ,at a time, the remainder is fed into it after the initial charge has been melted. Although,

as described in the foregoing articles, the amount of coke consumed per unit of charge varies according to the quality of coke, control of air supply and similar other factors, the usual practice is to keep the ratio of the metal charge to the coke in between 8 to 1 and 10 to 1. The natural draft through the cover plates, opposite

tuyeres, is continued for about 1 to 2 hours so that the brickwork in the furnace is uniformly preheated before the blower is started. and coke charges, heated Also during this period the metal in The alternate cover layers, are Within are then 10

lying up.

sufficiently

plates

replaced in position and the blower started.

minutes after the start of the forced draught the molten metal starts trickling down and collects, in the well. The height of coke charge in the cupola in each layer

varies generally from 10 cms to 25cms.

The amount of

flux to be added to the metal charge depends upon the

Mech Tech – Unit 1
quality of the charged metal and scarp and

28
the

composition of the coke.

It is the amount of ash content

present in the coke, which effects the quantity of the flux to be charged, and no other constituent of the coke. Usual practice is to charge about 40 kg to 50 kg of limestone, as flux, per metric ton of the metal charged. The amount of this flux to be charged should be properly determined. Otherwise it gives the adverse effect If it is fed in excess, it affects the acid lining of cupola, and if fed in lesser amount than required, if will result in the loss of molten metal which will be driven outmixed with the slag. The first charge received of the molten metal is either allowed to drain out or used for rough castings where machining is not required as it bas not acquired the desired temperature. Cupola Zones A number of chemical reaction take place in these zones which are explained below: 1. Well:tuyeres and It is the space between the bottom of the the sand bed. The metal, after melting,

trickles down and collects in this space before it is tapped out. 2. Combustion zone. It is located It is also known as oxidising zone. the top of the tuycres and a

between

theoretical level above it

The total height of this zone

is normally from 15 cm. to 30 cm. The actual combustion takes place in this zone, consuming all free oxygen from the air blast and producing a lot of beat, which is

sufficient enough to meet the requirements of other zones of cupola. More heat is evolved due to oxidation of

silicon and manganese. A temperature of about l540°C to

Mech Tech – Unit 1

29

1870O C is produced in this zone. The exothermic reactions taking place in this zone can be represented thus; C + O2 Si+ O2 2Mn +O2 CO2 + Heat Si O2+ Heat 2MnO + Heat

3. Reducing zone. It is also known as the protective zone. zone It is located between the top and the top level of the coke bed. of the combustion CO2is reduced to

CO in this zone through an endothermic reaction, as a result of which the temperature falls from combustion

zone temperature to about l200°C at the top of this zone. The reaction is as follows: CO2 + C(of coke) 2CO -Heat

Nitrogen, the other main constituent of the upward moving hot gases does not participate in the reaction. This zone, on account of the reducing atmosphere in it, protects the charge against oxidation. 4. Melting zone. The first layer of metal charge

above the coke bed constitutes this zone.

The solid

metal charge changes to molten state in this zone and trickles down through the coke to the well. The molten metal picks up sufficient carbon content in this zone as represented by the following reaction : 3Fe+2CO Fe3C + CO2

5.Preheating zone. It extends from above the melting zone to the bottom level of the charging door and contains a number of alternate layers of coke and metal charges. The function of this zone is to preheat the charges from atmospheric temperature to about 10930C before they settle downwards to enter the melting zone. This preheating

Mech Tech – Unit 1

30

takes place due to the upward advancing hot gases, from which the solid metal also picks up some sulphur content. 6. Stack. The empty portion of cupola above the

preheating cone, which provides the passage to hot gases to go to atmosphere, is known as stack. Q.18. Write short notes on i) ii) Cast iron Bronze

Ans:- Cast iron It is the suitable type of product furnace of a used cupola for or any pig other iron

remelting

billets made from molten pig iron received from the blast furnace. As already described earlier, pig iron is not capable of being cast direct to give suitable castings for engineering use. For making it useful for

engineering purposes it is remelted in a cupola or any other type of suitable furnace for this purpose, together with a definite amount of limestone (flux), steel scrap and spoiled castings, etc. This remelting of pig iron

along with the above additions enables it to be cast into moulds to give suitable castings. cast iron. It is then known as

The cast iron produced as above consists of

iron, carbon, silicon, sulphur, phosphorus and manganese in varying proportions. Out of all these constituents

carbon plays a very significant role and its proportion in the metal varies from irons, in general use, 2 to 4.5 percent. possess carbon Average cast from 3 to 4

percent. silicon

Other constituents 1 to upto 3

present in

cast iron

are

percent, sulphur 0.02 to 0.15 percent, 1.0 percent is and manganese and 0.5 has to a 1.0 low

phosphorus percent.

This

metal

very

brittle

Mech Tech – Unit 1

31

resistance to tension but is good in compression. It is sufficiently lard and cannot be worked with a band file. It has no plasticity and hence is unsuitable for forging

work. Cast iron is also available in different forms such as grey iron and white iron which are described in the following articles. Bronzes Bronze is basically an alloy of copper and tin. In

general, it possesses superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance than brass. 8% tin are called working bronzes. Those containing upto They can be easily

cold worked, rolled, formed and drawn. They are available in various forms, as strip, wire and sheet etc. With the increase in tin content, its strength and corrosion resistance increases. working bronze. Small addition It is then known as hot of phosphorus further

improves its strength, ductility and bearing properties. The amount of phosphorus as phosphor bronze. Q.19. What are the different melting furnaces used for ferrous metals Ans:- Following are the melting furnaces which are used for ferrous metals1) Cupola furnace 2) Basic furnace 3) Acid furnace 4) Blast furnace 5) Direct Arc furnace 6) High frequency electric furnace. Q.20. What is malleable cast iron ? added is 0’5%. This is known

Mech Tech – Unit 1
Ans:Malleable Cast Iron. It can be obtained

32
by

annealing the castings. The cast product is packed in an oxidising material such as iron ore or in an inert

material such as ground fire-day. The pack is put into an oven and is heated to a temperature of about 870°C. It is kept at that temperature for about two days and is then allowed to cool at the rate of 5 to 10 degrees per hour. Iron ore acting as an oxidising agent reacts with carbon product and is carbon free dioxide escapes. If The annealed cast is

from

carbon.

the

cast

product

packed in an inert material, slow cooling will separate out the temper carbon. Malleable cast irons are used for complicated structures. Q.21. What are the of different by types of their C.I? Explain of

briefly

each

its

giving

fields

application. Ans. Types of Cast irons are – 1) Gray cast iron 2) Malleable cast iron 3) Nodular cast iron 4) White or motted cast iron GRAY CAST IRON Characteristics Gray Iron basically is an alloy of carbon and silicon with iron. It is readily cast into a desired shape in sand mould. It contains 2.5-3.8% C, 1.1-2.8% Si, 0.4-1.0% Mn, 0.15% P and 0.10% S.

Mech Tech – Unit 1

33

It is marked by the presence of flakes of graphite in a matrix of ferrite pearlite or austenite. Graphite flakes occupy about 10% of the metal volume. Length of flakes may vary from 0.05 mm to O.1 mm. Applications i) ii) Machine tool structures. Gas or water pipes for underground purposes.

iii) Manhole covers. iv) v) vi) Cylinder blocks and heads for I.C. Engines. Tunnel segment. Frames for electric motors.

vii) Ingot moulds. viii) Sanitary wares. ix) x) xi) Piston rings. Rolling mill and general machinery parts. Household appliances, etc.

MALLEABLE CAST IRON Characteristics Malleable castwhich can be hammered and rolled to

obtain different shapes. Malleable brittle process. a) A ferritic malleable cast iron has Ferrite matrix. b) A pearlitic malleable cast iron has Pearlite matrix. c) An alloy malleable cast iron contains chromium and nickel and possesses high strength and corrosion cast white iron is obtained from hard and

iron through a controlled heat conversion

resistance. Malleable cast iron possesses high yield strength.

Mech Tech – Unit 1
It has high Young’s modulus and low coefficient

34
of

thermal expansion. It possesses good wear resistance and vibration damping capacity. It has low to moderate cost. Application (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Automotive industry. Railroad. Agricultural implements. Electrical line hardware. Conveyor chain links. Gear case. Universal joint yoke. Real axle banjo housing. Truck tandem axle assembly parts.

(10) Automotive crankshaft.

NODULAR CAST IRON Unlike long flakes as in gray cast iron, graphite appears as rounded particles, or nodules or spheroids in Nodular Cast Iron. The spheroidizing elements when added to melt eliminate sulphur and oxygen (from the melt), which change

solidification characteristics and possibly account for the nodulization. Ductile cast iron possesses very good machinability.

Mech Tech – Unit 1

35

Soft annealed grades of Nodular cast iron can be turned at very high feeds and speeds. The properties of Nodular Cast Iron depend upon the metal composition and the cooling rate. Applications

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

Paper industries machinery. Internal combustion engines. Power transmission equipment. Farm implements and tractors. Earth moving machinery. Valves and fittings. Steel mill rolls and mill equipment. Pipes. Pumps and compressors.

(10) Construction machinery.

WHITE CAST IRON (MOTTLED IRON) Characteristics White cast iron derives its name from the fact that its freshly broken surface shows a bright white fracture. Unlike gray iron, white cast iron has almost all its carbon, chemically bonded with the iron as iron

carbide, Fe3C. Iron carbide is a very hard and brittle constituent. Thus, white iron possesses excellent abrasive wear

resistance. White iron under normal circumstances is brittle and not machinable.

Mech Tech – Unit 1

36

By using a fairly low silicon content, cast iron may be made to solidify as white iron. White iron castings can be made in sand moulds. White iron can also be made on the surface of a gray iron casting provided the material is of special composition. Uses (1) For producing malleable iron castings. (2) For manufacturing those component parts which require a hard and abrasion resistant materials. Q.22. What are different commercial processes available for making steel? Explain any one of them with the help of neat sketch. Ans:- Steel Production methods are :1) Crucible process 2) Open hearth process 3) The Bessemer process 4) The Linz-Donqwitz process 5) The Electric process. ( electric process is already explained in Direct arc furnace) Q.23. What is Chilled ( White) cast iron ?

Ans:- It has no graphite and is, therefore, white in colour. The whole of carbon content in this type of cast iron is in the form of either free cementite or cemenlite in lamellar pearlite. White or chilled cast iron is prepared by two methods : 1)The grey iron is cast in such a way that it is cooled rapidly. 2) By adjustment of the composition in such a way that carbon and silicon content are low.

Mech Tech – Unit 1
For manufacturing such a kind of cast iron,

37
low

phosphorus pig iron and steel scrap are melted together in an air furnace which is heated from above, or in a cupola furnace. However, for getting best results

generally duplexing or triplexing processes, which are combinations of cupola, air furnace, Bessemer converter and electric furnace, are adopted. White cast iron is very hard, brittle and wear resistant iron. Hardness of 400 Brinell can be obtained by keeping silicon below one per cent and carbon to about 2% in cast iron.When chromium is present above 3% in cast iron, it prevents formation of graphite. White cast iron produced in such a way has got better high temperature strength, grain growth resistance and corrosion resistance besides having ordinary properties of while cast irons. This being almost unmachinable, is used in parts

requiring high abrasion resistance. Q.24. Define ferrous and non-ferrous metal ? Ans:- Ferrous metals are those which contain iron where as non ferrous metals are those which does not contain iron. Q.25. How cast iron differ from steel ? Ans:steel The and essential a cast difference is that between steels a do plain not carbon exhibit

iron

eutectic reaction during solidification while cast irons undergo the eutectic reaction during solidification. It means that steels do not exhibit primary cementite

(cementite directly formed from the liquid) while cast irons may show either primary cementite or graphite

Mech Tech – Unit 1

38

depending upon the chemical composition of the melt and the cooling rate. With respect to mechanical properties, steels are tougher than cast iron. Steels are ductile and are

deformable while cast irons are relatively brittle and undeformable.

Q.26. What are the mechanical properties of metals ? Ans:Fatigue :When subjected to fluctuating or

repeated loads (or stresses), materials tend to develop a characteristic behaviour which is different from that (of the materials) under steady loads. Fatigue is the

phenomenon that leads lo fracture under such conditions. Fracture takes place under repeated or fluctuating

stresses whose maximum value is less than the tensile strength of the material (under steady loads). Fatigue fracture is progressive, beginning as minute cracks that grow under the action of the fluctuating stress. Creep. In many applications, materials sustain steady

loads for long periods of time, e.g., beams in the roof of a building. Under such conditions, the materials may continue to deform until their usefulness is seriously impaired or they may tend to fracture under the same load. Creep may be defined as the time dependent part of the strain resulting from stress. The creep strain occurring at a diminishing rate is

called primary creep, that occurring at a minimum and almost constant rate, secondary creep and that occurring at an accelerating rate is known as tertiary creep.

Mech Tech – Unit 1
Stiffness: Stiffness is the ability of a material

39
or

shape to resist elastic deflection. For identical shapes, the stiffness is proportional to the modulus of

elasticity. A material which deforms less under a given load is more stiff than one which deforms more.

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Mech tech – Unit

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39

UNIT NO.2
Q.1. (a) Define the following 1) Drag 2) Sprue 3) Parting line 4) Gate (b) Discuss the following casting defects. i) ii) Sand Spots Run Out Drag:Sand moulds are prepared The in specially of the terms.

Ans. 1)

constructed

boxes

called

flasks.

purpose

flask is to import the necessary rigidity and strength to the sand in moulding. They are usually made in two

parts, held in alignment by dowel pins. called the cope and the lower part.

The top part is

2) Sprue :- A vertical passage through the cope and connecting the pouring basin to the runner and gate is called Sprue. Conventionally a sprue should be tapered

with larger end to receive the molten metal and to act as reservoir. longer Round sprue is preferred upto 20 mm dia, but may be rectangular The circular and (less sprue offers turbulence has the in

sprues

rectangular surface

sprue). to

minimum least

exposed

cooling

resistance to flow). 3) Parting line :- It is the line along which the sand surfaces of the drag and cope join each other. 4) Gate :It is an opening through which the The

molten-mental flows from runner to mould cavity.

size, and location of gates are so arranged that the mould cavity can be filled as quickly as possible without

Mech tech – Unit

2

40

cutting the mould surfaces, further crack in metal after solidification should not develop. (b)i)Sand Spots:- Sand spots on surfaces are generally developed on iron castings rich in silicon content due to local chilling of those spots by moulding sand. Due to

this chilling effect white cast iron is formed at those places, rendering them hard. The main cause of this

defect is a faulty metal composition and a faulty casting design which results in relatively more rapid cooling of certain portions than the remaining casting. Changes in

metal composition, addition of suitable amount of nickel and modification in casting design are the possible

remedies of this defect. i) Run Out :- A run out occurs when the molten metal

leaks out of the mould during pouring, resulting in an incomplete casting. The main causes of this defect are

defective moulding boxes, which do not fit properly, and faulty moulding. Corrective measures in respect of these

two causes will prevent this defect. Q.2. What is the purpose of die casting? Describe vacuum die casting with the help of a neat sketch. Ans. The purpose : 1) Increasing production rate. 2) Effecting greater economy. 3) Improving quality of casting. 4) Eliminating machining. 5) Provide better dimensional control. or minimising the need of further method of die casting serve the following

Mech tech – Unit

2

41

6) Production of better surface finish.

Vaccum die casting machine :- Complete evacuation of air from the die for prior to metal the injection air is a in vital the

necessity casting. This casting

preventing

entrapment

difficulty

is

overcome

in

the are

vaccum made in

die hot

machine.

Some

modifications

chamber die casting machine to get vaccum die casting machine. consist The additional equipment required in this case of an encasement at the ground top and the die blocks, of this

compressible

seals

bottom

encasement and a pipe connecting the encasement to the vaccum pump through a valve to and the vaccum main tank. An for

additional

plunger,

adjecent

plunger,

elasing the part, when vaccum is applied to the die to prevent the molten metal From being drawn into the die.

Q.3. What is the utility of various types of furnaces used in foundry shops? Describe one widely used furnace with special reference to its parts, working and other features. Draw a neat sketch of the furnace also.

Mech tech – Unit
Ans. The

2

42
utility of various furnaces used in

main

foundries is for melting of various varieties of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys. Describe Cupola furnace for 2nd part of question. Q.4. Write short notes on the following (Covering main aspects only). (i) Inspection of castings

(ii) Modernisation and mechanisation of foundries. Ans: Inspection of castings :It serves two purposes (1) The rejection of the castings which do not meet the specifications and (2) maintaining the quality of workmanship. There are many methods used to check the quality of castings. (i) Most of the methods mentioned below.

Visual inspection.

(ii) Dimensional inspection. (iii) Mechanical testing and chemical testing. (iv) Defects in internal flows by non-destructive tests. (v) Metallurgical testing.

(ii) Modernisation and mechanisation of foundries. The term ‘mechanization’ means substitution of

machinery to perform the operations which were otherwise performed by hands. sand preparation, Such a substitution can be made of moulding and core-making, pouring,

material handling and many other similar operations. Such foundries, where machines have been employed to replace hand operations, are called mechanized foundries.

However, the decision to switch over to mechanization in any foundry is largely governed by economic

considerations.

The extent to which it can be adopted in

Mech tech – Unit

2

43

any foundry depends considerably on the quantity and type of production. Larger the production, more is the scope This scope is further enhanced if the

for mechanization.

sad production is of identical components on mass scale. Advantages of mechanization 1. From the same floor area much higher production can be achieved. 2. A large saving in labour and time is effected by doing away with a number of laborious hand operations, like sand preparation, mould making and material handling etc. 3. It creates more hygienic and healthy working conditions for the shop workers and effects an increase in their earnings through higher production. 4. It improves the quality of the castings produced by facilitating closer dimensional tolerances, minimising defects and providing better surface finish. 5. Overall production cost is reduced due to faster rate of production and elimination of a large number of laborious hand operations. Q.5. List the difference between Hot chamber and cold chamber die casting.

Ans. Following points shows the differences between cold chamber die casting(machine) and Hot chamber die

casting(Machine) Cold chamber die Hot chamber die

casting(Machine) 1. Heating chamber of is

casting(Machine) not 1. Heating part chamber of is

integral

part

machine integral

machine

unit. Metals are melted in a unit.

Mech tech – Unit
self

2

44
pot in an

contained

auxiliary furnace. 2. Non-ferrous having usually metals high and 2. Metals and alloys having melting point usually

alloys point

melting low

above

5000C below 5000C are cast.

are cast. 3. Require operating 3. Require comparatively low operating pressure below 150 kgf/cm2 4. Usually 75-150 casting/hr 4. can be produced. Usually can 300-350 be

pressure 300-1600 kgf/cm2

castings/hr. produced.

5.

Semi-solid

metals

and 5.

Semi-solid

metals

and

alloys can be cast. 6. Usually

alloys can’t be cast. Usually hardened and or is

Nickel-chrome 6.

steel is used for die.

tempered

crome-vanadium steel

chrome-tungsten used for die.

Q.6. What is permanent mould? Specify its advantages and disadvantages? Ans. When the mould made from metals like C.I. or steel then, while casting such mould is not destroyed or

rebuilt after every casting.

Since can be use for long

period such mould is known as permanent mould. Advantages of permanent mould 1) Increases the speed of casting process. 2) Have very long life. 3) Results in better surface finish than sand casting. 4) Castings in large quantities can be produced

economically.

Mech tech – Unit

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45

5) Casting method requires less skill and at same time number of rejections are less. Disadvantages of permanent mould 1) These moulds are much costlier than sand mould. 2) It can be successfully used for casting very high

temperature alloys 3) Gates, runners and risers can not be shifted and

positioned any where at will. 4) May produced several defects in casting like stress and surface hardness due to surface chilling effect.

Q.7. Sketch cross section through permanent mould showing its principal parts. Describe its construction in detail. Ans. Construction of permanent mould: Generally these moulds are made in two halves, parting surface of which is in a vertical plane. Cores may be

designed as part of the mould itself known as fixed cores or fitted separately known as movable cores. For easy

and quick removal of movable cores separate mechanism is incorporated. Clamping arrangement is used to avoid

mould to open under the hydrostatic pressure of molten metal.

Mould generally comprises of several blocks joined together as shown in figure.

Mech tech – Unit
The

2

46
block and base block together form the

form

actual mould cavity whereas the runner block incorporates the runner and riser. kept on parting line. Q.8.What is gravity die casting? Explain with neat sketch. Q.9. Explain the difference between gravity die casting and pressure die casting. Ans. - In gravity die casting pouring is done simply due But for Runner and riser are generally

to gravity and no external pressure is applied.

pressure die casting external pressure is applied to free the molten or semi molten metal in to the die cavity. In P.D.C. the pressure is applied to the force the fluid in die cavity. The fluid alloy fills the entire Hence intricate can

die including all minute cavities.

be produced successfully but as compared to G.D.C. We get better dimensional tolerance and better surface finish in P.D.C. compared to G.D.C. P.D.C. can be made fully or semi automatic. P.D.C. metal in semi molten state can be cast which not possible in G.D.C.

-

As the arrangement to develop the pressure is needed in case of P.D.C. it needs some costly equipments which increases the build up cost for P.D.C. Hence the

equipments use for P.D.C. are costlier than G.D.C. Q.9. Write short notes on (i) Repair of castings

(ii) Pressed casting Ans: (i)Repair of castings:- When casting gets damaged or found defective particularly in case of large castings,

Mech tech – Unit

2

47
In such

it is not economical to reject it and recast it.

case we can repair it by proper method mostly by welding which save time as well as money. casting material, type of defect, Depending upon the we can use proper

welding method to repair defect.

In most cases, bend or

warped castings, if slightly out of shape also possible to bring back to original shape by hammering with soft hammers by hand, jacks or by presses. (ii)Pressed casting :In this type fixed amount of

molten metal poured into the permanent mould and then close fitting cores are pushed in the cavity, by this molten metal force into the mould cavity. removed after metal sets into cavity. hallow casting. articles. Q.10. Explain Jamming of cupola. Ans. Jamming of cupola may be permanent or temporary. If the molten metal is not taped out before its level rises to high in the well, the slag which floats on the surface of molten metal, will start flowing into wind belt through the tuyeres and air passage will be choked and the cupola jammed. Thus, the furnace is put to an Cores are

We get thin walled

This method is limited for ornamental

unusable condition then it is known as permanent jamming. Iron and slag around the tuyeres openings get solidify. Due to the low temperature at the tuyeres openings which results in the closing of air passage and supply of air is temporarily stopped termed as temporary jamming. This

can be prevented by frequent poking of this solidified material by poking bar, through tuyeres.

Mech tech – Unit
Q.11. conditioning.

2

48
the process of sand preparation and

Explain

Ans. Following steps are carried out for sand preparation and conditioning :Sand found in nature doesn’t content all required qualities moulding. Generally in required some lime, extent additives magnesia, necessary are mixed for with soda, proper sand. horse

Hence clay,

potash,

manure, saw dust, cow dug, coal dust etc. used in small quantities. This machine additives are mixed uniform by hand or by of mixing clay,

which

ensures

distribution

moisture and other constituent between sand grains. Then adequate amount of water is poured over sand, then the sand turned upside and downside by means of shovel. This moistens the clay making it adhesive. mixture is riddled to remove the foreign

This material.

Q.12. State the advantages and disadvantages of die casting? Ans. Advantages of die casting are 1) It requires less floor space as compared to other

casting processes. 2) Rate of production is high. 75 to 150 casts per hour in cold chamber and 300 to 350 casts per hour in hot chamber process. 3) Die casting dies retain their accuracy for a very long time. 4) Very thin sections can be cast and holes upto minimum of 1.6 mm diameter can be easily cored.

Mech tech – Unit

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49

5) High surface finish is obtained and often no further finishing is required. 6) Cost per unit is minimum hence economical. Disadvantages of die casting 1) All metals and alloys can not be cast. 2) The cost of machines, dies and other equipment used is high. 3) Not economical for small quantity production. 4) Heavy casting cannot be cast. 5) Special precautions are necessary for evacuation of air from die cavity, otherwise cause porosity. Q.12. State the differences between cold chamber die casting machine and hot chamber machine. Ans. Following points shows the difference between cold chamber die casting (machine) and Hot chamber die casting (machine). Cold chamber die casting(Machine) 1. Heating chamber of is Hot chamber die casting(Machine) not 1. Heating part chamber of is

integral unit.

part

machine integral

machine

Metals are melted in unit.

a self contained pot in an auxiliary furnace. Non alloys point ferrous having usually metals high above and Metals an alloys having low

melting melting

point

usually

below

5000C. 5000C. are cast.

are cast. Requires operating pressure Requires comparatively low

of 300 to 1600 kgf/cm2.

operating pressure below 150 kgf/cm2.

Usually 75 to 150 castings Usually

300

to

350

castings

Mech tech – Unit

2

50
per hour can be produced.

per hour can be produced.

Semi solid metals and alloys Semi solid metals and alloys can be cast. Usually nickel-chrome can not be cast. steel Usually hardened and tempered chrome-vanadium tungsten die. steel or is chromeused for

is used for die.

Q.13. How permanent mould casting differ from sand casting? Ans. Permanent Mould Casting Sand Casting

1. Mould is a permanent one 1. Mould is not permanent. and is neither destroyed nor remade after each cast. 2. Requires less floor space 2. Requires more floor space area. 3. Moulds are costly. 4. Rate of production area. 3. Cost of mould is less. is 4. Rate of production is

high. 5. Economical for

slow. large 5. Used for small quantity of production. and 6. The runner and riser can suitably positioned at

quantity production. 6. In order to enable

easy and unrestricted removal be of casting, are the runner kept

and will. on

riser

normally

the parting line. 7. Better surface finish is 7. Surface finish inferior mould

obtained.

than casting.

permanent

Mech tech – Unit
8. Less required. 9.

2

51
operator is 8. Comparatively more skill operator is required. many defects 9. No need against of such

skill

Eliminates in sand

found need against

casting

but precaution

chilling

greater chilling

precaution effect on casting surface. effect on

the casting surface.

Q.14. What is gravity die casting? Explain with neat sketch? Q.15. Sketch and explain the construction and operation of hot chamber die casting machine. Ans. In the hot chamber die casting machine the metal melting unit forms an integral part of machine. It

mainly consist of hot chamber and a goose neck type metal container made of cast iron.

Construction
This type of machine having goose neck type

container which always remains immersed in the metal pot. Cylindrical shape is formed at the end of goose neck, a plunger acts inside the cylinder. near the top of the cylinder. A port is provided

Goose neck injector is

connected to stationary die by nozzle and movable die can move to from die casting and injecting the casting. is provided with proper injecting mechanism. Operation As the plunger move upward the port get open and molten metal enters into cylinder. plunger closes the port and Downward movement of the molten metal Die

forces

inside die cavity through nozzle.

After solidification

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plunger moves upward at the same time movable die move away from stationary die to inject the casting.

Injecting mechanism cause to inject the casting.

Plunger

starts downward movement and movable die moves towards the stationary die to form required casting. is further repeated. Q.16. Write short notes on 1) Slush casting 2) Pressed casting Ans: Slush casting hallow :Slush by casting using is a method of The cycle

producing

casting

permanent

moulds

without the use of cores.

In this method the molten

metal poured in to the mould and allowed to solidify upto the required thickness, then remaining molten metal made to fall out. Because of this we cannot precisely control

the thickness of casting, hence this method is adopted for ornaments, statues, toys and other novelties were

controlled thickness is not too important. Pressed casting :- In this type fixed amount of molten metal poured into the permanent mould and then close

fitting cores are pushed in the cavities, by this molten metal force into the mould cavity. Cores are removed

after metal sets into the cavity and we get thin walled

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articles.

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This method is limited for ornamental

hallow casting.

Q.17. Explain with neat sketch, the construction and operation of a die casting die? Ans. Construction :Die castings are made into halves, one is stationary and other is movable. These two halves when closed have Dowel pins are provided for

vertical parting surface. perfect alignment. into parting

Provision of vent for escape of air is usually provided. A proper

surface

ejecting mechanism is provided.

The die is so designed

that after solidification the casting will always cling to the ejector die. Operation :- Movable die moves and comes in contact with stationary stationary die. die, Movable which die perfectly required aligned die with

forms

the

cavity. Then the After

This cavity is usually the required casting.

molten metal is injected into the die cavity. solidification, inserted cores are firstly

withdrawn.

Then the die opens, casting cling to the movable die.

Then either the movable half is slighted backward over the ejector pins or the ejector plate attached to this is advanced to project the ejector pins beyond the movable die to eject the casting from the die.

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Q.18. What are the common forms in which the die casting dies are designed? Describe. Ans. Die casting dies are generally designed in three forms. 1) Single impression dies :- In this form die have single cavity by this die only one casting at a time can produce. 2) Multi impression dies :- In this form die have more than one die cavities. These die cavities are alike.

By this die, castings equal to the number of cavities in them can be produced at a time. 3) Combination dies :- In this form die have more than one die cavities, but these die cavities are not

alike.

By this die, casting equal to the number of

cavities in them can be produced.

Q.18. Explain the working of a cold chamber machine with the help of a diagram. Ans. The working principle of a cold chamber machine is illustrated in Fig.15.3. The word ‘cold chamber’ is used

to denote horizontal cylinder into which the injection plunger work. For these machines the metal is melted

separately in a furnace and transferred to these by means of a small hand ladle. After closing the die the molten

metal is poured into the horizontal chamber through the metal inlet. The plunger is pushed forward hydraulically After solidification, is ejected. The

to force the metal into the die. the die is opened and the

casting

plunger is again drawn back and the cycle repeated as usual for next casting. These machines are widely used

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good number of alluminium alloys and

a

brasses which cannot be cast in hot chamber machines as they require higher melting points. Moreover, the

chances of iron pick up by alluminium are almost finished in these machines as it takes place only at elevated temperatures, and also because the molten alloy remains in contact with the steel cold chamber and plunger for a very small period.

Q.19. State the advantages and disadvantages of die casting? Ans. Advantages of die casting are 1. It requires less floor space as compare to other

casting processes. 2. Rate of production is high. in cold chamber. chamber process. 3. Die casting dies retain their and more accuracy for a very long time. 4. Very thin sections can be cast and Holes upto minimum of 1.6 mm. 5. High surface finish is obtained and often no further finishing is required. 6. Cost per unit is minimum hence economical. Disadvantages of die casting are 1. All metals and alloys cannot be cast. 2. The cost of machine dies and other equipment used is high. 3. Not economical for small quantity production. 4. Heavy castings cannot be cast. 75 to 150 casts per hour

300 to 350 casts per hour in hot

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5. Special precautions are necessary for evacuation of air from die cavity, otherwise cause porosity.

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What are master patterns? How does their size differ

from other pattern’s? Explain Ans : Master patterns are used for preparing

the moulds for metal castings which are later used as patterns patterns. for further moulding work, called metal

The master patterns are accurately finished

wooden patterns, which carry double shrinkage allowance and the required machining allowance. For example, an

alluminium pattern is to be made which is to be used further for making moulds for brass castings. The

alluminium pattern should, obviously, be larger than the desired brass casting by an amount equal to shrinkage that will take place during solidification of this

casting.

For making this alluminium pattern a wooden

pattern is to be used which should be larger than the alluminium pattern by an amount equal to the alluminium shrinkage, added with proper machining allowance for

finishing the alluminium casting. be represented thus :

Mathematically, it can

Let Sb represent the size of the desired casting in brass. And And Let Sa represent the size of alluminium pattern. Let Cb represent the contration allowance for brass. Then Sa=Sb+Cb

Again, pattern. And let Ca

let

S

represent

the

size

of

the

master

represent

the

contraction

allowance

for

alluminium.

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Am represent the machining allowance

Also let

required to finish the alluminium casting to the required size of pattern and to give smooth surface finish. Then S = Sa+Ca+Am

or = Sb+Cb+Ca+Am Size of master pattern = Size of the final casting to be Made + shrinkage allowance for the material of final casting+shrinkage allowance of the metal of which the pattern is to be made + Finishing allowance for the metal pattern.

Q.2. What considerations are necessary while designing a pattern? Ans. The following points should be considered, while designing a pattern : 1. Proper allowances should be provided, wherever

necessary. 2. The parting line should be carefully selected so as to allow as small portion of the pattern in the cope as possible. 3. A proper material should always be selected for the pattern after carefully considering the factors

mentioned in Art.9.4. 4. An endeavor should always be made to employ full cores instead of jointed half cores as far as possible. will reduce cost and ensure greater This

dimensional

accuracy. 5. The wall thickness and sections should be kept as

uniform as possible. Abrupt changes should invariably be avoided. 6. The use of offset parting, instead of cores, should be encouraged to as great an extent as it is possible.

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7. For large-scale production of small castings, the use of gated or match-plate patterns should be encouraged wherever the existing facilities permit. 8. All sharp corners and edges should be invariably

provided with suitable fillets or otherwise rounded to enable an easy withdrawal of pattern, smooth flow of molten metal and ensure a sound casting. 9. All those surfaces of the casting which are

specifically required to be perfectly sound and clean should be so designed that they will be molded in the drag. 10. The pattern should be given a high-class surface

finish as it directly effects the corresponding finish of the casting. 11. If gates, runners and risers are attached to the they should be properly located and their

pattern,

sudden contraction or enlargement should be avoided. 12. Shape and size of the casting and that of the core

should be carefully considered to decide the size and location of the core prints.

Q.3. Shortly explain the following : (1) Segmental patterns (2) Core prints Ans: Segmental patterns:-These patterns are used for

preparing moulds of large circular castings, avoiding the

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In principle

use of a solid pattern of the exact size.

they work like a sweep, but the difference is that a sweep is given a continuous revolving motion to generate the desired shape, whereas a segmental pattern is a

portion of the solid pattern itself and the mould is prepared in parts by it. It is mounted on a central

pivot and after preparing the part mould in one position, the segment is moved to the next position. The operation A typical

is repeated till the complete mould is ready. example is shown in Fig. (2) Core prints :

When a casting is required to have a hole, through or blind, a core is used in the mould to produce the same. on This core has to be properly seated in the mould impressions in the sand. To form these

formed

impressions, extra projections are added on the pattern surface at proper places. core prints. These projections are known as

Q.4.(a) What do you understand by acid and basic cupolas? Where each type is preferred and why? Ans : Cupolas are termed as basic or acid according to the type of refractory lining used inside them. The

refractory lining is provided by setting bricks, made of refractory material all along the inside surface of the cupola shell. Basic cupolas find their specific use in They help in the

the production of ductile cast iron.

reduction of sulphur content in iron to the tune of 0.005 percent. They also enable a higher carbon pick-up than This

acid cupola, with the use of same raw material.

enables use of a higher proportion of steel scrap in the

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metal charge.

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However, if higher percentage, say upto

0.1 percent of sulphur is admissible in the cast metal the acid cupola proves to be relatively cheaper.

(b) Write a short notes on following casting defects. (1) Metal penetration (2) Warpage Ans.: (1) Metal penetration : This defect occurs as a rough and uneven

external surface on the casting. molten metal enters into the

It takes place when the spaces between the sand

grains and holds some of the sand tightly with it even after fettling. The principal causes for the promotion

of this defect are the use of coarse sand, having high permeability and low strength, and soft ramming. Use of

fine sand with low permeability and hard ramming will minimise this defect.

(2) Warpage : It is an undesirable deformation in the casting, which may occur takes in during place or due after to solidification. the due internal to The

deformation developed

stresses

the

casting

differential

solidification in different sections.

Such stresses are

also developed and differential solidification occurs in case of castings having very large and wide flat

surfaces.

Both the causes can be attributed to faulty

design of the casting, which needs modification to ensure proper directional solidification.

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(c) Explain, how the grain size and shape effect the performances of a foundry sand. Ans. Sand Grain : The remarkable foundry shape and on The size the sand of the sand grains has of a the

effect

physical grains

properties may have

sand.

smooth,

conchoidal or rough surfaces. type i.e., smooth, is

Out of these the first for moulding for the

preferred

reason that such a surface renders higher permeability, sinter point and plasticity to the sand mass, but the

percentage of binder required is also equally high. Similarly the sand grains may have different shapes. The commonly formed shapes are rounded, sub-angular,

angular and compound.

The rounded grains do not bind

together two well when rammed and, hence, render the sand mould highly permeable but the strength of the mould is also reduced. Sub-angular grains give a relatively stronger bond than above but the permeability is reduced. sharp grains produce a much stronger bond Angular or and a low

permeability when rammed. greater strength. Sand

Thus they enable a mould of grains which are cemented

together such that they do not separate when screened are called compound. They may consist of one, two or a

combination of all the above three shapes. much preferred.

They are not

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63

Like the shape the size of sand grains also effects structure and its characteristics. increase Large,

regular

and

uniform

grains

permeability.

Smaller grains increase smoothness on mould surfaces.

Q.5. What making?

are

the

common

materials

used

for

pattern

Discuss their relative merits and demerits.

Ans.: Pattern materials The common materials of which the patterns are made are the following: 1. Wood. It is the most common material used for

pattern making because of the following advantages : (i) It is cheap and available in abundance. (ii) It can be easily shaped into different forms and

intricate designs. (iii) Its manipulation is easy because of lightness

in weight. (iv) Good surface finish can be easily obtained by only planing and sanding. (v) It can be preserved for a fairly long time by

applying proper preservatives like shellac varnish. On the other hand, it has certain disadvantages also as follows: (i) It wears out quickly due to its low resistance to sand abrasion. As such, a wooden pattern cannot

stand a long constant use. (ii) It is very susceptible to moisture, which may lead to its warping or splitting. storing in a dry place This needs its careful and the application of

preservatives.

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64

Its life, owing to the above reasons, is short as This confines its

compared to other pattern materials.

use to such cases only when a small number of castings are required. 2) Metals :- Metals are used with advantage, as pattern material, only when the number of castings to be made is very high and a closer dimensional accuracy is

desired.

They have a much longer life than wooden

patterns and eliminate the inherent disadvantages of wood to a great extent. But they also carry the

following Disadvantages : (i) They are costlier than wood and, therefore, cannot be used with advantage, where a smaller number of castings is to be made. (ii) For giving different shapes and fine surface finish they need machining. cost. (iii) Most of them are very heavy and in case of This again adds to their

large castings the weight of the pattern always poses a problem in its manipulation. (iv) A large number of them have a tendency to get rusted. 3) Plaster :Plaster of Paris or gypsum cement is

advantageously used as a pattern material since it can be easily casted into intricate shapes and can be easily worked also. it carries a Its expansion can be easily controlled and very high compression strength. Its

specific use is in making small patterns and core boxes involving intricate shapes and closer dimensional

control. A marked feature of this cement is that contrary

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to the action of metals, it expands on being solidified. Thus, if a cement of proper coefficient of expansion is selected, the effect of shrinkage of casting can be

automatically neutralised. 4) Plastics :- Plastics are gradually gaining favour as pattern materials due to their following specific

characteristics : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lightness in weight. High strength. High resistance to wear. High resistance to corrosion due to moisture. Fine surface finish. Low solid shrinkage. Very reasonable cost. The plastics used as pattern materials are thermosetting resins. Phenolic resin plastic and foam plastic For making the pattern,

suit best for this purpose.

first the moulds are made, usually from plaster of Paris. The resin is then poured into these moulds and the two heated. At a specific temperature, the resin solidifies

to give the plastic pattern. 5) Wax :- Wax patterns are exclusively used in investment casting. For this a die or metal mould is made in two The die is As the wax

halves into which the heated wax is poured. kept cool by circulating water around it.

sets on cooling, the die parts are separated and the wax pattern taken out.

Q.6. Explain conditioning.

the

process

of

‘Sand

preparation

and

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Ans.: None of

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66
the natural sand possesses the required

qualities to the required extent.

They may lack in one

or more of these properties which we have to make up by artificial means to make the sand suitable for use. mixing is the to process the sand through which which are we rich add in Sand those such

materials

characteristics, which the sand lacks. Sand to be used in moulding should be properly

conditioned before use in order to obtain good castings, since most of the defects, which occur in castings, are due to improper conditioning of the sand. It holds good Proper

equally for the new as well as old or used sand.

conditioning means the uniform distribution of the clay bond over the sand grains, even distribution and proper control of the moisture content in the sand and sorting out the foreign materials like nails, gaggers and other metal pieces from the sand by ridding and a thorough mixing of the entire sand mass. Even today the above operation is carried out by hand in most of the small foundries. Since no testing

equipment is normally available in such foundries, the sand condition is judged by the moulders themselves by virtue of their practical experience only and the quality of the castings produced in such foundries entirely

depends upon this factor. is generally followed by

A common physical test, which most of the moulders, for

judging the sand condition is to grip a handful of the prepared foundry sand and then relieve the pressure of the fingers. The sand mass thus produced is broken into

two pieces by hand and the edges formed at the broken section are carefully observed. If there is no

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deformation

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67
the edges the sand is supposed to be

in

properly conditioned. If the upper surface of the broken pieces appears to be setting down gradually, as if it is being compressed, it indicates a high moisture content. Gradual separation of sand grains, as if they are being sprinkled from the parted surfaces, indicate a weak bond and low moisture content. Mixing of sand by hand is

performed by first collecting the sand, together with the other constituents to be mixed in it, in the form of a help and then pouring adequate amount of water on to it. After upside keeping down it by as means times such of for a some time and it the is turned

shovel ensure

operation mixing of

repeated

several

to

through

different constituents.

It is then riddled to remove the

forming material from it and thus it is ready for use. Q.7. Write short notes on :(1) Mould hardness test (2) Core hardness test Ans.: (1) Mould hardness test. The hardness of a sand mould can easily be tested by means of a hardness tester. It is a very handy

instrument working on the principle of dryness hardness testing machine. at its bottom, It carries a hemispherical ball or tip which is penetrated into the mould

surface. the

A spring-loaded shaft inside the hollow body of actuates top. the needle of of this the dial gauge

instrument at the

fitted

The

dial

gauge

provides

direct reading of the mould hardness. (2) Core hardness test. It is also a very simple and

handy instrument used for testing the hardness of dry

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68
It

sand cores, especially of the dried oil-sand cores.

carries a cutter at its bottom, which is provided with a pre-determined pressure, by means of a spring inside the instrument, when it is pressed against the surface of the core. Corresponding to the penetration the hardness is

directly given by the scale provided on the tester.

Q.8. What are crucible furnaces? Where are they preferred and why? Ans.: These are the simplest of all the furnaces used in foundries. They are sparingly used in most of the small

foundries where melting is not continuous and a large variety of metals is to be melted in small quantities. In these furnaces the entire melting of metal takes place inside a melting pot, called crucible, which is made of clay and graphite. The sizes of these crucibles vary

from No.1 to No.400 each number representing a definite quantity of metal that can be held conveniently by the crucible. Q.9. How is the thermal efficiency of cupola is determined? Ans. The thermal efficiency of the cupola is given by the ratio of heat actually utilised in melting and

superheating the metal to the heat evolved in it through various means. This ratio can be expressed

mathematically as follows: ηderecent
cupola

= Heat utilised in melting and superheating x 100

the metal

Cal. Value of coke + heat evolved due to oxidation of iron,Si & Mn

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69

In case of a hot blast cupola the above expression will change as follows: ηpercent
cupola

= Heat utilised in melting and superheating the metal x 100 Cal. Value of coke + Heat evolved due to oxidation of iron,Si Blast Experiments reveal that the thermal efficiencies of different cupolas normally range between 30 to 50 per cent. and Mn + Heat supplied by the air

Q.10. Explain

in

brief

causes

and

remedies

of

the

following casting defects Ans. (1) casting. Blow holes:They appear as cavities in a

When they are visible on the upper surface of These blows are When they are visible from

the casting, they are called open blows. normally rounded and have smooth walls. concealed in the casting and are not

outside, they are known as blowholes. the entrapped bubbles of gases in the

They are due to metal and are

exposed only after machining. Possible causes : 1. Excess moisture content in moulding sand-leading to the production of too much of steam and thereby

rendering the permeability of the mould as inadequate. 2. 3. Cores not sufficiently baked. Use of rusted or highly moistened chills, chaplets or other metal inserts-giving rise to the production of a high amount of steam and gases.

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70

Excessive use of organic binders-resulting in the production of high amount of gases.

5.

Cores not adequately vented-resulting in their low permeability.

6.

Moulds inadequately vented resulting in their low permeability.

7.

Moulds

rammed

very

hard-more

addition

to

low

permeability. Remedies : 1. Moisture content in the moulding sand should be

properly controlled. 2. Cores should be adequately backed. 3. Chills, chaplets and metal inserts used should be clean and free from rust or any other gas producing

substance. 4. Organic binders should be used with restraint. 5. Cores and moulds should be adequately vented. Moulds should not be rammed excessively hard. (2) Shrinkage :- During solidification of metal, there is a volumetric by shrinkage. feeding This failing should which be voids adequately will be

compensated

produced in the casting. surface as depression,

These voids may exist on the called surface shrinkage, or

within the casting called internal shrinkage.

Too much This

shrinkage may lead to crack, known as hot tears. defect occurs on account of inadequate and

improper

gating, risering and chilling so that proper directional solidification does not take place. As such it can be

remedied by adopting corrective measures in respect of the above factors.

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cracks.

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71
They are also known as pulls or hot

(2) Hot tears :-

The main reasons of their occurrence is the

low strength of metal after solidification, causing the metal to fail in coping up with the excessively high stresses set up by the solid shrinkage of the metal. These cracks may be external or internal.

They are supposed to be more harmful when they are present internally, is not because revealed in that case their or

occurrence

without

machining

radiographic testing.

Their presence is identified by

an oxidised surface showing an irregular and ragged appearance on fracture. The main reasons of their

occurrence are lack of collapsibility in the core and mould, faulty design leading to exceptionally high

residual stresses at certain portions in the casting and very hard ramming of sand resulting in restricted contraction of casting. An improvement over these

shortcomings will help elimination of hot tears. Q.11. Describe the following types of sands in respect of their composition, particular properties and uses Ans: Loam Sand :- It is a mixture of clay and sand with water to a thin plastic form and from which moulds are built. It contains moisture 18-20% and the loam is dried It is used for producing larger castings.

very slowly.

A typical mixture of loam sand consists of Floor coke Loam sand New sand Silica sand Clay Other gradients 10 Vol 10 Vol 6 Vol 22 Vol 5 Vol 5 Vol 80% mixture + 20% moisture

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1. Parting Sand :- Conventionally, mould is prepared into two or more boxes. without purpose adhering parting to sand These boxes are to be separated each is other’s used. sand. of For the this

One

parting

compounds is lycopedium, which is used when oil is mixed with moulding sand. also be used. 2. Green Sand :- It is the sand in green condition and after preparing the mould, casting (pouring of molten metal) is done in moist state. While preparing the Very fine brick powder can

mould, the rammed sand is dense but porous and further the structure is made porous by venting. Green sand is

generally used for small or medium sized casting. (a) Mixture of green sand for light work purpose

contains – Floor sand………… 80% New sand………… 13.5% 6.5% 95% mixture + 5% moisture

Super fine coal dust… (b)

Mixture of green sand for general purpose contains

Floor sand………….. 60% New sand ………… .. 30% Coal dust ………….. 10% (c) Mixture of green sand for high finish castings 95% mixture + 5% moisture

contains – Floor sand ………… New sand Coal dust ………… … 51% 23% 8.5% 95% mixture + 5% moisture

Carbon blacking … 8.5% Talc ……… 2.8%

3. Backing Sand :- Backing sand or floor sand is used to back up the facing sand and to fill the whole volume of

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73

Old, repeatedly used moulding sand is mainly

employed for this purpose. The backing sand is sometimes called black sand

because of the fact that old, repeatedly used moulding sand is black in colour due to the addition of coal dust and burning on coming in contact with molten metal.

Q.12. Describe the utility of following moulding tools and give neat sketches of each. Ans. Bellows :- A hand operated bellow is shown in Fig. It is used to blow but the loose or unwanted sand

from the surface and cavity of the mould. Hand Riddle :- It consists of a wooden frame fitted with a screen of standard wire mesh at its bottom. used for hand ridding of sand to remove foreign It is

material from it.(See Fig.) Rammer:- A hand rammer is a wooden tool used for packing or ramming the sand into the mould. One end,

called the peen, is wedge shaped, and the opposite end, called the butt, has a flat surface. Floor rammers are similar in construction

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74
Pneumatic rammers are used in

but have long handles.

large moulds saving considerable labor and time.

Q.13. What do you understand by casting? List the merits and demerits of casting process. Ans. Casting is one of the most versatile form of

mechanical process for producing components; casting is a replica of pattern, in metal which is obtained by pouring molten metal into the mould. Principal of casting consists of introducing the

molten metal into a cavity or mould of the desired shape and allowing it to solidify. When it is removed from mould, the casting is of same shape but slightly smaller due to contraction of metal. The molten metal passes

through the four stages i.e. liquid stage, musy stage, plastic stage, and solid stage till the solidification takes place. Today we have a variety of moulding processes and melting equipments, thus we are capable to produce castings of different, materials and their alloys. Though, there is

a tremendous improvement in the production methods, but the basic principles are still the same. the importance of castings and their One can realise role in modern

development.

It is difficult to visualise any product

which do not have one or more casted parts in different

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sizes. as

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75

Though there are other metal shaping process such metal-forging, stamping which can

metal-machining,

fulfil the needs of the community.

But casting caries

inherent advantages, which have made it as the backbone of industrial production. Design Advantages (a) Size – Casting can be prepared upto 200 weight and

the least size that can be made is weighing few grams. Its advantage lies with the production of massive

objects in one piece. (b) Complexity – Most simple/complex shaped products can Such production depends Complicated shaping

be prepared by casting easily.

on the preparation of pattern and mould. shapes cannot be easily produced by

other

methods. (c) Weight Saving – Since the metal can be placed at the

exact location where it is needed, thus lot of metal can be saved by adopting this process. (d) Production of Prototype – It is capable to produce

prototype models/exact product as desired. (e) Wide Range of Properties – This process offers a

large range of mechanical and physical properties in the castings as per requirement. metal-alloys is one variable. Advantages of Casting Process (a) Low cost – It is usually found to be the cheapest Usually the use the

method of metal shaping. (b) Dimensional Accuracy – Tolerances as close as ±0.1

mm can be achieved depending on metal to be casted, casting process, shape and size of casting. Surface

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microns. (c)

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76

finish can also be controlled from 5 microns to 50

Versatility

in

Production

This

process

is

adaptable to all types of production. Metallurgical advantages (i) Fibrous structure.

(ii) Controlled grain size, (iii) Uniform density. Merits of casting:1. Versatile form of mechanical process for producing

components. 2. There is no limit to the size and shape of the articles that can be produced by casting. 3. Casting offers one of the cheapest methods and gives high strength and rigidity even to intricate parts, which are difficult to produce by other methods of manufacturing. Demerits :1. Casting is not always the best method of the various production techniques. 2. Metals having good fluidity and small shrinkage can only be casted in a best way.

Q.14. Which factors need to be considered in selecting a particular type of pattern? Explain split pattern, sweep pattern and match-plate pattern with the help of neat sketches Ans. Factors affecting selection of a particular tape of pattern.

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The

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of pattern to be used for particular

type

casting depends upon many factors like 1. The bulk of casting i.e. whether a small or large

number of casting is wanted. 2. Ease or difficulty of moulding operation. 3. Type of moulding process. Split pattern :- Many times the design of casting offers difficulty in mould making and withdrawal of pattern, if a solid pattern is used. For such castings, split or two They are made in two parts,

piece patterns are employed.

which are joined at the parting line by means of dowels. While moulding one part of the pattern is contained by the drag and the other by the cope.

Match plate patterns :- These patterns are used where a rapid production of small and accurate castings is

desired on a large scale.

Their construction cost is

quite high, but the same is easily compensated by a high rate of production, greater dimensional accuracy and

minimum requirement for machining in the casting.

These

patterns are made in two pieces; one piece mounted on one side and the other on the other side of a plate, called match-plate. The plate may carry only one pattern, or a

group of patterns mounted in the same way on its two sides. The plate may be of wood, steel magnesium or Gates and runners are also attached to the

alluminium.

plate alongwith the pattern.

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Sweep pattern :- Sweeps can be advantageously used for preparing moulds of large symmetrical castings,

particularly of circular cross-section.

This effects a The full

large saving in time, labour and material.

equipment consists of a base, suitably placed in the sand mass, a vertical spindle and a wooden template, called sweep. The outer end of the sweep carries the contour The

corresponding to the shape of the desired casting.

sweep is rotated about the spindle to form the cavity. Then the sweep and spindle are removed, leaving the base in the sand. The sweep and spindle are removed, leaving The hole made by the removal of

the base in the sand.

spindle is patched up by filling the sand.

Q.15. What is pattern? How does it differ from the actual product to be made from it? Ans. A pattern may be defined as a replica or facsimile model of the desired casting which, when packed or

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embedded cavity molten in

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suitable mould. produces moulding This the material, when produces filled a

a

called metal,

cavity,

with after

desired

casting

solidification of the poured metal. duplication, the pattern very

Since it is a direct conforms to the

closely

shape and size of the desired casting, except for a few variations due to the necessary allowances. The ways in

which a pattern differs from an actual component are : 1. It carries an additional allowance to compensate for metal shrinkage. 2. It carries additional allowances over those portions, which are to be machined or finished otherwise. 3. It caries the necessary draft to enable its easy

removal from the sand mass. 4. It carries additional projections, called coreprints, to produce seats for cores.

Q.16.

What

is

permeability?

What

is

the

effect

of

Moisture and clay content permeability? Ans. It is also termed as porosity. It is that property

of the sand, which allows the gases and steam to escape through the sand mould. When the hot molten metal is

poured in the mould a very large volume of gases and steam is formed due to heating to moisture, coal dust, oil and similar other materials present in the sand. If

these gases are not allowed to go out they will either make the casting unsound or blast the mould. Therefore,

this is very important property required in the moulding sand. It largely depends upon the same grain size and

shape and the proportion of moisture and clay present in the sand. Rounded grains of uniform size lead to a high

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permeability.

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This property is also effected by ramming

of sand. A soft ramming will increase the permeability and hard ramming will reduce it. In practice it is

further increased by applying vent wires in the prepared mould.

Q.17. Write note on Skeleton pattern Ans. Skeleton pattern :- When the size of the casting is very large, but easy to shape, and only a few numbers are to be made, it is uneconomical to make a large solid pattern of that size. In such cases, a pattern

consisting of

a wooden frame and strips is made, called

skeleton pattern, it is filled with loam sand and rammed. The surplus sand is removed by means of a strickle. The

core can be prepared separately, either with the help of a core box or another skeleton made for that, and

assembled in position in the mould.

Q.18. Give reason for Rat-tails or buckles in casting. Ans. 1) Continuous large flat surface on casting. 2) Excessive mould hardness. 3) Lack of combustible additives in moulding sand.

Q.19. What care is to be taken in operating cupola? Ans. The following considerations should be made for

operating the cupola successfully:

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1. A

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refractory lining should be used to

superior

withstand high temperature produced inside the furnace. 2. The man who fires the coke and charge should place the metal charge in the centre. 3. The molten metal should be tapped out well before its level rises too high in the well. 4. The tap hole should be property closed by means of a well-prepared clay bolt or plug. 5. In closing the tap hole care should be taken to press the plug downward in the hole so that the splash of the molten metal does not fall on the hands. 6. The amount of air supply should be property controlled. An excess amount of air will result in lowering to temperature inside. Q.20. Define (a) (i) Pattern

(ii) Mould (iii)Casting (b) Write different stages in core making. (c)Explain non-destructive inspection method of casting any three methods. Ans: (a) (i)Pattern : Pattern is a model of anything which is used to prepare moulds by placing it in sand. (i) Mould : A mould is a cavity so prepared that it can

be used to make castings by molten metal into it. (ii) Casting : The molten metal poured into mould, on cooling is known as casting. (b) Core making consists of the following operation. i) Core sand preparation : The first consideration in making a core is to mix and prepare the sand properly.

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The mixture must be homogeneous so that the core will be of uniform strength throughout. generally mixers. mixed in (1) roller The core sands are and (2) core

mills,

In the case of roller mills, the action of the

mullers and ploughs gives a uniform and homogeneous mixing. Roller mills are suitable for core sands

containing cereal binders, whereas the core sand mixer is suitable for all types of core binders. ii) Core making : Cores are made separately in a core The various steps in core

box made of wood or metal.

making are ramming of core sand in the box, venting, reinforcing, removing of core from box, baking,

pasting, sizing etc.

This work of producing cores can

either be done by hand or by some machines designed for this purpose. In machine moulding, the core-sand

mixture is rammed by jolting, squeezing or blowing by means of suitable machine. Venting, reinforcing and

other operations are carried out by hand.

Types of cores

iii) Core Baking : Generally baking is carried out in ovens equipped with drawers, shelves or other holding devices. The operation is generally continuous and

cores are put either in batches or continuously over or moving shelves. The heat in oven is produced by

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Core-

burning oil or coke or by electric resistance.

baking time depends upon the types and quantity of binder used, the amount of moisture used in sand, and size of core. The temperature for baking depends on When cores are baked, they are

the core material used.

more easily supported on a flat surface, which should be incorporated in the design. iv) Finishing : After receiving them from ovens, the

cores are properly finished by rubbing or filing, etc. to bring them to correct dimensions, remove extra sand projections from their surfaces and provide a good

surface finish.

Then only they become suitable for

being placed in the moulds. (c) (i)Sound test : It consists of suitably suspending the casting, free of floor and all other abstractions, and then gently striking it with hammer. The sound

produced is carefully noted.

Tapping by the hammer is

done at different points and a change in the pitch and quality of sound indicates a discontinuity within the

mass of the castings.

However, it is difficult to locate

the discontinuity and the extent to which it is present. (i) Magnetic particle testing : This method can be used only for those metals and alloys, which can develop magnetic properties, e.g. iron and steel. The

principle involved in this test is that in a magnetised metal if its magnetic field is interrupted by a crack its continuity is broken. Due to low magnetic

permeability of air some magnetic flux lines leak out of the metal, and if a magnetic material is spread over that portion some of it is held there by the flux lines to show the presence of a crack or void there. So, for

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this test, the casting is first magnetised and then fine particles of iron or steel are spread over its surface. The presence of cracks is revealed by the

help up particles on the surface. (ii) Penetrant testing : This method is used to detect small surface cracks and can be conveniently used for all metals and alloys. It consists of applying a thin

penetrating liquid over the surface of the casting, allowing it to penetrate into the cracks by capillary action and then cleaning the whole surface which draws back some of the liquid on to the surface. The

surface is then exposed to an ultraviolet light where the presence of liquid is clearly seen, indicating a crack there.

Q.21. What do you understand by gravity die-casting? State its advantages. Ans. Advantages: 1) It is a very speedy process and each cast takes between 2 to 4 minutes time only. 2) Permanent moulds have a very long life in as much as one mould can be conveniently used for producing between 3,000 to 10,000 castings in cast iron and between 10,000 to 25,000 castings in alluminium. 3) Surface finish through this method is better than sand castings but inferior than pressure diecastings. 4) Dimensional tolerances of the order of ±0.508 per 100 mm. can be conveniently obtained. 5) For the same amount of production it requires less floor area than sand casting.

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casting.

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6) Less skill is required of the operator than in sand

7) Many of the defects found in sand castings are eliminated totally. 8) Castings produced through this method are found to have a finer grain structure. 9) Castings in large quantities can be produced more economically. 10) A minimum thickness of 2.4 mm. Can be easily

cast.

Q.22. Explain with the help of neat cross sectional sketch of cupola, indicating its various zones. Ans. Various zones of cupola are shown in Figs.

A number of chemical reaction take place in these zones which are explained below : 1. Well :- It is the space between the bottom of the tuyeres and the sand bed. The metal, after melting,,

trickles down and collects in this space before it is tapped out. 2. Combustion zone :- It is also known as oxidising zone. It is located between the top of the tuyeres and a theoretical level above it. The total height of this The actual

zone is normally from 15 cm. To 30 cm. combustion takes place in this zone,

consuming all

free oxygen from the air blast and producing a lot of heat, which is sufficient enough to meet the

requirements of other zones of cupola.

More heat is A

evolved due to oxidation of silicon and manganese.

temperature of about 15400C to 18700C is produced in

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this zone.

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The exothermic reactions taking place in

this zone can be represented thus. 3. Reducing zone :zone. It is also known as the protective

It is located between the top of the combustion CO2 is reduced

zone and the top level of the coke bed.

to CO in this zone through an endothermic reaction, as a result of which the temperature falls from combustion zone temperature to about 12000C at the top of this zone. The reaction is as follows : Nitrogen, the other main constituent of the upward moving hot gases does not participate in the reaction. This zone, on account of the reducing

atmosphere in it, protects the charge against oxidation. 4. Melting zone :- The first layer of metal charge above the coke bed constitutes this zone. charge changes to molten state in The solid metal this zone and

trickles down through the coke to the well.

The molten

metal picks up sufficient carbon content in this zone as represented by the following reaction : 5. Preheating zone :- It extends from above the melting zone to the bottom level of the charging door and

contains a number of alternate layers of coke and metal charges. The function of this zone is to preheat the about to enter the

charges from atmospheric temperature to 10930C before they settle downwards

melting zone.

This preheating takes place due to the

upward advancing hot gases, from which the solid metal also picks up some sulphur content.

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6. Stack :preheating

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empty which portion of cupola the above to the hot

The

zone,

provides

passage

gases to go to atmosphere, is known as stack.

Q.23. Explain the common allowances provided on patterns. Ans. Pattern Allowances (i) Shrinkage:When any metal cools, it naturally

shrinks in size.

Hence, if the actual object itself is

used for the pattern, the resulting casting would be slightly smaller than desired. To compensate for this

possibility, a shrink rule is used in laying out of measurements for the pattern. A shrink rule for cast

iron is 10 mm per meter (the average shrinkage for cast iron) longer than the standard rule. When metal patterns are to be cast from the original patterns, double shrinkage must be allowed. (ii) Draft :- When a pattern is drawn out from a mould, the tendency to tear away the edges of the mould in contact with the pattern is greatly decreased if the surfaces of the pattern are given a slight taper in a direction parallel to which it is being withdrawn.

This tapering of the sides of the pattern, known as draft, is done to provide a slight clearance for the pattern as it is lifted up. The amount of draft on exterior surfaces is about 10 to 20 mm per meter. On interior holes, which are fairly small, the draft

should be around 30 mm per meter. (iii) Finish :- When a draftsman draws up the details of a part to be made each surface to be machined is

indicated by a finish mark.

The mark indicates that

additional metal must be provided at this point so that

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The amount that

there will be some metal to machine.

is to be added depends upon the size, shape of casting, but in general, the allowance for small castings and average sized castings is 3 mm. (iv) Distortion :- This allowance applies only to those castings of irregular shapes, which are distorted in the process of cooling as a result of metal shrinkage. Such an allowance depends on the judgment and

experience of the pattern maker, who understands the shrinkage characteristics of the metal. (v) Shake :When a pattern is rapped in the mould

before it is withdrawn, the cavity in the mould is slightly increased. In an average sized casting this In large castings or

increase in size can be ignored.

in one that must fit without machining, however, shake allowance must be considered by making the pattern

slightly smaller.

Q.24. Discuss patterns.

the

advantages

split

and

multi-piece

Ans. Following are the advantages of split and multipiece patterns. 1. Complicated designs can be constructed in these types of patterns. 2. They facilitate box. 3. These pattern are easy to contact as compared to solid or single piece pattern. easy withdrawal from cope and drag

Q.25. Why testing of foundry sand is necessary? What are the common tests performed on foundry sands?

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Ans. In progressive foundries it is recognized that the foundry sand deserves as much attention as the casting metal. The foundry sand may account for one-third of the In modern mass production

cost of the finished casting.

of sand castings, the moulding sand, which constitutes the chief moulding material, is therefore, required to be tested periodically in order that control of its

composition and properties may be maintained. be either chemical or mechanical.

Test may

Chemical tests are

used only to determine the undesirable elements in the sand, and in most cases mechanical tests are employed. The essential mechanical tests include fineness,

moisture content, clay content, permeability, strength in compression, and mould hardness.

Q.26. What are the factors, which should be considered before designing a casting? Ans. The important factors to keep in mind when designing a casting to obtain maximum strength and minimum casting include : 1. Design for directional solidification. 2. Design for minimum stresses. 3. Design for metal flow. 4. Cast-well design. 5. Design for minimum casting. 6. Design for expected tolerances. 7. Functional design.

Q.27. Write short notes on the following casting defects. 1) Cuts and washes 2) Drops

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Ans. 1) Cuts and washes :- These defects occur due to the erosion of sand from the mould or core surfaces by the molten metal. The cavities formed on the mould and core

surfaces due to this erosion are filled by the molten metal and the same appear on the casting surface as an surface as an excess metal in the form of ragged spots. These spots are called scabs. The eroded sand appears as These

a sand inclusion some-where else in the casting.

cuts and washes take place due to insufficient strength of mould and core, lack of binding material in the facing and core sand and faulty gating. Obviously, the remedy

of the defect lies in adequate ramming, additional of sufficient binders in facing and core sands and improved gating system. 2) Drops :This defect appears as an irregular

deformation of the casting.

It occurs on account of a

portion of the sand breaking away from the mould and dropping into the molten metal. The above breaking takes

place due to low green strength in the sand, too soft ramming, insufficient reinforcement of the cope or other sand projections. Increase in green strength of the sand

by suitable modification in its composition, hard ramming and adequate reinforcing of cope and other sand

projections by means of bars, nails and gaggers etc. are the principal remedies of this defect. Q.28. What are the factors which govern the selection of a proper material for pattern making. Ans. Factors material:- The effecting selection the of a selection particular of pattern for

material

making the pattern is influenced by the following factors

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1. Number of castings to be made. 2. Method of moulding to be used, i.e., hand or machine. 3. Type of casting method to be used. 4. Degree of accuracy in dimensions and the quality of surface finish required on the castings. 5. Design of casting. Q.29. How are the patterns classified ? of solid pattern. Ans: On the basis of material used in construction of patterns, they are classified as : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (1) on Wooden patterns Metal patterns Plaster patterns Plastic patterns Wax patterns the basis of number of pieces used in Explain the use

construction, patterns are classified as (1) (2) (3) (4) Solid or single piece pattern Two piece or split pattern Multi-piece pattern plate pattern

Solid or Single piece pattern :A single piece pattern is the simplest of all the patterns, is made in one-piece and carries no joint,

partition or loose pieces.

Depending upon the shape, it This pattern is the

can be moulded in one or two boxes.

cheapest but its use can be done to a limited extent of production only since its moulding involves a large

number of manual operations like gate cutting, providing runners and risers and the like.

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Q.30. Write short notes on 1) Functions of a pattern 2) Core boxes Ans. 1) Functions of a pattern :The main functions of a pattern are : (i) To produce the mould cavity of appropriate shape and size in which the molten metal can be poured to obtain desired casting. (ii) To produce seats for cores in the mould in which cores can be placed seats to in produce the cavity are in the

casting.

These

mould

called

coreprints and the corresponding projections on the pattern, which produce these seats, are also known as coreprints. (iii) To establish the parting surfaces and lines in the mould. (iv) To establish distinct locating points in the moulds of which the corresponding points on the casting are used as reference points, for checking the casting dimensions and relative location of machined and

other surfaces. (v) To minimise defects in castings. enable production of green sand or rammed-up

(vi) To

cores within the mould itself. (vii) To minimise the cost of casting.

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2) Core boxes :Core boxes are used for making cores. either made single or in two parts. They are

Their classification

is, generally, according to the shape of the core or the method of making the core. boxes are the following :(i) Half core box :- To prepare the core in two halves which are later on cemented together to form the complete core. The common types of core

(ii) Dump core-box :- Used to prepare complete core in it. Generally, rectangular cores are prepared in

these boxes.(See fig.)

(iii) Split core-box :- It is made in two parts, which can be joined together by means of dowels to form the complete cavity for making the core.(See fig.)

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(iv) Strickle type core-box :- It is used to form cores of irregular or unsymmetrical shapes, as shown in fig.

(v)

Loose piece core-box:-

It is used to prepare, in

the same core box, the two halves of a core of which the halves are not identical in shape and size. (See fig.)

Loose piece core box

Q.31. What are the factors which govern the choice of a particular type of furnace for melting a particular metal? Ans. The choice of a particular type of furnace is

largely based on the following factors :1. Rate of melting desired, depending upon the quantity of metal required to be melted per hour. 2. Type of metal to be melted. 3. Temperature required.

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4. Capability of melting medium for absorbing impurities. 5. Method of pouring the molten metal. 6. Economic considerations, i.e. initial investment to be made as cost of equipment and its installation,

maintenance cost and cost of fuel to be consumed, etc.

Q.32. What advantages?

is

a

hot

blast

cupola?

What

are

its

Q.33. Explain the causes and remedies of following casting defects. Ans. Sr. No 1 Defec ts Fusion (a)Low (a)Improve refractoriness. Possible courses Remedies

refractoriness in (b)Modify gating system. moulding sand. (b) Faulty gating. (c) Too high pouring temperature of metal. (d) Poor facing sand. (c)Use lower pouring temperature. (d) Improve quality of facing

sand.

2

Short metal

(a)Too low pouring (a) temperature. (a)Excess sulphur

Use higher pouring

temperature. (b) (c) Reduce sulphur content. Modify gating system.

Content in metal. Reduce moisture content.

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(a) Faulty gating. (b)High moisture

content in moulding sand. 3 Shift s a) Worn-out or bent Clamping pins. b) Misalignment of Two halves (a)Repair or replace the pins. (b) Repair of replace dowels causing misalignment. (c) Provide adequate support to core. (d) Locate the core properly. (d) Repair or replace the

of pattern. c) Improper support of core. d) Improper location of core. e) Faulty core boxes. f) Insufficient strength of moulding sand and core.

core boxes. (e) Increase strength of and core.

moulding sand

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Q.1. (a) Explain the method of carbon dioxide moulding with its neat sketch. Ans. In this method silica sand and 3.5 to 5 % Sodium silicate liquid base binder, mixed for 3 to 4 minutes in a muller. clay. Silica sand should be clean, dry and free from

To obtain collapsibility property some additives

like, wood, coal dust, flour, graphite etc are added. Moisture content should not exceed 3%. This

prepared sand is put in to the mould (around the pattern) by any convenient method. After packing CO2 gas is forced into mould at a pressure of about 1.41 kg/cm2, called gassing. CO2 reacts

with sodium silicate, following reaction takes place and silica jel is formed. Na2SiO3 +H2O+CO2 Na2CO3 +(SiO2+ H2O) (Silica jel)

(Sodium silicate)(Sodium

carbonate) Silica jel binds the sand grains together to provide the strength and hardness to the Mould. Steps of

carbon dioxide moulding shown below. Q.2.Describe the process of true centrifugal casting with the help of neat diagram.

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In this process, the castings are made in a

hollow, cylindrical mould rotated about an axis, common to both casting and mould, the axis may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. The mould used may be either of

permanent type or a sand lined mould usually end cores

are used to prevent the molten metal, thrown out from end. Fig machine. shows horizontal true centrifugal casting

Having a large cylindrical mould for casting The mould consists of an outer metallic The mould

cast iron pipes.

flask provided with rammed sand lining inside.

is rotated between two sets of rollers, mounted on a shaft driven by a variable speed motor. formed on the body of a trolley. Molten metal is poured while Mould is Pouring basin is

rotating, due to the centrifugal force metal is directed towards the periphery. While pouring Mould is rotated at

slower speed, after pouring, speed is increased to effect even distribution of the of the mould metal and all along the inside

surface

proper

directional

solidification.

After solidification flask is replaced

by new one and the process is repeated. The use of this process is limited only for symmetrical shaped objects, such as pipes, rolls,

cylinder sleeves and liners, piston-ring stock, bearings bushing etc.

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99
‘core’ with the use. What are the

the

characteristics of a good core? Ans. A core can be defined as a body of sand,

generally prepared separately in a core box, which is used to form a cavity of desired shape and size in a casting. definition. However, there are some exceptions to this

For example in a pattern can be used to form

a core as a part of the mould, this being known as a green sand core. Similarly, in permanent moulds or dies,

the cores are formed by the metallic moulds themselves as an integral part of them. Cores which are prepared

separately in core boxes are called dry sand cores, and held and located in the moulds in the seats formed by the core prints provided on the patterns. The main

characteristics required in a good core are the following : 1. It must be sufficiently permeable to allow an easy escape to the gases formed. 2. It should be highly refractory to withstand the

intense heat of molten metal. 3. It should be enough hard and strong to bear its own weight and the force of molten metal. 4. It should have high collapsibility i.e.; it should be able to disintegrate quickly after the solidification of the metal is complete. 5. It should not carry such constituents, which will give rise to excessive gases on coming in contact with the molten metal. (The main ingredients of core sand mixtures and their essential characteristics have already been discussed in the last chapter.)

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100
investment costing? What are its main

is

advantages and disadvantages? Ans. Following are the steps of investment casting: 1.First of all master pattern is made from wood or metal. 2 By using gelatin or an alloy of low melting point and master pattern, master mould is formed. 3.The master Mould is filled with liquid wax or by thermo plastic polystyrene resin which when solidified forms a wax pattern. 4. The wax pattern is coated with slurry consisting of silica flour and small amounts of kaolin and graphite mixed with water. This process referred to as the

investment of the pattern. 5. The pattern is then used to make up moulds similar to those used in the conventional moulding process, but the pattern within the mould is not taken out of the mould, which is not opened after this moulding process. 6. Finished mould is dried in air for 2 to 3 hrs. and then baked in an oven about 2 hrs. to melt out the wax or remove the wax with the help of a solvent degreaser. 7. After this the mould is sintered at about 10000C to improve its resistivity. a temp. between 800 Finally it is cooled down to 7000C for casting. The

and

castings are obtained by gravity, pressure vacuum or centrifugal operations. After the metal is cooled the

plaster is broken away and gets feeders are cut out. The castings so obtained are finally cleaned by sand blasting, grinding or other finishing processes. Advantages 1. Better dimensional accuracy, the normal tolerance

being ± 0.005 mm.

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2. Better surface finish 3. Thin sections of the order of 0.75 mm can be cast 4. Intricate machining of the casting is avoided 5. Castings are sound and have large grains as the rate of cooling is slow. Disadvantages 1. Moulds used are single purpose, i.e.they can be used only once. 2. It is expensive process and hence is adopted only

where small number of intricate and highly accurate parts are to be manufactured. 3. This process is suitable for small size parts. 4. They present the same difficulty where cores are to be used. 5. Process is slow.

Q.5. Which are the moulding machines used in practice? Describe any one with the help of sketch if required? Ans. Types of moulding machines: The large variety of moulding machines that are

available in different designs can be classified as: 1. Jar or Jolt machine. This machine consists of an airThe air enters from the

operated piston and cylinder.

bottom side of the cylinder and acts on the bottom face of the piston to raise it up. At the top of the

piston is attached the platen or table of the machine which carries the pattern and moulding flask with sand over it. been When the piston, and hence the table, has to a certain height the air in below an the even

raised is

piston

suddenly

released,

resulting

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The

packing of sand around the pattern in the flask.

operation is repeated several times and quite rapidly. It is known as jolting. 2. Squeezer machine: These machines may be hand operated or power operated. The pattern is placed over the

machine table, followed by the moulding flask.

In hand-

operated mechanism whereas in power machines it is lifted by the action of air pressure on a piston in the cylinder in the same way as in jolt machine. The difference is

that the table is not dropped from height but is raised gradually. On the top of the machine column is provided

an overhead plate and the sand in the flask is squeezed between this plate and the upward rising table. enables a uniform pressing of sand in the flask. This A

specific advantage of power operated machines over handoperated ones is that more pressure can be applied in the former which facilitates handling of a wider range of jobs. Pin lift or push-off type machines. In these

machines the mechanism is almost similar to the above except that the supporting ram is stationary and four pins are suitably incorporated passing through the

machine platen and the pattern plate. is, however, required.

No stripping plate

After the ramming is over the

moulding flask is lifted off the pattern by the four pins which are mechanically operated by a mechanism suitably incorporated in the machine.

Q.6. Describe centrifugal casting and state its advantages and limitations. Draw a sketch of the same.

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casting is casting method in which,

Centrifugal

molten metal is poured while mould is rotating, due to the centrifugal force metal is directed towards the

periphery. The cold metal is forced towards the outer side of the casting by the centrifugal force, where as the hotter metal remains on the inner side of the casting to provide the required feeding of metal during solidification. Although many different shapes can be cast through this process, but those with symmetrical shapes are best suited for it. Centrifugal follows: a) True centrifugal casting b) Semi centrifugal casting c) Centrifuging Advantages: 1. Due to the forced movement of the molten metal casting methods can be classified as

castings are dense sounds and free from porosity. 2. The use of gates, feeders and central core is

eliminated, making the method less expensive 3. Mass production is possible with less rejection. 4. Mechanical improved. 5. Parts are produced closer to finished dimensions with consequent saving in machining. Disadvantages: 1. Need heavy initial investment. 2. Need skilled labour. 3. Economical only for mass production. and physical properties of castings are

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4. Expensive maintenance cost. 5. The process is limited to only cylindrical and circular parts with a limited range of sizes.

Q.7. What is meant by felting and why is it required? Explain in brief Ans. Castings, when taken out of the mould, are not in the same condition in which they are desired since they have sprue, risers, gates, etc. attached to them.

Besides, they are not completely free of sand particles. This operation of cutting off the unwanted parts,

cleaning and finishing the casting is known as felting. This includes: 1. Removal of cores from the castings. 2. Removal castings. 3. Removal of fins, and other unwanted projections from the castings. 4. Removal of adhering sand and oxide scale from the of gates, risers, runners, etc. from the

surface of the castings (surface cleaning). 5. Repairing castings to fill up blowholes, straightening the warped or deformed castings. Q.8. What do you understand by design of casting? Ans. Design of casting includes following: -

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1. Design for directional solidification. 2 Design for minimum stresses 3. Design for metal flow. +4.Cast-well design. 5.Design for minimum casting. 6. Design for expected tolerances. 7. Functional design. Q.9. Describe shell moulding in terms of the following :(i) Its principal

(ii) Patterns for it. (iii) Materials used in making shell (iv) Steps in the process Use sketches at appropriate places. Ans. Shell moulding :- Shell moulding is a method of metal casting, in which conventional rammed sand moulds are replaced by relatively wall can thin, rigid By to shells the of same the

approximately technique,

uniform

thickness. be made

hollow

cores

replace

traditional solid rammed and baked cores normally used in green sand moulds. The main steps in shell moulding are as follows :1. A metal pattern usually of cast iron having the same profile as that of the required casting is heated to 1500-2500C in an oven. It is taken from the oven and a

stripping agent, usually silicon 5 to 10 % solution in paraffin or water, is sprayed on the pattern to

facilitate the subsequent withdrawal of the shell from the pattern.

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2. As shown in figure,(b),the pattern is clamped to the dump box which is mounted on trunions. In the box, the dry sand resin mixture is the shell forming medium. 3. The dump box is inverted, as shown in figure (c), so that the dry sand mixture falls on to the hot pattern face. The hot pattern face causes the resin to soften After about 30 seconds, the resin component

and flow.

of the sand-resin mixture softens and fuses to form a fairly uniform shell about 60 cm thick on the pattern face. 4. The dump box is returned to its original position as shown in figure (d), and excess of sand-resin mixture falls back to the bottom of the box leaving a shell adhering to the hot pattern surface. The partly cured

shell is then placed in an oven for final curing. This is carried out at about 4000C and may take about two minutes. 5. When curing is complete, the shell becomes rigid and is stripped from the pattern by spring loaded ejector pins, which pan through the pattern plate as shown in figure (e). 6. Two such shells are fixed together to form the

complete mould, with the help of bolts, clips or glue and placed in a suitable box with proper backing and

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to receive the molten metal as shown in figure (f). Sand for shell moulding.

Usually zircon sand of rounded grain shape, free from organic impurities and having a grain size of 100 to 150 mesh (B.S.) is used. Coarser sands increase shell Finer sands improve Although zircon

strength but lower surface finish.

the surface finish but weaken the shell.

sand is costlier than silica sand, it gives, a stronger shell for a given percentage of resin binder and a good surface finish. Binder for shell moulding: The binders used are resins of thermosetting type and the most common resin are phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde, and polysters. The resins are used in the

powdered form and when subjected to about 2000 to 2500C, they melt instantly and turn into a rubbery state and harden after one or two minutes. The usual amount of

resins in the sand moisture varies from 3 to 10 per cent.

Q.10. Explain the method of CO2 moulding with its neat sketch. 4

Ans. In this method silica sand and 3.5 to 5% Sodium silicate liquid base binder, mixed for 3 to 4 minutes in a muller, silica sand should be clean, dry and free from clay. To obtain collasibility property some additives

like, wood, coaldust, flour graphite etc. are added. Moisture content should not exceed 3%. This

prepared sand is put in to the mould (around the pattern) by any convenient method.

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After packing, CO2 gas is forced into mould at a pressure of about 1.41 kg/cm2, called gassing. CO2 reacts

with sodium silicate, following reaction takes place and silica jel is formed. Na2SiO3+H2O+CO2 (Sodium Silicate) Na2CO3+(SiO2+H2O) (Sodium Carbonate) (Silica jel)

Silica jel binds the sand grains together to provide the strength and hardness to the Mould. Steps of carbon

dioxide moulding shown below.

Q.11.

What

is

centrifuguring?

Describe

the

process

stating its differences with other centrifugal casting method? Ans. This is also sometimes known as pressure casting. It mainly differs casting from methods true in centrifugal that unlike or the semilatter

centrifugal

two, the axis of rotation and that of the moulds do not coincide with each other, as the moulds are situated at a certain distance from the central vertical axis or

rotation all around the same.

Shapes of castings do not

carry any limitations in this method and a variety of shapes can be cast. A number of small mould cavities are

made around a common central sprue and connected to the

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radial gates. For a higher rate of

production the stacked moulds can be used with advantage. As in semi-centrifugal force used to force the molten metal from the the central sprue into the mould view cavities a

through

radial

gates.

Sectional

through

typical mould for centrifuging is shown in Fig.

Q.12. What are the factors to be considered while selecting the method of casting?

Q.13. Specify and explain the method of casting used to manufacture pipes. Ans. ** Write the process of centrifugal casting** 7

Q.14. Explain in detail investment casting?

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Q.15. What is mercast process of casting? process frozen mercury is In used for the the

production

of

precision

castings.

this

case,

metal mould is prepared of the necessary shape with gates and sprue-holes. It is then placed in cold bath and Mercury

filled with acetone (which acts as a lubricant).

is poured into it and freezing of mercury takes place at 200C after about 10 minutes of pouring. The patterns are

then removed and are given dippings in a cold ceramic slurry bath, until a shell of about 3 mm is built up. Mercury is then melted and removed at room temperature. The shell is dried and heated at high temperature to form a hard permeable shape. flask, metal. surrounded by The shell is then placed in a preheated and filled with

sand,

After solidification of metal, the castings can

be removed.

Q.16. What is core? What is its use? What are the characteristics of a good core? Ans. A core can be defined as a body of sand, generally prepared separately in a core box, which is used to form a cavity of desired shape and size in a casting. However, there are some exceptions to this definition. For

example in a pattern can be used to form a core as a part of the mould, this being known as a green sand core. Similarly, in permanent moulds or dies, the cores are formed by the metallic moulds themselves as an integral part of them. core boxes are Cores which are prepared separately in called dry sand cores, and held and

located in the moulds in the seats formed by the core prints provided on the patterns. The main

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required in a good core are the

characteristics

1. It must be sufficiently permeable to allow an easy escape to the gases formed. 2. It should be highly refractory to withstand the

intense heat of molten metal. 3. It should be enough hard and strong to bear its own weight and the force of molten metal. 4. It should have high collapsibility i.e., it should be able to disintegrate quickly after the solidification of the metal is complete. 5. It should not carry such constituents which will give rise to excessive gases on coming in contact with the molten metal. The main ingredients of core sand mixtures and their essential characteristics have already been discussed in the last chapter. Q.17. Explain hot chamber die casting machine? Ans. The main parts of a hot chamber machine are shown Fig. This is operated by a hydraulic plunger. This

plunger acts inside a cylinder formed at on end of the goose-neck type casting submerged in the molten metal. A

port is provided near the top of the cylinder to allow the entry of the molten metal into it. When the bottom of the plunger is above the port the cylinder is connected to the melting pot through this port. The down stroke of

the plunger closes this port, cuts off the metal supply and applies pressure on the molten metal present in the goose neck to force the same into the die cavity through the injecting nozzle. After a certain period of time the

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plunger is raised up, causing the remaining molten metal in the nozzle and channel to fall back into the goose neck casting. Just before the end of its upward stroke

the plunger uncovers the port, through which more molten metal enters into the cylinder. and the casting ejected. The dies are then opened

Zinc based low melting point

alloys are generally cast in these machines.

Q.18. State its advantages and disadvantages? Ans. Advantages 1. Surface finish a good 2. Dimensional accuracy is high 3. Thin sections upto 2 mm can be cast 4. Sand handling is minimum 5. Permeability of the shell is high 6. Surface chilling of the castings is absent and the castings are free from skin hardening 7. Less floor area is required 8. It is highly adaptable for mechanisation 9. Cost of cleaning the casting is low 10.Casting defects are minimum 11.Shells can be stored 12.It allows for greater detail and less draft 13.Unskilled labour can be employed. Disadvantages 1.Higher pattern cost 2.Higher resin cost 3.Not economical for small runs 4.Dust-extraction problem 5.Complex jobs cannot be shell moulded.

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Shell moulding machines are of two types, (1) Semi automatic (2) Automatic.

Q.19. Illustrate and desirable the process of SemiCentrifugal casting. Ans. This process, which is also known as 7 profiled

centrifugal casting is widely used for relatively large castings which are symmetrical in shape, such as discs, pulleys, wheels and gears etc. is rotated about vertical In this method the mould and the metal poured

axis

through a central sprue. only one mould at a time. together, one over the

It is not necessary to cast Several moulds can be stacked other, and fed simultaneously This

through a common central sprue, as shown in Fig.

provision increases the rate of production considerably. The centrifugal force is used to feed the metal outwards to fill the mould cavities completely. The centre of the

castings is usually solid, but, if required, a dry sand central core may be used to produce the central hole. The speed of rotation of these moulds is much lower than that in true centrifugal casting. With the result the

pressure developed is too low and the impurities are not directed towards the centre as effectively as in true centrifugal casting. The speed of rotation of these

moulds is such that a linear speed of about 180 meters per minute is obtained on the outer edge of the casting. The moulds used may be of green sand, dry sand, metal or any other suitable material.

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Q.20. Describe the complete procedure of investment casting. What are the main advantages and disadvantages? Ans. INVESTMENT CASTING :- It is also known as Lost was or Precision are casting. within very The castings produced and by do this not

method

close

tolerances

require subsequent machining. The procedure adopted for investment casting is as follows. 1. First of all, a metal die for casting the wax pattern is made. 2. The wax patterns and gating systems are produced from the metal dies by injection. The wax is injected into

the mould at 500C to 800C and at pressure of 35 kg/cm2 to kg/cm2. 3. The wax assembly is dipped into a slurry of a

refractory coating material. A typical slurry consists of silica flour suspended to in ethyl silicate uniform assembly solution of

suitable drying.

viscosity After

produce the

casting is

after by

dipping,

coated

sprinkling it with silica and allowed to dry. 4. The coated wax assembly is now invested in the mould. This is done by inverting wax assembly on a table,

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115
with a paper-linked moulding steel flask and of

it

investment

mixture

consisting

either sand 95%, water 27 to 31% and 5% alumina cement. The mould material settles by gravity and completing

surrounds the pattern as the work table is vibratech the moulds are then allowed to dry in air for 2 to 3 hours. 5. The wax is melted out of the hardened mould by heating it in an invested position at 900C to 1800C. The melted

wax may be collected and re-used. 6. The mould is again heated at the rate of 400C to 700C per hour from about 1500C to 10000C for ferrous alloys and 6500C for alluminium so for that pouring may alloys. the mould the be The is at temperature a alloy. under is The simple controlled desirable investment temperature

particular poured

moulds

gravitational force or under the force of applied out pressure or by centrifugal force.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

HEAT

(e)

(f)

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Following are the advantages and disadvantages investment casting. Advantages : 1. The close tolerances (±0.05 mm) are easily maintained in average work. 2. It produces extremely smooth surfaces. 3. It eliminates post machining operations including

thread cutting and gear tooth ferming. 4. It is adaptable to all metallic alloys. Disadvantages : 1. The investment moulds as well as the materials from which they are made an single purpose, therefore they can not be reused. 2. The larger objects This increases cost of production. are impractical for investment

casting due to equipment size limits. Steps involved in making investment casting. (a) Wax injected into die to make pattern. (b) Pattern have been gated to central sprue. (c) Placing a metal flask around the pattern assembly. (d) Investing the wax pattern assembly. (e) Removing wax pattern from investment mould. (f) Pouring molten metal into the mold. (g) Removing casting from the mold by breaking the mold material.

Q.21. What do you understand from ‘Centrifugal castings’? How are the centrifugal casting methods classified? Ans. The process of centrifugal casting is also known as liquid forging. It consists of rotating the mould at a Due to directed

high speed as the molten metal is poured into it. the centrifugal force the molten metal is

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outwards from the centre, towards the inside surface of the mould, with considerable pressure. As a result of

this a uniform thickness of metal is deposited all along the inside surface of the mould, where it solidifies, and the impurities being lighter remain nearer to the axis of rotation. castings This with process enables the and production better of

greater

accuracy

physical

properties as compared to sand castings. the production of distinct surface

It also enables and dense

details

metal structure. cast through are this

Although many different shapes can be process, for but it. are those The the with symmetrical physical proper

shapes

best of

suited the

better result

properties

castings

directional solidification of the metal inside the mould. It is achieved because the denser(or the force, outer cold)metal side the of is the

automatically casting by

forced

towards

the

centrifugal

whereas

hotter

metal remains on the inner side of the casting to provide the required feeding of metal during solidification. The

centrifugal casting methods can be classified as follows: 1. True centrifugal casting. 2. Semi-centrifugal casting. 3. Centrifuging.

Q.22. What are the main methods of casting applied to investment casting? Ans. 1. Gravity casting method. 2. Centrifugal casting method. 3. Vaccume casting method.

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Q.23. What are the materials commonly used for making the moulds for centrifugal casting? Ans. The moulds used in centrifugal casting methods are made of sand, metal or graphite. Sand moulds are

generally preferred for slender castings where the metal has to flow a long distance. minimises chilling effect. moulds are preferred. The use of these moulds

For quantity production metal

Metal moulds are made from cast Graphite moulds

iron, high carbon steel or alloy steel. are largely used for non-ferrous castings.

Q.24. With the help of neat diagram describe the process of true centrifugal casting. for production of pipes? How this method can be used

Q.25.

Describe

step

by

step,

the

process

of

shell

moulding.

What are its advantages and disadvantages?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This ‘notes’ is useful for the students of Chemical, Polymer, Textile Engg. For This Notes students of A.E.C. Chikhali J.D.I.T. Yeotmal, and U.D.C.T Amravati Contact Siddhivinayak Computers (0724)422684 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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