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15.2 Pre-Requisite for Computer Aided Design 15.3 Computer Aided Design (CAD) 15.4 Design Exercises 15.5 Advantages and Applications of CAD 15.6 Selection of CAD System 15.7 Future of CAD 15.8 Summary 15.9 Key Words 15.10 Answers to SAQs
Drawing is the language through which engineer communicates with the user of the product (a part of machine), the manufacturer or maintenance personnel. It is understood that the reader is conversant with drawing practice which normally is introduced in early stages of the course. Computer Aided Design (CAD) can be described as any design activity that involves the effective use of computer to create or modify an engineering design. The process of computer aided design involves the following steps : (a) Recognition of problem by way of defining completely what is to be designed and purpose would be served by the designed part. (b) Synthesis of solution is done to identify in how many ways the desired purpose can be served and in how many ways the desired part may be. designed. A complete list may be prepared. Analysis is made to assess the strength or to provide sufficient strength to the part to carry the forces. The analysis may involve the alternate material selection for providing strength and case of manufacturer. After deciding upon geometry and material the final stress calculation are made and provisions for modification are provided so that alternate design may be selected to satisfy requirements of use, manufacture, maintenance, material availability and cost. Report is the final step in design wherein all calculation and analyses are to be supported by drawing. All features of the designed object will become visible through drawing and any one concerned with the object will get a feel of it.
You have been familarised with the process of design, though greater emphasis was on load, strength of material and calculation of size. The geometry in most cases was predefined as the major feature of the machine part. (Like shaft, gear, knuckle joint, pulley, coupling, etc.). In each case you must be ready to make a drawing with calculated dimensions. In this unit, you are getting another opportunity to make drawing and design a mechanical element by using a computer software. It is understood that you have had some training in drafting software, particularly Pro-E and Catia. You may like to revisit your acquired skills in AutoCad and use them to produce drawings of some simple parts.
Computer sofrware helps draw orthographic views. To create a database for manufacturing.1. 15. Brakes and CAD Objectives After studying this unit. etc. holes. 15. to draw geometry curves like parabola. Use hatch command to show section.3 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD) CAD is not merely the use of a computer to solve an engineering problem but it is a process in which the user and the computer interact to get the best design of a product by exploiting the intellectual capabilities of user and the processing capabilities of the computer. You should learn use of line command and operations performed on lines. These four phases are shown in the general design process in Figure 15. Use commands like snap. hyperbola and helix. rotate and make drawings. Also learn intersection. The various design related tasks which are performed by a modem CAD system can be grouped into four functional areas. (a) (b) (c) (d) Geometric modeling Engineering analysis Design review and evaluation Automated drafting. There are two basic reasons for using the computer in the design of a product : (a) (b) To increase the productivity of the designer. learn to draw broken out and partial section.2 PRE-REQUISITE FOR COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN You are required to practice and gain perfection in using dimensions tool bars. oblique surfaces. rounded surfaces. Recognition of Need I Definitionof Problem Geometric ModeHing Design Review and Evalus(bn Presentation Automated Drafting Computersided Deslgn Conventional Derlgn Proc88s F i p e 15.1 :Computer Aided Ddgm Proc@m . Learn about hidden lines.Design of Bearings. Clutches. you should be able to explain steps in designing mechanical elements through computer aided design. and define constraints in design of mechanical elements. Practice drawing some classic geometric shape to learn to use draw and modify toolbars.
weight. the entire object can be analysed for stress-strain.Geometric Modelling It is concerned with the computer-compatible mathematical description of the geometry of an object. depending on the capabilities of the ICG system. The three types are : (a) (b) 2D . By determining the interrelating behaviour of all the modes in the system. Probably the most powerful analysis feature of a CAD system is thefinite-element mdhod.This allows for full three-dimensional modeling of a more complex geometry. . It provides properties of a solid object being analysed. typically uses solid geometry shapes called primitives to construct the object. volume. In this form. By means of colour. heat-transfer contputations. (c) 3D . This method. Wire frame geometric modeling is classified into three types. The analysis of mass properties is the analysis feature of a CAD system that has probably the widest application. centre o gravity and moment f o inertia. The analysis may involve stress-strain calculations. Engineering Analysis In the formulation of nearly any engineering design project. the behaviour of the entire object can be assessed. There are several different methods of representing the object in geometric modeling. The user simply defines certain parameters for the finite-element model. the object is displayed by interconnecting lines. or the use of differential equations to describe the dynamic behaviour of the system being designed. The software that provides geometric modeling capabilities must be designed for efficient use both by the computer and the human designer. some type of anlysis is required. or a host of other purposes.D -This goes somewhat beyond the 2D capability by permitting CAD o f Mechanical Elements 2 a three-dimensional object to be represented as long as it has no-side wall details. and the CAD system proceeds with the computations. Coloured images help to clarify components in an assembly. Another feature of some CAD systems is colour graphics capability. 1 2. Turnkey CAD systems often include or can be interfaced to engineering analysis software which can be called to operate on the current design model. heat transfer and other characteristics by calculating the behaviour of each node. area and inertia properties. The computer can be used to aid in this analysis work. it is possible to display more information on the graphics screen. the object is divided into a large number of finite elements (usually rectangular or triangular shapes) which form an interconnecting network of concentrate nodes. The most advanced method of geometric modeling is solid modeling in three dimensions. The mathematical description allows the image of the object to be displayed and manipulated on a graphics terminal through signals from the CPU of the CAD system. Some CAD systems have the capability to define automatically the nodes and the network structure for the given object. With this technique. The basic form uses wireframes to represent the object. For a plane surface (or a cross-section of a solid object) the f corresponding computations include the perimeter. or highlight dimensions. Even three-dimensional wire-frame representations of an object are sometimes inadequate for complicated shapes.Two dimensional representation is used for a flat object. such as the surface area. By using a computer with significant computational capabilities.
the output may be shown in the form of a deflected shape superimposed over the unstressed object.1 Design a double riveted lap joint for MS plates 9. Automated Drafting 15. a. scaling of the drawing. designers must often resort to the use of pin-and-cardboard models to represent the mechanism.5 mm thick. The permissible stresses are : a. For example. or perspective views). . 7. These features include automatic dimensioning. = 90 MPa. Some the of graphics features of computer-aided design systems lend themselves especially well to the drafting process. a good application of layering involves over-layering the geometric image of the final shape of the machined part on top of the image of the rough casting. Catia or Solid Works). Another related procedure for design review is interference checking. automation of the drafting represented the principal justification for investing in the CAD system.Design o f Bearings. and other complicated piping structure. The designer can zoom in on part design details and magnify the image on the graphics screen for close scrutiny. CAD systems can increase productivity in the drafting function by roughly five timestover manual drafting. A procedure called layering is often helpful in design review. For example. Calculate the efficiency of the joint. This capability enhances the designer's visualisation of the operation of the mechanism and helps to ensure against interference with other components. In some early computer aided design of departments. in stress-strain analysis of an object.e. Automated drafting involves the creation of hard-copy engineering drawings directly from the CAD database. Brakes and C A D The output of the finite-element analysis is often best presented by the system in graphical format on the CRT screen for easy visualisation by the user. Exercise 15. generation of cross-hatched areas. Clutches. air-separation cold boxes. The ability to rotate the part or to perform other transformations of the image (i. Semiautomatic dimensioning and tolerancing routines which assign size specifications to surfaces indicated by the user help to reduce the possibility of dimensioning errors.= 75 MPa. Without graphical kinematics on a CAD system.4 DESIGN EXERCISES We are providing you examples of design of few mechanical elements. Design Review and Evaluation Checking the accuracy of the design can be accomplished conveniently on the graphics terminal. Colour graphics can also be used to accentuate the comparison before and after the deflection of the object. oblique. This risk occur in the design of large chemical plants. Indeed. The available kinematics packages provide the capability to animate the motion of simple designed mechanisms such as hinged components and linkages. This procedure can be performed in stages to check each successive step in the processing of the part. = 150 MPa . This involves the analysis of an assembled structure in which there is a risk that the components of the assembly may occupy the same space. You should design these mechanical elements by using computer software of your choice (Pro-E. This ensures that sufficient material is available on the casting to accomplish the final machined dimensions. and the capability to develop sectional views and enlarged views of particular part details. isometric. One of the most interesting evaluation features available on some computer aided design systems is kinematics.
or p = 65.40 kN . = .2. . the rivet is weaker in shear.15 kN Crushing strength of one rivet I I = 26. it will be important to check if the rivet is stronger in shear or against crushing.634 mm .1 The diameter of the rivet hole is first determined by empirical formula =6&=18. .and r.(1 8.5 mm. (ii) i For permitting operation of heat formation it is necessary that minimum pitch must be 3d which in this case is 3 x 18. I I Figure 15. the value o f p in (ii) will be accepted. . However. 'Taking double riveted joint with chain riveting. Since the calculated value o f p in (ii) is greater than 55. equating tearing strength of plate with shearing or rivet in a pitch length substituting the values o f t . it is obvious that there are two rivets in one pitch length.1 CAD of Mechanical Elements Schematic of the ioint is shown in Figure 15. since d has already been determined. Shearing strength of the rivet ' = =-d 4 7C 2 r.2 :Joint in Exercise 15.5 rnm . (b) Thus. (i) I To find out the pitch of the joint the tearing strength of punched plate will be equated with the shearing strength of the rivet.5)' 4 75 = 20.5 = 55. Thus. a. .5 mm. and then equate the smaller strength with the tearing strength of the plate. d. . . .
= 52725. .Design ol' Bearings. and (iv) m.5 d. . = 2 dt a. = (p .5 x 90 = 561 17.= (65. .5 x 150 N . (d) The crushing strength of rivets in a pitch length P.3 mm . . (iii) p ~ .0 d. . m as in (iv) as satisfactory.5 x 9. pb = 55.5) x 9. Clutches.d) t o.pb. . . (c) The shearing strength of rivets in a pitch length . Design fully this joint for an axial load of 90 kN which alternately from tension to compression. . . The higher value is suitable for chain riveting. Brakes and CAD The back pitch. (iv) The minimum acceptable value of m is 1. ..0 = 2 x 18.18. The tensile strength of plate without holes per pitch length 4 = pt o. = 65. . (iii) Equating shearing strength of margin near the rivet with the shearing strength of the rivet substituting the values o f d and t m = 28. plate without holes).634 x 9. (ii) p.634 . . Thus required dimensions for the riveted joint are calculated at (i) d.5 d to 3.~ / m m ~ 102 ~ / m mrespectively.e. .5 mm .e. To calculate the efficiency the strength of the joint in four modes of failure will be calculated and compared with the strength of solid plate (i. ~ and ~. i.75 mm. . Since the joint is not required to be leak proof. the value of margin.07 N . Permissible stresses for the material used in tension. Solution In this problem the design will be taken up by considering elements of the joint one-by-one. 27. . (v) Exercise 15.($9 Out of above strength P.5 x 90 The tearing strength of margin due to shearing . may be taken from 2.2 Two rod ends of a pump are joined by means of a cotter and by making spigot and socket ends. . shear and compression are 5 1 ~ / m m34 . (e) The tearing strength of plate with one hole in a pitch length P. is the least.
t = 15. Thus.Spigot and Rod CAD of Mecl~anical Elements The rod is subjected to axial (tension or compression) since tensile stress permitted is less than compressive stress. D = 47. Figure 15. (iii) .5 mm The spigot is circular in section with diameter D l . . .35 .. (ii) (ii) cannot be solved as Dl and t are unknown.4 mm say 47.35 4 51 ..D: . . t o. . . .35 mm2 substitute value of Dl t from (iii) in (ii) 9Ox1o3 sr = . (v) . then P =4 7t o2ot 7t substituting the va!ues of P and o. . hence design will be based on the tensile stress.3 For crushing load on cotter P = D. the diameter of rod and o. (i) . .8 mm t x 58.tx102 = D. For the tensile load on spigot .3. If load is P. Its weaker section is the one through which cotter passes and the circular section is weakened by a slot of width equal to the thickness of the cotter. (iv) Substituting value of Dl from (iv) in (iii) . t = 882.. . The tensile load will be borne by the area hatched. Let thickness of cotter be t. 9 0 x 1 0 ~ D. 90x10~ = 4 o2x51 .from the problem. DI = 58. the weaker section will be as shown in Figure 15. .1 = 882. The cotter will have a tendency to get crushed against the slot in the spigot or the rectangular surface of slot will have a tendency to crush against the cotter.2 mm . permissible tensile stress.882. D.19 mm say 15.1 mm say 58.
Axial load P.25 D2= 67. Like spigot the socket is also subjected tensile and compressive load and its weakest section through which cotter passes is likely to fail in tension.62 mm say 23.5.e. o2= 1 124.5 mm .4 The thickness of the spigot collar will determine the area over which the collar can shear off. Brakes and CAD when the load is compressive the collar of the spigot compresses against collar of socket. a = 14.4. QT. P=nD. Clutches. . . annular area 7c Dl a and permissible shear stress TS are relatedas. (viii) The rod part of socket will have the same diameter as the rod part spigot given by (i).. The area of spigot collar compressing against socket is a ring as shown in Figure 15. The axial load P. . This thickness is the dimension perpendicular to the plane of paper with respect to Figure 15.58S2) 102 4 i. (vi) . . .2. The area over which shear can a occur is n D l where a is the thickness of the spigot collar. This section is shown in Figure 15. substituting the values of P. The shearing will obviously create a rectangular slot whose two sides each having area of Dl e will resist shearing.5 mm .0 mm . . e ~ . This area is related to axial load P and permissible shearing stress rs as P = 2 D. o. substituting values of P. Dl and z. (vii) The tail of spigot having length e may be sheared off by the collar passing through it. . Socket and Rod e = 22. . .02 + 3422. .. Tea A compress under Figure 15.and Dl n 90 x lo3 7 .Design of Bearings. substituting values of P.(0. the area of ring under compression and permissible compressive stresses are related as..43 mm say 67. Dl and T. The area is shown hatched and is equal to .496 mm say 14.
and permissible compressive stress o with this area is substituting the values of P. t and o. P=2(D4-D. . c = 22. Hence.3 mmsay 18. Apparently this piercing will be resikted by Shearii.5xfx34 . (x) The width of the collar c can be determined by considering shearing off of collar by cotter passing through it exactly in the same way as in case of tail of spigot. . . . .(xi) The dimension f of socket is determined by likely occurrence of piercing of rod into the socket and under compressive load. 90xld =nx47. . The area over which crushing of cotter is likely to occur is composed of two rectangles similar to those shown in Figure 15. P = n D f T.lgstress on anhular area of diameter equal to that of rod.CAD of.e.D l )C. The equation relating axial force P. substituting the values of P. .5 except that outer diameter will be D4.. I i.0 mm . Dl. Dl. D4 = 1 16. f= 17. The diameter of the socket collar is determined by considering crushing of cotter against collar.(xii) .62 m say 23.0mm . ..Mechuniral Elements Flgure 15. .55 mm say 1 17.)cxT.5 The axial load and permissible tensile stress are related to this area as. . This area is x Df: Hence.. .The area is t (D4 -D!).0 mm . t and o. The area resisting this shearing action is 2 (D4. (ix) .
Hence. following dimensions have been determined.5 rnm . The possible shearing off of cotter is illustrated in Figure 15.6.0 mm f = 18.0 rnm D4=117. b = 87. .Ornm c = 23. The areas over which shearing may occur are two rectangles each of area bt. Brakes Cotter and CAD The thickness of the cotter has already been determined. No bending of cotter has been considered. Spigot and Rod Socket and Rod D3 = 81. Clutcl~es.0 mm Cotter b = 87. If it is considered the method will be same as described for knuckle pin.3 A shaft transmitting 150 k is to be connected to a coaxial shaft through cast iron W flange coupling. .6 Thus. Exercise 15. . These dimensions completely describe the joint..Design of Bearings.07 mrn say 87. Its mean width b is determined by its shearing off between socket and spigot. (xiii) Figure 15. The shaft runs at 120 rpm. The key and shafts are to be made of n~ same material for which permissible shearing stress is 60 ~ / m r and compressive .5 mm Taper I to 48.
(iv) ..strcngtli is 120 ~ l m m ' .d.7 The torque produced by the force F must be equal to the torque transmitted by the shaft.. . . For the shaft M. . (ii) Bolt Diameter. = 1 1933 NO-m . r. .6 N/mm2. o watts . . . .1 1 mm . be produced in each bolt. . d = 1. dl Let there be n bolts clamping two flanges and a shearing stress r.75 takes care of weakening effect of keyway.) * F = n . ..The steel bolts may be subjected to maximum shearing stress of 26 N/mmz and the permissible shearing stress in cast iron as 6. So that the shaft diameter d can be calculated as. . Also approximate value of d l is. CAD of Mechanical Ele~ilents Solution Shaft diameter d Power H = M. Design protected type flange coupling.2 rsl 4 (dl is the diameter of bolt) Figure 15. (iii) Let n be 6. so that the force produced tangential to the pitch circle of the bolt (the diameter of pitch circle is D. (i) The factor 0. . is the permissible shearing stress in the shaft.
. = 26 NImm2 in Eq. I i Z ) r . (viii) 4 -. I . J+ . .. .' 3 . can be calculated as D. . . the more r. d= 2 7 . rJ2. L .54d~ = l 4 2 or Hub Diameter D dl = 26. .6 ~ l m mHence. such h a t + i . Length of>b!fl&xge wiU be equal to length of Ce key. . ' 279.from (v) and r.Since permissible shearing @*mi key is half of its c o m p ~ q i v & of it^^.... -I I .65) + 12 = 279. then torque resisted by the area n Dt is equal to the torque transmitted by the shaft. . If permissible shearing stress in the flange is rS2.94 Nlmm2 in the hub is safe and ~.deringswanng strength t $" . 9 " ' ' : . j " # . % As per condition of the problem the permissible shearing stress in cast iron is 6.Design ut' Bearings..section of -. .(ix) Thickness of Flange Along the circumfermce where flange joins-with the hub there is a possibility of failure by shear over an area x Dt. .3 mm. in which case .p . (vi) As already stated D = 2d or D=2xlll=222mm .:(?-': T I 7 . Clutches.3 11933x10~ 6 x -5d 1 2 x26x-=l7101.& Length..I a I . ' . ILr: . (iii).'i.14 mm . is acceptable.4 mm . I r 1 i< : f-$ * - The length ofthe key will be calculated byeotw. shearing stress of 5.^ a &kre. . . ~ a & :' d b6i . r . . .. ' . . . Brakes and C A D The value of D. (v) Using value of D. of the ~ l .. prvduced in the hub of the flange may be checked by treatirg hub as a hollow shaft.eaIjst@ value of d l can be computed. (vii) The shearing stress.. . w=h=-1". '= 2 (1 11) + 2 (22.a . ? 14 ' .. 7 5 m . -d .= or L = 129. . key will be sa'lectqd. hence the value of D = 222. L '. .Ir I .
4 mm . . following dimensions have been determined Diameter of shaft Diameter of bolt Number of bol ts Pitch circle diameter of bolts Diameter of hub Length of flange hub Key dimensions Thickness of flange Outer diameter of flange Diameter of register Thickness of protective flange (ii). (v) . -D = 2 x 279. . If o . the bearing stress produced in the hole .6 m r D. .(xi) D. value o f t will be acceptable one more check for thickness of the flange can be to check if it will be safe under cruslling against bolt. . D and rs2 CAD of Mechanical Elemenls ' Still to be on the safer side the thickness of flange is taken as slightly greater than bolt d~ameter which as per result (vi) is 26. . (vi) . . . . (xiii) Summing up the results. . . w = h = 27. is calculated from following empirical formula.3 mm q= 27. (xiii) .= 279. . .75 L = 129. d = 1 1 1 mm d l = 26. (xii) .6 mm The diameter of register projection . . 1 . (x) . = 2 = 168.(xi) . is surface. . (ii) . :' mm . (vii) . .3 mm D = 222 mm L = 129. Do = 2 0 . Do. Hence. . Other Dimensions The outer diameter of the flange.2'22 = 336.substituting values of M. . .75 mm .3 . . .3 mm 2 Thickness of the protective flange on the top of flange D . . (xii) . then which is quite safe as compared to permissible crushing stress of 150 ~ / m r n ' for C. .14 mm .4 mm. (v) to (xiii) are answers.14mm t=30mm Do = 336.= 168. .. following d. (ix) n=6 D.
6 SELECTION OF CAD SYSTEM Computer aided design (CAD) programmes usually allow a structure to be built up from several re-usable. Calculating mass properties of parts and assemblies. Drawing can be stored and easily referenced for modification. 3-dimensional components. It is very important to select a suitable CAD . 15.Design of Bearings. Simulation of designs without building a physical prototype. Clutches. Simulation and testing of designs. and the components (such as gear) may be able to move in relation to one another. Validation/verification of design against specifications and design rules. 15. which are collections of parts andlor other assemblies. Quick and convenient solution of computational design anlysis problems. Automated design of assemblies. Increase level of accuracy. Orthographic and pictorial representation of piping system. Easier visualisation of drawings. Analysis of load. Wire frame geometry creation. Some of these advantages are : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Easier creation and correction of working drawings. Design and drawing of printed circuits.5 ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF CAD CAD has several advantages over conventional design procedure. Brakes and CAD SAQ 1 (a) (b) (c) What are the various steps in the design process? What are the various functions to be performed by CAD? Define computer-aided design. (g) CAD finds applications in the following areas : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) SAQ 2 (a) (b) What are the advantages of CAD? List the applications of CAD.
This has permitted designers to access powerful computers from a terminal which can be far away from a main computer. which denotes a user oriented system in which the computer is employed to create. Once it is installed and designers are trained to use it. These CAD intelligent terminals will be cost competitive with current systems. reduced in size. Interactive graphics are also possible. Specification of the system. This has brought in efficiency and correctness in solving problenis. air-conditioning and maintenance per year. Maintenance support for hardware and software. 15. including installation. moved to . As technology evolves. Computer aided design (CAD) can be described as any design activity thatinvslves the effective use of con~puter create or modify an engineering design. Set squares and slide-rules as the classroom material. the future of CAD is very bright. Modem CAD systems are to based on lnteractive Computer Graphics (ICG).8 SUMMARY In this unit.system for the proposed applications. Preliminary system evaluation. you have studied computer aided design of mechanical elements. The basic approach for selecting a CAD system is as follows : (a) (b) (c) (d) Identification of what is required from the systeni to do for the user. it would be very costly to change the system. CAD has moved beyond a documentation tools (representing designs in graphical format) into a more robust designing tool that assists in the design process. During the last decade the mini draftem and calculators have replaced Tee. CAD u l Mechi~r~ical Elerl~ents The selection of CAD system generally depends upon the following factors : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (0 (g) (h) SAQ 3 How will you select CAD system? 15. Whether a CAD system is going to be mounted as existing computer system? Data storage requirements. These pictures can be modified. Requirement of work stations. Cost. New trend in CAD is the use of built-in-intelligence (artificial intelligence) into the design work stations which translates into a large number of terminals and shared by one mini computer. Possibility of system upgrading for future development in technology. Same is true with plotters and other peripheral devices. With the fast developments in computer technology. transform and display data in the form of pictures or symbols.7 FUTURE OF CAD Future prospects of CAD has been greatly enhanced by developments in information technology tools. Training and documentation. Final intensive system evaluation. enlarged. Networking facility.
Khanna Publishers. Sadhu Singh (1997). (1968). Muchine Design.. : A cotter joint is used to joint two rods which may carry axial tension or compression load. Drafting : Drafting is the integral communications of technical drawings and is the industrial art sub-discipline which underlies all involved technical endeavours. M.10 ANSWERS TO SAOs Please refer the preceding text for all the Answers to SAQs. 15. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Ltd. Jr. .9 KEY WORDS CAD i : Computer aided design (CAD) can be described as any design activity that involves the effective use of computer to create or modify an engineering design. 15. F. J. Dr. : Flange coupling is a rigid type of coupling used to connect strictly co-axial shafts. P. There are several advantages of computeraided. Cletches. FURTHER READINGS Black. Shingley.D o i g n of Bearings. rotated and transformed. E. New Delhi. microprocessors and associated software. New York. It iszalso very important to select a suitable CAD system for the proposed application. (1956). (1978). Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Machine Design. Future prospects for CAD has been greatly enhanced by developments in communications. Brakes and C A D another location on the screen.design. 0. Machine Design. McGraw-Hill Book Company. : It is concerned with the computer compatible Geometric Modelling mathematical description of the geometry of an object. E. and Adams. Design o Machirre Elements. 5" Edition. Cotter Joint Flange Coupling . New York. f Spotts.
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