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SVM Based Fault Detection Approach

O. P. Yadav1, 3, Lalit Rai2, Rajeev Yadav3 Research Scholar NIT Kurukshetra1, YMCA University Faridabad2, Galgotias College of Engg and Technology, Greater Noida3
Abstract-This paper presents an application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) to identify and classify the health condition of an induction motor (IMs). Induction motor plays a vital role in industrial and residential areas due to its safe and reliable operation. Faults and failures of critical electromechanical parts can lead to excessive downtimes and generate costs of millions rupees in reduced output, emergency maintenance and lost revenues. Thus, finding efficient and reliable fault diagnostics methods, especially for induction motors, is extremely important. Support vector machine can play a vital role for condition monitoring of induction motor due to its capability to deal with non linear fault. Their most important characteristic is that they can handle very large feature spaces. Their generalization ability and computational efficiency are both independent of the dimension of the input space. This method is applied to early fault detection to a running induction motor by observing its stator current spectrum. Keywords-- Induction motors, MATLAB, LS-SVM toolbox.
INTRODUCTION

they require a good deal of expertise to apply them successfully, so they are not suitable for unskilled operators to make reliable decision without a specialist. Success of condition monitoring is measured by reliability of detection and it is a big challenge to design such a technique. Therefore, there is a demand to such a technique that can take decision on the health of a running motor automatically and reliably. Different approaches to health monitoring have been developed in the past. Such of the recent effort that has been expended on the monitoring of electrical winding health in induction machines has involved the measurement of voltages and currents at the stator terminals [2][4]. Recently, there are a lot of papers proving the superiority of support vector machine (SVM) in the classication tasks [5], [8]. The SVM classifier is widely used in bioinformatics (and other disciplines) due to its high accuracy, ability to deal with high-dimensional data such as gene expression, and flexibility in modeling diverse sources of data [6]. This paper will develop the fault detection model based on the application of LS-SVM. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is an improved algorithm based on SVM [1], [7], and [12]. The LSSVM is a kind of SVM under quadratic loss function. In LSSVM, the non-sensitive loss function is replaced by quadratic loss function and the inequality constraints are replaced by equality constraints. LS-SVMs do not lead sparse solutions such as SVMs but a solution for the optimization problem is found very fast, and pruning techniques can be easily applied to enhance the sparsity.

Induction motors are the essential part of many industrial processes and domestic applications due to its safe and reliable operations. In order to keep machines in good condition, techniques such as fault monitoring, detection, classification, and diagnosis have become increasingly essential [9][11]. Special attention is urgently required in condition monitoring of induction motors in order to guarantee its stable and high performance operation. Early fault detection is more efficient and cost effective technique to remove the incipient faults related to induction motor. There are many techniques have been implemented to condition monitoring of induction motors to providing high-degree of reliability and prolonging the lifetime of motor. Many techniques are such that

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Stator parameters (current) are the variants that give basic information regarding the faults of induction motors. The most suitable measurements for diagnosing the faults under consideration, in term of easy accessibility, reliability, and sensitivity, are the stator current amplitudes (IR IY, and IB). These amplitudes are monitored by the system illustrated by Fig.1. The experiment is done in the machines lab of NIT, Kurukshetra. All the data has been taken by power analyzer and different faults has been created by variable resistance inserted in the path of stator winding. The experiment has been done on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor. Fig.2 shows the experimental setup. It consists of a 3HP, 220V, 4.96A, 50-Hz, 4 poles, delta- connected squirrel-cage induction motor.

Suppose a given training set input data

with

and corresponding binary class

labels , where n is the dimension number of input space, the SVM classifier, according to Vapniks original formulation, satisfies the following conditions:

According to SVM it classifies a set of data with a margin of

w . To put the classifying margin


2

maximum, the value of w

should be maximum.

The optimization problem using LS-SVM model is as follows:


1 ( ) w 2 m in J LS w , = + wb , , 2
1 2 i

N i =1

Subject to y N

[ wT ( x ) + b] 1 where i=1,2, i i

Fig. 1. Experimental Set-up to collect stator currents A separately excited dc generator feeding a variable resistor provided a mechanical load. The induction motor has been initially tested, in absence of faults, in order to determine the stator currents corresponding to the supposed healthy motor. Stator voltages were unbalanced by adding an 80, 3A resistance to one phase. The stator currents corresponding to these conditions are shown in figure 2. LS-SVM BASED CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM The LSSVM is an improved algorithm based on SVM. For LSSVM, the non-sensitive loss function is replaced by quadratic loss function and the inequality constraints are replaced by equality constraints.

Where parameter is similar to parameter C of SVM, which is used to control function J LS ( w, ) In order to solve the optimization problem, the Lagrangian function is introduced as follows:

LL S( w, b, , =)

J L S ( w, ) i
i =1

{ [ w ( x ) b] 1 y i +

} +

i is Lagrangian multiplier.

Solving optimization is converted into equations evaluation by Lagrange multiplier

linear

Where

and X = 1,1,......,1

In this problem we used Polynomial kernel due to its excellent classification performance. The Polynomial Kernel function is given as

The resulting LSSVM model for function estimation can be expressed as:

Fig. 3. Training of data to LS-SVM classification toolbox Basically SVM is a binary approach that classifies a set into two different classes such as [+1 & -1]. But in practical applications it is need to classify a set into many different classes this is known as multi class classifier. In this paper a multi class classifier has been used to classify the condition of induction motor. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this problem the unbalance condition is created in the stator circuit of induction motor. To create unbalance condition a variable resistance has been inserting in the stator circuit of induction motor. The current signal has been detected by power analyzer and the current signals have been used to classify the unbalance fault in induction motor. Some data that has been trained in LS-SVM is given below by figure 2.

Fig 4. Training of data to LS-SVM toolbox and decision boundary The set parameters for this problem is as following: Selected value of gam for this problem is [1.8989 2.4420], alpha: [90x2 double] and b: [0.8796 -0.7356] After training the data set into LS-SVM toolbox we compare the simulated result with actual result and find that it is approx. 95% accurate. The simulated result is shown below through graph plot.

Fig. 2. Stator currents of three phase induction motor These data has been trained into MATLAB in LSSVM toolbox, the resultant figures are given below.

5th Annual ACM Workshop on COLT, pages 144-152, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992. [2] Subhasis Nandi and Hamid A. Toliyat, Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Machines A Review, Record of the 34th IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, pp. 197-204, Oct. 1999. [3] R.R. Schoen and T.G. Habetler, A New Method of CurrentBased Condition Monitoring in Induction Machines Operating under Arbitrary Load Conditions, Electric Machines and Power Systems, vol. 25, pp. 141-152, 1997. [4] G.B. Kliman, W.J. Premerlani, R.A. Koegl and D. Hoeweler, A New Approach to On-Line Turn Fault Detection in AC Motors, Record of the 1996 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, pp. 686-693, Oct. 1996. [5] Meyer D, Leisch F and Hornik K, The support vector machine under test, Neuro-computing 55:169186 (2003). [6] Chih-Wei Hsu, Chih-Chung Chang, and Chih-Jen Lin, A practical guide to support vector classification, Technical report, Department of Computer Science, National Taiwan University, 2003. [7] G. Guo, S. Z. Li, and K. L. Chan, Support vector machines for face recognition, Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 19, pp. 631638, 2001. [8] Vapnik V N, Statistical Learning Theory [M], New York: Wiley,1998. [9] R. Isermann, Supervision, fault-detection and fault-diagnosis methods-An introduction, Control Eng. Practice, vol. 5, no. 5, pp.639652, 1997. [10] S. Leohardt and M. Ayoubi, Methods of fault diagnosis, Control Eng.Practice, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 683692,1997. [11] R. Patton, P. Frank, and R. Clark, Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems, Theory and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, 1989. [12] C. W. Hsu and C. J. Lin, A comparison of methods for multiclass support vector support vector machines, IEEE Trans on Neural Networks, Vol. 13, No.2, pp.415-425, May, 2002.

Fig. 5. comparative graph of actual output and simulated output of faults of induction motor CONCLUSION A method of using LS-SVM to interpret current sensors signals of induction motor for its stator voltage unbalance condition monitoring was presented. Correctly processing these current signals and trained them to a LS-SVM decision system can achieve high diagnosis accuracy. There is most likely still room for improvement by using an intelligent means of optimization. It is quietly able method in diagnosis of unbalance supply which can not only derate the performance but also can cause failure of induction motor. The proposed method is not only limited in diagnosis the unbalance condition but can also diagnose the bearing faults and rotor faults. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author would like to express their gratitude to Dr. I.N.Kar Professor in Electrical Engg Deptt of IIT Delhi for their support to learn the support vector machines and applications during a course at IIT Delhi. The author would also like to express his thanks to Mr. Mahendra IES officer in Railway, Dr Dheeraj Joshi and Dr G.L.Pahuja from NIT Kurukshetra.

REFERENCES
[1] B. E. Boser, I. M. Guyon, and V. N. Vapnik. A training algorithm for optimal margin classifiers, In D. Haussler, editor,

O.P.Yadav (Om Prakash Yadav) received ` his M.Tech Degree from NIT Kurukshetra ` India in 2008. Currently he is pursuing Ph.D ` from NIT Kurukshetra India. Author has ` ` published a number of papers and attended a ` number of seminars. Author is also working ` as Assistant Professor in Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology Greater Noida.