Line(l) 5

multilane (ml)

polygaon

arc (a)

spline

make block

regions

Construction(xl) line

polyline(pl) rectangle (rec) circle(c)

insert block (i)

hatch(bh)

multiline text

OOPS-another name of undo command. Old version command. MULTIPLE: repeats the command several times. LIMITS: set the drawing limits. BLIPMODE: to turn blip mode on or off DIST: to find the distance between two points. UNITS: Defines the unit and angle formats. PAN (P) - to move the drawing in drawing area LINE (L) - to draw a line @ - From / with reference to previous point ARC (A) - to draw an arc. Options in arc command 1) Start point – end point 2) Center point- start point- end point 3) Center point- start point – angle 4) Center point- start point- chord length

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Y is written next

POLAR CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM: - in this system the co-ordinates are specified in terms of length and angle. To separate distance and angle < sign is used. DISTANCE < ANGLE

DIRECT DISTANCE ENTRY METHOD: (FASTEST WAY TO ENTER DISTANCES) in this method the distance is given by keyboard and direction by mouse. REGEN:- to regenerate the drawing.
90

-,+

+,+
180 0

-,CARTESIAN SYSTEM

+,-

270 POLAR SYSTEM

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3) OBJECT SELECTION CURSOR 4) OSNAP MARKER SELECTION WINDOWS IN AUTOCAD 2002 There Are Two Types Of Windows In AutoCAD SOLID WINDOW: - this window will select those objects, which are completely enclosed within window. It will not select those objects which are partially included within window In this case only two circles, which are completely enclosed within window, will be selected. A line is partially within window and partially outside window will not be selected. This window will be created when mouse is dragged form upper right corner to lower left corner. CROSSING WINDOW: this window will select all those objects that are completely enclosed within window as well as those objects, which are crossing with window. In this case two circles as well as a line will be selected as a line is crossing with window. This window is generated when mouse is dragged from lower right corner to upper left corner.

OBJECT SELECTION OPTION 1) ALL 2) CROSSING (C) 3) CROSSING POLYGAON (CP) 4) FENCE (F) 3) MULTIPLE (M) 7) WINDOW (W) 8) WINDOW POLYGAON (WP) 9) ADD (A) 10) REMOVE (R) 12) SINGLE (SI) 13) LAST (L) CO-COPY: To make copy of objects. Use multiple (m) options to make multiple copies. M- MOVE to move object from one location to another. TR- TRIM To trim the objects which extends beyond certain boundary line. Boundary edge.

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LAYERS: layers are nothing but plastic sheets or glass sheets on which we draw drawing having zero thickness. In AutoCAD separate layers are required for hidden lines, centerlines, different colors, dimensions etc. we can make any numbers of layers as per our requirement. CURRENT LAYER: for drawing any object at least a one plastic or glass sheet will be required, that layer is called current layer. Only one layer can be a current layer. Current layer cannot be freezed. ON/ OFF LAYER: when the layer is OFF objects on that layer will be temporarily invisible. These objects become visible when layer is ON. LOCK AND UNLOCK LAYER : when the layer is lock then objects on that layer can not be modified i.e. We can not use move, copy , erase , trim, mirror etc. commands on these objects. FREEZE/UNFREEZE LAYER: FREEZE layer will show same effect as that of OFF layer. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OFF LAYER AND FROZEN LAYER? Objects on frozen layer are not regenerated and therefore time for regeneration will be less whereas objects on off layers are regenerated by REGEN command. LTSCALE- adjust gap between non-continuous lines. Use only for hidden, center etc. lines. This command sets global line type scale factor. CELTSCALE:- sets line type scaling for individual objects. O- OFFSET this command will draw parallel object at specified distance. Click on that side where you want the object should be drawn.

C-CIRCLE use D for diameter option

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have to turn the group off by ctrl+a - to turn group on /off. GROUP(G) :- to group the objects together AR- ARRAYS 1) POLAR ARRAYS: the objects are multiplied in circular fashion about a center.

360 CCW
(Counter clock wise)

180CCW

- 180 CW
(Clockwise)

BEARING

2) RECTANGULAR: the objects are multiplied in rectangular fashion

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Create a rectangular array shown above ROWS -- 6 COLUMNS -100 ROWS OFFSET -03 COLUMN OFFSET-O3

XL - CONSTRUCTION LINES these are the lines of infinite length generally used as projection lines. Use H for horizontal and V for vertical A for angle. LENGTHEN 1) DELTA: by this option the length is either decreased or increased by difference between final and initial length. 2) PERCENT: by this option the length is either increased or increased in percentage. 3) TOTAL: directly give the final length you want. 4) DYNAMIC: mouse can adjust length of object. EXTEND

STRETCH COMMNAD: USE RECTANGULAR WINDOW SELECTION

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Difference between external reference and block? 1) X-REF cannot be exploded like block. 2) If x-ref is moved to another location, AutoCAD can not locate the file, in such situation use browse 3) X-ref do not increase the file size. XCLIP- external reference clip. XBIND: to make some members of EXTERNAL REFERANCE file a permanent member of host file for ex. Block, dimension style, text style, layer etc. What Is OVERLAY option? Suppose drawing A is X-Ref to Drawing B , B is Xref to Drawing C But I don’t want A in C . Then at the time of attachment of A with B, check overlay option. REFEDIT: - to edit external reference. 'FILTER- object selection filter How to create complex selection set? Suppose I want to select circle as well as arc then ** Begin OR ** Begin AND Object = Circle ** End AND ** Begin AND Object = Arc ** End AND ** End OR Note: - If the criteria are bounded by the AND grouping operators, then the objects must fulfill all criteria before the objects are selected. If criteria are bounded by the OR grouping operators, then the objects fulfilling any one criteria will be selected. QUICK SELECT: This option is available on your right click when no command is active. This is very similar to using filters. 'CAL- CALCULATROR (ARITHMATIC+GEOMETRIC) ‘ sign is imp ARITHMATIC CALCULATOR: by this calculator we can do operations like addition(+), subtraction(-), division (/), multiplication (*) The geometric calculators osnap mode
CALCULATOR End Mid MEANING Endpoint Midpoint OPERATOR/ FUNCTION + or * or / WHAT IT DOES Add or subtract Multiplies or divides number EXAMPLE 2-1=1,2+1=3 2*4.2=8.4

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How to use Geometric calculator? Suppose I want to draw a line in the midway of endpoint of the line and center point of arc then without drawing additional object we can draw with using geometric calculator.

the expression (end+cen)/2

line drawn by conventional method

line drawn by using geometric calculator

EXPRESSION (MID+MID+MID)/3

CENTROID FOUND BY CONVENTIONAL METHOD

CENTROID FOUND BY GEOMERTIC CALCULATOR

Suppose I want to draw a line 2.5 in x direction and 5 in y direction from a end point of a line then expression will be end+[2.5,5.0] PL- POLYLINE what is polyline? How it is different from simple line? 1) Polyline can have any width while width of simple line is limited. 2) Line and arcs are interconnected in polyline.

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HE- hatch edit What do you mean by associative and non-associative hatching? An associative hatch pattern automatically changes to fill its boundary whenever that boundary is stretched or edited. A non-associative pattern doesn’t do this. Angle in hatching: angle in hatching is added in present angle . For example, this hatch pattern has a angle of 450 , if you choose 900 angle then it will become 1350. Initial angle was 450 after Adding 900 it becomes 1350.

DONUT- To draw filled circles. Use FILL command with REGEN. External diameter Internal Diameter

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QTEXT-turns text into box so that zoom and regeneration should be faster. SPELL: to check the spelling of text. EXPLODE (X) – to break the objects into their elements. F-fillet to make corners smooth CHA- CHAMFER –to make corners other than 900

MI- MIRROR

- to create mirror image of an object.

object created by mirror command

USING AUTOCAD AUTOMATIC SAVE FEATURE 1) enter savetime at command prompt. 2) At new value for save time <120> prompt , enter the desired interval in minutes. To disable enter 0. Codes for inserting special characters into single line text objects. Only for DT command

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possibility that last segment may be of the shorter length than specified. NOTE : use NODE osnap and DDPTYPE command with divide and measure commands.use PDSIZE to change size of marker. LIMITS: this command sets limits of your drawing. If you try to draw outside the limits AutoCAD will not allow (shows the message outside limits.) * we can use union, subtraction , intersection commands with two regions. MSLIDE – to make slide VSLIDE- to view slide VSLIDE C:\S1 PROGRAM EXPLANATION VSLIDE *C:\S2 VSLIDE SLIDE1 Begin slide show and load slide1 DELAY 3000 VSLIDE *SLIDE2 Preload slide 2 DELAY 2000 1000 VSLIDE Pause to allow audience to view slide 1 (milliseconds) = 1 second VSLIDE *C:\S3 VSLIDE Display slide 2 DELAY 3000 VSLIDE *SLIDE3 Preload slide 3 VSLIDE DELAY 2000 Pause to allow audience to view slide 2 DELAY 3000 VSLIDE Displays slide 3 RSCRIPT DELAY 2000 Pause to allow audience to view slide 3 NOTE: save the file RSCRIPT Restart the script from beginning with *.scr extension NOTE : SAVE SLIDE SHOW WITH *.SCR EXTENSION, LINES WITH *.LIN EXTENSION AND PATTERN FILE *.PAT EXTENSION.USE NOTEPAD TO WRITE CODES . BR- BREAK- to break an object NOTE : break command operates in anticlockwise direction in case of circle.

How To Break Without Gap?

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1 keeps the text at its normal width. Value greater than 1 will expand the text, value less than 1 will compress the text.

dipak shirbahte

OBLIQUE ANGLE: skews the text at an angle / Greater than zero say +30: \ Less than zero say –30: What is the difference between ALIGN and FIT options in justification? ALIGN- with this option height of text changes with length. FIT – with this option height do not change with length. What is DIMTIX and DIMTOFL variable? • When DIMTIX is on dimension line is very close to circle. • The text will be placed outside if DIMTIX is on. • There will be line from center if DIMTOFL is on. TIME-shows total time spent on drawing FUNCTION KEYS F3- object osnap F11- object osnap tracking F7- grid on/off. F6- on/off co-ordinate readout ML- MULTILINE MLEDIT- MULTILINE EDIT MLSTYLE: to create different styles for multi-lines. SPLINEDIT: to edit splines (splines is a curve having tangents at both ends) AREA command to calculate the area and perimeter of an area on a 2D plane. MATCHPROP: Match property one object with other. MASSPROP: calculates area, volume, centroid, and radius of gyration, area bounded etc LIST: - give the information about object type (line, circle etc.), object layer, X, Y, Z, position relative to current UCS Etc. RAY: - creates semi-infinite lines commonly used as a construction lines. SOLID: - to create quadrilateral solid filled area. Use FILLMODE with this command. REDRAW: refreshes the display of current view port.

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3d TOOLBARS: 1) SOLID 2) VIEW 3) SOLIDEDITING EXT- EXTRUDES. To use this command you should follow some rules Rule 1. Object to be extruded must be a polyline object. Rule 2. Object must form a single close loop.

this object will be extruded as it forms a close loop

this object will not be extruded

this object will be extruded as it forms a close loop

this object will not be extruded

ISOLINES- to change the number of ISO-LINES.

Isolines=4

isolines=40

REG: *regions- Regions can be extruded to become 3d solids. Regions should form a closed boundary. Regions are two-dimensional areas you create from closed shapes or Loops. You can carry Boolean operation on regions.

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union

substract

intersection

SOLIDEDIT: to edit 3d solids. UNI- UNION to add two solids SUB- SUBTRACTS – to subtract smaller solid from bigger one. DISPSILH: to on/off silhouette during printing. HIDE: - to hide invisible lines. ROTATE3D- to rotate 3d objects along x,y,z axis. REV- to revolve 2d objects to create 3d objects. PS- paper space MS- model space SLICE: to cut 3d object by a plane. SEC- section of 3d solid. How to convert 3d into 2d drawing? 3d drawing can be converted to 2d by SOLVIEW, SOLDRAW and SOLPROF commands. SOLVIEW: this command creates three views and three layers for each view as HID- for hidden lines, VIS – for visible lines, DIM- for dimensions. SOLDRAW: This command ask you to select three view ports so that hidden lines can be placed on HID layer, visible lines on VIS layer. SOLPROF: this command creates profile, which is placed on PH layer means, profile hidden and PV layer means profile visible. ALIGNING 3D OBJECT IN SPACE (ALIGN COMMAND) ALIGN this command aligns the object in 3d space with the help of three source and three destination points. SURFTAB1 & SURFTAB2 Sets the number of tabulations to be generated for the RULESURF and TABSURF commands.

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[MASSPROP]^C^C_MASSPROP [DIVIDE]^C^C_DIVIDE [MEASURE]^C^C_MEASURE [DISTANCE]^C^C_DIST NOTE: MYNAME.DWG is a file name containing drawing. Save this file with *.mnu extension. Save your file in AutoCAD’s support directory. SERIAL SEQUENCE OF TOPICS IN AUTOCAD 2006

# 2D –DRAWING # 3D – SOLID MODELLING # SURFACE MODELLING # CUSTOMIZATION OF AUTOCAD # RENDERING # EXPRESS TOOLS # LIPS PROGRAMMING. # line coding, slide show in AutoCAD, pattern coding
FOLLOWING ENGINEERING SOFTWARES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE ON CD’S @ Rs 25/cd AT SIDDHIVINAYK COMPUTERS, AKOLA PH 2422684 1) AUTOCAD 2000 2) MECHANICAL DESKTOP (WITH LEARNING / COURSE MATERIAL) 3) IDEAS (WITH LEARNING/ COURSE MATERIAL) 4) SOLID WORKS 5) AUTOCAD 2002. 6) CNC T70 (HMT) and MTAB DENFORD FOLLOWING SOFTWARES are available @ Rs 25/C.D * PRO- ENGINEERING *ANISIS *CATIA-V5 *UNIGRAPHICS VISIT ME AT and ALSO SEE AUTOCAD SYLLABUS http://business.vsnl.com/siddhivinayak_akola. Mail me at dipak_shirbhate@hotmail.com PROF . DIPAK V. SHIRBHATE C/O siddhivinyak computers, renuka nagar, dabki road , akola 2422684 Coaching also available for mechanical desktop, IDEAS, CNC programming. NETWORK LEARNING SCHEME FOR ITI/ POLYTECHNIQUE/ DEGREE LEARN FREE BY MAKING TWO MEMBERS

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NEXT TWO COMPONENTS: - DISTANCE AND DIRECTION LAST TWO COMPONENTS: - LENGTH OF LINE AND GAP File name and pattern name should be same. Save with *.pat extension in AutoCAD’s support directory.

*SHIRBHATE, MAKING PLUS SIGN 0,0,0,2,2,1, -1 90,5, -.5,2,2,1, -1 *SHIRBHATE2, MAKING HASH SIGN 0,0,.3,2,2,1,-1 90,.3,0,2,2,1, -1 0,0,.6,2,2,1,-1 90,.6,0,2,2,1,-1
*DIPAK4, network-learning scheme 0, 0, 0, 0, 6.35 0, 0, 3.175, 0, 6.35, 3.175, -3.175 *DIPAK3, make two members and learn AutoCAD free 60, 0, 0, 4.7625, 8.24889, 4.7625, -4.7625 120, 0, 0, 4.7625, 8.24889, 4.7625, -4.7625 0, -2.38125, 4.12445, 4.7625, 8.24889, 4.7625, -4.7625 *DIPAK2, make two members and learn AutoCAD free 0, 0, 0, 3.175, 3.175, 3.175, -3.175 90, 3.175, 0, 3.175, 3.175, 3.175, -3.175 *DIPAK1, make two members and learn AutoCAD free 0, 0, 0, 12.7, 21.997, 3.175, -22.225 90, 1.5875, 0, 21.997, 12.7, 1.5875, -42.4066 90, 1.98438, 0, 21.997, 12.7, 1.27, -42.7241 90, 1.19062, 0, 21.997, 12.7, 1.27, -42.7241 60, 2.38125, 0, 12.7, 21.997, 1.016, -24.384 120, 0.79375, 0, 12.7, 21.997, 1.016, -24.384

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CODE FOR SIMPLE LINE TYPES *DIPAK, NETWORK LEARNING SCHEME A,.75,-.25,.25,-.25,0,-.25,.25,-.25,.75 *VISHAL, CREATED BY ITWARE . . . . . . . . . . A,0,-.25 *DIPAK1,NETWORK __ __ . __ __ . __ __ . __ __ . __ __ . A,.5,-.25,.5,-.25,0,-.25 *DIPAK2,Border (.5x) __.__.__.__.__.__.__.__.__.__.__. A,.25,-.125,.25,-.125,0,-.125 *DIPAK3,Border ____ ____ . ____ ____ . ___ A,1.0,-.5,1.0,-.5,0,-.5 *DIPAK4,Center ____ _ ____ _ ____ _ ____ _ ____ _ ____ A,1.25,-.25,.25,-.25 *DIPAK5,Center ___ _ ___ _ ___ _ ___ _ ___ _ ___ A,.75,-.125,.125,-.125 *DIPAK6,Center ________ __ ________ __ _____ A,2.5,-.5,.5,-.5 *SHIRBHATE,2422684 __ . __ . __ . __ . __ . __ . __ . __ A,.5,-.25,0,-.25 * SHIRBHATE,2422684 _._._._._._._._._._._._._._._. A,.25,-.125,0,-.125

Complex line types

["String", style name=XX,R=XX,S=XX,X=XX,Y=XX]
*SACHIN,MY BROTHER A,.5,-.2,["NITIN",STANDARD,S=.1,R=0,X=0,Y=0],-.25
* SHIRBHATE,2422684 ________ . . ________ . . _ A,1.0,-.5,0,-.5,0,-.5 * SHIRBHATE,2422684. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A,0,-.25 * SHIRBHATE,2422684........................................

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*FENCELINE2,Fenceline square ----[]-----[]----[]-----[]----[]--A,6.35,-2.54,[BOX,ltypeshp.shx,x=-2.54,s=2.54],-2.54,25.4 *TRACKS,Tracks -|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|A,3.81,[TRACK1,ltypeshp.shx,s=6.35],3.81 *BATTING,Batting SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS A,.00254,-2.54,[BAT,ltypeshp.shx,x=-2.54,s=2.54],5.08,[BAT,ltypeshp.shx,r=180,x=2.54,s=2.54],-2.54 *HOT_WATER_SUPPLY,Hot water supply ---- HW ---- HW ---- HW ---A,12.7,-5.08,["HW",STANDARD,S=2.54,R=0.0,X=-2.54,Y=-1.27],-5.08 *GAS_LINE,Gas line ----GAS----GAS----GAS----GAS----GAS----GAS-A,12.7,-5.08,["GAS",STANDARD,S=2.54,R=0.0,X=-2.54,Y=-1.27],-6.35 *ZIGZAG,Zig zag /\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ A,.00254,-5.08,[ZIG,ltypeshp.shx,x=-5.08,s=5.08],10.16,[ZIG,ltypeshp.shx,r=180,x=5.08,s=5.08],-5.08

PRACTICE DRAWING 1

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BASE LINE BASE LINE BASE LINE BASE LINE LINEAR LINEAR
R4.11

DIAMETER ALIGNED

CONTINUE LINEAR LINEAR

ANGULAR

QUICK LEADER

RADIUS

LINEAR

R8.12 (both side)

LINEAR

Change: This command will allow you to change the endpoint of line and radius of circle. It can do lot of other changes. SHIFT+CTRL+A: group on or off

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IMPORTANT OBJECT SNAP Web site created by Prof D.V. Shirbhate Project Batch for Production Engg. Dept. http://coeta-production.tripod.com EXPRESS TOOLS: right click any toolbar, select customize button, open menu group drop down list at the bottom, then select express Express layer tool

Express text tool

Express standard toolbar

3DDISTANCE

Command 3D Orbit

Starts interactive 3-D view and makes objects appear closer or farther away. Controls interactive 3-D viewing.

3DORBIT

Command 3D Orbit and Standard

View | 3D Orbit

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Extrude Solids

extruding existing 2-D objects either at a specified distance along the object’s Z axis or along a selected path. Loads a partial menu. Unloads a partial menu.

MENULOAD MENUUNLOAD

Command Command

– –

Tools | Customize Menus Tools | Customize Menu

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, BABHULGAON, AKOLA NAME: DIPAK VINAYAK SHIRBHATE CLASS: 4TH SEMESTER BRANCH: PRODUCTION ENGINEERING SHEET NO: TITLE: ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION CHECKED BY:

TITLE BLOCK uses make block command and insert command

Creating Your Own Line types And Hatch Patterns
Important points to remember Always start the definition with asterisk. The description is limited to 47 characters. If you include a description, precede it with comma. The second line of the line type syntax is its definition. With simple line types, you are limited to dashes, dots, and spaces, measured in units and shown as follows. A dash is indicated by a positive number A dot is indicated by a zero. A space is indicated by a negative number. Each item is separated by a comma, there are no spaces, and the maximum line is length is 80 characters.

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*TV, buried television cable A,.5,-.5,["TV",TVCABLE,S=.3,X=-.1,Y=-.15],-.75 CREATING HATCH PATTERN *Pattern-name [, description] angle,x-origin,y-origin,delta-x,delta-y,[,dash1,dash2,……….] Here are some general points for hatch pattern definition Pattern name cannot have spaces. The description is optional. Add the dash specification only for non-continuous lines. You can have more than one definition line (the second line in the preceding syntax), creating sets of hatch definition that combines to create the hatch pattern. Each definition line can be no more than 80 characters. You can include a maximum of six specifications (which include spaces and dots). You can add spaces in the definition lines for readability.

*ftrailer,proposed future trailers 105,0,0,0,0,.5
The lines are at an angle of 105 degree; the hatch pattern starts at 0,0, and the spacing between the lines 0.5 units. The lines are continuous. adding one level of complexity,you can make the lines in the hatch pattern non continous, as follows.

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IUB-1928

Sixth Semester B.E. (Civil) Examination
NUMERIACALS METHODS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING 6SC1 SECTION B SOLVED BY Prof. D.V. SHIRBHATE B.E. (Production Engg), M.E. (Production Technology & Management), A.M.I.E Lecturer in production Engineering, College Of Engineering & Technology, Akola Residential address: c/o siddhivinayak computers, Near Wadekar Kirana Shop, Renuka Nagar, Dabki Road, Akola phone: - 0724-2422684

Absolute co-ordinate system: In this system, the origin (0,0) is assumed to be in the lower-left corner of the drawing area and all the coordinates are referred from it. In this system the position of zero is fixed and it is not changed with Drawing every time. Therefore in this system there is no need of using @ sign Suppose first point A is taken at 50,50 then Specify next point: 59,50 Specify next point: 59,53 Specify next point: 56,53 Specify next point: 56,56 Specify next point: 53,56 Specify next point: 53,59 Specify next point: 50,59 Specify next point: 50,50

World coordinate system (WCS)

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and the Z-axis is perpendicular to the XY plane. In addition to the WCS, you can define a movable user coordinate system (UCS) with a different origin and axes in different directions. You define a UCS in terms of the WCS. Polar coordinate systems use a distance and an angle to locate a point. When you enter polar coordinate values, you indicate a point's distance from the origin or from the previous point and its angle along the XY plane of the current coordinate system. Q (b) the object shown in fig 7(b) is to be drawn using LINE command in order P1, P2, P3,………,P10,P1.

1.5

0.8

(1) Calculate absolute Cartesian coordinate of points P1 to P10 2422684 27

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Specify next point: 3.5,2 Specify next point: 3.5,0.8 Specify next point: -1,0.8 Specify next point: -1, -3.2 Specify next point: 3.5, -3.2 Relative Polar coordinate of point P2 to P10. Specify next point or [Undo]: @5.8<0 Specify next point or [Undo]: @4<90 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @2.8<180 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @3.2<90 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @3<180 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @1.2<270 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @4.5<180 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @4<270 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @4.5<0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @2<270 Relative Cartesian coordinate coordinates points P2 to P10. Specify next point or [Undo]: @5.8,0 Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,4 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @-2.8,0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @0,3.2 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @-3,0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @0, -1.2 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @-4.5,0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @0, -4 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @4.5,0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: @0, -2

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(b) Show with the help of neat sketches, the object snap points available on CIRCLE, LINE, ARC and POINT object 1) ON CIRCLE one CENTRE snap and four Quadrant snaps are available. 2) On LINE one MIDPOINT and two END point snaps are available. 3) On ARC one mid point and Two end point snaps are available 4) On point Node osnap is available.

ENDPOINT SNAP

MIDPOINT SNAP

ENDPOINT SNAP

MIDPOINT SNAP CENTRE SNAP QUADRANT SNAP

CENTRE SNAP ENDPOINTSNAP

ENDPOINT SNAP

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quickly to the prior view. with zoom previous you can go back to your previous view. Zoom in Real Time With the Real-time option, you zoom dynamically by moving your pointing device (mouse) up or down. By right clicking, you can display a shortcut menu with additional viewing commands. Zoom All: ZOOM all displays either the user-defined drawing limits or the drawing extents, whichever view is larger. Zoom all command shows all the drawings present in a drawing file. Zoom Center: You can move a specific point in your drawing to the center of the drawing area. ZOOM Center is useful for resizing an object and bringing it to the center of the view port. You can specify size by entering either the number of vertical drawing units or a magnification relative to the current view. by using this command you can bring the drawing in the center of the screen. 9) (a) Object shown in Fig 9(a) comprise of , (1) A 20 cm diameter circle A, with center at point 50,30. (2) An equilateral triangle B, inscribed in circle as shown in Fig. (3) a circle C, touching all the sides of the triangle B. Write all the steps, clearly showing command and its options used, required to complete the drawing.

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REGEN Regenerating model. Command: xl (construction line) XLINE Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: v (for vertical line) Specify through point: _cen of (center of circle) Command: ro ROTATE Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: 1 found (select vertical construction line) Select objects: Specify base point: _qua of (select quadrant of circle) Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 30 Command: xl XLINE Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: v Specify through point: (select center of circle) Command: ro ROTATE Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: 1 found Select objects: Specify base point: _qua of Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: -30(give negative –30 value) Command: xl XLINE Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: h Specify through point: _int of Command: tr TRIM Current settings: Projection=UCS Edge=Extend Select cutting edges... Select objects: 1 found (select circle as cutting edges) Select objects: Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (select construction line extending outside circle) Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (select construction line extending outside circle) Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (select construction line extending outside circle) Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (select construction line extending outside circle) Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (select construction line extending outside circle) Select object to trim or [Project/Edge/Undo]: (select construction line extending outside circle)

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A POINTED STAR CREATED BY 3D FACE COMMAND

RULESURF constructs a polygon mesh representing the ruled surface between two curves.

SKETCHES SHOWING RULED SURFACES CREATED BETWEEN TWO CURVES.

RULED SURFACE BETWEEN CIRCLE-CIRCLE, CIRCLE POLYGAON, CIRCLE – RECTANGLE

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TABSURF constructs a polygon mesh representing a general tabulated surface defined by a path curve and a direction vector. In short, tabulated surface crates a surface from a line, arc, circle, ellipse, or 2D or 3D polyline in the direction of direction vector. Direction vector is a line, which indicates the height and direction of extrusion. Revolve surface: Creates a revolved surface about a selected axis

AXIS

OBJECT TO BE REVOLVED
REVOLED OBJECT

Edge surf command: Creates a three-dimensional polygon mesh

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Umbrella created by Prof. 2422684 D.V. Shirbhate using Edge surf command.

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Q: Explain the dimensioning options in AutoCAD, with the help of neat

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command to draw the objects shown in fig 10b . The object is to drawn with a single PLINE command entry, starting from point P1.

Command: _pline Specify start point: Current line-width is 0.0000 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @100<180 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: a Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: @-25,-25 Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: l Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @100<270 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: a Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: @25,-25

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Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @-25,25 Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: *Cancel*(esc key) 11(a) Using the object shown in fig 11a-part 1,show how you will create object shown in fig 11a part2, using only the required editing from the list COPY, ROTATE, MIRROR, TRIM, OFFSET and ARRAY. Show steps entered and draw intermediate explanatory sketches showing the results of the steps.

First method Command: _rectang Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: Specify other corner point: @10,10 Command: ro

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Specify first point of mirror line: Specify second point of mirror line: Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: Command: mi MIRROR Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 2 found Select objects: Specify first point of mirror line: Specify second point of mirror line: Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: Second method REC (for rectangle command) Specify other corner point: @10,10 Command: CO COPY Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 1 found Select objects: Specify base point or displacement, or [Multiple]: M Specify base point: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: *Cancel* Command: MI MIRROR Select objects: 1 found Select objects: Specify first point of mirror line: Specify second point of mirror line: Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: Command: RO ROTATE Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 5 found Select objects: Specify base point: Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 45 Explain the AREA command and its ‘Object’, ‘Add’ and ‘subtract’ options.

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The plate have dimensions 50x25 mm having three holes of 5x5 mm. With object option if I select only the rectangle of 50x25 then

Command: area Specify first corner point or [Object/Add/Subtract]: o Select objects: Area = 1250, Perimeter = 150 With add option if I select three holes one by one then Command: area Specify first corner point or [Object/Add/Subtract]: a Specify first corner point or [Object/Subtract]: o (ADD mode) Select objects: Area = 1250.0000, Perimeter = 150.0000 Total area = 1250.0000 (ADD mode) Select objects: Area = 25.0000, Perimeter = 20.0000 Total area = 1275.0000 (ADD mode) Select objects: Area = 25.0000, Perimeter = 20.0000 Total area = 1300.0000 (ADD mode) Select objects: Area = 25.0000, Perimeter = 20.0000 Total area = 1325.0000

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Specify first corner point or [Object/Add]: o (SUBTRACT mode) Select objects: Area = 25.0000, Perimeter = 20.0000 Total area = 1225.0000 (SUBTRACT mode) Select objects: Area = 25.0000, Perimeter = 20.0000 Total area = 1200.0000 (SUBTRACT mode) Select objects: Area = 25.0000, Perimeter = 20.0000 Total area = 1175.0000 12(a) explains various object selection options available in AutoCAD, with the help of neat explanatory sketches. OBJECT SELECTION OPTION 1) ALL 2) CROSSING (C) 3) CROSSING POLYGAON (CP) 4) FENCE (F) 4) MULTIPLE (M) 7) WINDOW (W) 8) WINDOW POLYGAON (WP) 9) ADD (A) 10) REMOVE (R) 12) SINGLE (SI) 13) LAST (L) All: this will select all the objects available in the file. Crossing: if we drag the mouse from upper right corner to lower left corner, solid window is generated but if “c” option is used then crossing window is generated. CROSSING POLYGAON (CP): - this option enables us to have polygonal selection area instead of rectangular. FENCE (F): fence is a line, which will select those objects that are crossing with it. MULTIPLE (M): this option will prevent AutoCAD from pausing and adding the objects after every click; it will select the objects in background and will show selection after pressing enter key. You will not see the counting of objects and its total. Observe message Select objects: 1 found, 2 total. Will not be displayed. Window (w): if drag mouse form lower right to upper left corner crossing polygon is created but if w is given then this process is reversed ie window (solid) is created. Window polygon (wp): - selection will be window polygon instead of rectangular. Add (A) or remove (R): - with these options objects can be added or removed in the selection set. Single (si): - any command requiring object selection continuously prompts us to select objects unless and until we don’t press enter key. The command is applied on selection on second enter, but with single option the command is applied on first selection and then the command ends. Last (L): - selects the last object created.

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rays, splines, or xlines with an arc of a specified radius.

CHAMFER: -- Bevels the edges of objects. Chamfering connects two nonparallel objects by extending or trimming them to intersect or to join with a beveled line. You can chamfer lines, polylines, xlines, and rays. With the distance method, you specify the amount that each line should be trimmed or extended. With the angle method, you can also specify the length of the chamfer and the angle it forms with the first line. You can retain the objects as they were before the chamfer or trim or extend them to the chamfer line. (C) Explain the use of ‘divide’ and ‘measure’ command. DIVIDE: -Places evenly spaced point objects or blocks along the length or perimeter of an object. Objects that you can divide include arcs, circles, ellipses and elliptical arcs, polylines, and splines. Divide command divides the object into equal number of parts. For example a line of 100mm will be divided in 15 parts each of 6.67 mm. Divide command never creates unequal parts. Measure: Places point objects or blocks at measured intervals on an object. In simple language we can say that measure command divides the object into specified length. Measure command can create unequal parts.

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If you have been asked to divide a line of 100 mm into 15 equal parts then use divide command (don’t forget to use DDPTYPE with divide and measure command) If it is required to divide a line of 100 mm into segments of 15 mm each then use MEASURE command. (ddptype command :--Specifies the display mode and size of point objects) Note: all the students of civil engg. Are hereby informed that we provide coaching in AutoCAD at lowest charges. Those students who have not joined the classes will also get all the assistance as well as help to understand these notes free of charges. Don’t hesitate to ask or contact if you find any difficulty in understanding these notes. Because I believe in the fact that if you survive then we will survive. So dial at 0724-2422684

Sixth Semester B.E. (Civil) Examination VSJ -1670
NUMERIACALS METHODS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING 6SC1 SECTION B SOLVED BY Prof. D.V. SHIRBHATE B.E.(Production Engg), M.E. (Production Technology & Management) , A.M.I.E Lecturer in production Engineering, College Of Engineering & Technology, Akola Residential address: c/o siddhivinayak computers, Near Wadekar Kirana Shop, Renuka Nagar, Dabki Road, Akola phone:- 0724-2422684 Explain the concept of x/y/z point filters, with the help of neat explanatory sketches. Coordinate filters Functions that extract individual X, Y, and Z coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. Also called X,Y,Z point filters. .X Specifies a .X point filter: .X .Y Specifies a .Y point filter: .Y .Z Specifies a .Z point filter: .Z .XY Specifies a .XY point filter: .XY .XZ Specifies a .XZ point filter: .XZ .YZ Specifies a .YZ point filter: .YZ You can use point filters to specify one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. When used with object snaps, point filters can extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. Specifying a point filter limits the next entry to a specific ordinate value, such as the X or the Y value, or an X,Y coordinate value. You also can specify Z values (typically for 3D models). After you specify the first value, AutoCAD prompts you for the remaining values.

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(Here click at mid point snap) of (need YZ): (Here click at mid point snap) Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] <1.0764>: d Specify diameter of circle <2.1528>: 20 A drawing fig 7(b) comprise of objects A,B, and C. Explain showing the steps involved how will you draw line object P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P1, using the X/Y/Z point filters.

Command: l LINE Specify first point: .x of (need YZ): Specify next point or [Undo]: .x of (need YZ): _qua of Specify next point or [Undo]: .x of _qua of (need YZ): Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: .x of (need YZ): Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: .x of (need YZ): _int of Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: .x of (need YZ):

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8. A) explain the difference between VPORTS and VPOINT commands. VPORTS: - Divides the drawing area into multiple tiled or floating view ports. You can display tiled view ports in various configurations. How you display the view ports depends on the number and size of the views you need to see. If you're not familiar with the available configurations, you can select one by choosing its picture. VPOINT: - VPOINT puts the viewer in a position to look at the drawing as if looking back at the origin (0,0,0) from a specified point in space. View Point Using the X,Y,Z coordinate you enter, creates a vector that defines a direction from which the drawing can be viewed. The view defined is as if the viewer were looking back at the origin (0,0,0) from space.

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Compass and Axis Tripod Displays a compass and axis tripod, which you use to define a viewing direction in the view port.

(b) Explain the concept and utility of layers in AutoCAD drawing. Layer in AutoCAD are like transparent glass or plastic sheet having zero thickness. Layers in AutoCAD are used for assigning different colors, line types to drawing objects. With the use of layers you can place different objects of drawing on different layers. When the layer is made off objects on that layer becomes temporarily invisible.if the layer is locked objects on that layer can not be modified. Layer is a logical grouping of data that are like transparent acetate overlays on a drawing. You can view layers individually or in combination. You always draw on a layer. It may be the default layer or a layer you create. Each layer has an associated color, linetype, lineweight, and plot style. You can use layers to organize drawings into groups of objects as well as to identify different objects with varying colors, linetypes, and lineweights. For example, you can create a layer for centerlines. You assign the properties you want for centerlines (color, linetype, lineweight) to the layer. When you want to draw a centerline, you switch to the centerline layer and begin drawing. You do not need to specify a linetype, lineweight, and color every time you draw a centerline.

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same layer. For example, you can put construction lines, text, dimensions, and title blocks on separate layers. You can then control Whether objects on a layer are visible in any viewports
• • • •

Whether and how objects are plotted What color is assigned to all objects on a layer What default linetype and lineweight is assigned to all objects on a layer Whether objects on a layer can be modified

When you begin a new drawing, AutoCAD creates a special layer named 0. By default, layer 0 is assigned color number 7 (white or black depending upon your background color), the CONTINUOUS linetype, a lineweight of Default (the default setting is .01 inch or .25 mm), and the NORMAL plot style. Layer 0 cannot be deleted or renamed. SEE THE BELOW DRAWING, THOUGH IT LOOKS LIKE THAT IT IS DRAWN ON ONE SHEET OF PAPER BUT ACTUALLY IT IS CREATED ON THREE SHEETS PERFECTLY OVELAPPED OVER EACH OTHER.

BASE LINE BASE LINE BASE LINE BASE LINE LINEAR LINEAR R4.11 CONTINUE LINEAR LINEAR ANGULAR DIAMETER ALIGNED

QUICK LEADER

RADIUS

LINEAR

R8.12 (both side)

LINEAR

DRAWN BY PROF. DIPAK V. SHIRBHATE, C.O.E.&T; AKOLA

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(c) Explain various options available in GRID and SNAP commands, with the help of neat sketches. The grid is a rectangular pattern of dots that extends over the area you specify as the drawing limits. Using the grid is similar to placing a sheet of grid paper under a drawing. The grid helps you align objects and visualize the distances between them. The grid is not plotted. If you zoom in or out of your drawing, you may need to adjust grid spacing to be more appropriate for the new magnification. Snap mode restricts the movement of the crosshairs to intervals that you define. When Snap mode is on, the cursor seems to adhere, or "snap," to an invisible rectangular grid. Snap is useful for specifying precise points with the arrow keys or the pointing device. Specify grid spacing(X) or [ON/OFF/Snap/Aspect] <current>: Specify a value or enter an option Grid spacing (x) Sets the grid to the specified value. Entering x after the value sets the grid spacing to the specified value multiplied by the snap interval On: - Turns on the grid using the current spacing.

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Snap: Controls an invisible grid that restricts cursor movement to specified intervals. Aspect: Specifies different spacing in the X and Y directions. This option is not available if the current snap style is Isometric.

(a) Explain Center, Length, Angle Direction, Radius options of ARC command with the help of neat explanatory sketch. Angle: Draws an arc counterclockwise from the start point (1) using a center point (2) with a specified included angle. If the angle is negative, AutoCAD draws a clockwise arc. Included angle: Specify an angle

Chord Length Draws either a minor or a major arc. Specify length of chord: Specify a length

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endpoint, and radius. You can specify the radius by entering a length or by moving the cursor away from the endpoint to specify a distance. The illustration on the right shows an arc drawn with the pointing device by specifying a start point and endpoint and a direction of the tangent. Moving the cursor up from the start point and endpoint draws the arc concave to the object, as shown here. Moving the cursor down would draw the arc convex to the object.

Center Point Using the center point draws an arc counterclockwise from the start point (1) to an endpoint (2) that falls on an imaginary ray drawn from the center point (3) through the second point specified.

Angle Draws an arc counterclockwise from the start point (1) to an endpoint (2), with a specified included angle. If the angle is negative, AutoCAD draws a clockwise arc. Specify included angle:

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Draws the minor arc counterclockwise from the start point (1) to the endpoint (2). If the radius is negative, AutoCAD draws the major arc.

(b) A drawing, shown in Fig.9 (b), comprises of a square A, equilateral triangles B, C, D (of same size), a hexagon E, and a Pentagon F. The square A is of size 100x100 and its lower left corner (PO) is at position (40, 30). The drawing is to be completed using only the ‘Edge’ option of POLYGON. Show steps involved and intermediate explanatory sketches.

Command: rec RECTANGLE Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: 40,30 Specify other corner point: @100,100 Command: _polygon Enter number of sides <4>: 3 Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: e Specify first endpoint of edge: <Osnap on> Specify second endpoint of edge:

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SECOND PICK
FIRST PICK

FIRST STEP

SECOND STEP

SECOND PICK

FIRST PICK

FIRST PICK

FIRST PICK
THIRD STEP SECOND PICK

FOURTH STEP

SECOND PICK

FIFTH STEP

FIRST PICK

SECOND PICK

10. (a) Explain ‘Inscribed’, ‘Circumscribed’ and ‘Edge options of POLYGON’ with the help of neat sketches.

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Specifying the radius with your pointing device determines the rotation and size of the polygon. Specifying the radius with a value draws the bottom edge of the polygon at the current snap rotation angle.

Circumscribed about Circle: -Specifies the distance from the center of the polygon to the midpoints of the edges of the polygon. Specify radius of circle: Specify a distance

Specifying the radius with your pointing device determines the rotation and size of the polygon. Specifying the radius with a value draws the bottom edge of the polygon at the current snap rotation angle.

Edge: - Defines a polygon by specifying the endpoints of the first edge. Specify first endpoint of edge: Specify a point (1) Specify second endpoint of edge: Specify a point (2) (b) Line AB is an existing horizontal line. Complete the drawing as shown in Fig, given that: (1) Arc BC is a Semicircular Arc. (2) Arc BD is a Quarter Circular Arc. (3) Arc CAE passes through point E, which is upper quadrant/Mid point of Arc BC. Write all the steps involved.

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Command: ARC Specify start point of arc or [CEnter]: CE Specify center point of arc: _endp of Specify start point of arc: _endp of Specify end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length]: A Specify included angle: 180 Command: A ARC Specify start point of arc or [CEnter]: CE Specify center point of arc: _endp of Specify start point of arc: _endp of Specify end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length]: A Specify included angle: 90 Command: ARC Specify start point of arc or [CEnter]: _endp of Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd]: Specify end point of arc: _mid of 11. (a) Explain the function and utility of stretch command with the help of neat explanatory sketches. Drawing with the SKETCH command controls a screen-based pen with a pointing device. SKETCH is useful for entering map outlines, signatures, or other freehand drawings. Sketched lines are not added to the drawing until they are recorded. The standard digitizer tablet button menu is not available while SKETCH is in progress. You can use the SKETCH command to draw freehand sketches. Freehand sketches comprise many line segments. Each line segment can be a separate object or a polyline. You set the minimum length or increment of the segments. Sketching is useful for creating irregular boundaries or for tracing with a digitizer. Small line segments allow for greater accuracy, but they can greatly increase the drawing file size. For this reason, use this tool sparingly. Before sketching, check the CELTYPE system variable to make sure the current linetype is BYLAYER. If you use a linetype with dots or dashes and set the sketch line segment shorter than the spaces or dashes, you won't see the spaces or dashes.

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I USED TO DRAW THIS TO EXPLAIN SKECTH COMMAND TO STUDENTS IN THIS SKETCH I TRIED TO SHOW RISING SUN FROM MOUNTAINS, BIRD FLYING OVERS MOUNTAINS, RIVER FLOWING AT BOTTOM WITH FISHERMAN IN HIS BOAT. DRAWN BY D.V. SHIRBHATE

UTITILITY OF SKETCH COMMAND: You use Tablet mode with a digitizer. Sketching in Tablet mode is useful for such things as tracing map outlines from paper directly into an AutoCAD drawing. You can't turn off Tablet mode while sketching. When Tablet mode is on, you can configure AutoCAD to map the paper drawing's coordinate system directly into the AutoCAD world coordinate system. Thus, there is a direct correlation between the coordinates where screen crosshairs appear, the coordinates on the tablet, and the coordinates in the original paper drawing. After configuring AutoCAD to match the coordinates of the paper drawing, you may find that the area shown on the screen is not the area you need. To avoid this problem, use ZOOM to display the entire work area before you start to sketch. (b) Giving all the steps and explanatory sketches show how Fig. 11 (b)-Part 1, can be transformed to Fig. 11 (b)-Part 2, first using Polar Array and then Rectangular Array option of ARRAY command.

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For a moment we assume that circle diameter is 10 mm. To create 12 arrows, first select arrow. We will use polar array for this purpose. Use center of circle as center for array. Command: ar ARRAY Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 1 found Select objects: Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: p Specify center point of array:(select the center of circle here) Enter the number of items in the array: 12 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw, -=cw) <360>: 360 Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: y Command: ar ARRAY Select objects: all 14 found Select objects: Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: r Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 2 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1> 3 Enter the distance between rows or specify unit cell (---): 10 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 10 12.(a) Explain the function and utility of TRIM and EXTEND commands with the help of neat explanatory sketches. TRIM: - Trims objects at a cutting edge defined by other objects Objects that can be trimmed include arcs, circles, elliptical arcs, lines, open 2D and 3D polylines, rays, splines, floating viewports, regions, text, and xlines.

CUTTING EDGE

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Select the objects that define the cutting edges at which you want to trim an object or press ENTER to select all objects as potential cutting edges. TRIM projects the cutting edges and the objects to be trimmed onto the XY plane of the current user coordinate system (UCS). When AutoCAD prompts you to select boundary edges, you can press ENTER and select the object to be trimmed. AutoCAD trims the object against the nearest candidate. EXTEND: - Extends an object to meet another object Objects that you can extend include arcs, elliptical arcs, lines, open 2D and 3D polylines, and rays. You can extend objects so they end precisely at a boundary defined by other objects. You can also extend objects to where they would intersect a boundary. This is called extending to an implied boundary. In the following example, you extend the lines precisely to a circle, which is the boundary.

A word from author…………
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Command: CO COPY Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 3 found Select objects: Specify base point or displacement, or [Multiple]: M Specify base point: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: *Cancel*

Command: SC SCALE Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 3 found Select objects: Specify base point: Specify scale factor or [Reference]: 2 Command: SC SCALE Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 3 found Select objects:

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Command: M MOVE Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 3 found Select objects: Specify base point or displacement: Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: Command: MOVE Select objects: Specify opposite corner: 3 found Select objects: Specify base point or displacement: Specify second point of displacement or <Use first point as displacement>:

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