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pKa and Ka

The Ka value is a value used to describe the tendency of compounds or ions to dissociate and is also called the dissociation constant, the ionisation constant and the acid constant. The pKa value is a value related to the Ka value in a logic manner. pKa values are easier to remember than Ka values and pKa values are in many cases easier to use for fast approximations of concentrations of compounds and ions in equilibriums than Ka values. Definition of pKa and Ka [H + ] ⋅ [B] , where B is the conjugate base of the acid HB. The definition of Ka is: [HB]

The pKa value is defined from Ka and can be calculated from the Ka value and from the equation pKa = − Log10 (Ka)

Example on how pKa and Ka values are used

An easy about ammonium and ammonia example on how Ka and pKa values are used for calculating equilibriums is given below. The Ka value of NH4+ is 5.75.10-10 under ideal conditions at 25 degrees Celsius. This Ka value is used to determine how much of the NH4+ is dissociated into its conjugate base NH3 by the reaction NH4+ → NH3 + H+. Do also notice that the reaction NH4+ ↔ NH3 + H+ can go either way depending on conditions. By introducing the parameter TAN (Total Ammonium Nitrogen) which is ([NH4+] + [NH3]) it can be calculated how much of the TAN is on the form NH4+ and NH3 at any given pH. The calculations allowing this is a bit complicated, but once you have been through them once it’s really simple: NH + 4 ) TAN = [NH4+] + [NH3] = [NH3].(1+ NH3 By removing the second part of the above equation only: TAN = [NH3].(1+ NH + 4 ) NH3 remains. This equation can be rearranged to:

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html Nielsen. June 2007 Disclaimer: This document can be copied and distributed but must not be altered or changed in any way.phscale.1 ≈ 0.net TAN [NH + ] 4 (1 + ) [NH3 ] [NH3] = By multiplying the denominator in the last part of the above equation with [H+] one gets: [NH3] = TAN (*) + [H + ] ⋅ [NH 4 ] (1 + ) [NH3 ] ⋅ [H + ] The definition of Ka said that Ka = [H + ] ⋅ [B] . equivalent of a pKa value of 9. Had the pH value been 7. the concentration of ammonia [NH3] is 1/11 of the total TAN concentration because of the base 10 log relationship between Ka and pKa.phscale.24 or 2 units less than the pKa value.24.© www. Let’s say that TAN is 0. If we place these values into (#) we get that: [NH3] = 0. that in equilibriums like the ammonium/ammonia equilibrium you can always tell. 1/101 of the TAN had been [NH3].net/discuss.75. . [H+] and Ka are known.10-10.75 ⋅10−10 The trick with using pKa values is. that if the pH value is 1 unit lower than the pKa value. pH is 8.75 ⋅10−9 (1 + ) 5. Written in the context of the above [HB] [H + ][NH3 ] [NH + ] 4 1 [NH + ] to + 4 Ka [H ][NH3 ] example Ka of ammonium or NH4+ is: This is not enough for a smooth substitution in (*) so we calculate which can be substituted into (*): [NH3] = TAN TAN (#) ↔ [NH3] = + + [H ] ⋅ [NH 4 ] [H + ] (1 + ) (1 + ) [NH3 ] ⋅ [H + ] Ka From this equation [NH3] can be calculated when TAN.009 M 5.1 M.24 and the Ka value is 5. Discuss this document at: www.

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