# MN 1790 2 - 1

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Coverage Planning: Contents
Coverage Planning: Contents
• Definition of Terms
• Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation
• Suitable prediction models for Macro-, Micro- and Pico-cells
• Location Probability
• Jake's Formula
• Interference Margin
• Noise Figure calculations
• Amplifier Noise
MN 1790 2 - 2
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Coverage Planning: Contents
Coverage Planning: Contents
• Path Loss Balance
• Cell Coverage Calculation
• Basics about Digital Map Data
• Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
• Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
• Cell Types
• Omni versus Sector Cells
• Exercises
MN 1790 2 - 3
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
To achieve coverage in an area, the received signal strength in UL and DL must be above the so
Coverage: RX_LEV > (actual) receiver sensitivity level
No Coverage: RX_LEV < (actual) receiver sensitivity level
The minimum receiver sensitivity levels in UL and DL are defined in GSM 05.05:
- for normal BTS : -104 dBm
- for GSM 900 micro BTS M1 : -97 dBm
- for GSM 900 micro BTS M2 : -92 dBm
- for GSM 900 micro BTS M3 : -87 dBm
- for DCS 1800 micro BTS M1 : -102 dBm
- for DCS 1800 micro BTS M2 : -97 dBm
- for DCS 1800 micro BTS M3 : -92 dBm
- for GSM 900 small MS (class 4, 5): -102 dBm
- for other GSM 900 MS: -104 dBm
- for DCS 1800 class 1 or class 2 MS : -100 dBm
- for DCS 1800 class 3 MS : -102 dBm
MN 1790 2 - 4
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
Maximum output power for MS of different power classes:
+/- 2 dB 29 dBm 5
+/- 2 dB 33 dBm 4
+/- 2 dB 36 dBm 37 dBm 3
+/- 2 dB 24 dBm 39 dBm 2
+/- 2 dB 30 dBm - 1
Tolerance GSM 1800 MS GSM 900 MS Power Class
MN 1790 2 - 5
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
Maximum output power (before combiner input) for normal BTS / TRX of different power classes:
2.5 – (<5) W 8
5 – (<10) W 7
10 – (<20) W 6
20 – (<40) W 5
2.5 – (<5) W 40 – (<80) W 4
5 – (<10) W 80 – (<160) W 3
10- (<20) W 160 – (<320) W 2
20 – (<40) W 320 – (<640) W 1
GSM 1800 BTS GSM 900 BTS TRX Power Class
MN 1790 2 - 6
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
Maximum output power (per carrier, at antenna connector, after all stages of combining) for micro
BTS / TRX of different power classes:
>0.05 – 0.16 W >0.01 – 0.03 W M3
>0.16 – 0.5 W >0.03 – 0.08 W M2
>0.5 – 1.6 W >0.08 – 0.25 W M1
GSM 1800
micro-BTS
GSM 900
micro-BTS
TRX power class
MN 1790 2 - 7
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Definition of Terms
Definition of Terms
The reference sensitivity performance as defined in GSM 05.05 for the GSM 900 system for
different channel types and different propagation conditions:
MN 1790 2 - 8
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Physical Reasons
• Diffraction
• Reflection
• Scattering
• Absorption
• Doppler shift
Technical Problems
• Distance attenuation
(Path Loss)
• Inter-symbol Interference
• Ducting
• Frequency shift /
MN 1790 2 - 9
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Exercise:
Which physical phenomena is sketched in the following pictures?
MN 1790 2 - 10
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The radio wave propagation is described by solutions of the Maxwell equations.
Exact solutions of the Maxwell equations are not accessible for real space environment with
obstacles which give rise to reflections and diffractions.
However, the full information provided by an exact solution (e.g. exact polarization and phase of
the field strength) is mostly not needed.
What is needed is the the received power level.
What a propagation model should provide is the attenuation of the power level due to the fact that
the signal propagates from the transmitter to the receiver.
MN 1790 2 - 11
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Empirical models and deterministic models:
Empirical models are based on measurements. Some empirical models (like the ITU model) are
curves derived from measurements. Others summarize the measurements in formulas (like the
Okumura Hata model) which fit the measured data.
Such models are very simple to handle but also usually rather imprecise. They are limited to
environments similar to the one where the measurements were performed.
Deterministic models are based on simplifying assumption for the general problem. This can be a
mathematical approximation of the original problem (like the finite difference model). Or it can be a
simple model for a special situation of the general problem (like the knife edge model).
Deterministic model can reach a very high precision, but they suffer from a very high complexity.
Semi empirical models are a combination of empirical models with deterministic models for
special situations (like knife edge models).
MN 1790 2 - 12
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Empirical models
Log distance path loss
ITU
Okumura Hata
COST Hata
Diffraction models
Epstein Peterson
Deygout
Giovanelli
Semi empirical models
Okumura Hata & knife edge
COST Hata & knife edge
COST Walfisch Ikegami
Deterministic models
Ray launching, ray tracing
Finite difference
MN 1790 2 - 13
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P
T
: Transmitted power
P
R
: Reveived power
n
T R
d
c
P P ⋅ ·
) lg( ) lg( ) lg( lg d A d n c L
P
P
T
R
α − − · + − · ·

,
_

¸
¸
− 10 10 10 Path loss:
d: distance
n
T
R
d c
P
P

⋅ ·
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0
MN 1790 2 - 14
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0 . 0 0 0 1
0 . 0 0 1
0 . 0 1
0 . 1
1
1 2 5 1 0
n = 4
n = 3
n = 2
0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1 . 0
2 . 5 5 . 0 7 . 5 1 0 . 0
n = 4
n = 3
n = 2
as function of distance d
on linear scale.
n
R
d
P
1

as function of distance d
on log scale.
n R
d
P
1

MN 1790 2 - 15
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2
4

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ∝
d
P
R
π
λ
Example: Free space propagation
?: wavelength in vacuum; , speed of light in vacuum
f: frequency in MHz
d: distance in km
The influence of the surface is neglected completely
f
c
· λ
s
m
c
8
10 9979 2 ⋅ · .
( ) ( ) d f L lg lg . 20 20 44 32 + + ·
MN 1790 2 - 16
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Example: 2 ray model
d
1
d
2a
d
2b
d
h
BS
h
MS
( )
( )
( )
( )
d
h h
d d
d
h h
d h h d d
d d d
d
h h
d h h d d
MS BS
MS BS
MS BS
b a
MS BS
MS BS
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
1
· −
+
+ ≈ + + ·
+ ·

+ ≈ − + ·
MN 1790 2 - 17
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Example: 2 ray model
,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
≈ −
,
_

¸
¸

− −
d
h h k
d d
e
d
e
P
MS BS
ikd ikd
R
2
2 2
2 1
2
4
4 4
2 1
sin
π
λ
π
λ
( ) ( )

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− − + + ·
d
h h k
d f L
MS BS
sin lg . lg lg . 20 02 6 20 20 44 32
( ) d h h L
MS BS
lg ) lg( ) lg( 40 20 20 120 + − − ·
d c
h h f
d
h h k
d
h h k
h h k d
c
f
k
MS BS MS BS MS BS
MS BS
π
π
2
2
· ≈
,
_

¸
¸
⇒ >>
·
sin for large
f: frequency in MHz
d: distance in km
h
BS
: height base station in m
h
MS
: height mobile station in m
The ground is assumed to be flat and perfectly reflecting.
The model is valid for h
BS
> 50m and d in the range of km or for LOS microcell channels
in urban areas.
MN 1790 2 - 18
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80
100
120
140
160
1 10 100
900MHz
1800 MHz
path loss in dB
distance in km
Example: 2 ray model
h
BS
= 50 m
h
MS
= 1.5m
MN 1790 2 - 19
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Log-distance path loss model:
n
R
d
d
P

,
_

¸
¸

0

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
0
10
0
d
d
n L L
d
lg
d
0
: reference distance ca. 1km for macro cells or in the range of 1m -100mfor micro cells;
should be always in the far field of the antenna
L
d0
: reference path loss; to be measured at the reference distance.
2-3 Obstructed in factories
4-6 Obstructed in building
1.6-1.8 In building LOS
2.7-3.5 Urban area
2 Free space
Exponent n Environment
MN 1790 2 - 20
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Okumura Hata model:
Based on empirical data measured by Okumura in 60’s Hata developed a formula with
correction terms for different environments.
The Okumura Hata model assumes a quasi flat surface, i.e. obstacles like buildings are not
explicitly taken into account. Thus the Okumura Hata model is isotropic. The different types of
surfaces (big cities, small cities, suburban and rural) are distinguished by different correction
factors in this model.
Parameter range for this model:
Frequency f= 150… 1500MHz
Height base station h
BS
= 30… 200m
Height Mobile station h
MS
= 1… 10m
Distance d= 1… 20km
MN 1790 2 - 21
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[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ⋅
− − −
·
− + − − − + ·
97 4 75 11 2 3
8 0 56 1 7 0 1 1
55 6 9 44 82 13 16 26 55 69
2
. ) . lg( .
. ) lg( . . ) lg( .
) (
) lg( ) lg( . . ) ( ) lg( . ) lg( . .
MS
MS
MS
BS MS BS urban
h
f h f
h d
d h c h d h f L
small cities
big cities (f>400MHz)
Okumura Hata model:
f: frequency in MHz
d: distance in km
h
BS
: height base station in m
h
MS
: height mobile station in m
( ) [ ] 94 40 33 18 78 4
4 5
28
2
2
2
. ) lg( . lg .
. lg
+ − ⋅ ·
+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ·
f f c
f
c suburban areas
rural areas
MN 1790 2 - 22
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¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≈ −
≈ +
·
⋅ + − − ·
0 001 0
0 02 0
22 35 42 126
.
.
) (
) lg( . ) ( .
MS
MS urban
h d
d c h d L
small cities
big cities
Okumura Hata model:
For f= 900MHz, h
BS
= 30m, h
MS
d: distance in km
51 28
94 9
.
.
·
·
c
c suburban areas
rural areas
MN 1790 2 - 23
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COST Hata model:
The Okumura Hata model cannot be applied directly to systems like GSM 1800/1900 or DECT.
Therefore it was extended to higher frequencies in the framework of the European research
cooperation COST (European Cooperation in the field of scientific and technical research).
Parameter range for this model:
Frequency f= 1500… 2000MHz
Height base station h
BS
= 30… 200m
Height Mobile station h
MS
= 1… 10m
Distance d= 1… 20km
[ ]
[ ] [ ] 8 0 56 1 7 0 1 1
55 6 9 44 82 13 9 33 3 46
. ) lg( . . ) lg( . ) (
) lg( ) lg( . . ) ( ) lg( . ) lg( . .
− − − ·
− + − − − + ·
f h f h d
d h c h d h f L
MS MS
BS MS BS urban
MN 1790 2 - 24
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COST Hata model:
suburban areas
rural areas
city center
The major difference between the Okumura Hata model is a modified dependence on
frequency and additional correction factor for inner city areas
For f= 1800MHz, h
BS
= 30m, h
MS
= 1,5m the correction term for the dependence on h
MS
can again be neglected. For the other terms of COST Hata model the insertion of the values
serves:
) lg( . . d c L
urban
⋅ + − · 22 35 24 136
( ) [ ] 94 40 33 18 78 4
4 5
28
2
3
2
2
. ) lg( . lg .
. lg
+ − ⋅ ·
+
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ·
− ·
f f c
f
c
c
MN 1790 2 - 25
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© Both models, the Okumura Hata model and the COST Hata model can lead locally
to substantial deviation from the measured attenuation since these models are
isotropic. Local properties of the surface (big buildings, hills etc.) are not taken into
account.
92 31
14 1
3
.
.
·
·
− ·
c
c
c
COST Hata model:
suburban areas
rural areas
city center
MN 1790 2 - 26
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ITU model:
The ITU (or CCIR) model was originally developed for radio broadcasting. It is based on
measurements in the UHF and VHF range which are summarized in graphs
(ITU-R 370-7, ) for the field strength.
The different topographic situations are described by the parameters h
BSeff
and ∆h.
The ITU model describes the radio wave propagation for the ranges
f= 30... 250 MHz and 450... 1000MHz
d= 10... 1000km
Definition:
h
BSeff
is the antenna height above the mean elevation of the terrain measured in a range from 3km
to 15 km along the propagation path.
∆h is the mean irregularity of the terrain in the range from 10km to 50 km along the propagation
path, i.e. 90% of the terrain exceed the lower limit and 10% of the terrain exceed the upper limit of
the band defined by ∆h.
The curves for the field strength are given for different h
BSeff
and ∆h = 50m. The correction for
other values of ∆h is given in an additional graph.
Since local effects of the terrain are not taken into account the deviation between predicted and
actual median field strength may reach 20dB for rural areas. In urban areas this value may be well
exceeded.
MN 1790 2 - 27
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ITU model:
h
BSeff
∆h
3km 10km 15km 50km
90%
10%
0km
MN 1790 2 - 28
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Correction to the ITU model: clearance angle method
An improvement of the ITU model is obtained by considering the maximum of the angle (clearance
angle) between the horizontal line and the elevations in the range of 0 to 16km along the
propagation path. The correction to the field strength ITU model (with ∆h=50m ) is give as graphs
for the clearance angle. The clearance angle correction applies to both the receiving and the
transmitting side.
16km
γ
MS, BS Position
MN 1790 2 - 29
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
For a better accuracy in urban areas building height and street width have to be taken into
account, at least as statistical parameters. Based on the Walfisch Bertoni propagation model for
BS antennas place above the roof tops, the empirical COST Walfisch Ikegami model is a
generalisation including BS antennas placed below the roof tops.
Parameter range for this model:
Frequency f= 800… 2000MHz
Height base station h
BS
= 4… 50m
Height Mobile station h
MS
= 1… 3m
Distance d= 0.02… 5km
Further parameter:
Mean building height: ∆h in m
Mean street width: win m
Mean building spacing: b in m
Mean angle between propagation path and street: ϕ in °
MN 1790 2 - 30
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b w
d
BS
MS
∆h
h
BS
h
MS
COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
ϕ
BS
MS
MN 1790 2 - 31
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
With LOS between BS and MS (base station antenna below roof top level):
) lg( ) lg( . d f L
LOS
26 20 6 42 + + ·
With non LOS:
¹
¹
¹
'
¹ + +
·
,
,
0
0
L
L L L
L
msd rts
NLOS
0
0
≤ +
> +
msd rts
msd rts
L L
L L
free space propagation:
rts
L roof top to street diffraction and scatter loss:
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
⋅ −
⋅ +
⋅ + −
+ − ∆ + + − − ·
, . .
, . .
, .
) lg( ) lg( ) lg( .
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
114 0 0 4
075 0 5 2
354 0 10
20 10 10 9 16
MS rts
h h f w L
0 0
0 0
0
90 55
55 35
35 0
< ≤
< ≤
< ≤
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
O
L
) lg( ) lg( . d f L
O
20 20 44 32 + + ·
MN 1790 2 - 32
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
msd
L multiscreen diffraction loss:
) lg( ) lg( ) lg( b f k d k k L L
f d a msd msd
9
1
− ⋅ + ⋅ + + ·
h h
BS
∆ >
( )
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
_

¸
¸
− + −

,
_

¸
¸
− + −
·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

∆ −
⋅ −
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
⋅ ∆ − ⋅ −
∆ − ⋅ − ·
¹
'
¹ ∆ − + −
·
, .
, .
,
,
,
.
) ( .
), ( .
,
,
), lg(
1
925
7 0 4
1
925
7 0 4
15 18
18
5 0
8 0 54
8 0 54
54
0
1 18
1
f
f
k
h
h h
k
d
h h
h h k
h h
L
f
BS
d
BS
BS a
BS
msd
h h
BS
∆ ≤
h h
BS
∆ >
h h
BS
∆ >
h h
BS
∆ ≤
h h
BS
∆ ≤
h h
BS
∆ ≤
5 0. > d
and
and
5 0. ≤ d
Medium sized cities and suburban centres
with moderate tree density
Metropolitan centres
MN 1790 2 - 33
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COST Walfisch Ikegami model:
Although designed for BS antennas placed below the mean building height the COST Walfisch
Ikegami model show often considerable inaccuracies.
This is especially true in cities with an irregular building pattern like in historical grown cities. Also
the model was designed for cities on a flat ground. Thus for a hilly surface the model is not
applicable.
MN 1790 2 - 34
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Lee micro cell model:
This model is based on the assumption that the path loss is correlated with the total depth B of
the building blocks along the propagation path. This results in an extra contribution to the LOS
attenuation
) ( ) ( B d L L
LOS
α + ·
) (d L
LOS
) (B α For both and can be read off graphs based on extensive measurements.
This model is not very precise and large errors occur in the following situation:
• When the prediction point is on the main street but there is no LOS path
• When the prediction point is in a side street on the same side of the main street as the BS.
MN 1790 2 - 35
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Diffraction knife edge model:
Diffraction models apply for configurations were a large obstacle is in the propagation path and the
obstacle is far away from the transmitter and the receiver, i.e.: and
2 1
d d h , << λ >> h
The obstacle is represented as an ideal conducting half plane (knife edge)
h
MS
h
BS
d
1
h
d
2
Huygens secondary source
MN 1790 2 - 36
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Diffraction knife edge model:
Huygens principle: all points of a wavefront can be considered as a source for a secondary wavelet
⇒sum up the contributions of all wavelets starting in the half plane above the obstacle
Phase differences have to be taken into account (constructive and destructive interferences)
Difference between the direct path and the diffracted path,
the excess path length
Phase difference: with Fresnel Kirchoff diffraction parameter.
Note: this derivation is also valid for
( )
2 1
2 1
2
2 d d
d d h +
≈ ∆
2
2
2
υ
π
λ
π
ϕ ·

·
( )
2 1
2 1
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
0 < h
MN 1790 2 - 37
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Diffraction knife edge model:
Diffraction loss:

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸ − +
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

ν
π
ν du
u i i
E
E
L
D
D
2 2
1
20 20
2
0
exp lg lg ) (
0
E
D
E
field strength obtained by free field propagation without diffraction (and ground effects).
diffracted field strength
¹
'
¹
+ ≈

) lg( .
) (
υ
ν
20 5 13
0
D
L
,
,
0
0
>>
<<
ν
ν
LOS region,
0 < h
The following approximations exist:
6 0 0 · ⇒ · ) (
D
L ν
MN 1790 2 - 38
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Diffraction knife edge model:
Fresnel Zone:
Condition for the n
th
Fresnel Zone:
d
1
d
2
r
Fn
l
1
l
2
2
2 1 2 1
λ
⋅ · − − + n d d l l
Fn
r d d >>
2 1
,
Fn
Fn
r
h
n
n
d d
d d
r d d l l
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
· ⇒
⋅ ·

,
_

¸
¸ +
≈ − − +
ν
λ
The diffraction parameter ν can be rewritten with quantities describing the Fresnel zone
geometry.
For obstacles outside the 1
st
Fresnel zone:
For obstacles outside the 5
th
Fresnel zone:
dB L
D
1 1 2 . ) ( t · − < ν
dB L
D
6 0 10 . ) ( t · − < ν
MN 1790 2 - 39
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Diffraction multiple knife edge Epstein Petersen model:
The attenuation of several obstacles is computed obstacle by obstacle with the single knife edge
method, i.e. first diffraction path: l
1
l
2
, second diffraction path: l
2
l
3
.
The model is valid for .
j i
d h <<
d
1
h
1
d
2
h
2
d
2
d
3
l
1
l
2
l
3
O
1
O
2
MN 1790 2 - 40
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Diffraction multiple knife edge Epstein Petersen model:
.
( )
2 1
2 1
1 1
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
) ( ) (
2 1
ν ν
D D Dtotal
L L L + ·
The Fresnel integral is replaced by an empirical approximation:
( ) [ ] ¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − + − + ≈

1 1 0 1 0 20 9 6
0
2
. . lg .
) (
υ υ
ν
D
L
. .
, .
78 0
78 0
− ≥
− <
ν
ν
This model is rather unprecise. The error grows with the number of obstacles.
( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
MN 1790 2 - 41
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Diffraction multiple knife edge Deygout model:
This model is recursive. First the attenuation of the main obstacle is computed (in this example O
1
with the path l
1
s
1
). In the second step the possible (main) obstacles along the paths to and from the
main obstacle are computed (here O
2
with l
2
l
3
). This procedure is continued until all obstacles are
taken into account.
d
1
h
1
d
2
h
2
d
2
d
3
l
1
l
2
l
3
s
1
O
1
O
2
H
2
MN 1790 2 - 42
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Diffraction multiple knife edge Deygout model:
.
( )
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
1 1
2
d d d
d d d
h
+
+ +
⋅ ·
λ
υ
) , ( ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
O O C L L L
D D Dtotal
− + · ν ν
( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
p
q
p
O O C
2
2 1
1
2
20 12

,
_

¸
¸

1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

− ·
π
α
lg ) , (
,
) (
arctan

,
_

¸
¸ + +
·
3 1
3 2 1 2
d d
d d d d
α
( )
,
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
1
2
d d d
d d d
h p
+
+ +
⋅ ·
λ
( )
) (
1 2 3
3 2 1
2
2
d d d
d d d
H q
+
+ +
⋅ ·
λ
Correction term:
The correction term is chosen such that the result coincides in a good approximation with
an exact solution. After n steps this models may cover up to 2
n
-1 obstacles.
MN 1790 2 - 43
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Diffraction multiple knife edge Giovanelli model:
Also the Giovanelli model is recursive. The recursion procedure is the same as for the Deygout
model. Instead of taking a correction term in the attenuation the receiver is considered at an
effective position at an height h
eff
. .
d
1
h
1
d
2
h
eff
d
2
d
3
l
1
l
2
l
3
O
2
O
1
H
1
H
2
effective
h
2
MN 1790 2 - 44
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Diffraction multiple knife edge Giovanelli model:
.
( )
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
1 1
2
d d d
d d d
h
+
+ + ⋅
⋅ ·
λ
υ
) ( ) (
2 1
ν ν
D D Dtotal
L L L + ·
( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2
d d
d d
h
λ
υ
+
⋅ ·
The attenuation predicted by this model is between the values obtained from the
Epstein Peterson model and the Deygout model without the correction term.
eff
h
d d d
d
h h
3 2 1
1
1 1
+ +
− · ) (
1 2
2
3
2
H H
d
d
h h
eff
− + ·
MN 1790 2 - 45
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Semi empirical models:
Semi empirical model combine deterministic models like knife edge models with empirical models
like Okumura Hata or COST Hata.
The mentioned empirical models are only valid for a quasi flat surface. In combination with knife
edge models they can be extended to hilly surface or a mountain area.
The combination of empirical and deterministic models requires usually additional correction terms.
For the specific combination of models and their correction terms most user develop their own
solution which they calibrate with their measurements. .
MN 1790 2 - 46
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Deterministic models:
Ray tracing and ray launching:
With the methods of geometrical optics all possible propagation paths from the transmitter to
the receiver are determined and summed up, i.e. there is a free space propagation from the
antenna to the first obstacle or from obstacle to obstacle and at the obstacle the ray is reflected or
diffracted until it reaches the antenna. The algorithm takes only rays with an adjustable maximum
number of reflections and diffractions.
With this method a very high precision for the prediction of the path loss can be obtained.
• For this method a digital map with high accuracy is required.
• For the reflection and diffraction attenuation factors have to be specified which depend on
the building surface (e.g. glass or brick wall).
• The algorithm is very complex and computer power consuming.
However, there are continuous improvements for hardware, software and algorithms.
MN 1790 2 - 47
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Deterministic models:
Finite difference algorithm:
Since the solution to field equation are inaccessible the partial derivatives for the fields are
replaced by finite differences. This is obtained by introducing a grid and considering the the fields
only at the nodes of the grid. The derivatives become differences along the edges of the grid. The
partial differential equation becomes a linear equation system. However, the linear equation
system involves very large matrices for realistic problems to be treated with a sufficient precision.
With this method a very high precision for the prediction of the path loss can be obtained.
• For this method very precise surface data are required.
• The surface data have to be parameterised in an appropriate way for the grid.
However, as for the ray launching and ray tracing method, there are continuous improvements
for hardware, software and algorithms.
MN 1790 2 - 48
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Summary of the application areas of the different models:
+ 0 0 Finite difference
+ + + Ray launching ray tracing
- + - COST Walfisch Ikegami
- 0 + COST Hata & knife edge
- 0 + Okumura Hata & knife edge
- + + Giovanelli
- + + Deygout
- + + Epstein Peterson
- 0 + COST Hata
- 0 + Okumura Hata
- - + ITU
+ + + Log-distance path loss
inhouse urban rural Propagation model
Suitable prediction models for
Macro-, Micro-, and Pico- cells
Suitable prediction models for
Macro-, Micro-, and Pico- cells
MN 1790 2 - 49
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Location Probability
Location Probability
The propagation conditions of electromagnetic waves in real environments are not stable, but
location (and time) dependent fluctuations appear.
The radio network planner has to take this into account by working with probabilities, e.g. with the
following two coverage probabilities:
• Cell edge probability
• Cell area probability
Typical cell edge probabilities for:
Very good coverage: 95%
Good coverage: 90%
Acceptable coverage: 75%
As will be discussed later, these values correspond to the following cell area probabilities:
Very good coverage: 99%
Good coverage: 97%
Acceptable coverage: 91%
MN 1790 2 - 50
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Before dimensioning the radio network, the link budget for different environments (indoor, outdoor,
in-car) must be considered.
From the link budget, the maximum allowable path loss can be derived.
Body Loss
Building (indoor)
penetration loss
Path Loss
Diversity Gain,
Antenna Gain
Cable Losses
BTS
MN 1790 2 - 51
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MS
Maximum output power [dBm]
Feeder loss [dB]
Antenna gain [dBi]
EIRP [dBm]
BTS
Rx-diversity gain [dB]
Antenna gain [dB]
Jumper, feeder, connector losses [dB]
Duplexer losses [dB]
Environment
Body loss [dB]
Building (indoor) penetration loss [dB]
Path loss [dB]
Fading margin (lognormal and Rayleigh) [dB]
Interference margin [dB]
Frequency hopping gain [dB]
Terms which enter the link budget:
MN 1790 2 - 52
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Example of an UL link budget (GSM 900 MHz MS power class 4, BS with tower mounted amplifier,
frequency hopping on, receive diversity used):
UL
Outdoor MS
(Class 4)
Indoor MS
(Class 4)
Car mounted MS
(Class 2)
Units Remarks
MS Max. Output power 33 33 39 dBm
Feeder Loss 0 0 -2 dB
Antenna Gain 0 0 +2 dBi
Environment Body Loss
(900 / 1800) MHz
-5 / -3 -5 /-3 0 dB
Building (Indoor) penetration Loss 0 -18 0 dB
Path loss dB
for 1sigma=10 and cell area probability=99%
-12 -12 -12 dB
Fading Margin: Rayleigh -3 -3 -3 dB
Interference Margin -2 -2 -2 dB
Frequency hopping gain +3 +3 +3 dB
BS Rx - diversity gain +3.5 +3.5 +3.5 dB
Antenna gain +17 +17 +17 dBi
Tower mounted amplifier gain +6 +6 +6 dB
Jumper + Feeder + Connector Losses -4 -4 -4 dB
Duplexer Losses -0.5 -0.5 -0.5 dB
Receiver Sensitivity -107 -107 -107 dB
MN 1790 2 - 53
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Fading occurs on different scales due to different causes.
Propagation models predict only the average value of the receive level.
The common question for all fading effects is: how big to chose the margin such that the receive
level drops not below a given limit with a specified probability?
MN 1790 2 - 54
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Fast fading appears due to multi path propagation. The receive level is affected by interferences
due to different path lengths in the multi path propagation.
The field strength at the receiver is the vector sum of the fields corresponding to the different
propagation paths. Usually the fading is described by the probability function for the absolute value
of the field strength.
The generic situations:
It exists a dominant path (usually the LOS path):
MN 1790 2 - 55
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,
_

¸
¸ +
− ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ·
N
R R
N
R R
N
R
R
P
V V
P
V V
I
P
V
V f
2
2 2
1 1
0
exp ) (
R
V
1 R
V
0
I
+ · ∑
·
N
i
R N
i
V P
1
2
: received signal from the dominant signal
: modified Bessel-Function of the first kind and zero order.
other noise sources : received power of the non dominant signals including other
noise sources like man made noise.
For the Rice distribution can be approximated by a Gauß distribution: 1
2
1
>>
N
R
P
V
( )

,
_

¸
¸ −
− ⋅

·
N
R R
N
R
P
V V
P
V f
2 2
1
2
1
exp ) (
π
MN 1790 2 - 56
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0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
Absolute value of signal amplitude in V
Probability
Eample: Gaußean distributed signal for: V V
R
5
1
·
MN 1790 2 - 57
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describes the situation were there is no dominant path, i.e. a non LOS situation.
All contribution to the received signal are comparable in strength and arrive statistically distributed.
with : averaged field strength, and :

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
2
2
2
2
R
R
R
R
R
V
V
V
V
V f exp ) (
R
V

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
0
0
0
0
1
P
P
P
P f exp ) (
2
0
2
1
R
V P · averaged receive power:
MN 1790 2 - 58
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0. 001
0. 01
0.1
1
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20
Power / averaged power in dB
Integrated probability for the power to be below a fading marging for
a Rayleigh distribution
Probability
MN 1790 2 - 59
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All described types of fast fading have as characteristic length scale the wavelength of the signals.
⇒Use frequency hopping
⇒Use antenna diversity
MN 1790 2 - 60
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σ
X d L d L + · ) ( ) (
Slow fading denote the variation of the local mean signal strength on a longer time scale.
The most important reason for this effect is the shadowing when a mobile moves around (e.g. in a
city).
Measurements have shown that the variation of the the mean receive level is a normal distribution
on a log scale ⇒log normal fading.
The fading can be parameterized by adding a zero mean Gaussian distributed random variable .
σ
X
Let P
m
be a minimal receive level, what is the probability that the receive level is higher
than the minimal receive level, i.e. ? ) ) ( Pr( · >
m R
P d P
Pr
The σ has to be determined by measurements.
( )

,
_

¸
¸

− ⋅

·
2
2
2 2
1
σ σ π
σ
P P
P X exp ) (
MN 1790 2 - 61
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To compute the probability that the receive level exceeds a certain margin the Gaussian
distribution has to be integrated. This leads to the Q function:
) ( 1 ) (
2
1
2
1
2
exp
2
1
) (
2
z Q z Q
z
erf dx
x
z Q
z
− − ·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ·

π
MN 1790 2 - 62
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0.00135 3.0 0.02275 2.0 0.15866 1.0 0.50000 0.0
0.00005 3.9 0.00187 2.9 0.02872 1.9 0.18406 0.9
0.00007 3.8 0.00256 2.8 0.03593 1.8 0.21186 0.8
0.00011 3.7 0.00347 2.7 0.04457 1.7 0.24196 0.7
0.00016 3.6 0.00466 2.6 0.05480 1.6 0.27425 0.6
0.00023 3.5 0.00621 2.5 0.06681 1.5 0.30854 0.5
0.00034 3.4 0.00820 2.4 0.08076 1.4 0.34458 0.4
0.00048 3.3 0.01072 2.3 0.09680 1.3 0.38209 0.3
0.00069 3.2 0.01390 2.2 0.11507 1.2 0.42074 0.2
0.00097 3.1 0.01786 2.1 0.13567 1.1 0.46017 0.1
Q(z) z Q(z) z Q(z) z Q(z) z
Tabulation of the Q function
MN 1790 2 - 63
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Jake’s Formula
Jake’s formula gives a relation for the probability that a certain value P
m
at the cell boundary at
radius R is exceeded and the corresponding probability for the whole cell. It is based on
the log distance path loss model:

,
_

¸
¸
+ − ·
0
0
lg 10 ) ( ) (
d
d
n d L P d P
T R

,
_

¸
¸
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸ −

,
_

¸
¸ −
+ − ·
2 2
1
1
2 1
exp ) ( 1
2
1
) ( Pr
b
ab
erf
b
ab
a erf P
m cell
) ( Pr
m cell
P
( )
σ 2
) (R P P
a
R m

·
σ 2
) lg( 10 e n
b ·
MN 1790 2 - 64
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In a shadowing environment, the probability of a certain level as function of the level value follows
a Gaussian distribution on a logarithmic scale.
In general, a Gaussian distribution is described by a mean value and the standard deviation.
Level [dBm]
Probability
Level [dBm]
Probability
MN 1790 2 - 65
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From measurements ðthe standard deviation 1 sigma (σ
LNF
) in a certain environment.
Typical measurement values (outdoor, indoor) are given in the following table:
9 dB
9 dB
8 dB
σ
LNF(i)
10 dB
8 dB
6 dB
Dense urban
Urban
Rural
σ
LNF(o)
Environment
MN 1790 2 - 66
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To achieve a certain cell edge probability σ
LNF
must be multiplied with a factor given in the
following table:
(Cell edge probability means the probability to have coverage at the border of the cell)
0.000
0.126
0.253
0.385
0.524
0.674
0.842
1.036
1.282
1.645
1.751
1.881
2.054
2.326
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
96
97
98
99
Factor for calculation of
Cell edge probability in %
MN 1790 2 - 67
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Integrating the Gaussian distribution function over the whole cell area delivers cell area
probabilities. Some example results are given in the following table:
77
91
97
99
50
75
90
95
Cell area probability in % Cell edge probability in %
MN 1790 2 - 68
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Interference Margin
Interference Margin
An interference margin can be introduced in the link budget in order to achieve accurate coverage
prediction in case that the system is busy.
This margin in principle depends on the traffic load, the cell area probability and the frequency
reuse. The required margin will be small if interference level decreasing concepts like frequency
hopping, power control and DTX are used.
Typically, a margin of 2 dB is recommended.
MN 1790 2 - 69
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Noise Figure calculations
Noise Figure calculations
Thermal Noise:
Every object which is at a temperature T > 0°K emits electromagnetic waves
(thermal noise). Therefore, electromagnetic noise can be related to a temperature.
P = s * e* A * T
4
Noise Factor:
The Noise Factor can be calculated from the Noise Temperature as follows:
Noise Factor = Noise Temperature / 290°K + 1
Noise Figure:
The noise figure is the value of the Noise Factor given in dB:
Noise Figure = 10 * log (Noise Factor)
MN 1790 2 - 70
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Conversion table:
438 4.0 289 3.0 170 2.0 75 1.0
422 3.9 275 2.9 159 1.9 67 0.9
406 3.8 263 2.8 149 1.8 59 0.8
390 3.7 250 2.7 139 1.7 51 0.7
374 3.6 238 2.6 129 1.6 43 0.6
359 3.5 226 2.5 120 1.5 35 0.5
344 3.4 214 2.4 110 1.4 28 0.4
330 3.3 202 2.3 101 1.3 21 0.3
316 3.2 191 2.2 92 1.2 14 0.2
302 3.1 180 2.1 84 1.1 7 0.1
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise
Temp.
Noise
Figure
Noise figure in dB
Noise Temperature in °K
Noise Figure calculations
Noise Figure calculations
MN 1790 2 - 71
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Amplifier:
• An amplifier amplifies an input signal, as well as the noise of the input signal.
• It adds its own noise, which is also amplified.
G T
in
T
noise
G * T
in
+ G * T
noise
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
G1 T
in
T
n1
G1* T
in
+ G1 * T
n1
G2
T
n2
G2 * (G1 * T
in
+ G1 * T
n1
) + G2 * T
n2
= G1*G2* (T
in
+ T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1)
= G * (T
in
+ T
noise
)
With T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1 and
G = G1 * G2
G T
in
T
noise
G * T
in
+ G * T
noise
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Friis formula:
T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/ G1 + T
n3
/ (G1*G2) + ...
G T
in
T
noise
G * T
in
+ G * T
noise
T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1
G = G1 * G2
MN 1790 2 - 74
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Example:
G1 T
in
T
n1
G1* T
in
+ G1 * T
n1
G2
T
n2
G1*G2* (T
in
+ T
noise
)
With
T
noise
= T
n1
+ T
n2
/G1
Assumptions:
G1 = 16 T
n1
= 28°K
G2 = 20 T
n2
= 200°K
Result:
Gain = 320
T
noise
= 40.5°K
Assumptions:
G1 = 20 T
n1
= 200°K
G2 = 16 T
n2
= 28°K
Result:
Gain = 320
T
noise
= 201.4°K
Consequence:
Position of amplifier in chain
is very important
MN 1790 2 - 75
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Exercise 1:
Calculate the noise temperature of the following system:
G T
noise
?
Antenna cable
Loss 10 dB
Amplifier in BTS
Gain 25 dB
Noise temperature 240°K
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Amplifier Noise
Amplifier Noise
Exercise 2:
Calculate the noise temperature of the following system:
T
noise
?
Cable to antenna mast
Loss 10 dB
G
Amplifier in BTS
Gain 2 dB
Noise temperature 290°K
G
Gain 28 dB
Noise temperature 260°K
MN 1790 2 - 77
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Path Loss Balance
Path Loss Balance
Since the coverage range in UL should be the same as the coverage range in DL, the radio link
must be balanced:
Maximum allowable path loss in UL = Maximum allowable path loss in DL
Considering the link budget, usually the UL is the bottleneck, i.e. the maximum allowable path loss
is determined by the UL and not by the DL, although:
• The BS receiver sensitivity is usually better than the MS receiver sensitivity.
• Diversity is usually only used in the receive path.
In case of an unbalanced link with weak UL, the UL sensitivity and therefore also the UL coverage
range can be increased by using tower mounted amplifiers.
MN 1790 2 - 78
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Cell Coverage Calculation
Cell Coverage Calculation
From consideration of link budget ðMaximum allowable path loss
Using radio wave propagation formulas (e.g.Hata) ð Maximum cell size
Exercise:
Consider a class 4 MS of height = 1.5 m. The BTS height = 30 m. Assume Hata
propagation conditions and a cell area probability of 97%. What is the maximum outdoor,
a) In a dense urban environment (σ
LNF,o
= 10 dB; σ
LNF,i
= 9 dB )?
b) In a suburban environment (σ
LNF,o
= 8 dB; σ
LNF,i
= 9 dB)?
c) In an open area (σ
LNF,o
= 6 dB; σ
LNF,i
= 8 dB)?
Assume an in-car penetration loss of 6dB.
MN 1790 2 - 79
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The cell planning tools require as one input digital map data (which are often based on paper
maps, satellite photos,…). These digital map data should contain information about, the land
usage ( so called “Clutter” information), about the height of obstacles and they should also contain
so called vector data (like rivers, streets,…).
A digital map is an electronic database containing geographical information.
The smallest unit on such a map is called a pixel. The typical edge-length of such a pixel is
ranging from several meters to several hundred meters. A digital map is often subdivided into
several blocks consisting of many pixels. The different layers of information in one block always
use the same resolution, whereas different blocks can have different resolutions.
Each pixel should contain information about:
• Land usage (“Clutter” information)
• Height data
• Vector data (like rivers, streets,…)
•…
Before working with these digital data, some pre-processing of the data may be required. Some
ideas are sketched on the following pages.
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Definition of terms
• Geoid
• Spheroid / Ellipsoid
• Geodetic Datum / Map Datum / Datum
Projections
• Are used to transfer the 3 dimensional earth to a 2 dimensional map
• “Nobody is perfect”
• No projection is at the same time exact in area, exact in angle and exact in distance.
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Geodetic datum —simplified mathematical representation of the size and shape of the earth
1. Local geodetic datum —best approximates the size and the shape of the particular part of
the earth
2. Geocentric datum —best approximates the size and shape of the earth as a whole
spheroid
geoid
The GPS uses a geocentric datum to express its position because of its global extent.
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Two coordinates systems are implicitly associated with a geodetic datum:
a. Cartesian coordinate system
b. Geodetic (geographic) coordinate system
A third coordinate system is provided by a map projection.
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1. reference surface
2. mapping surface
3. projecton plane
Map projections:
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Cylindrical projection —true at the equator and distortion increases toward the poles
1. Regular cylindrical projections
a. Equirectangular projection
b. Mercator projection
c. Lambert‘s cylindrical equal area
d. Gall‘s sterographic cylindrical
e. Miller cylindrical projection
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2. Transverse cylindrical projections
a. Cassini projection
b. Transverse Mercator
c. Transverse cylindrical equal area projection
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3. Oblique cylindrical projections
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Conic projections —true along some parallel somewhere between the equator and a pole and
distortion increases away from this standard
1. Lambert conformal conic
2. Bipolar oblique conic conformal
3. Albers equal-area conic
4. Lambert equal-area conic
5. Perspective conic
6. Polyconic
7. Rectangular polyconic

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Azimuthal projections —true only at their centre point, but generally distortion is worst at the
edge of the map
1. The Gnomonic projection
2. The azimuthal equidistant projection
3. Lambert azimuthal equal-area
4. etc.
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Compromise projection
1. Gall‘s projection
2. Miller projection
3. Robinson projection
4. Van der Grinten Projection
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For transformation of parameters (Latitude and Longitude) from the 3 dimensional representation into
a 2 dimensional rectangular system often a combination of WGS-84 ellipsoid & UTM rectangular
coordinate system is used (like e.g. for GPS).
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) system defines 2 dimensional positions using zone numbers
and zone characters for longitudinal and horizontal scaling:
UTM zone number (1-60):
longitudinal strips: range: 80°south latitude - 84°north latitude, width: 6 degree
UTM zone characters (using 20 characters, also called designators):
horizontal strips: range: 180°east - 180°west longitude, width: 8 degree
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Hints concerning the usage of maps:
• Avoid in any case the referencing of geodetic co-ordinates to a wrong geodetic datum.
Referencing to a wrong datum can result in position errors of several hundred meters! (In
the meantime people agreed to use in the future the World Geodetic System 1984
[WGS-84] for all maps.)
• Remember that e.g. different nations may use different geodetic datum.
• If a datum conversion is necessary a careful transformation of seven parameters is necessary:
3 for translation, 3 for rotation, 1 for scaling
• For daily work, try to use the same geodetic datum: in your planning tool(s), for your
GPS systems, and for your paper maps.
• Prefer the following map scales:
1:50000 (for rural areas and 900 MHz cell planning)
1:20000 (for rural areas and 1800/1900 MHz cell planning)
1:10000- 1:5000 (for urban areas and for micro cell planning)
In the maps, height information should be included as contour lines.
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
• Coverage planning
• Capacity planning
• Frequency planning
• Propagation predictions
• Propagation model fine tuning
• Co- and adjacent channel interference analysis
• Macro, micro cell planning
• Handling of multi-layer structures
• Repeater system handling
• Microwave planning
• …
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Remarks to radio network planning tools and required digital map data:
Tools using empirical propagation models require map data with less resolution compared to tools
working with deterministic propagation models.
In case empirical propagation models are used:
• Typical pixel size: 50m x 50m to 200m x 200m
• Using statistics, the signal variation around the mean value is taken into account
• In case that the BS antenna is higher then the surrounding, the clutter correction term of the
target pixel contain most propagation effects. For the clutter boundaries often several pixels
before the target pixel are taken into account.
In case deterministic propagation models are used:
• Digital data with high resolution are required (often very expensive)
• Typical pixel size: 2m x 2m to 10m x 10m
• Mostly used for big cities only
MN 1790 2 - 94
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Remarks to tools and required computational time:
Depending not only on the hardware used but also on the algorithms behind the software,
the computational time required by different tools varies significantly.
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Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Principles of Planning Tools and their usage
Planning tools do not run fully automatically but always require some input and an
intelligent and creative usage.
Remember:
Garbage in ðGarbage out
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Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning
Fine tuning (calibration) of propagation models:
Why? When? How?
• Since propagation models does not necessarily describe exactly the real situation, a fine tuning
of the models is necessary (e.g. clutter data may vary from country to country).
• This tool tuning should be done in the start phase of the network planning (i.e. before a detailed
plan is performed).
• A test transmitter is located at typical site locations, a test receiver measures the RX_LEV
along predefined measurement routes. These measured values are taken as input for the tool fine
tuning.
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Cell Types
Cell Types
Omni-Cell
Sector-Cells
Exercise:
Compare the coverage of an omni-cell (antenna gain = 10 dBi) and the coverage of a three sector-
cell configuration (antenna gain 18 dBi).
MN 1790 2 - 98
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Omni versus Sector Cells
Omni versus Sector Cells
Omni sites:
• Trunking gain (especially interesting for those networks having only a few frequencies)
• Omni antennas are usually less bulky than sector antennas
• Suitable in those areas, where the surrounding terrain limits the coverage (before the
maximum omni cell radius is reached)
• In case of horizontal antenna diversity: Diversity gain depends on direction
• Greater reuse distance required
• Less flexibility in network optimization (concerning antenna tilt, power control
parameters, handover parameters)
• TX/RX antenna separation difficult (usually TX/RX antennas are mounted on different
vertical levels to achieve sufficient separation)
• Limited mounting positions: no wall mounting possible
MN 1790 2 - 99
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Exercises
Exercises
1) Consider:
an extended cell with 100 km cell radius covering a sea area (clutter term: 30 dB),
a 900 MHz mobile station of power class 4,
a BS with the GSM minimum receiver sensitivity,
an (BS) antenna gain of 15 dBi.
What should be the height of the BS antenna?
2) Consider:
a mobile station with 2 Watts output power maximum,
a BS receiver sensitivity of –104 dBm,
an (BS) antenna gain of 15 dBi.
For a satellite carrying the BS, what would be the maximum radius for the satellite orbit.
3) How many sites can be saved in principle if TMAs with 6 dB gain are used in the
network? Use typical values and Hata’s propagation formula for calculation.

Coverage Planning: Contents Coverage Planning: Contents
• Path Loss Balance • Cell Coverage Calculation • Basics about Digital Map Data • Principles of Planning Tools and their usage • Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning • Cell Types • Omni versus Sector Cells • Exercises

MN 1790

2-2

Definition of Terms Definition of Terms
To achieve coverage in an area, the received signal strength in UL and DL must be above the so called receiver sensitivity level: Coverage: RX_LEV > (actual) receiver sensitivity level No Coverage: RX_LEV < (actual) receiver sensitivity level

The minimum receiver sensitivity levels in UL and DL are defined in GSM 05.05: - for normal BTS : -104 dBm - for GSM 900 micro BTS M1 : -97 dBm - for GSM 900 micro BTS M2 : -92 dBm - for GSM 900 micro BTS M3 : -87 dBm - for DCS 1800 micro BTS M1 : -102 dBm - for DCS 1800 micro BTS M2 : -97 dBm - for DCS 1800 micro BTS M3 : -92 dBm - for GSM 900 small MS (class 4, 5): -102 dBm - for other GSM 900 MS: -104 dBm - for DCS 1800 class 1 or class 2 MS : -100 dBm - for DCS 1800 class 3 MS : -102 dBm

MN 1790

2-3

2 dB +/.2 dB +/.2 dB © TECHCOM Consulting ® +/.Definition of Terms Definition of Terms Maximum output power for MS of different power classes: Power Class 1 2 3 4 5 GSM 900 MS 39 dBm 37 dBm 33 dBm 29 dBm GSM 1800 MS 30 dBm 24 dBm 36 dBm Tolerance +/.2 dB +/.2 dB MN 1790 2-4 .

Definition of Terms Definition of Terms
Maximum output power (before combiner input) for normal BTS / TRX of different power classes:

TRX Power Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

GSM 900 BTS 320 – (<640) W 160 – (<320) W 80 – (<160) W 40 – (<80) W 20 – (<40) W 10 – (<20) W 5 – (<10) W 2.5 – (<5) W

GSM 1800 BTS 20 – (<40) W

10- (<20) W 5 – (<10) W 2.5 – (<5) W

MN 1790

2-5

Definition of Terms Definition of Terms
Maximum output power (per carrier, at antenna connector, after all stages of combining) for micro BTS / TRX of different power classes:

TRX power class

GSM 900 micro-BTS >0.08 – 0.25 W

GSM 1800 micro-BTS >0.5 – 1.6 W

M1

M2

>0.03 – 0.08 W

>0.16 – 0.5 W

M3

>0.01 – 0.03 W

>0.05 – 0.16 W

MN 1790

2-6

Definition of Terms Definition of Terms
The reference sensitivity performance as defined in GSM 05.05 for the GSM 900 system for different channel types and different propagation conditions:

MN 1790

2-7

Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation Technical Problems Physical Reasons • Diffraction • Reflection • Scattering • Absorption • Doppler shift • Distance attenuation (Path Loss) • Fading • Inter-symbol Interference • Ducting • Frequency shift / broadening © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2-8 .

Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation Characteristics of Radio Wave Propagation Exercise: Which physical phenomena is sketched in the following pictures? © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2-9 .

Exact solutions of the Maxwell equations are not accessible for real space environment with obstacles which give rise to reflections and diffractions. © TECHCOM Consulting ® However. MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Radio wave propagation: The radio wave propagation is described by solutions of the Maxwell equations. exact polarization and phase of the field strength) is mostly not needed. the full information provided by an exact solution (e.g. What is needed is the the received power level. What a propagation model should provide is the attenuation of the power level due to the fact that the signal propagates from the transmitter to the receiver.10 .

Others summarize the measurements in formulas (like the Okumura Hata model) which fit the measured data. © TECHCOM Consulting ® Such models are very simple to handle but also usually rather imprecise. MN 1790 2 .11 . Deterministic models are based on simplifying assumption for the general problem. Or it can be a simple model for a special situation of the general problem (like the knife edge model). Some empirical models (like the ITU model) are curves derived from measurements. Semi empirical models are a combination of empirical models with deterministic models for special situations (like knife edge models).Radio Wave Propagation Models Empirical models and deterministic models: Empirical models are based on measurements. This can be a mathematical approximation of the original problem (like the finite difference model). They are limited to environments similar to the one where the measurements were performed. Deterministic model can reach a very high precision. but they suffer from a very high complexity.

12 . ray tracing Finite difference © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Empirical models Log distance path loss ITU Okumura Hata COST Hata Diffraction models Epstein Peterson Deygout Giovanelli Semi empirical models Okumura Hata & knife edge COST Hata & knife edge COST Walfisch Ikegami Deterministic models Ray launching.

0 0.8 −n 0.6 © TECHCOM Consulting ® 0.4 0.0 7.2 0 2.5 10.5 5.13 .0 d: distance Path loss: P  − 10 lg  R  = L = −10 lg( c ) + 10 n lg( d ) = − A − α lg( d ) P   T MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Received power: P T: PR: Transmitted power Reveived power P R = PT ⋅ c d n PR = c⋅d PT 1.

0 Received power level PR ∝ 1 d n 0 .0 0 1 0 .1 n= 4 n= 3 n= 2 as function of distance d on log scale.0 1 Received power level PR ∝ 1 dn 0 .14 . 0 .5 1 0 .Radio Wave Propagation Models 1 .4 © TECHCOM Consulting ® 0 .8 n= 4 n= 3 n= 2 0 .0 1 0 .0 0 0 1 1 2 5 1 0 MN 1790 2 . 0 .5 5 .6 as function of distance d on linear scale.0 7 .2 0 2 .

44 + 20 lg ( f ) + 20 lg(d ) f: frequency in MHz d: distance in km The influence of the surface is neglected completely MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Example: Free space propagation  λ  PR ∝ ⋅   4π d    ?: wavelength in vacuum. f 2 © TECHCOM Consulting ® c = 2. c λ= .15 .9979 ⋅ 10 8 m s speed of light in vacuum L = 32.

Radio Wave Propagation Models Example: 2 ray model hBS d2a d1 © TECHCOM Consulting ® hMS d2b d d 1 = d 2 + (hBS − hMS ) ≈ d + 2 (h BS − hMS ) 2d 2 d2 = d 2 a + d 2 b d 2 = d 2 + (hBS + hMS ) ≈ d + 2 (h BS + hMS ) 2d 2 d2 − d1 = 2 hBS hMS d MN 1790 2 .16 .

44 + 20 lg( f ) + 20 lg(d ) − 6. The model is valid for hBS > 50m and d in the range of km or for LOS microcell channels in urban areas.17 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Example: 2 ray model − ikd e − ikd  λ  e − PR ∝   d2  4π  d1 2 1 2 2  λ  2  k hBS hMS  ≈  4π d  ⋅ 4 ⋅ sin  d       2   kh h   L = 32.02 − 20 lg sin BS MS       d  k= 2π f c for large © TECHCOM Consulting ® 2π f hBS hMS  kh h  kh h d >> k hBS hMS ⇒ sin  BS MS  ≈ BS MS = d cd  d  L = 120 − 20 lg( h BS ) − 20 lg( h MS ) + 40 lg (d ) f: d: hBS : hMS : frequency in MHz distance in km height base station in m height mobile station in m The ground is assumed to be flat and perfectly reflecting. MN 1790 2 .

18 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Example: 2 ray model path loss in dB 80 900MHz 1800 MHz 100 © TECHCOM Consulting ® 120 140 160 1 10 100 dis tance in k m h BS = 50 m h MS = 1.5m MN 1790 2 .

MN 1790 2 . to be measured at the reference distance. 1km for macro cells or in the range of 1m -100m for micro cells.7-3.8 4-6 2-3 d0: Ld0: reference distance ca.Radio Wave Propagation Models Log-distance path loss model: d PR ∝   d   0 −n Environment Free space Exponent n 2 © TECHCOM Consulting ® d  L = Ld + 10 n lg   d   0 0 Urban area Shadowed urban area In building LOS Obstructed in building Obstructed in factories 2.6-1.19 . should be always in the far field of the antenna reference path loss.5 3-5 1.

© TECHCOM Consulting ® Parameter range for this model: Frequency f= 150… 1500MHz Height base station hBS= 30… 200m Height Mobile station hMS= 1… 10m Distance d= 1… 20km MN 1790 2 . The different types of surfaces (big cities. suburban and rural) are distinguished by different correction factors in this model. i.Radio Wave Propagation Models Okumura Hata model: Based on empirical data measured by Okumura in 60’s Hata developed a formula with correction terms for different environments.e. The Okumura Hata model assumes a quasi flat surface. small cities. Thus the Okumura Hata model is isotropic. obstacles like buildings are not explicitly taken into account.20 .

97 small cities © TECHCOM Consulting ® big cities (f>400MHz)   f  c = 2 ⋅ lg    + 5. 55 lg( h BS ) ]lg( d ) 1  [ . 8 ]  d ( h MS ) =  2   3 . 55 + 26 . 9 − 6 . 56 lg( f ) − 0 .33 lg( f ) + 40.94 2 2 suburban areas rural areas f: d: hBS : hMS : frequency in MHz distance in km height base station in m height mobile station in m MN 1790 2 . 82 lg( h BS ) − d ( h MS ) − c + [44 .78 ⋅ [lg ( f )] − 18.4   28   c = 4. 16 lg( f ) − 13 . 2 ⋅ [lg( 11 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Okumura Hata model: L urban = 69 . 1 lg( f ) − 0 .21 . 75 h MS ) ] − 4 . 7 ]h MS − [1 .

42 − d ( h MS ) − c + 35 .22 . 02 ≈ 0  ) =   − 0 .5m the formula reads: L urban = 126 .94 c = 28 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Okumura Hata model: For f= 900MHz. hMS= 1.51 suburban areas rural areas d: distance in km MN 1790 2 . 22 ⋅ lg( d ) © TECHCOM Consulting ® d ( h MS  + 0 . hBS= 30m. 001 ≈ 0  small cities big cities c = 9.

© TECHCOM Consulting ® Parameter range for this model: Frequency f= 1500… 2000MHz Height base station hBS= 30… 200m Height Mobile station hMS= 1… 10m Distance d= 1… 20km L urban = 46 . 8 ] 1 MN 1790 2 . 56 lg( f ) − 0 . 1 lg( f ) − 0 . 55 lg( h BS ) ]lg( d ) d ( h MS ) = [1 . 9 − 6 . Therefore it was extended to higher frequencies in the framework of the European research cooperation COST (European Cooperation in the field of scientific and technical research).Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Hata model: The Okumura Hata model cannot be applied directly to systems like GSM 1800/1900 or DECT. 9 lg( f ) − 13 .23 . 3 + 33 . 82 lg( h BS ) − d ( h MS ) − c + [44 . 7 ]h MS − [ .

4   28  2 2 city center suburban areas © TECHCOM Consulting ® c = 4. hMS= 1.78 ⋅ [lg ( f )] − 18. hBS= 30m. For the other terms of COST Hata model the insertion of the values serves: L urban = 136 .5m the correction term for the dependence on hMS can again be neglected. 22 ⋅ lg( d ) MN 1790 2 .33 lg( f ) + 40.94 rural areas The major difference between the Okumura Hata model is a modified dependence on frequency and additional correction factor for inner city areas For f= 1800MHz.Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Hata model: c = −3   f  c = 2 ⋅ lg  + 5.24 . 24 − c + 35 .

) are not taken into account. MN 1790 2 . hills etc.Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Hata model: c = −3 c = 1.25 .92 rural areas Both models.14 city center suburban areas © TECHCOM Consulting ® c = 31. Local properties of the surface (big buildings. the Okumura Hata model and the COST Hata model can lead locally to substantial deviation from the measured attenuation since these models are isotropic.

1000km Definition: hBSeff is the antenna height above the mean elevation of the terrain measured in a range from 3km to 15 km along the propagation path.. 90% of the terrain exceed the lower limit and 10% of the terrain exceed the upper limit of the band defined by ∆h. The curves for the field strength are given for different hBSeff and ∆h = 50m.. 1000MHz d= 10.Radio Wave Propagation Models ITU model: The ITU (or CCIR) model was originally developed for radio broadcasting. Since local effects of the terrain are not taken into account the deviation between predicted and actual median field strength may reach 20dB for rural areas.26 .. ∆h is the mean irregularity of the terrain in the range from 10km to 50 km along the propagation path.e. The different topographic situations are described by the parameters hBSeff and ∆h. ) for the field strength. The ITU model describes the radio wave propagation for the ranges f= 30. 250 MHz and 450. It is based on measurements in the UHF and VHF range which are summarized in graphs (ITU-R 370-7.. In urban areas this value may be well exceeded. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .. The correction for other values of ∆h is given in an additional graph.. i.

Radio Wave Propagation Models ITU model: © TECHCOM Consulting ® hBSeff 10% ∆h 90% 0km 3km 10km 15km 50km MN 1790 2 .27 .

28 . The correction to the field strength ITU model (with ∆h=50m ) is give as graphs for the clearance angle. The clearance angle correction applies to both the receiving and the transmitting side. BS Position γ 16km MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Correction to the ITU model: clearance angle method An improvement of the ITU model is obtained by considering the maximum of the angle (clearance angle) between the horizontal line and the elevations in the range of 0 to 16km along the propagation path. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MS.

29 . at least as statistical parameters.02… 5km Further parameter: Mean building height: ∆h in m Mean street width: w in m Mean building spacing: b in m Mean angle between propagation path and street: ϕ in ° MN 1790 2 . © TECHCOM Consulting ® Parameter range for this model: Frequency f= 800… 2000MHz Height base station hBS= 4… 50m Height Mobile station hMS= 1… 3m Distance d= 0. Based on the Walfisch Bertoni propagation model for BS antennas place above the roof tops.Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Walfisch Ikegami model: For a better accuracy in urban areas building height and street width have to be taken into account. the empirical COST Walfisch Ikegami model is a generalisation including BS antennas placed below the roof tops.

Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Walfisch Ikegami model: d BS ∆h MS b w hMS hBS © TECHCOM Consulting ® BS ϕ MS MN 1790 2 .30 .

44+ 20lg( f ) + 20lg(d) Lrts  − 10 + 0 .6 + 20 lg( f ) + 26 lg( d ) With non LOS:  L0 + Lrts + L msd .114 ⋅ ϕ .075 ⋅ ϕ .  L NLOS =  L .9 − 10 lg( w ) + 10 lg( f ) + 20 lg( ∆ h − h MS ) +  2 .31 . 5 + 0 . 0 − 0 .  roof top to street diffraction and scatter loss: 0 ≤ ϕ < 350 350 ≤ ϕ < 550 550 ≤ ϕ < 900 MN 1790 2 .    4 .354 ⋅ ϕ .Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Walfisch Ikegami model: With LOS between BS and MS (base station antenna below roof top level): LLOS = 42.  0 LO © TECHCOM Consulting ® L rts + L msd > 0 L rts + L msd ≤ 0 free space propagation: LO = 32.    L rts = − 16 .

Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Walfisch Ikegami model: Lmsd multiscreen diffraction loss: Lmsd = Lmsd 1 + k a + k d ⋅ lg(d ) + k f ⋅ lg( f ) − 9 lg(b )  − 18 lg(1 + hBS − ∆h ). 54 .  18 .8 ⋅ ( hBS − ∆ h) ⋅ d 0 .7      kf =  − 4 + 0 .7      − 1.   f − 1. 925   f 925 Medium sized cities and suburban centres with moderate tree density Metropolitan centres MN 1790 2 .5 ( ) − 4 + 0 .   k a = 54 − 0.5 . Lmsd 1 =  0 .32 .  kd =  hBS − ∆ h 18 − 15 ⋅ ∆ h .5 hBS ≤ ∆h and hBS > ∆h hBS ≤ ∆h d ≤ 0.8 ⋅ ( hBS − ∆ h).  hBS > ∆h hBS ≤ ∆h © TECHCOM Consulting ® hBS > ∆h hBS ≤ ∆h and d > 0.  54 − 0.

Radio Wave Propagation Models COST Walfisch Ikegami model: Although designed for BS antennas placed below the mean building height the COST Walfisch Ikegami model show often considerable inaccuracies. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 . This is especially true in cities with an irregular building pattern like in historical grown cities. Also the model was designed for cities on a flat ground.33 . Thus for a hilly surface the model is not applicable.

This results in an extra contribution to the LOS attenuation L = LLOS (d ) + α ( B ) For both LLOS (d ) and α (B) can be read off graphs b ased on extensive measurements. This model is not very precise and large errors occur in the following situation: • When the prediction point is on the main street but there is no LOS path • When the prediction point is in a side street on the same side of the main street as the BS.34 . © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Lee micro cell model: This model is based on the assumption that the path loss is correlated with the total depth B of the building blocks along the propagation path.

i.e.: h >> λ and h << d 1 .35 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction knife edge model: Diffraction models apply for configurations were a large obstacle is in the propagation path and the obstacle is far away from the transmitter and the receiver. d 2 Huygens secondary source © TECHCOM Consulting ® h d1 hBS d2 hMS The obstacle is represented as an ideal conducting half plane (knife edge) MN 1790 2 .

the excess path length Phase difference: ϕ = ∆≈ h 2 (d 1 + d 2 ) 2 d 1d 2 2π ∆ π 2 = υ with υ = h ⋅ 2(d1 + d 2 ) Fresnel Kirchoff diffraction parameter.36 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction knife edge model: Huygens principle: all points of a wavefront can be considered as a source for a secondary wavelet ⇒sum up the contributions of all wavelets starting in the half plane above the obstacle Phase differences have to be taken into account (constructive and destructive interferences) © TECHCOM Consulting ® Difference between the direct path and the diffracted path. λ 2 λd 1d 2 Note: this derivation is also valid for h<0 MN 1790 2 .

h < 0 shadowed region Shadow border region: ν = 0 ⇒ LD ( 0 ) = 6 MN 1790 2 . ν >> 0 . © TECHCOM Consulting ® E D diffracted field strength The following approximations exist: ≈ 0 L D (ν )   ≈ 13 .5 + 20 lg( υ ) ν << 0 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction knife edge model: E   1+ i ∞  − i πu 2   LD (ν ) = −20 lg  D  = −20 lg   2 ν∫ exp 2 du   E        0  Diffraction loss: E0 field strength obtained by free field propagation without diffraction (and ground effects).37 . LOS region.

For obstacles outside the 1st Fresnel zone: For obstacles outside the 5th Fresnel zone: LD (ν < − 2 ) = ± 1 . d 2 >> rFn 1 2  d + d2    = n⋅ λ l1 + l 2 − d 1 − d 2 ≈ rFn  1 2 2  d 1d 2   ⇒ ν = 2n h rFn The diffraction parameter ν can be rewritten with quantities describing the Fresnel zone geometry.1 dB LD (ν < − 10 ) = ± 0 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction knife edge model: Fresnel Zone: Condition for the nth Fresnel Zone: l1 l1 + l 2 − d 1 − d 2 = n ⋅ λ 2 © TECHCOM Consulting ® r Fn d1 l2 d2 d 1 .38 .6 dB MN 1790 2 .

Diffraction multiple knife edge Epstein Petersen model: The attenuation of several obstacles is computed obstacle by obstacle with the single knife edge method, i.e. first diffraction path: l 1l 2 , second diffraction path: l 2l 3 . The model is valid for hi << d j .

O1 l2 l1 h1 O2 h2 l3

d2 d1 d2 d3

MN 1790

2 - 39

Diffraction multiple knife edge Epstein Petersen model:

LDtotal = LD (ν 1 ) + LD (ν 2 )
υ1 = h1 ⋅ 2 (d 1 + d 2 ) λd 1d 2 υ 2 = h2 ⋅ 2(d 2 + d 3 ) λd 2d 3

.

The Fresnel integral is replaced by an empirical approximation:
≈ 0  LD (ν )   ≈ 6 .9 + 20 lg υ − 0 .1 + 

[

(υ − 0.1)

2

+1

]

ν < −0 .78 , ν ≥ −0 .78 .

This model is rather unprecise. The error grows with the number of obstacles.

MN 1790

2 - 40

Diffraction multiple knife edge Deygout model: This model is recursive. First the attenuation of the main obstacle is computed (in this example O1 with the path l 1s1). In the second step the possible (main) obstacles along the paths to and from the main obstacle are computed (here O2 with l 2l 3). This procedure is continued until all obstacles are taken into account.

O1 l2 l1 h1 s1 O2 h2 l3 H2

d2 d1 d2 d3

MN 1790

2 - 41

42 . After n steps this models may cover up to 2n-1 obstacles. MN 1790 2 . LDtotal = LD (ν 1 ) + LD (ν 2 ) − C (O1 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction multiple knife edge Deygout model: . α = arctan 2 1   d 1d 3   q = H2 ⋅ 2(d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ) λd 3 ( d 2 + d 1 ) The correction term is chosen such that the result coincides in a good approximation with an exact solution. O2 ) = 12 − 20 lg  1−α   π  p = h1 ⋅ 2(d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ) . λd 1 ( d 2 + d 3 )   p  2 p  ⋅     q      d (d + d 2 + d 3 )  . O2 ) 2(d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ) λ d1 (d 2 + d 3 ) υ 2 = h2 ⋅ 2(d 2 + d 3 ) λd 2d 3 υ1 = h1 ⋅ © TECHCOM Consulting ® Correction term:   2 C ( O1 .

Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction multiple knife edge Giovanelli model: Also the Giovanelli model is recursive. The recursion procedure is the same as for the Deygout model.43 . . Instead of taking a correction term in the attenuation the receiver is considered at an effective position at an height heff. © TECHCOM Consulting ® O1 l2 l1 h1 O2 h2 l3 H1 d1 d2 d2 H2 d3 effective receiver position heff MN 1790 2 .

MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Diffraction multiple knife edge Giovanelli model: LDtotal = LD (ν 1 ) + LD (ν 2 ) υ1 = h1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ (d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ) λ d1 (d 2 + d 3 ) d1 h d 1 + d 2 + d 3 eff .44 . υ 2 = h2 ⋅ 2(d 2 + d 3 ) λd 2d 3 d3 ( H 2 − H1 ) d2 © TECHCOM Consulting ® h1 = h1 − heff = h2 + The attenuation predicted by this model is between the values obtained from the Epstein Peterson model and the Deygout model without the correction term.

The mentioned empirical models are only valid for a quasi flat surface. In combination with knife edge models they can be extended to hilly surface or a mountain area.45 . For the specific combination of models and their correction terms most user develop their own solution which they calibrate with their measurements. . © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Semi empirical models: Semi empirical model combine deterministic models like knife edge models with empirical models like Okumura Hata or COST Hata. The combination of empirical and deterministic models requires usually additional correction terms.

g. software and algorithms. With this method a very high precision for the prediction of the path loss can be obtained. • The algorithm is very complex and computer power consuming. © TECHCOM Consulting ® on MN 1790 2 .46 .Radio Wave Propagation Models Deterministic models: Ray tracing and ray launching: With the methods of geometrical optics all possible propagation paths from the transmitter to the receiver are determined and summed up. i.e. However. there is a free space propagation from the antenna to the first obstacle or from obstacle to obstacle and at the obstacle the ray is reflected or diffracted until it reaches the antenna. glass or brick wall). • For this method a digital map with high accuracy is required. The algorithm takes only rays with an adjustable maximum number of reflections and diffractions. • For the reflection and diffraction attenuation factors have to be specified which depend the building surface (e. there are continuous improvements for hardware.

as for the ray launching and ray tracing method. With this method a very high precision for the prediction of the path loss can be obtained. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 . software and algorithms. • For this method very precise surface data are required. The partial differential equation becomes a linear equation system. However. This is obtained by introducing a grid and considering the the fields only at the nodes of the grid.47 . The derivatives become differences along the edges of the grid. the linear equation system involves very large matrices for realistic problems to be treated with a sufficient precision. • The surface data have to be parameterised in an appropriate way for the grid.Radio Wave Propagation Models Deterministic models: Finite difference algorithm: Since the solution to field equation are inaccessible the partial derivatives for the fields are replaced by finite differences. there are continuous improvements for hardware. However.

cells Summary of the application areas of the different models: Propagation model Log-distance path loss ITU Okumura Hata COST Hata Epstein Peterson Deygout Giovanelli Okumura Hata & knife edge COST Hata & knife edge COST Walfisch Ikegami Ray launching ray tracing Finite difference rural + + + + + + + + + + 0 urban + 0 0 + + + 0 0 + + 0 inhouse + © TECHCOM Consulting ® + + MN 1790 2 .cells Macro-.Suitable prediction models for Suitable prediction models for Macro-. and Pico.48 . Micro-. Micro-. and Pico.

49 . but location (and time) dependent fluctuations appear. The radio network planner has to take this into account by working with probabilities. with the following two coverage probabilities: • Cell edge probability • Cell area probability Typical cell edge probabilities for: Very good coverage: 95% Good coverage: 90% Acceptable coverage: 75% As will be discussed later.g. these values correspond to the following cell area probabilities: Very good coverage: 99% Good coverage: 97% Acceptable coverage: 91% © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Location Probability Location Probability The propagation conditions of electromagnetic waves in real environments are not stable. e.

outdoor. in-car) must be considered.Link Budgets Link Budgets Before dimensioning the radio network. Antenna Gain (Fading) Margins © TECHCOM Consulting ® Path Loss Body Loss Cable Losses BTS Building (indoor) penetration loss MN 1790 2 . the maximum allowable path loss can be derived. From the link budget. the link budget for different environments (indoor. Diversity Gain.50 .

51 . connector losses [dB] Duplexer losses [dB] Receiver sensitivity [dBm] Environment Body loss [dB] Building (indoor) penetration loss [dB] Path loss [dB] Fading margin (lognormal and Rayleigh) [dB] Interference margin [dB] Frequency hopping gain [dB] MN 1790 2 .Link Budgets Link Budgets Terms which enter the link budget: BTS MS Maximum output power [dBm] Feeder loss [dB] Antenna gain [dBi] EIRP [dBm] Receiver sensitivity [dBm] Rx-diversity gain [dB] Antenna gain [dB] Head amplifier gain [dB] © TECHCOM Consulting ® Jumper. feeder.

5 -107 Outdoor MS (Class 4) 33 0 0 -5 / -3 0 Indoor MS (Class 4) 33 0 0 -5 /-3 -18 Car mounted MS (Class 2) 39 -2 +2 0 0 Units dBm dB dBi Remarks © TECHCOM Consulting ® dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dBi dB dB dB dB MN 1790 2 . receive diversity used): UL Link Budget MS Max.5 +17 +6 -4 -0.5 -107 -12 -3 -2 +3 +3. Output power Feeder Loss Antenna Gain Environment Body Loss (900 / 1800) MHz Building (Indoor) penetration Loss Path loss Fading Margin: lognormal: for 1sigma=10 and cell area probability=99% Fading Margin: Rayleigh Interference Margin Frequency hopping gain BS Rx .5 +17 +6 -4 -0.5 +17 +6 -4 -0.52 . frequency hopping on.5 -107 -12 -3 -2 +3 +3. BS with tower mounted amplifier.Link Budgets Link Budgets Example of an UL link budget (GSM 900 MHz MS power class 4.diversity gain Antenna gain Tower mounted amplifier gain Jumper + Feeder + Connector Losses Duplexer Losses Receiver Sensitivity -12 -3 -2 +3 +3.

© TECHCOM Consulting ® An extra margin has to be added due the fading effect. Propagation models predict only the average value of the receive level. Fading appears statistically but different fading types obey different probability distributions. The common question for all fading effects is: how big to chose the margin such that the receive level drops not below a given limit with a specified probability? MN 1790 2 .53 .Fading Fading occurs on different scales due to different causes.

© TECHCOM Consulting ® The generic situations: Rice fading: It exists a dominant path (usually the LOS path): MN 1790 2 .Fast Fading Fast fading appears due to multi path propagation. Usually the fading is described by the probability function for the absolute value of the field strength. The receive level is affected by interferences due to different path lengths in the multi path propagation.54 . The field strength at the receiver is the vector sum of the fields corresponding to the different propagation paths.

For V P >> 1 the Rice distribution can be approximated b y a Gauß distribution: R1 N 2 f (VR ) =  (V − VR1 )  1   ⋅ exp − R  2 PN 2π ⋅ PN   2 MN 1790 2 . PN = ∑ VR2 + other noise sources : i =1 i N received power of the non dominant signals including other noise sources like man made noise.Rice Fading V V   V 2 + VR2  VR  ⋅ I 0  R1 R  ⋅ exp − R1  P   PN 2 PN   N    Rice fading: f (VR ) = VR : received signal strength V R1 : received signal from the dominant signal © TECHCOM Consulting ® I 0 : modified Bessel-Function of the first kind and zero order.55 .

3 0.1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Absolute value of signal amplitude in V MN 1790 2 .2 0.Rice Fading Eample: Gaußean distributed signal for: V R 1 = 5V 0.4 Probability © TECHCOM Consulting ® 0.56 .

57 . and f ( P0 ) =  P  1 exp  − 0   P  P0  0  : 1 2 P0 = V R 2 averaged receive power: MN 1790 2 . Rayleigh fading describes the situation were there is no dominant path. a non LOS situation.Rayleigh Fading Rayleigh fading is the other important special case of the Ricean fading.e. © TECHCOM Consulting ® f (V R ) = 2  V2 exp  − R2   V  VR  R  VR 2 with V R : averaged field strength. All contribution to the received signal are comparable in strength and arrive statistically distributed. i.

01 0.58 .001 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Power / averaged power in dB MN 1790 2 .1 0.Rayleigh Fading Integrated probability for the power to be below a fading marging for a Rayleigh distribution Probability 1 © TECHCOM Consulting ® 0.

59 .Fast Fading All described types of fast fading have as characteristic length scale the wavelength of the signals. To combat Fast Fading: ⇒ Use frequency hopping ⇒ Use antenna diversity © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .

Slow Fading To compute the probability that the receive level exceeds a certain margin the Gaussian distribution has to be integrated. This leads to the Q function: Q( z ) = ∫ z ∞  x2  1 1  z  ⋅ exp  − dx = 1 − erf    2   2 2π  2     © TECHCOM Consulting ® Q( z ) = 1 − Q( − z ) MN 1790 2 .61 .

00187 z 3.50000 0.06681 0.27425 0.9 Q(z) 0.2 1.3 2.13567 0.01390 0.3 1.6 1.38209 0.8 1.4 3.00135 © TECHCOM Consulting ® 0.62 .0 0.15866 0.02275 0.7 0.1 3.01786 0.24196 0.03593 0.5 2.0 3.09680 0.01072 0.00005 MN 1790 2 .00347 0.2 2.42074 0.0 1.00023 0.02872 z 2.08076 0.7 2.6 0.8 0.1 1.00007 0.00034 0.8 2.05480 0.9 Q(z) 0.6 3.04457 0.34458 0.7 3.4 0.00820 0.00016 0.9 Q(z) 0.1 2.5 3.00048 0.00256 0.0 2.Slow Fading Tabulation of the Q function z 0.00069 0.6 2.00466 0.4 1.7 1.9 Q(z) 0.2 3.4 2.3 0.18406 z 1.5 1.30854 0.11507 0.00621 0.00097 0.8 3.00011 0.1 0.2 0.46017 0.3 3.5 0.21186 0.

Jake’s Formula Jake’s formula gives a relation for the probability that a certain value P m at the cell boundary at radius R is exceeded and the corresponding probability Prcell (Pm ) for the whole cell.63 . It is based on the log distance path loss model: d  PR (d ) = PT − L (d 0 ) + 10n lg  d   0 © TECHCOM Consulting ® Prcell ( Pm ) = 1 1 − 2 ab    1 − ab  1 − erf ( a ) + exp   1 − erf   2 2  2  b   b        a= (P m − PR (R ) 2σ ) b= 10n lg( e ) 2σ MN 1790 2 .

Log-normal Fading Log-normal Fading In a shadowing environment.64 . a Gaussian distribution is described by a mean value and the standard deviation. Probability © TECHCOM Consulting ® Level [dBm] Probability Level [dBm] MN 1790 2 . In general. the probability of a certain level as function of the level value follows a Gaussian distribution on a logarithmic scale.

indoor) are given in the following table: σ LNF(o) 10 dB 8 dB 6 dB σ LNF(i) 9 dB 9 dB 8 dB Environment Dense urban Urban Rural © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Log-normal Fading Log-normal Fading From measurements ð the standard deviation 1 sigma (σ LNF ) in a certain environment. Typical measurement values (outdoor.65 .

054 2.036 1.000 0.842 1.881 2.524 0.645 1.385 0.282 1.674 0.253 0.66 .Log-normal Fading Log-normal Fading To achieve a certain cell edge probability σ LNF must be multiplied with a factor given in the following table: (Cell edge probability means the probability to have coverage at the border of the cell) Cell edge probability in % 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 96 97 98 99 Factor for calculation of lognormal fading margin 0.126 0.751 1.326 © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .

Some example results are given in the following table: Cell edge probability in % 50 75 90 95 Cell area probability in % © TECHCOM Consulting ® 77 91 97 99 MN 1790 2 .67 .Log-normal Fading Log-normal Fading Integrating the Gaussian distribution function over the whole cell area delivers cell area probabilities.

Typically. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .68 . a margin of 2 dB is recommended. This margin in principle depends on the traffic load. The required margin will be small if interference level decreasing concepts like frequency hopping. power control and DTX are used. the cell area probability and the frequency reuse.Interference Margin Interference Margin An interference margin can be introduced in the link budget in order to achieve accurate coverage prediction in case that the system is busy.

Therefore.69 . electromagnetic noise can be related to a temperature. P = s * e * A * T4 © TECHCOM Consulting ® Noise Factor: The Noise Factor can be calculated from the Noise Temperature as follows: Noise Factor = Noise Temperature / 290°K + 1 Noise Figure: The noise figure is the value of the Noise Factor given in dB: Noise Figure = 10 * log (Noise Factor) MN 1790 2 .Noise Figure calculations Noise Figure calculations Thermal Noise: Every object which is at a temperature T > 0°K emits electromagnetic waves (thermal noise).

70 .5 2.4 3.7 2.4 1. 180 191 202 214 226 238 250 263 275 289 Noise Figure 3.Noise Figure calculations Noise Figure calculations Conversion table: Noise Figure 0.0 Noise Temp.9 1.0 Noise Temp.7 0.7 1.1 0.3 2.6 2.8 0.5 1. 302 © TECHCOM Consulting ® 316 330 344 359 374 390 406 422 438 Noise figure in dB Noise Temperature in °K MN 1790 2 .4 0.5 0.2 0.0 Noise Temp.1 2.0 Noise Temp.6 1.1 3.8 3. 84 92 101 110 120 129 139 149 159 170 Noise Figure 2.6 0.9 3.4 2.7 3.3 1.2 2.9 4.3 0.2 3.5 3.8 1.2 1.1 1.9 2. 7 14 21 28 35 43 51 59 67 75 Noise Figure 1.3 3.8 2.6 3.

© TECHCOM Consulting ® Tin G G * Tin + G * Tnoise Tnoise MN 1790 2 .Amplifier Noise Amplifier Noise Amplifier: • An amplifier amplifies an input signal.71 . as well as the noise of the input signal. which is also amplified. • It adds its own noise.

Amplifier Noise Amplifier Noise Cascade of amplifiers: Tin G1 G1* Tin + G1 * T n1 Tn1 Tn2 G2 G2 * (G1 * Tin + G1 * T n1) + G2 * T n2 = G1*G2* (Tin + T n1 + T n2/G1) = G * (Tin + Tnoise) With Tnoise = T n1 + T n2/G1 and G = G1 * G2 © TECHCOM Consulting ® Tin G G * Tin + G * Tnoise Equivalent to cascade of amplifiers Tnoise MN 1790 2 .72 .

73 . MN 1790 2 ..Amplifier Noise Amplifier Noise Equivalent to cascade of amplifiers Tin G G * Tin + G * Tnoise © TECHCOM Consulting ® Tnoise = T n1 + T n2/G1 Tnoise G = G1 * G2 Friis formula: Tnoise = T n1 + T n2 / G1 + T n3 / (G1*G2) + ..

4°K Consequence: Position of amplifier in chain is very important MN 1790 2 .Amplifier Noise Amplifier Noise Example: Tin G1 G1* T in + G1 * T n1 Tn1 Tn2 G2 G1*G2* (T in + Tnoise) With Tnoise = T n1 + T n2/G1 © TECHCOM Consulting ® Assumptions: G1 = 16 Tn1 = 28°K G2 = 20 Tn2 = 200°K Result: Gain = 320 Tnoise = 40.5°K Assumptions: G1 = 20 Tn1 = 200°K G2 = 16 Tn2 = 28°K Result: Gain = 320 Tnoise = 201.74 .

75 .Amplifier Noise Amplifier Noise Exercise 1: Calculate the noise temperature of the following system: © TECHCOM Consulting ® G Antenna cable Loss 10 dB Amplifier in BTS Gain 25 dB Noise temperature 240°K Tnoise ? MN 1790 2 .

Amplifier Noise Amplifier Noise Exercise 2: Calculate the noise temperature of the following system: © TECHCOM Consulting ® G Mast Head Amplifier Gain 28 dB Noise temperature 260°K Cable to antenna mast Loss 10 dB G Tnoise ? Amplifier in BTS Gain 2 dB Noise temperature 290°K MN 1790 2 .76 .

the radio link must be balanced: Maximum allowable path loss in UL = Maximum allowable path loss in DL © TECHCOM Consulting ® Considering the link budget.Path Loss Balance Path Loss Balance Since the coverage range in UL should be the same as the coverage range in DL. the UL sensitivity and therefore also the UL coverage range can be increased by using tower mounted amplifiers. MN 1790 2 .e. • Diversity is usually only used in the receive path. although: • The BS receiver sensitivity is usually better than the MS receiver sensitivity.77 . usually the UL is the bottleneck. the maximum allowable path loss is determined by the UL and not by the DL. In case of an unbalanced link with weak UL. i.

MN 1790 2 .i= 9 dB)? In an open area (σ LNF. σ LNF.i= 8 dB)? Assume an in-car penetration loss of 6dB.Cell Coverage Calculation Cell Coverage Calculation From consideration of link budget ð Maximum allowable path loss Using radio wave propagation formulas (e.i= 9 dB )? In a suburban environment (σ LNF.o= 8 dB.78 . σ LNF. The BTS height = 30 m. What is the maximum outdoor. σ LNF.o= 10 dB. Assume Hata propagation conditions and a cell area probability of 97%.o= 6 dB.Hata) ð Maximum cell size Exercise: © TECHCOM Consulting ® Consider a class 4 MS of height = 1.g.5 m. indoor cell radius and in-car cell radius: a) b) c) In a dense urban environment (σ LNF.

The smallest unit on such a map is called a pixel.79 . some pre-processing of the data may be required. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 . streets.…). The different layers of information in one block always use the same resolution. These digital map data should contain information about.…) •… Before working with these digital data. A digital map is often subdivided into several blocks consisting of many pixels. A digital map is an electronic database containing geographical information. Each pixel should contain information about: • Land usage (“Clutter” information) • Height data • Vector data (like rivers. about the height of obstacles and they should also contain so called vector data (like rivers.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data The cell planning tools require as one input digital map data (which are often based on paper maps. satellite photos. The typical edge-length of such a pixel is ranging from several meters to several hundred meters. Some ideas are sketched on the following pages. the land usage ( so called “Clutter” information). streets. whereas different blocks can have different resolutions.…).

exact in angle and exact in distance. MN 1790 2 .Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Definition of terms • Geoid • Spheroid / Ellipsoid • Geodetic Datum / Map Datum / Datum © TECHCOM Consulting ® Projections • Are used to transfer the 3 dimensional earth to a 2 dimensional map • “Nobody is perfect” • No projection is at the same time exact in area.80 .

MN 1790 2 .81 . Local geodetic datum — best approximates the size and the shape of the particular part of the earth geoid spheroid © TECHCOM Consulting ® 2.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Geodetic datum — simplified mathematical representation of the size and shape of the earth 1. Geocentric datum — best approximates the size and shape of the earth as a whole The GPS uses a geocentric datum to express its position because of its global extent.

Geodetic (geographic) coordinate system © TECHCOM Consulting ® A third coordinate system is provided by a map projection. MN 1790 2 . Cartesian coordinate system b.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Two coordinates systems are implicitly associated with a geodetic datum: a.82 .

83 . reference surface © TECHCOM Consulting ® 2. mapping surface 3. projecton plane MN 1790 2 .Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Map projections: 1.

e.84 . Equirectangular projection Mercator projection © TECHCOM Consulting ® c. Lambert‘s cylindrical equal area Gall‘s sterographic cylindrical Miller cylindrical projection MN 1790 2 . b. Regular cylindrical projections a.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Cylindrical projection — true at the equator and distortion increases toward the poles 1. d.

Transverse cylindrical equal area projection MN 1790 2 .85 . Cassini projection Transverse Mercator © TECHCOM Consulting ® c. b.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data 2. Transverse cylindrical projections a.

Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data 3. Oblique cylindrical projections © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .86 .

2. Lambert equal-area conic Perspective conic Polyconic Rectangular polyconic … MN 1790 2 . 7. Lambert conformal conic Bipolar oblique conic conformal Albers equal-area conic © TECHCOM Consulting ® 4.87 . 6. 5. 3.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Conic projections — true along some parallel somewhere between the equator and a pole and distortion increases away from this standard 1.

3. but generally distortion is worst at the edge of the map 1. 2.Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Azimuthal projections — true only at their centre point. etc. The Gnomonic projection The azimuthal equidistant projection Lambert azimuthal equal-area © TECHCOM Consulting ® 4.88 . MN 1790 2 .

Gall‘s projection Miller projection Robinson projection © TECHCOM Consulting ® 4. 3. 2.89 .Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Compromise projection 1. Van der Grinten Projection MN 1790 2 .

90 . also called designators): horizontal strips: range: 180° east . for GPS).180° west longitude. UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) system defines 2 dimensional positions using zone numbers and zone characters for longitudinal and horizontal scaling: UTM zone number (1-60): longitudinal strips: range: 80° south latitude .84° north latitude.g. width: 6 degree UTM zone characters (using 20 characters. width: 8 degree © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data For transformation of parameters (Latitude and Longitude) from the 3 dimensional representation into a 2 dimensional rectangular system often a combination of WGS-84 ellipsoid & UTM rectangular coordinate system is used (like e.

different nations may use different geodetic datum.1:5000 (for urban areas and for micro cell planning) In the maps. • If a datum conversion is necessary a careful transformation of seven parameters is necessary: 3 for translation. 1 for scaling • For daily work.g. 3 for rotation. for your GPS systems. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .91 .Basics about Digital Map Data Basics about Digital Map Data Hints concerning the usage of maps: • Avoid in any case the referencing of geodetic co-ordinates to a wrong geodetic datum. height information should be included as contour lines.) • Remember that e. try to use the same geodetic datum: in your planning tool(s). and for your paper maps. Referencing to a wrong datum can result in position errors of several hundred meters! (In the meantime people agreed to use in the future the World Geodetic System 1984 [WGS-84] for all maps. • Prefer the following map scales: 1:50000 (for rural areas and 900 MHz cell planning) 1:20000 (for rural areas and 1800/1900 MHz cell planning) 1:10000.

Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Main Task of radio network planning tools: • Coverage planning • Capacity planning • Frequency planning © TECHCOM Consulting ® • Link Budget calculations • Propagation predictions • Propagation model fine tuning • Co. micro cell planning • Handling of multi-layer structures • Repeater system handling • Microwave planning •… MN 1790 2 .92 .and adjacent channel interference analysis • Macro.

93 . the clutter correction term of the target pixel contain most propagation effects.Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Remarks to radio network planning tools and required digital map data: Tools using empirical propagation models require map data with less resolution compared to tools working with deterministic propagation models. For the clutter boundaries often several pixels before the target pixel are taken into account. the signal variation around the mean value is taken into account • In case that the BS antenna is higher then the surrounding. In case deterministic propagation models are used: • Digital data with high resolution are required (often very expensive) • Typical pixel size: 2m x 2m to 10m x 10m • Mostly used for big cities only MN 1790 2 . © TECHCOM Consulting ® In case empirical propagation models are used: • Typical pixel size: 50m x 50m to 200m x 200m • Using statistics.

the computational time required by different tools varies significantly. © TECHCOM Consulting ® MN 1790 2 .Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Remarks to tools and required computational time: Depending not only on the hardware used but also on the algorithms behind the software.94 .

Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Principles of Planning Tools and their usage Planning tools do not run fully automatically but always require some input and an intelligent and creative usage. Remember: © TECHCOM Consulting ® Garbage in ð Garbage out MN 1790 2 .95 .

a fine tuning of the models is necessary (e. clutter data may vary from country to country). These measured values are taken as input for the tool fine tuning.g.96 . • A test transmitter is located at typical site locations.Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning Measurement Tools supporting Cell Planning Fine tuning (calibration) of propagation models: Why? When? How? • Since propagation models does not necessarily describe exactly the real situation. before a detailed plan is performed). a test receiver measures the RX_LEV along predefined measurement routes.e. © TECHCOM Consulting ® • This tool tuning should be done in the start phase of the network planning (i. MN 1790 2 .

97 .Cell Types Cell Types © TECHCOM Consulting ® Omni-Cell Exercise: Sector-Cells Compare the coverage of an omni-cell (antenna gain = 10 dBi) and the coverage of a three sectorcell configuration (antenna gain 18 dBi). MN 1790 2 .

power control parameters.98 . where the surrounding terrain limits the coverage (before the maximum omni cell radius is reached) L Disadvantages of omni sites: • In case of horizontal antenna diversity: Diversity gain depends on direction • Greater reuse distance required • Less flexibility in network optimization (concerning antenna tilt. handover parameters) • TX/RX antenna separation difficult (usually TX/RX antennas are mounted on different vertical levels to achieve sufficient separation) • Limited mounting positions: no wall mounting possible MN 1790 2 .Omni versus Sector Cells Omni versus Sector Cells Omni sites: J Advantages of omni sites: • Trunking gain (especially interesting for those networks having only a few frequencies) • Omni antennas are usually less bulky than sector antennas © TECHCOM Consulting ® • Suitable in those areas.

For a satellite carrying the BS. an (BS) antenna gain of 15 dBi. what would be the maximum radius for the satellite orbit. a BS with the GSM minimum receiver sensitivity. a 900 MHz mobile station of power class 4. an (BS) antenna gain of 15 dBi.99 . © TECHCOM Consulting ® What should be the height of the BS antenna? 2) Consider: a mobile station with 2 Watts output power maximum. MN 1790 2 . 3) How many sites can be saved in principle if TMAs with 6 dB gain are used in the network? Use typical values and Hata’s propagation formula for calculation. a BS receiver sensitivity of –104 dBm.Exercises Exercises 1) Consider: an extended cell with 100 km cell radius covering a sea area (clutter term: 30 dB).