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University of Petroleum And Energy


Research Article

Name: Aman Agarwal
SAP_Id: 500017931
e all would have heard an orchestra. II we ever look closely, it`s a team work. The team
leader in an orchestra is the composer who not only leads the group but also guides them,
encourages them to perIorm their best. He/ she not only observes and points out the mistakes and
Ilaws but also rectiIies them. So, consequently, in other words the composer also plays the role
oI a mentor. However, this all does not happen magically within no time. A composer needs to
identiIy the strengths and weaknesses oI all the musicians and then select according to their
respective calibers. However, since it`s the composer who decides the Iinal objective i.e. the
piece to be played/ perIormed, it is he/she who chooses who will play what and where. The
orchestra has to be synchronized and in harmony, only then shall it sound great and earn
applause. Even a single out oI sync sound would spoil everything. So, the composer not only
checks the Ilaws but has to do so empathetically and encourage the musician but he/ she has to
polite. It is a collective endeavor, thus re-aIIirming the Iact told by a wise man 'None oI us is as
strong as all oI us.
Similarly, an organization too is like an orchestra. It is a relatively large group oI people
working towards a common goal i.e. better perIormance oI the business. However, the
importance oI motivating your musicians as in workers is oI even greater signiIicance over here.
A manager cannot go on loosing (Iiring) people who aren`t perIorming perIectly, he/ she needs
to observe them, identiIy their strengths and assign them tasks oI their caliber and then
encourage them to perIorm upto the mark. Gradually, the manager can keep on raising the
expectations in order to Iurther motivate them but only to a certain level...

Impact of Great Musicians on Building Organizational Motivation
The job oI a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do
this the manager should be able to motivate employees. But that's easier said than done!
Motivation practice and theory are diIIicult subjects, touching on several disciplines.
In spite oI enormous research, basic as well as applied, the subject oI motivation is not clearly
understood and more oIten than not poorly practiced. To understand motivation one must
understand human nature itselI. And there lies the problem!
Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. An understanding and appreciation oI
this is a prerequisite to eIIective employee motivation in the workplace and thereIore eIIective
management and leadership.
These articles on motivation theory and practice concentrate on various theories regarding
human nature in general and motivation in particular. Included are articles on the practical
aspects oI motivation in the workplace and the research that has been undertaken in this Iield,
notably by Douglas McGregor (theory y), Frederick Herzberg (two Iactor motivation hygiene
theory,) Abraham Maslow (theory z, hierarchy oI needs), and David McClelland (achievement
motivation.) etc.
As Tolstoy said 'Don`t give orders; give conIidence, I agree that giving conIidence or
motivating an employee is oI much more importance than giving orders. II an employee is
motivated enough to perIorm then he/ she would by deIault take care oI the tasks thus
minimizing the need to be given orders.
To Iurther my research I looked particularly at impact and comparisons between music,
musicians and modern businesses/ organizations. For the same purpose I chose to study a
company called 'Jazz Impact, based Minneapolis,brings seminars to companies in a variety oI
industries that are designed to inspire and motivate new thinking on business and management.
Jazz Impact's Iounder (and bassist) Michael Gold believes that jazz and business have always
had more in common than one might think, and he is proving that jazz can be used to teach
people to be more Ilexible and innovative in their business practice. A Iormer teacher with a
master's degree and a Ph.D. in music, Gold created and ran the jazz program at Vassar College,
in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and headed the music department at the New Lincoln School in New
York. But Gold has also helped to manage his Iamily's commercial real estate management and
development company, and his resume includes a stint as operations manager oI a Iinancial
services Iirm.
Gold tailors his program according to his clients' unique situations, Iocusing on why
improvisation is critical in business and the skills needed to do it. And he turns the employees in
the audience into participants to give the experience context. In an indirect way, Gold basically
motivates the participants just like his musicians.
As jazz musicians, we make impactIul decisions in the moment without the luxury oI
premeditation, Gold explains. Every decision has a cascading eIIect on everything else that
happens and everyone who participates, including the audience, |who is also| the customer. Yet
we don't look at what we're doing as decision-making but as 'sense-making.'
The distinction, he adds, is the diIIerence between making decisions Irom one's personal
point oI view and acting Irom a global sense oI the organization's ecology - being aware that any
decision you make, Irom the smallest to the most consequential, will immediately aIIect the
complex, ever-changing web oI dynamic relationships that comprise the modern organization.
For both the jazz ensemble and the business enterprise, successIul 'sense-making' means
responding to change with innovation.
Jazz, Gold adds, is innovative response to change, and dozens oI companies, Irom
Starbucks and RazorIish to General Mills and Johnson & Johnson, have embraced that
innovative response aIter experiencing the Jazz Impact program.
Now, another signiIicant similarity is the creativity. e all know that creativity is the
essence oI music. However, a motivation has a proIound eIIect on creativity. II a person is
motivated then he/ she will herselI go ahead, take initiative and do the required task. He/ she may
even do so diIIerently, i.e. by virtue oI creativity possibly in an even better way than beIore. The
similarity I am trying to point out is that in a jazz ensemble, musicians have to be creative in
order to keep the audience who also happen to be their customers interested in the perIormance
similarly employees in organization need to be constantly motivated in order to be more creative.
The employees should be goal directed and work towards the common goal and betterment oI
the organization.
Another similarity is individuality and success and rewarding in order to recognize and
thus motivate an employee. A jazz ensemble shall only be successIul iI each and every musician
perIorms his/ her part to the best. Consequently, individual success will result in whole oI the
ensemble`s success. Similarly, in an organization individual success will give rise to collective
success oI the organization. However, aIter these successes one needs to be rewarded as a sign oI
motivation and recognition. The rewards may be in terms oI beneIits, giIts etc. However, it is
critical as well since perception also comes into play with rewards.
!azz ls an arL form unlque Lo Lhe modern world !azz lsn'L abouL produclng an ob[ecL of arL llke a palnLlng
or a sculpLure !azz ls acLually a soclal process LhaL resulLs ln Lhe consLanL creaLlon of new ldeas and
lnnovaLlve muslcal lnLeracLlon
1he members of Lhe hlgh performance Leam called Lhe [azz ensemble possess and pracLlce a seL of
shared behavlors LhaL we call Lhe llve uynamlcs of !azz 1hese flve dynamlcs capLured ln Lhe acronym
A8lL are
O AuLonomy
O asslon
O 8lsk
O lnnovaLlon
O LlsLenlng
1hrough handson lnLeracLlon and Lhe compelllng performance of a World Class !azz Lnsemble !azz
lmpacL demonsLraLes
1 WhaL skllls are needed for lmprovlsaLlon
2 Pow [azz muslclans mlLlgaLe rlsk
3 Why lmprovlsaLlon ls crlLlcal
4 Pow Lhese prlnclples relaLe Lo Lhe lnLeracLlve dynamlcs of your buslness

1rue auLonomy depends on Lhe equlLy of each parLy concerned Leadershlp ls no longer a sLaLlc poslLlon
buL one LhaL ls dependenL on Lhe ablllLy Lo respond Lo changlng needs and Lo delegaLe Lo oLhers based
on Lhelr areas of experLlse ln Lhe [azz ensemble Lhe consLanL LranslLlon beLween leadlng and supporL
sLrengLhens and expands Lhe capablllLles of boLh Lhe lndlvldual and Lhe Leam
AuLonomy ln [azz ls lncluslve ln naLure Leadlng lmplemenLlng leadershlp and supporLlng Lhe foundaLlon
on whlch leadershlp ls based are funcLlons LhaL Lranscend LradlLlonal [ob descrlpLlons 1rue auLonomy
means Lhe organlzaLlonal ablllLy Lo balance Lhe need for sLrucLure wlLh Lhe need for flexlblllLy Lo
conslsLenLly blend lndlvldual lnLenLlon and behavlor wlLh group lnLenLlon and behavlor 1hls dynamlc
has been aL Lhe core of [azz slnce Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe 20Lh cenLury
!azz ls a culLure ln whlch passlon and moLlvaLlon are generaLed by a sense of auLhenLlclLy When
we belleve whaL we are dolng ls lmporLanL and has a purpose larger Lhan ourselves we develop
passlon LhaL energlzes noL [usL ourselves buL also Lhe people we work wlLh All Loo ofLen
buslnesses aLLempL Lo lnsLlll passlon Lhrough exLernal Lrlggers LhaL Lend Lo quash Lhe splrlL
raLher Lhan klndle lL 1he passlon of emoLlonal commlLmenL comes from wlLhln and ls supporLed
by a bellef ln Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe organlzaLlonal culLure Lo whlch we belong
LmoLlonal commlLmenL ls generaLed Lhrough a susLalnable feedback loop When people feel a deep
passlon for whaL Lhe do everyday lL qulckly generaLes a sense of purpose When people feel a sense of
purpose Lhey feel passlon for whaL Lhey do 1hls ls a susLalnable energy source LhaL lles wlLhln every
member of an organlzaLlon
rogress ls lmposslble wlLhouL a wllllngness Lo Lake chances 8lsk ls noL an opLlon ln [azz or for any
company LhaL wanLs Lo be solvenL Len years from now ln [azz we mlLlgaLe Lhe rlsk of change Lhrough
creaLlve desLrucLlon exLracLlng Lhe core values from successful pasL lnlLlaLlves and uslng Lhem Lo
relnvenL Lhe ldea ln consLanLly changlng conLexLs
ln Lhe [azz ensemble we are consLanLly faced wlLh Lhe rlsk of lnnovaLlon of havlng Lo come up wlLh our
own muslcal ldeas ln real Llme and ln collaboraLlon wlLh each oLher So how do you geL people Lo do
LhaL? ln [azz we are acLually composlng LogeLher ln real Llme We're mlnlmlzlng Lhe sLrucLure We
slmpllfy Lhe score We're Laklng only whaL's essenLlal Lo coordlnaLe us ln Llme and lnLenLlon We're
leLLlng go of all of Lhe oLher rules and proLocols LhaL keep us from respondlng Lo Lhe unexpecLed ln
WPA1LvL8 WA? WL nLLu wlLhouL loslng our coherence and our coordlnaLlon LogeLher
We work wlLhln a zone of lmprovlsaLlonal freedom where LrusL and accounLablllLy are crlLlcal facLors
!azz ls a process ln whlch rlsk ls a resource raLher Lhan a condlLlon LhaL llmlLs our capablllLy
Innovation is not a 'what, but a 'how. It is the result oI Iusing the exploitation oI past
knowledge and experience with an exploration oI that same knowledge in an attempt to open
new possibility. In jazz, innovation implies a creative partnership between the 'leadership oI the
soloist and the 'support oI the rhythm section. The rhythm section provides a Ioundation oI
support Ior the exploration oI the soloist. The discoveries oI the soloist expand and strengthen
that Ioundation in a continual cycle oI innovative growth. It is a process that delivers both
support and saIety and rejects stasis and complacency.

It`s curious that, oI our Iive senses, it`s hearing over which we have the least control. ith touch,
taste, smell and vision when external stimulus becomes overwhelming we are able to completely
disconnect. Not so with our sense oI hearing. hy would we (and so many other creatures) be
designed in such a manner? Could it be because oI the nature oI sound itselI?
Consider vision. OIten what we look at is either Iixed or changing gradually enough that we can
abstract on it, in a sense, have an internal conversation about what we are seeing and how we
need to respond. ith vision we have the luxury oI time and introspection even iI just Ior a Iew
That`s not the case with sound. A sound is a 'rhythmic event that occurs in time and then is
gone. It`s through memory that we determine the nuanced levels oI meaning conveyed by that
sound. Our capacity to listen is one oI the most important aspects oI our continual evolution as a
In ancient cultures, beIore the advent oI writing all communication was oral. Jeremy RiIkin
points out in 'The Empathic Civilization:
'Oral cultures rely on Iormulaic means oI expression in order to assure memory. Mnemonic
speech patterns and the use oI cliches were essential ways oI maintaining the store oI collective
knowledge. Only by repeating standard lines oI thought over and over could society guarantee
predictable social intercourse. But Iormulaic responses are generalized utterances made to Iit
particular circumstances. They very oIten don`t penetrate to the core oI the unique situation at
hand, and thereIore don`t adequately describe what`s going on. ritten language, however,
allows communications between people to break out oI the straight jacket oI Iormulaic
interaction. Every sentence is uniquely composed to communicate the particularity oI the
situation. Communication is individualized.
In strictly oral cultures identity oI the selI was bound to one`s identity as part oI the tribe or the
community. As written language became the primary means oI communication it transIormed
the identity oI the 'individual. The evolution oI communication Irom simple to more complex
technologies strengthens our selI- awareness and deepens our understanding oI the core
connection that exists between all people.
Communication in our emerging global culture is an amalgam oI every medium we have ever
used in our history. ith the advent oI the web we are, in eIIect, again becoming an 'oral
culture; a global community in which all stories and ideas (and media) are shared in real time.
But RiIkin`s observation on the Iailure oI Iormulaic content to convey meaning becomes
troubling when we consider what organizational development scholar Nancy Adler calls the
'dehydrated language used in so many oI our organizations today. More troubling is the
intentional manipulation oI language Ior neIarious purposes by politicians and power brokers
who have attained positions oI leadership.
Listening to our world is an act oI engagement. Recent experiments in the Iield oI quantum
physics have demonstrated that the act oI observation is an intervention that determines the
speciIic path an event will take. By listening we engage with the world in a way that changes
both ourselves and the world we interact with. II improvisation means the capacity to engage
action that is unIolding around us in a directed manner, drawing on whatever people, ideas, and
resources are available, then listening is the primary skill oI improvisation.
In jazz, the way we listen has an immediate eIIect on the unIolding oI what is happening in the
ensemble. e are improvising together and our listening and actions are inseparable. The most
important skill we can practice in jazz is empathic listening.
Empathic listening is a term that comes not Irom the Iield oI music but Irom the Iield oI conIlict
resolution. Empathic listening in conIlict negotiation acknowledges the validity and authenticity
oI 'other. It brings trust to the ambiguous and uncertain nature oI the relationship. To listen
empathically is to suspend your own assumptions and prejudices about the situation in order to
allow the emergence and sharing oI diverse ideas. In jazz (and in organizations) empathic
listening is an essential precursor to any process oI innovation.
Like any skill, empathic listening is strengthened through constant practice. How do we practice
this kind oI listening? In conIlict resolution empathic listening is developed by being mindIul oI
one`s attentiveness to what is being said and taking care not to interrupt when the other is
expressing their ideas; a willingness to let the other parties lead the discussion; the use oI open-
ended questions and the ability to reIlect back to the other party the substance and Ieelings being
Our spoken language is a powerIul tool Ior improvisation. e use it to articulate shared belieIs,
new ideas and the negotiation oI boundaries that exist between individuals and
institutions. Spoken language conveys rational logical thinking. But in its nuance oI tone and
rhythm, language also has the beauty oI music. Language oIten conveys its deepest meaning
through its visceral qualities oI tone, pace, volume. But, like music, it is ephemeral- it, too,
happens in time.
The skill oI listening begins by understanding that every verbal interaction no matter how
signiIicant or insigniIicant is an improvisation the outcome oI which is dependent upon our

Motivation is an extremely signiIicant aspect in any organization. Motivation has a direct
impact not only on an employee`s perIormance but also on the organizations success as well. An
organization with a well motivated employee Iorce shall be able to better itselI and maintain its
position in the market. Music has always impacted people and has been a source oI motivation to
many. As Michael Gold, a motivational speaker puts it there isn`t much diIIerence between a
jazz ensemble and an organization, I have realized that music as well as musicians have a great
impact not only on organizational motivation but also on cultivating ability to adapt to changes,
team dynamics, individuality, creativity etc.