. Introduction Mass storage is the cabinet in which electronic information is kept.
The more generous the storage area, the richer, more detailed and more comprehensive is the database. Mass storage is usually defined as a means of preserving computer generated information for subsequent use or retrieval. Information is said to have been written in a chosen medium if its physical or chemical state is altered under the influence of the signal (or writing beam) energy. The altered state in a storage medium is brought about by making proper use of one or more of its characteristic properties (thermal, chemical, electrical, magnetic, elastic, optical, etc.). Reading of the stored information is accomplished by sensing the altered state using an appropriate technique, and erasing of information is achieved using such means as electrical, magnetic or optical , either alone or in some suitable combination (Tapscott, 1993). The ability to store and process information in new ways has been essential to humankind's progress. From the early Egyptian papyrus through the Gutenberg press, the Dewey decimal system and eventually, holographic technology, information storage has been the catalyst for increasingly complex technological, scientific and societal systems. Modern science is inextricably bound to information processing with which it exists in a form of symbiosis. Scientific advances have enabled the storage, retrieval and processing of ever more information, which in turn, helped generate the insights needed for further advances. Recent years have witnessed a significant increase in electronic management of information. In particular many types of information that traditionally were considered to be analog, such as images and sound, are now processed and utilized in digital form. This advancement comes with
tremendous opportunities and challenges for information systems to better meet information users needs to manipulate multimedia information in a natural and effective manner. Many industries, among which multimedia, are eagerly looking for new alternatives to their current storage systems, as their databases, and storage requirements are growing larger and larger. 2. Evolution Of Computer Storage Even before the first commercial electronic computers appeared in 1951 (with the UNIVAC), mass storage, although minuscule by today's standards. was a necessity. As early as the mid-1800'', punch cards were used to provide input to early calculators and other machines. The 1940's ushered in the decade when vacuum tubes were used for storage until finally, tapes drives (serial access) started to replace punch cards in the early 1950's. A couple of years later, magnetic drums appeared on the scene, and in 1957, the first hard drive was introduced as a component of IBM's Ramac 350 (Tapscott, 1993 ). The first hard drives (random access) were bulky and expensive and were confined to mainframes and minicomputer installations. The personal computer revolution in the early 1980's changed all that , ushering in the introduction of smaller hard drives, and also floppy disks and magnetic tapes used in some computer applications and cartridges used in some video games systems. With the development of personal computing and the emergence of multimedia, larger information storage was needed. The CD-ROM was introduced gaining vast popularity for its capacity (up to 650 MB), durability, efficiency and compact size (Lorentz, 1996 ). 3. The Multimedia Revolution It may be objected that buzzwords like Multimedia or New Media are not much more than hype currently. But it
and which are only now beginning to enter the mainstream. which will have a dramatic impact on the work of all communication professionals in the 1990's.doesn't take much to realize that these concepts represent a host of human computer interactions that the most innovative thinkers have been developing for years. This technique has brought a paradigm shift in the electronics industry. and text are recorded in digital form. This is accomplished through what we call "digitization" (Ross. as it made possible the compatibility of different sorts of information. media. Each second of full motion. photographic film.8 gigabyte per minute (good compression techniques may bring it down to 12 Mbytes per minute of
. These concepts are being embodied in the best new computer applications. At the core of this multimedia revolution is the accelerating shift from material information media-including paper. full screen digitized video. However. audio cassettes and videotape. the binary digits 0 and 1. communications. This translates into about 30 megabytes of information per second. and are then sent via digital communication carriers. or 1. The prospect of brewing this exotic multimedia mix for mass consumption is fueling public excitement as well as dozens of new business ventures that are bringing together computer. video. and the infinite possibilities for combining these. multimedia programs eat up a large amount of storage space: About 10 to 1000 times the storage capacity required by other conventional documents. each frame requiring one megabyte of computer storage.to computer based simulations of those media. Audio. requires 30 frames of video information. 1994). and entertainment in search of new media and digital convergence. for example. 1994). which recognize such messages as bits of information rather than distinct audio and visual forms (Shandle. which consists of the transformation of all kinds of information into a uniform system based on two terms.
video). 1994). size and manufacturer. The data transfer rate depends largely on the aerial density. Currently this storage is provided by two basic types of storage: Magnetic disk storage and optical disk storage. transfer rate. Hard Disk Drives: Hard disk drives are the most common type of mass storagedevice thanks to their low cost.600 to 7. access time. and 2. Magnetic Disk Storage: The most widely used secondary storage device today is the magnetic disk. Typical access times fall between 10 and 20 ms. which is the major component of the time it takes to randomly access a unit of data. Hard disk storage systems specialized for multimedia applications are
. depending on the capacity. Hard disks store and retrieve digital data by writing information as a series of magnetic fluctuations on a rigid disk coated with a magnetically coercive material. the number of bits contained per inch of media. While a read-write head flies less than 100 nm above the magnetic layer of the disk. Information is stored on the disk in concentric rings or tracks. high speed and relatively high storage capacity. 1996). and reads data by sensing subtle changes in the magnetic field on the disk . The head writes data on the disk by varying a magnetic field that it produces. The performance of a hard drive is measured by two primary criteria: 1. A magnetic disk rotates at 3. Typical data transfer rates are 4 to 16 MB/s (Arnold.200 rpm (Lorentz. Access time depends on the head actuator seek speed and disk rotational speed. and the limits that it places on the electronic information products (Arnold. In fact. and the rotational speed of the disk. This includes both hard disks and removable floppy disks. which is the number of bytes per second that can be read from or written to a disk drive. Disk drive prices range from 25 cents to $ 1 per megabyte. 1993). multimedia and the consequent flood of data information has risen some concerns about computer storage.
000 pages of text or about 680 MB of data. 1996).which have sequential or serial access memories. and they offer high capacities.ROMs and magneto-optical disks. Advantages: Magnetic disk offer direct access to the data (Random access memory). Disks also allow for interrelationships among data to be built into the storage file.(Lorentz. This speed allows for the development of on line information systems. 1996). This makes them must faster than tape drives. for example. the 5. very large (several gigabytes) and less expensive devices are now available (Lorentz.5 inch disks.25 was introduced by Shugart Associates in 1976 and quickly dominated the removable media for the personal computer . The most commonly known optical disk storage devices are CD. 1993).25 and the 3. With the advances in technology in recent years. sound and full motion video. Floppy Disks: Floppy disks come in two main formats.available. It allows for a single update to change many files at one time. typically in excess of 1 GB (Lesser.These pits are used to store large quantities of data including pictures. Disadvantages: Disks are susceptible to the environment. nearly 300
.88 MB of data. A smoke particle or human hair can cause severe damage to the read/write head. They require a pure and stable environment. Optical Disk Storage: A laser is used to burn microscopic pits in the disk service. until 1981 when Sony introduced 3. CD-ROM: CD-ROMs are read-only disks that can hold about 300. The 5.5 inch format disk which are today the most common removable storage media for personal computers and can hold up to 2. The data is retrieved by a low power laser beam.
Magnetic fields store the information. particularly with the advent of multimedia.times that of a high density floppy disk. MOs also provide quick access to off-line files and are an advantage to multimedia users who may need to transport files from one system to another or use large files (Meilach. It also allows the data to be easily transported to other locations also offer high quality storage of sound and video. This technology is still in development so equipment purchased today may not be compatible with devices in the future. Optical disks are now available in Read Only Memory (ROM) which are recorded prior to purchase.8 Gb Ɠ times more than CD-ROMs can normally handle). The data can only be retrieved but not edited or added to. Standards are just now being defined for these devices to eliminate some of these problems. Disadvantages8 The read only feature of CD-ROM may not be suitable for many applications. can be removed.5 or 5. Although optical disk is a rapidly developing technology. 1994) Advantages: Optical disk has the ability to store large quantities of data in a small space. as one minute of digitized video necessitates storage capacity of about 1. but they are more costly than hard drives or disk array systems.
. It is also available in Write Once Read Many (WORM) which allows the used to record data to be read many times in the future. MOs offer high capacity and reliability. Magneto-optical systems combine two technologies: magnetic and optical. even though that price is rapidly dropping. Magneto-Optical Storage: A magneto-optical system resembles a 3. the capacity of a CD-ROM is relatively small. 1991). but the disks are thicker and referred to as "cartridges" which unlike fixed hard drive. and may replace the magnetic disk just as the magnetic disk replaced magnetic tape. and are read by a polarized laser that detects magnetism (Arnold. The cost of rewritable disk may be prohibitive.25 inch floppy drive.
What Is Holography? After many years of research and development. size. So if " gram" designates the unity and " holos". it is anticipated that the resulting storage system would be both original and competitive in performance. However an increasing demand for significantly more storage capacity coupled with the development of a wide variety of applications have taxed the ability of these storage systems. the total. Some of the questions about holography which come to mind immediately might serve as a good starting point . requires the unique integration of many different technologies as opposed to one dominant technology (Pappu.Magnetic and optical systems have long dominated the storage market. like in the word "kilogram". "gramma" means letter and writing. the word " hologram" means the unity of the whole as well as the wholeness of the unity. is a holographic storage system. This system in contrast to conventional magnetic and optical recording. however. complete" . holographic storage (also known as volume-holographicstorage) is finally on the verge of becoming a reality. By combining these technologies. One solution as identified by researchers and industry leaders. 4. also known as the father of holography) in 1947. " Holos" stands in Greek for " total. And as the requirements on these systems continue to grow. In ancient Greece. It has the same roots of " graphein" ( to write). and cost. the limits of current technology will eventually be reached. which does not mean writing with weight but the unity formed by one thousand grams. the letter was also used as a number or system for the measurement of distinguishable unities. 1990).
. They are: what is a hologram? and how does holography work? The terms holograms and holography were coined by Dennis Gabor (a Hungarian-born physicist and Nobel prize winner.
holograms are optical
. the image itself is still whole. the technique was labeled "a solution in search of a problem" by the press. 1986). bottom or top of the hologram (Jeong. First of all. three-dimensional pictures. Dennis Gabor. 1975). lifelike. They were eerie. As opposed to photography. What it actually does is just to perform the function of a lens. but he invented holography almost fifteen years ahead of the appearance of the first laser which two engineers from the University of Michigan. its inventor. namely Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks discovered in the early sixties. Namely. a method for improving the quality of images recorded on an electronic microscope. every piece was capable of reconstructing the whole scene. holography did not come as a consequence of centuries of perfectibility. whether the piece came from the middle. needed in 1947 what was to be later called a laser to make three-dimensional holograms .While photography as we know it today was invented by Nitpce as a culmination of centuries of research in that direction. as many other inventions in the twentieth century. or the negative. When the first three-dimensional holograms were made. These two developed a new device which produced a three dimensional image of an object (Heckman. holography. Although and image from the tiniest fragments can fade and lose detail. A hologram does not bear an image at all. One of the most startling characteristics of the holograms was that if you smashed the holographic plate. they produced the diffuse-light hologram. let us expose some of the other basic differences between holography and photography. and only diffracts light in a particular way. In this sense. Building on the discoveries of the "father of holography". as opposed to the photograph. was the by-product of a search for something else. we need to understand that. For the purpose of examining some characteristics of holography by contrast. the hologram is not a picture and holography is not primarily a picture-making technique.
Laser light differs drastically from all other light sources. 1995). and they are not extensions of photographs but a new way of recording. Gabor's theory was originally intended to increase the resolving power of electron microscopes (Jeong. storing and retrieving optical information (information carried by light waves). but beyond that . Any object to be recorded can be thought of as the sum of billions of points on the object which are reflecting more or less light. Your emulsion will react to the light image focused by the lens and the chemical change of the silver halide molecules will result form the photon bombardment. in one basic way which leads to several startling characteristics. as holography uses a vastly different light source: Laser light . In holography. The lens of the camera focuses each object point to a corresponding point on the film and there it exposes a proportional amount of silver halide. Thus. there are many different wavelengths of light reflecting form the object and even the light of the same wavelength is out of phase (Outwater. There is a point to point correspondence between the object and the emulsion. The light is incoherent. not pictures. The Nobel Prize physicist proved his theory not with an electron beam but with a light (non-coherent) light beam. Ideally this means that the light being emitted by the laser is of the same wavelength and is in phase. man-made or natural. Laser light can be coherent light.elements. the comparison ceases. 1975). light waves and silver halide emulsion are used. A photograph is basically the recording of the differing intensities of the light reflected by the object and imaged by a lens. They perform optical functions rather than bear an image. therefore. your record is of the intensity differences on the object which from a pattern that one may ultimately recognize as the object photographed. The result
each sent along a separate path by mirrors. Any propagating wavefront phenomenon such as microwaves or acoustic waves is a candidate for application of the principles of holography (Outwater. The
. This is one of the reasons his discovery wasn't fully appreciated until the 1960's when the first laser was produced. Some form of recording medium. If we were to simply illuminate our object with laser light and take a photograph. a photo refractive polymer or crystal. To record a hologram. The reference source will allow us to record the phase difference of the light wave and thus capture the information which supplies the vital dimensions and depth of the object . and in many peoples' opinion now seems to likely become extremely helpful in many human endeavors. The second beam. In other words. we would still only be recording the different light intensities of the object. illuminates the object/scene being recorded. is directed at an angle to cross paths and interfere with the light reflected off the object from the object beam. Since then. The early holograms were legible but were plagued with many imperfections because Gabor didn't have the correct light source to make crisp. holography is the technology of recording wave-front (light wave) information and producing reconstructed wavefronts from those recordings. a video camera is positioned at the point of interference. clear holograms as we can today. and will open a broad new horizon for the future (Glantz. the reference beam. holography has become one of the newest and most intriguing of the many techniques with which technology has been concerned. the object beam. The simplest description of holography is three dimensional recording with lasers. since holograms could be realized only using coherent light. such as film. One beam. we would not have captured any information about the phase of the light waves after bouncing off the object. That is when the reference beam comes into the scene. 1995). a laser beam is split into two beams. 1994). The record of the wave-front information is called a hologram.was the first hologram ever made.
so the light falls on the medium from all
. and. each with the subject in a slightly different position (Halas. containing a mixture of wave lengths (different-size pebbles). Only the intensity of light is recorded. each sending out concentric waves. to create a precise interference pattern. the subject is placed on a turntable that rotates as the subject goes thorough its motions. we can see holograms. Where the waves overlap. To create holograms that appear to move.interference pattern is then recorded. Yet this unique method of capturing information with lasers . 1993). typically film. narrow bands of hologram are presented to the viewer. recreating the scene or object (Stix. This dark light fringe pattern of interference characteristic of the object is recorded. the interference pattern is played back. others cancel each other out destructively. in the case of film. not the direction it came from. magazine covers. When recording a hologram. As mentioned before.the science of holography. art galleries. the perspective from the lens. Some of the waves build on each other constructively. Images are captured as the table turns. think of pebbles of equal size dropped into a still pond. like those used in advertising. In traditional photography. by illuminating it with a laser beam. on the finished product. Today. there is interference. such as laser. With white light. no focusing lens is between the recording medium and the laser light reflected off the subject. or 3D images. When it is developed. As a result a photograph presents only one perspective of the scene. on credit cards. 1984). light reflecting from the subject is focused by a lens onto a recording medium.has many more applications in the industrial world and is on the verge of revolutionizing data storage technology as we know it. illumination must be accomplished with light of just one wavelength. there is no precise fringe pattern created when the beams interfere. To give an illustration.
with the pages stacked one on top of the other within a photosensitive crystal. Storing data throughout the whole volume of the recording medium instead of only on the surface is one of the main characteristics and advantages of holographic data storage technology.angles. The image is correct from all perspectives. Binary data is written as dark or light "dots" in two dimensional pages. 5. The electronic charge patterns created by the interference of two laser beams is used to create the holograms. Crystals of a chemical compound called Strontium-barium-niobate are used most often as the recording media because they combine high sensitivity with high speed. light from a laser source passes through a beam splitter that divides the beam into a data beam and an interference beam. In the most basic systems. Digital data is superimposed on the expanded
. The added dimension of the direction of the light is recorded. which is implemented as a spatial-lightmodulator. The reference beam will eventually be used to create the interference pattern. It is this combination of sensitivity. just like real life. data is recorded in photo refractive crystals as 3D holograms. the stacking of pages creates the third dimension . including data storage. high fidelity. It is directed into a path that includes a polarization rotor and a page-addressing deflection system (Li. it is probably necessary to explain exactly what is meant by 3D in data storage terms. as well as the intensity (Hariharan. Holography In Data Storage In this new technology. on the other hand. passes into an optical system that expands into the surface of what is called a "page composer". Because all holograms provide the perception of 3D images. The data beam. 1994). 1984). and unique optical properties that is exploited in the many current and up-and-coming applications of this recording technique.
The images appear as dark or light spots depending on the value of the digital data. IBM. the data beam is converted using Fourier-transform optics. as for use in digital high Definition TV. with up to 50 pages in one 3D volume. He added that the medium is able to store a gigabyte of data about double the capacity of a CD-ROM disk. allowing only the reference beam to focus on the crystal. In the read cycle. high densities are possible because of data being stored as a three-dimensional hologram. Bellcore. At this point the data beam and reference beam come together again. according to Barr. and that data access with holographic devices is ten times as fast as hard disks. Barr goes on to explain how with this revolutionary medium. The reference beam's location is determined by the particular pages to read. From there. Because of its vast storage
.1993). and how data is stacked in two dimensional pages. The beam illuminates the interference grating or patterns stored at this location. Multiple holograms are stored in a single crystal by altering the angle at which the beams enter the crystal (Ajluni. This in turn. instead. and Tamarack). is thought by many in the industry as being ideal for computer storage application. modifies the optical properties of the crystallite material with an electronic charge pattern. and hundreds of times as fast as CD-ROMs. and audio. Some companies (Sony. in a article in PC Magazine spoke on holography as the technique that one day may compete with CD-ROM as a storage medium for masses of communication. are working on a even higher density storage medium that will store the pages in crystallite material.beam using the spatial-light modulator. resulting in the reconstruction of original lightand-dark. it is focused on the crystallite structure that will hold the hologram.spots pattern. video. From the page composer. the data beam is turned off. (Barr. with the resulting interference pattern on photo refractive material. 1994). The pattern is read by a chargecoupled device that converts the dark and light spots back to digital electronic data (Shandle 1993). The holographic technology described above.
Jamberdino (Lesser. as with magnetic and other optical storage techniques. According to Stockton of Tamarack (in Deagon. some 100 times faster that with current magnetic or laser-disk optical storage . Bjorklund ( in Ajluni . Barr sees holography as the ideal technique for multimedia files that contain video. According to Jamberdino. manager of the optoelectronic materials department at IBM Almaden Research Center. such as tape and disk. Multiple holograms can be recorded in exactly the same spot by changing the angle of the laser beams doing the recording (Wullert. parallelism. 1994) " The three dimensional aspect of this technology allows storage densities that are at least 10 times greater than existing magnetic or optical recording or optical recording technologies " . up to one million bits per millisecond. California. holographic technology provide three key elements that other electronic techniques don't: Huge capacity. Unlike traditional storage technologies that capture data only at the media surface. information that is digitized into the computer language of 1s and 0s can be layer deep inside a hologram. because holographic images have depth of field. speed. sound and text.1994 ). In other words.capability and fast access times and data transfer rates. and bandwidth :
. rather than bit by bit. In addition. holographic media store data throughout their volume. 1994). data are stored and accessed in large blocks. in San Jose. pointed that the compelling reason to go to holographic storage is the rate at which information can be read in and out.1994 ) in an article in Defense Electronics spoke of holographic storage as being the best type of data storage technology that can meet the requirements of today's growing databases.
. now we are starting to see potential for large volume applications in graphic arts. it is a technology whose capacity dwarfs even that of optical disks. d.. Bandwidth is the amount of information that can be contained in Individual channels Tazellar ( 1990 ). b. as for example a thousand by a thousand streams of information and take it out at that same rate (you have the same input and output rates). while giving you faster access to your data. in his article "Magnetic Vs Optical " mentioned holography as being one of the wildest ideas in mass storage technology : "Holography. 1994 ) . you get one bit stream at a time. Trout (in Deagon..Holographic data storage is no hocus pocus. who is the development manager for the optical venture of Dupont Imaging Systems said about the new technology: " While holograms used to be more of a curiosity. In other electronic technologies. military and aerospace electronics." Another technology expert. or throughput is the amount of time that it takes to get to the information once stored. Many experts in the industry believe that recent breakthroughs in holographic storage technology (like the discovery of new and better types of crystals and the vertiginous advances in laser technology) will have a profound impact in the personal computer industry.. Parallelism is the ability to put information in any form. and information storage. Speed. c. Huge capacity: Holographic technology allows the storage of enormous amounts of information in a small area.
." These are just some of the many testimonies of individuals that foresee the huge potential of this new technology. including the multimedia&345based applications.is storing data in crystals with light.a.. automotive..
consistent with demands for greater-capacity removable storage media as personal computing and consumer electronics merge in the trend toward multimedia.m. in my opinion. As with many sectors of the electronics industry. the mass storage industry has become one of the most challenging of high technology marketing arenas.mechanical systems or M. Each new development creates another competitive thrust among manufacturers to develop products that are smaller. the immediate total available markets for memory products exceed $ 100 Billion worldwide. of which the hard disk segment was $ 47 billion. the magnetic tape segment $ 42 billion. in fact. to fulfill its promise of being the storage technology of the future? Various analytic techniques for such forecasting have been developed. Sage and Cook to evaluate microelectro.are evolving continuously. and the optical disk segment $ 6 billion The growth rates are estimated to be greater than 40 % per year. Industry leaders distinguish themselves by consistently delivering high-quality products that meet the needs of manufacturers and end users.e. faster. This methodology was applied by Benson. as emerging
.s. . portable and easily-filed storage media. Holographic Data Storage In The Marketplace According to business experts. The most useful for our purpose. moving targets to any new comer. and smarter at a reduced cost.Holographic technology truly offers low cost.( Henue. 6. 1994 $ Since its launch over 40 years ago. The question that poses it self considering the current milieu of memory technologies and the fierce competitive environment is -what it would take for holographic data storage. and current entrenched technologies are. is the triple-gateway methodology. physically small. the mass storage business and its technologies and products.
The management gateway includes technology management. The management gateway can best be approached
. an emerging technology must have a market. Passing through the technology gateway requires research ability. It is based on the proposition that a technology. 1993 ) This methodology was chosen primarily because it incorporates both systems-engineering and systemsmanagement concepts. finance. b. enterprise management. New uses: There will always be uncertainty where a new use or function is being offered. Yet the consumer may not be particularly impressed with the performance improvement. Many technologies are developed with the notion that they will substitute for existing technologies by providing higher performance at modest or at least acceptable increase in price.technologies in their very early stages of development ( Benson. innovation. technical feasibility. to reach a mature stage in which it yields useful products or services. The market gateway. user skepticism about improved performance. and competitive technologies: a. even if there are only relatively minor changes in the technology. and the systems-management gateway. must pass through three gateways: the market gateway . c.. and standards. User skepticism: about improved performance characteristics. and a means of development and delivery. adding enormous uncertainty to markets. the technology gateway. if its to achieve useful deployment.. technical merit. In the market gateway analysis we look at the following elements of market uncertainty: new uses. and a technical champion. Competitive technologies : competitive technologies are often highly dynamic. sometimes referred to as the "demand pull" gateway. includes societal and consumer needs and receptiveness and general economic conditions. In other words.
a small hig-technologyoriented firm. with the number of technologies involved in an innovation. Innovativeness of technology: The more innovative a technology the more uncertainty it presents. An individual entrepreneur. the majority of desktop computing users did not need very high storage capacity. Number of constituent technologies: Uncertainty may well increase geometrically rather than arithmetically. during the 1993 . A large corporation with multiple products and multiple markets. Manufacturing difficulties: Manufacturing problems can frustrate new technologies.through analysis of the characteristics of the organization developing the new emerging technology. In the technology gateway analysis we look at three elements of technology uncertainty: a. In the past. c. Conglomerates with multiple organizations and involved in multiple sectors. the advent of image computing and processing of multimedia documents with still images has quickly raised the floor of the minimum useful desktop storage capacity closer to 1 GB. and legal talents available to back up the technology. c. The Market Gateway: The data storage market includes drives and media for secondary and tertiary storage applications.95 period. In the systems-management gateway analysis we look at the key area of structure of the firm-in particular. However. the flexibility to exploit new opportunities and the financing. marketing skills. as technological innovation is usually carried out through one of four organizational modes 8 a. b. These different modes can have dramatically different implications for the risk taking associated with a new technology. b. Holographic storage products are well
it is possible that a Tamarack-led consortium might support continued development. However.
. Deterrents have also included the high initial cost of holographic components and the existence of other competitive products for backup applications. low cost per megabyte and fast access and data transfer rates. US firms. new firms will gain a foothold in the industry (Henue. seeing a huge potential market for storage products. This small Texas company with less that 10 staff members. and lack of consumer awareness. factors. they fail to see the market potential of the new technology. 1996). small firms can encounter difficulties bringing new technologies to market at any of several points in the commercialization process. which face significant financial constraint in these stages of commercialization. have concentrated on marketing the well-established magnetic storage products . Tamarack storage Devices of Austin. Texas. driven by short-term product strategies. entrenched firms lack. contribution from wealthy individuals. have impeded introduction of holographic storage products (Lorentz. they have no incentive to abandon their existing product line and markets 3. 2.suited to fill the mass storage requirements of a multimedia storage hierarchy with high density. In this way. Initial manufacturing costs can be prohibitive for small firms. Often the most difficult stage is that of converting a prototype into a salable product. If Tamarack's researchers could develop a concept for a device that could compete with CD-ROMs and Magneto-Optical drives directly. However.technical capability. such as the lack of a suitable storage material. 1996). is an example. has attempted to play a leadership role in promoting Holographic storage technology. Entrenched firms normally lack 1. Furthermore. The Management Gateway: Holographic storage. as a radical innovation will demand competencies that incumbent . Venture capital. and government funding can meet such costs.
in contrast to conventional magnetic and optical recording. and cost. And as the requirements on these systems continue to grow. it is anticipated that the resulting storage system would be both original and competitive in performance. Both the signal beam and a reference beam of light are then directed at the same spot on the recording medium. 1994 ). the limits of current technology will eventually be reached (Gibbs. Holographic storage uses a combination of technologies: Holographic storage systems. The SLM is illuminated by a laser beam.The Technological Gateway: Magnetic and optical systems have long dominated the storage market. requires the unique integration of many different technologies as opposed to one dominant technology. The intersection of the beams produces an interference
. In contrast. However an increasing demand for significantly more storage capacity coupled with the development of a wide variety of applications have taxed the ability of these storage systems. Researchers believe that such a system could even potentially have access times and data rates of 100 to 1000 times faster than today's magnetic hard disks . resulting in a transmitted light or signal beam. Difference between holographic storage and conventional storage techniques: Information recorded using conventional technologies occupies a discrete location in or on the recording layer. a bit recorded by holographic means is stored in the form of an interference pattern that spans the entire area or volume of the hologram. size. The storage process starts by forming a two dimensional page of digital information on a spatial light modulator (SLM). By combining these technologies.
because beam deflection. To retrieve the stored information . the recorded hologram is illuminated with a replica of the reference beam. That beam is then used to form an image of the original SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) data pattern on an array of photodetectors. parallelism. Holographic storage systems can have data rates approaching 1. Due to the page-oriented nature of holographic storage. then a total of 500 holograms
.0 mm thick. the holographic structure of one page is intermixed with the holographic structure of other pages. Rather. is used to access the stored holograms. multiple.pattern that's recorded as a hologram.9 nm on a recording medium approximately 1. . This effectively creates a replica of the original signal beam. only the signal to noise ratio is affected. Some of the key features of holographic storage are: redundancy. subject only to the limitations imposed by I / O (input/output) devices. uses the information capacity of an optical wave-front so that data can be recorded and retrieved in parallel. In this process. Numerous holograms may be recorded in the same spot either changing the angle with respect to the recording medium of the sample or the laser beams for each individual hologram. one page at a time. independent pages of data can be recorded at the same spot on a relatively thick recording layer. the information content of the page is intermingled.Parallelism: In conventional storage. data is recorded and retrieved serially. as opposed to moving parts. 1994) . on the other hand. 1990). Holographic storage. In effect. . Thus any defect occurring in the recording medium would not destroy the data bits (Pappu. the potential exists for extremely high data rates. In addition. Hence. and multiplexing. access times in the 10-ms range could be achieved (Ajluni.Redundancy: Because a single page of bits may be stored at one time.Multiplexing: Holographic storage also lends itself well to multiplexing. if multiple holograms were stored in increments of 0.0 Gbytes / sec.
Holographic technology is looking toward a wide range of commercial markets. multiple pages of data may be retrieved with minimum cross-talk (Pappu. Thick recording layers also help minimize the number of defects tolerated. although it could be up to 5 years before completed holographic storage system is ready to ship. 1990). several issues have impeded the successful implementation of holographic storage. which can be used directly. portable computers. high-definition television. Nevertheless. In fact. or as pumping sources to provide blue-green light. Consequently. 1994). have been developed. It also promises to provide a long wished-for mass storage device for data processing that is devoid of any mechanical motion (Gibbs. and consumer video. holographic techniques may provide a long sought ideal: a mass memory with archival permanence and yet electronic accessibility. including. liquid crystal SLMs have supplanted photographic masks and film transports. video-ondemand. For instance. holographic technology is able to gain more attention as the potential storage technology of the future. with these devices. and which integrates in a single unit. Also efficient laser diodes. Optimum performance necessitates that many of these components be pushed beyond their current performance capabilities. multimedia computing. Current holographic storage systems require the use of high-performance grade components. 1990). Despite all the advances made over the past few years. Most important has
. great progress has been made in many of the key system components. permanent recording with high speed electronic random accessibility.could be stored in one location. Recent development in the area of integrated CCD (Charged-Coupled Device) arrays have replaced discretely mounted photodiodes (Pappu.
It is hoped that such a system will one day surpass today's technologies in terms of cost and performance. be available at highly competitive.been the lack of a suitable recording material. Yet.
. 1996). by most estimate. mass production prices. but integrate it into a workable holographic storage system (Henue. Holographic components. By some estimates. will then. with the recently renewed interest in holographic technology researchers are more hopeful that not only will they identify a material system. real industry impacts from this technology could be as close as five years away.