Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of the French Second Republic and

as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I, christened as Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September 1870. He holds the unusual distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France. Contrary to the Party's expectations that Louis-Napoleon would be easy to manipulate (Adolphe Thiers had called him a "cretin whom we will lead [by the nose]"), he proved himself an agile and cunning politician. He succeeded in imposing his choices and decisions on the Assemblée, which had once again become conservative in the aftermath of the June Days Uprising in 1848. He broke away from the control of the Parti de l'Ordre and created the Ministère des Commis, appointing General Hautpoul as its head, in 1849. On 3 January 1850, he dismissed Changarnier, a dissident in the Parti de l'Ordre, thereby provoking an open conflict within the party. He also actively encouraged the creation of numerous anti-parliament newspapers and acquired the support of 150 members of Parliament, the "Parti de l'Elysée". The provisions of the constitutions that prohibited an incumbent president from seeking re-election appeared to force the end of Louis-Napoleon's rule in December 1852. Not one to admit defeat, Louis-Napoleon spent the first half of 1851 trying to force changes to the constitution through Parliament so he could be re-elected. Bonaparte travelled through the provinces and organised petitions to rally popular support. Two-thirds of General Council supported Louis-Napoleon's cause, but in the Assembly, supporters of the Duke of Orléans, led by Thiers, concluded an alliance with the far left to oppose Louis-Napoleon's plans. In January 1851, the Parliament voted no confidence in the Ministère des Commis. On 19 July, it refused the constitutional reform proposed by Louis-Napoleon, also scrapping universal suffrage in an effort to break popular support for Bonaparte. The coup d'état was meticulously planned from 20 August 1851. Preparations and planning for this coup took place at Saint Cloud. Among the conspirators were Persigny, a loyal companion of Louis-Napoleon, the Duke of Morny, and General Saint-Arnaud. On 14 October, Louis-Napoleon asked the Parliament to restore universal suffrage but the request was turned down. His request for a reconsideration of the constitutional reform proposal was also turned down on 13 November. Prepared to strike, Louis-Napoleon appointed General Saint-Arnaud as the Minister of War and a circular was issued reminding soldiers of their pledge of "passive obedience". Followers of the President were appointed to various important positions: General Magnan as the Commander of the Troops of Paris, and Maupas, Prefect of Haut-Garonne as Prefect of Police of Paris. Convinced that the coup was now inevitable after the latest refusal, Louis-Napoleon fixed the anniversary of the coronation of Napoleon in 1804, and the victory of Austerlitz in 1805, as the day for the coup. The operation was christened Rubicon, alluding to Julius Caesar.

I shall sing of you. On 20 and 21 December. President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. and do not at the cost of shameful or unjust deeds Attempt to draw to yourself honors of merits or wealth. heard from noble men when I was still a child. The Constitution of France underwent a modification. you I shall never Forget. Generals Vaillant and Harispe became Marshal of France on 11 December.famous throughout all peoples. hear me and grant good things. son of Leto. first and last and in the middle. from the symbolic and historic date of 2 December 1852. Of all things it is poverty that most subdues a noble man. And this is what everyone will say: 'These are the lines of Theognis. “ Kyrnos. I shall sing of you. A referendum was organised to ratify the new order and the coup was portrayed as a security operation. the French voted for the acceptance of the new regime by an overwhelming majority of 7. But always. child of Zeus. And you. elected for a period of 10 years. To you with kindly intent I offer such advice as I myself.000. Indeed. In less than a year. child of Zeus. the Second Republic transformed into the Second Empire. A new constitution was being drafted. as I work my craft let a seal be set upon These words of mine. He was also vested with the power of legislative initiative. son of Leto. either beginning or coming to an end. to avoid it one should even throw oneself into the sea's . and they will never be stolen unremarked. Be intelligent. whether he rains or holds it back. The man from Megara' -.145. you I shall never Forget. Emperor of the French. This is nothing to wonder at. Louis-Napoléon now had the power to draft a new constitution. or fever. established by a referendum on 7 November 1852. for not even Zeus Pleases everyone.000 to 600. thereby reducing the scope of the Parliament. elected by the French people. officially became Napoleon III. But always. But all my fellow citizens I have not yet been able to please. O lord. Nor will anyone change the good that is there to something worse. Kyrnos. This succeeded in concentrating power in the hands of an authoritarian executive. More even than hoary old age. Theoginis’ Fragments O lord.The Bonapartists were finally assured of a victory. hear me and grant good things. either beginning or coming to an end. son of Polypaos. Kyrnos. first and last and in the middle. The new constitution bestowed executive power on a President. And you.

but sent abroad By the radiant gifts of the Muses. and a man wants them to mate From worthy stock. I get scant respect. but walk down the middle of the road. health. you cheat me with words as if I were a little child. Kyrnos. we look for those Of noble breeding. To you I have given wings. The base a worthy man's: wealth mixes stock. Not even then. The noblest thing is justice. Passing over the restless fish-swarming sea. your name imperishable. But what gives greatest delight is to gain the object of one's desire. Kyrnos. Kyrnos. the most advantageous. My heart. Yet a noble man does not mind marrying A base woman of base birth if she brings him money in abundance. Nor does a woman shrink from becoming the wife of a base man With wealth. as I do. At feasts and banquets you will be present On all occasions. And to the clear-toned sound of pipes young men With seemly grace and loveliness. Thus do not be amazed. Adding into it the disposition that each one has. which takes on The appearance of whatever rock it has dealings with. crafty in its convolutions. And not to gaze on the radiance of the keen-burning sun. or off sheer cliffs. that the citizen's stock Is growing feeble. on which you may fly aloft Above the boundless sea and all the earth With ease. son of Polypaos. Kyrnos. Among rams and asses and horses. Not to be born is the best of all things for those who live on earth. lying in the mouths of many. Not mounted on the backs of horses. display toward all your friends a changeful character. At one moment follow along this way. for what is noble is being mixed with what is base. violet-crowned: To all who care for them. because his tongue is tied. so long as earth and sun exist. their voices fair and clear. though dead. she prefers a rich husband to a worthy one. but at the next change the color of your skin: You can be sure that cleverness proves better than inflexibility. Money is what they honor. Adopt the disposition of the octopus. the noble weds a base man's daughter.Deep gulfs. Do not distress yourself too much at the turbulence of your fellow citizens. instead. Instead. you will be Alike a theme of song. For the man subdued by poverty can neither say Nor do anything. will you ever lose your fame. And when beneath the hollows of the murky earth You go to Hades' halls ringing with lamentation. roaming through mainland Hellas and up and down the islands. . Will sing of you. however. you will be known To people of all time. even to those who are not yet born. From you.

Whoever goes beyond the limit of drinking. Simonides. and now a fool. As for the rest of you. If the sons of Asklepios had this gift from the god. A man of sound sense before. And if understanding could be fashioned and placed in a man. He talks recklessly. Nor bid the wakeful man to sleep against his will. Speaking in a way that any may hear. we are being carried Out of the Melian Sea through the murky night. Of those now here with us. another you keep on hand. To work a cure on badness and men's infatuate wits. wealth recognizes me but passes by. and I am speechless Out of want. another on a bet. By heeding the words of sensible counsel. with our white sails lowered. Many and great would be the fees they earned.Once born.don't let your belly Overpower you as if you were a base laborer hired by the day -Or else stay put and refrain from drinking. But you. should one of us. Never would a good man's son have turned out bad. however. Simonides. I have reached the point when a man feels most pleasure in drinking wine. And you do not know how to refuse. should not drink to excess. Nor show the door to anyone who does not wish to go. whether you address one or all together. As it is. For everything that is forced is by nature painful. 'Pour me another' Is what you keep idly chattering. I would not feel such pain As I do now. Understanding these things. For the one who wants to drink. Who though he has drunk many cups says nothing foolish. and that's why you get drunk. it is best to pass with all possible speed through Hades' gates And to lie beneath a great heap of earth. Being neither sober at all nor yet excessively drunk. I shall think of sleep that loosens cares. Another you pour out as a libation for the gods. Nor wake anyone who is sleeping. But either stand up and leave before you get drunk -. when in the company of the noble. For one cup comes around in the name of friendship. although it would seem that I know better than most That now. Conducted in this way. be gripped by gentle slumber. . But no. that man no longer Is master of his own tongue or of his mind. But as for me. saying things which the sober find disgraceful. take care in what you say as you linger around the wine bowl. going home. But as it is. since I have reached my limit of honey-sweet wine. Not on all nights is it possible to enjoy delights like these. If I had money. a drinking-party proves far from unpleasant. Well fortified by wine. That man is truly invincible. do not detain anyone who is unwilling to remain. And feels no shame in any action when he is drunk. Steering well clear of quarrels with one another. To beget and rear a man is easier than to put good sense Inside him. let the boy stand close and pour. No one yet has ever contrived a way To make the senseless sensible and good men out of bad. no teaching Will ever serve to make the bad man good.

The love of boys has given delight ever since Ganymede Was loved by Kronos' son himself. As for you. not even if I am fated to die. though he does so against my will. Let us devote our hearts to merriment and feasting While the enjoyment of delights still brings pleasure. that splendid city on Eurotas' reedy banks. A boy and a horse are alike in mind. But. and grant me favor. I shall endure without concealment the many outrages done in my despite. you shall approach another. in the name of my parents: Show me respect. And everywhere I went they welcomed me with kindness. my boy. For you. But I beseech you. you have no attractiveness in my eyes. My boy. And to Sparta. Good though he was. Discipline has perished. No longer do I love a boy. But no pleasure came to my heart from any of them: So true is it. then may the gods Grant that you meet with just such words as I hear now. Craving in your turn the gift of the violet-crowned Cyprian. I have kicked aside harsh torments. For not ill-favored is the boy whose conquest I am shown to be. I went to Euboia's vineyard-covered plain. only with great difficulty is anyone likely to be Saved. And fair division is no longer carried out in an open fashion. although the sea sweeps over Both sides of the ship. For quick as thought does radiant youth pass by. Alas. king of the immortals. if he is clever. for the horse does not Weep for its rider when he lies in the dust. taking joy in the plain that brings forth wheat. acting as they are: they have stopped the helmsman. I shall never Cease to praise you.And the men refuse to bail. fed full with barley. Though a base man too may understand it. as long as your cheeks and chin are smooth. Nor does the rush of horses prove to be swifter When carrying their master to the labor of men's spears With furious energy. And in just this way the boy too loves whoever is at hand. it carries the next man. Let this. If in time to come. that nothing is dearer than one's homeland. and the base have the upper hand over the noble. Indeed. I went once to the land of Sicily too. the giver. and for me as lover it is not shameful To ask. Yes. And they are plundering the cargo by force. be my riddling message for the noble. my boy. who kept watch skillfully. I am in love with a soft-skinned boy. it is still honorable. I am afraid that the waves may swallow up the ship. after all. From grievous hardships I have gladly escaped. Who seized and brought him up to Olympos and made him . The deckhands are in control. well hidden. who to all my friends Reveals that this is true. I am set loose from longing by fair-wreathed Kythereia.

Bitter and sweet. . Root of “pedagogy”. “pais”: love of the child. the future generation (not necessarily sexual). that I as well have been Shown to be conquered by love for a handsome boy. Kyrnos. possessing as he did the lovely bloom of boyhood. but if. it proves sweet.Divine. One fails of fulfillment. alluring and tormenting: Such. So do not be amazed. till it be fulfilled. Simonides. pursuing. For if one finds fulfillment. is love to the young. then of all things it is most painful.

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