Against Oligarchy « December 27, 2010

Table of Contents Venice The Venetian Conspiracy Address delivered to the ICLC Conference near Wiesbaden, Germany, Easter Sunday, 1981; (appeared in Campaigner, September, 1981) The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in Reformation, Counter-reformation, Enlightenment, and the Thirty Years’ War ICLC Conference, 6 September 1992; (appeared in New Federalist, April, 1993) Giammaria Ortes: The Decadent Venetian Kook Who Originated The Myth of “Carrying Capacity” Printed in The American Almanac, June 20, 1994 How the Dead Souls of Venice Corrupted Science Speech to Schiller Institute Conference, September 4, 1995. Printed in The American Almanac, January, 1996. Venice’s War Against Western Civilization Appeared in Fidelio, Summer 1995 The War of the League of Cambrai, Paolo Sarpi and John Locke From ICLC Conference panel titled: “The Axioms of the American System,” Feb. 18, 1996; (appeared in New Federalist, March 18, 1996) The British How the Venetian System Was Transplanted Into England New Federalist, June 3, 1996 The British Empire Bid for Undisputed World Domination, 1850-1870 Schiller Institute Food For Peace Conference, Chicago, February 22-23, 1992 Lord Palmerston’s Multicultural Human Zoo ICLC Conference, February 20, 1994 King Edward VII of Great Britain: Evil Demiurge of the Triple Entente and World War 1 ICLC Conference, February, 1995 Sir Edward Grey Turned Sarajevo Crisis Into War Printed in The American Almanac, March, 1995 The Versailles Thesis: The Roots of WWI, and WWII Conference Speech by Webster Tarpley, Schiller Institute Food For Peace Conference, Chicago, Illinois, February 22-23, 1992. The Versailles Treaty: The War Guilt Clause Printed in the American Almanac, March, 1995 British Financial Warfare: 1929; 1931-33; How The City Of London Created The Great Depression December 1996 Publications Select a book to review and purchase on Amazon. Most are also available at: Progressive Press

The Venetian Conspiracy « December 27, 2010

« Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents

Address delivered to the ICLC Conference near Wiesbaden, Germany, Easter Sunday, 1981; (appeared in Campaigner, September, 1981) Periods of history marked, like the one we are living through, by the convulsive instability of human institutions pose a special challenge for those who seek to base their actions on adequate and authentic knowledge of historical process. Such knowledge can come only through viewing history as the lawful interplay of contending conspiracies pitting Platonists against their epistemological and political adversaries. There is no better way to gain insight into such matters than through the study of the history of the Venetian oligarchy, the classic example of oligarchical despotism and evil outside of the Far East. Venice called itself the Serenissima Republica (Serene Republic), but it was no republic in any sense comprehensible to an American, as James Fenimore Cooper points out in the preface to his novel The Bravo. But its sinister institutions do provide an unmatched continuity of the most hideous oligarchical rule for fifteen centuries and more, from the years of the moribund Roman Empire in the West to the Napoleonic Wars, only yesterday in historical terms. Venice can best be thought of as a kind of conveyor belt, transporting the Babylonian contagions of decadent antiquity smack dab into the world of modern states. The more than one and one-half millennia of Venetian continuity is first of all that of the oligarchical families and the government that was their stooge, but it is even more the relentless application of a characteristic method of statecraft and political intelligence. Venice, never exceeding a few hundred thousand in population, rose to the status of Great Power in the thirteenth century, and kept that status until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, thanks to the most highly developed system of embassies, of domestic and foreign intelligence, and related operational potentials. As the following story details, Venice was at the center of the efforts to destroy the advanced European civilization of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and bears a crushing burden of guilt for the ascendancy of the Black Guelphs and the coming of the black plague. The Venetians were the intelligencers for the Mongol army of Ghengis Khan and his heirs, and had a hand in guiding them to the sack of Baghdad and the obliteration of its renaissance in the thirteenth century. The Venetians were the mortal enemies of the humanist Paleologue dynasty in Byzantium. They were the implacable foes of Gemisthos Plethon, Cosimo de’ Medici, Leonardo da Vinci, Niccolo Machiavelli, and the entirety of the Florentine Golden Renaissance, which they conspired – successfully – to destroy. Venetian influence was decisive in cutting off the Elizabethan epoch in England, and in opening the door to the lugubrious Jacobean era. Venetian public relations specialists were responsible for picking up the small-time German provincial heretic Martin Luther and raising him to the big-time status of heresiarch among a whole herd of total- predestination divines. Not content with this wrecking operation against the Church, Venice was thereafter the “mother” for the unsavory, itinerant Ignatius of Loyola and his Jesuit order. After the Council of Trent, Venice was also the matrix for the Philosophe- Libertin ferment of the delphic, anti-Leibniz Enlightenment. Venice beat Thomas Malthus and Jeremy Bentham to the

punch in inflicting British political economy and philosophical radicalism on the whole world. Although Napoleon Bonaparte had the merit of forcing the formal liquidation of this loathsome organism during his Italian campaign of 1797, his action did not have the effect we would have desired. The cancer, so to speak, had already had ample time for metastasis – into Geneva, Amsterdam, London, and elsewhere. Thus, though the sovereign political power of Venice had been extinguished, its characteristic method lived on, serving as the incubator of what the twentieth century knows as fascism, first in its role as a breeding ground for the protofascist productions of Wagner and Nietzsche, later in the sponsorship of fascist politicians like Gabriele D’Annunzio and Benito Mussolini. The Venetians ran a large chunk of the action associated with the Parvus Plan to dismember Russia, and may well have been the ones who surprised everyone, including London, by unleashing World War 1 in the Balkans. Most important, Venice is today through its Cini Foundation and its Societé Europeenne de Culture the think tank and staging area for the Club of Rome and related deployments. Venice is the supranational homeland of the New Dark Ages gang, the unifying symbol for the most extreme Utopian lunatic fringe in the international intelligence community today. Get to know Venice. Then look back to the monetarist imbecility of Paul Volker, at the ideological fanaticism that radiates forth from the Bank of America, Chase Manhattan, the Bank for International Settlements and the rest. You will recognize the unmistakable putrid stench of a Venetian canal, where the rotting marble palaces of generations of parasites are corroded by the greatest cynicism and cruelty the world has ever known. THE ORIGINS In the Middle Ages the Venetians were known as the archetypes of the parasite, the people who “neither sow nor reap.” For the Greeks, they were the hated “frogs of the marshes.” In Germany, a folk tale describes the merchant of Venice as an aged Pantaloon who makes his rounds robbing men of their human hearts and leaving a cold stone in their place. Closer to the essence of Venice is the city’s symbol, the winged lion of St. Mark, bearing the misleading inscription, Pax Tibi Marce, Evangelista Meus (”Peace be with you Mark, my evangelist.”) The chimerical winged lion comes out of the East, either from Persia or from China. The symbol is thus blatantly pagan, with St. Mark being added as an afterthought because of his alleged visit to the Venetian lagoons. To buttress the story, the Venetians stole St. Mark’s body from Alexandria in Egypt, and Tintoretto has a painting celebrating this feat. The point is that Venice looks East, toward the Levant, Asia Minor, central Asia, and the Far East, toward its allies among the Asian and especially Chinese oligarchies which were its partners in trade and war. This is reflected in a whole range of weird, semi-oriental features of Venetian life, most notably the secluded, oriental status of women, with Doges like Mocenigo proudly exhibiting a personal harem well into modern times. Venice today sits close to the line from Lubeck to Trieste, the demarcation between NATO and Warsaw Pact Europe, roughly corresponding to the boundary between Turks in the East and Christians in the West, and still earlier between the Holy Roman and Byzantine Empires. Into this part of the northern Adriatic flow the rivers of the southern side of the Dolomites and the Julian Alps. The greatest of these is the Po. These rivers, around 300 A.D., made the northern Adriatic a continuous belt of marshes and lagoons about fifteen kilometers wide, and extending from the city of Ravenna around to the base of the Istrian Peninsula, where the Italian- Yugoslavian border lies today. In the center of this system was Aquileia, starting point of an important north-south trade route

for Roman aristocrats and others fleeing the paths of Goth. called the doge (the Venetian equivalent of Latin dux or Florentine duca/duce. who were most highly valued as galley slaves. one which even derogatory stories about spice merchants are designed to mask. who owed their riches to such slavery. Ravenna was the seat of government of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. comparable to Switzerland during World War II. Around 1500. At a later time. Malipiero. the latter being shipped in from Tana. Ravenna and not Rome was the capital of the Roman Empire in the West. Giustinian (perhaps related to the just. Foscari. Turks. In later centuries. After this time new families like Mocenigo. where a faction embodying the sinister traditions of the Roman Senate lived on for a thousand years after the fall of Rome in 476. including the present site of Torcello. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF SLAVERY During the years of the Venetian overseas empire. either directly under the Venetian regime. The shock troops of the Ottoman Turkish armies. which came to flow overwhelmingly through the Rialto markets. This included Italians and Greeks. and smaller holdings in the Aegean were routinely worked by slave labor. in the farthest corner of the Sea of Azov. or Longhi. The most significant fact of this entire period is that the whelp of what was later to become Venice survived and grew thanks to its close alliance with the evil Emperor Justinian in Constantinople. or under the private administration of a Venetian oligarchical clan like the Corner. 721 A. Venetian families are divided into two categories. the court visited by Boethius. were stocked by Venetian slaves. islands like Crete. It included Germans and Russians. For a time after the year 404. Corner (or Cornaro). at which time they were forced to admit the parvenu newcomers. Hun. This slavery was practiced as a matter of course against Saracens. is said to have been elected in the year 697. Faliero. Later Ravenna was the capital of a part of Italy ruled by the Byzantines. Vendramin. to the highest honor of the state. A section of the Venetian waterfront is still called Riva Degli Schiavoni – slaves’ dock. First come the oldest families. These old families held a monopoly of the dogeship until 1382.across the Brenner Pass to the Danube Valley and Bohemia. Legend has it that the big influx of refugees came during the raids of Attila the Hun in 452 A. the present location of the city of Venice. Morosini. and Langobard armies. These families and the state they built grew rich through their parasitizing of trade. before the seat of administration was fixed at a group of islands known as Rivus Altus (”the highest bank”). Gradenigo. Contarini.D. and Falier. Cyprus. the Janissaries. Zeno. and Trevisan came into the ascendancy. Already between 300 and 400 A. an alliance that was underlined in later years by intermarriage of doge and other leading Venetian oligarchs with the nobility of Byzantium. After the extinction of the western empire. the leading admiral of the Serenissima . from the Balkans to Morocco. In addition.mentioned Byzantine emperor). Various areas of the lagoons were colonized. the harems of the entire Ottoman Empire. the Venetian oligarch Cristofor da Canal. The primary basis for Venetian opulence was slavery. especially East-West trade. The islands of the lagoons provided an invulnerable refuge. Dandolo. The Longhi include many names that are sadly familiar to the student of European history: Dandolo. meaning leader or duke). Loredano. and other non-Christians. The official Ab Urbe Condita is March 25. But there is a deeper reality. black Africans were added to the list and rapidly became a fad among the nobility of the republic.D. or Curti. Corfu. Dona. but its tradition was overwhelmingly pagan. Aquileia was the seat of a patriarch of the Christian Church. Mongols. the Venetian outpost at the mouth of the Don. Gritti. there are traces of families whose names will later become infamous: Candiano. Paoluccio Anafesto. Naxos. later the Rialto.D. Michiel. and typified by rituals of the Ancient Egyptian Isis cult. it is conclusively documented that it was a matter of standard Venetian practice to sell Christians into slavery. who can claim to prove their nobility substantially before the year 1000. were also largely provided by Venetian merchants. the first ruler of the lagoon communities. Tiepolo.

The Serenissima’s own functionaries organized merchant galley fleets that were sent out one or two times a year to key ports. Algiers. Especially well-served was “Romania. and Bruges. destined for markets in Central and Western Europe. Dalmatians better. Oran. In every instance the Venetians sought to skim the cream off the top of world trade. Tripoli. and without significant upheavals from within? Venice remained impervious to foreign invasion from the first settlement until 1797. to Crete. Europe in turn produced textiles and metals. Rhodes. and Cyprus on the way to Beirut in the Levant. Antwerp. and maritime insurance premiums. and transshipment. warehousing. known as the Arsenal. composed what he described as a Platonic dialogue concerning the relative merits of galley slaves: the Italians the worst. cogs. Venetian production from the earliest period until the end was essentially nil. Another galley route passed through Gibraltar on the way to Southampton. They were leased to oligarchs and consortia of oligarchs at a type of auction. and victory or defeat usually depended more on the success of the privateering than on the direct combat of the galleys. backing up his monopolization of the distribution and transportation systems with the war galleys of the battle fleet. French. and west coast Italian cities. Their profit margins had to be sufficient to cover a “traditional” twenty percent interest rate. The role of the Venetian merchant is that of the profiteering middleman who rooks both buyer and seller. where. In the heyday of Venice. This feature of the Venetian oligarchical system contrasts . apart from salt and the glass manufactures of Murano. THE VENETIAN STATE The tremendous stability of the Venetian state has fascinated historians. was stipulated by peremptory state regulation. The galleys were built by the regime in its shipyards. Venice asserted a monopoly of all trade and shipping in the northern Adriatic. and Alexandria in North Africa. the Venetians were able to establish themselves as the leading entrepot port of the Mediterranean world. to Tunis. Through decades of treachery and mayhem. The Venetian approach to trade was ironically dirigistic. in which they were pioneers. the vast bulk of the world’s strategic commodities were brought for sale. and such incidents were speedily terminated by bloodbaths that restored stability rather than spurring more violence. London. and soldiers of the battle fleets. Piracy shades over imperceptibly into routine commerce. by which convicts were delivered to the Serenissima to work as life-long galley slaves. The monolithic iniquity of Venetian state institutions was seriously disturbed no more than a half dozen times from within the city. the Greeks the best and toughest of all. especially precious metals. Indistinguishable from slave gathering operation were piracy and buccaneering. Wars with Genoa or with other powers were eagerly sought-after opportunities to loot the enemy’s shipping with clouds of corsairs. the other staples of the Venetian economy. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Venice had treaty relations with other states. for many centuries the largest factory in the world. for export to the East. The most significant commodities were spices and silks from India and China. like Bavaria.Repubblica at that time.” the area roughly corresponding to modern Greece. including the obligation to travel in convoy. galley fleets were sent to Tana and to Trebizond in the Black Sea. as in London up to 1914. as well as to Spanish. the financing of frequent wars. Many of these galley ports correspond to continuing Venetian influence today. although personally filthy and repulsive. Every detail of the operation of these galley fleets. How is it possible to maintain the great power of Venice for more than a millennium and a half without being conquered from the outside.

who could and did sue any official of the state for malfeasance. In the middle of the fifteenth century. and against this evolution the patriciate took measures. and this body elected the key governing bodies of the regime. The Gran Consiglio chose three state prosecutors. and these energies were effectively sublimated in the depredation of the outside world. using colored balls whose Venetian name is the origin of the American word ballot. In the typology of Plato’s Republic. which was first devoted to budget and finance matters. where the highest office was up for grabs every dozen years or less.” “the rule of the few. Most typical of the Venetian system is the Council of Ten. constitution full of many evils. First. Somewhat less complicated procedures were used to select a group of six advisors for the doge. and where humanist factions could sometimes prevail. although the doge was accorded the privilege of being tried after his death. who then nominated and elected a new group of forty electors. where each regime from 1300 to 1500 had the life expectancy of an Italian government today. which grew to 2000 members around 1500 and thereafter slowly declined. This procedure was repeated several times. which every man has. or Pregadi. In Venice. The raging heteronomy of each oligarch was directed outward. established in 1310 as the coordinating . The Gran Consiglio elected a Council of Forty.” This oligarchy has a residue of timocracy. of the Senate.” and which “destroys such a constitution. Venice was the first and only power which regularly maintained permanent legations in all principal courts and capitals. This they carry out by force of arms. The Senate also chose five war ministers. greater or less. Plato notes in Book VIII of The Republic that a “change in a constitution always begins from the governing class when there is a faction within. or Great Council. The first of these were the one hundred twenty members.sharply with that of its rival. it is impossible to disturb them.” The threat of factionalization is located in the “storehouse full of gold. the bloody resolution of internal faction fights within the oligarchy was suppressed to a minimum.” Venice lasted as long as it did because of the effective subordination of the oligarchs and families to the needs of the oligarchy as a whole. not at his factional rivals. but the outs were sure of their place in the Gran Consiglio. but so long as they are of one mind.” The oligarchs “lay a sum of money. terminating with a group of forty-one electors of whom twenty-five could nominate a doge for the approval of the Gran Consiglio. later more to criminal prosecution. or they have used terror before this to establish such a constitution. These were then cut down by drawing lots to a group of twelve. of rule based on honor. five naval ministers (all called Savi). The Gran Consiglio also elected the doge himself. with his family paying any fines levied. Venice is an oligarchy. and proclaim that no one may share in the government unless his property comes up to the assessment. The ins might be in. It contrasts sharply with the papacy. Genoa. by the ironclad delimitation of noble status to those already noble in 1297 and their male descendants. All male members of the approximately one hundred fifty noble families had the permanent right to a seat in the Gran Consiglio. ministers of still higher rank. and by continuous terror against the masses and against the nobility itself. even if they be a very small class. through an incredible Byzantine procedure designed to assure a representative choice. according as the oligarchy is more or less complete. These thirty drew lots to cut their number down to nine. “a constitution according to property. and six Savii Grandi. But at the same time the Venetian regime was perversely aware of Plato’s description of the swift transition from oligarchy to democracy and thence to tyranny. The seat in the Gran Consiglio and the vote it brought were thus independent of which faction happened to be calling the shots at a given moment. the upper house which oversaw foreign affairs by choosing the Venetian ambassadors. thirty members of the Gran Consiglio were chosen at random. in which the rich govern and the poor man has no share in government.

The souls of the grafters are immersed in the boiling pitch. thanks to the ubiquity of its informers and spies. or abroad. The Venetian regime is a perverse example of the “checks and balances” theory of statecraft. called Barnabotti. and carnivals. Death sentences from the Ten were without appeal. that person was generally strangled the same night and the body thrown into the Canale degli Orfani. If in Venice. This reality of graft was also known to Dante. In fact. as did the Senate. while more and more power passed to the state inquisitors and the chiefs of the Ten. the population of the city seemed unable to reproduce itself. the Ten had the power to issue a bill of capital attainder against any person inside Venetian jurisdiction.four hours or less. Meeting in secret session together with the doge and his six advisors. Very few troops were usually stationed in the city. where they are guarded by the . This was supplemented by an unending parade of festivals. Almost all officials except the doge were elected for terms averaging between six months and one year. with stringent provision against being reelected to an office until a number of months had passed equal to the oligarch’s previous tenure in that post. The regime ran everything. Offenders simply disappeared from view. spectacles. Various Venetian diarists let the cat out of the bag in their descriptions of corruption and vote-buying. were first and foremost its sewer system. There was no continuity of the population of Venice. Internal order was entrusted to an intricate system of local control in each of the city’s sixty parishes. is established by a reference to the Venetian Arsenal and the pitch used to caulk the hulls of the galleys: As in the Arsenal of the Venetians Boils in the winter the tenacious pitch To smear their leaky vessels over again. The decimated natives were continually replenished by waves of immigration. So much for the phenomena.body for foreign and domestic political intelligence operations. but it was inside Venetian territory that their surveillance powers became pervasive: the contents of any discussion among oligarchs or citizens was routinely known to the Ten within twenty. For sail they cannot. so much so that the Frenchman Philippe de Comynes. who were increasingly numerous in the Gran Consiglio. could report that the population was mostly foreigners. The state attorneys acted as watchdogs on most matters. and in times of crises the Gran Consiglio would also assert its powers. and their proceedings were never made public. Venice suffered astronomical rates of mortality from malaria and the plague – its canals. and offices of all types were routinely sold. The Ten had at their disposal a very extensive foreign intelligence network. it must be remembered. the canto of the grafters or Barattieri. The Ten were constantly lurking in the background. who was also checked by his six advisors. especially the bribery of the impoverished decadent nobility. meshing with an elaborate apparatus of corporatist guilds called the Scuole. the continuity was located only in the oligarchy. Visitors to the Doge’s Palace today can see mail slots around the outside of the building in the shape of lion’s mouths marked Per Denontie Segrete (”For Secret Denunciations”) for those who wished to call to the attention of the Ten and their monstrous bureaucracy individuals stealing from the state or otherwise violating the law. The Savii Grandi balanced the powers of the doge. This meant that leading oligarchs were constantly being rotated and shunted from one stop on the Cursus Honorum to another: to Savio Grande to ducal advisor to state inquisitor and so forth. The poetical geometry of Canto 21 of the Inferno. and there were indeed a myriad of such feedback mechanisms. an adversary of Machiavelli. Reality was located in the fact that an elite of ten to fifteen families out of the one hundred fifty effectively ruled with an iron hand.

especially from Germany. He died shortly after leaving Venice. he was certainly involved in Cola di Rienzo’s seizure of power in Rome in May. usually explained as the attempt of the Doge Marin Faliero to overthrow the regime and establish a Signoria. Nonetheless. caught malaria. Petrarch was a contemporary of the Ciompi revolt against oligarchical rule in Florence. A school of Aristotelian doctrine was set up at the Rialto market. returning to Venice after two years to begin lectures on Aristotle and to prepare Latin versions of the Greek texts he had brought back with him. Long before the era of Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) and St. that made the later Italian Renaissance possible. The inveterate Aristotelianism of Venice is the starting point for a major literary attack on that city by Francesco Petrarch. the fact that he was a determined foe of Venice and its ideology is abundantly clear. Petrarch proposed that he be allowed to take up residence in Venice and locate his library there. where he was trained in post-Justinian Aristotelian orthodoxy. In the year 1135. about thirty kilometers from the Venetian lagoon. and died. which became the only one where Venetian nobility were allowed international clientele. Petrarch might have had a hand in this operation. PETRARCH VERSUS ARISTOTLE The Venetian method of statecraft is based on Aristotle – the deepest Aristotelian tradition in the West. Thomas Aquinas (12251274). son of Dante’s personal secretary. and Petrarch. The two explanations of his death converge on murder: one version state that he was denied a boat in which to travel south across the lagoon. Although these were the years of the Black Death.” These four oligarchs were Tommaso Talenti. grotesque winged monsters armed with spears and hooks: a fitting allegory for the souls of the Venetians. In 1355 Venice had just passed through one of its infrequent internal crises. Venice had established itself as the chief center for the translation and teaching of Aristotle’s works. the Senate sent Giacomo da Venezia to Byzantium. Petrarch may have developed plans for injecting a dose of Platonism into the intellectual life of the Serenissima. during this period he was a frequent guest at the court of the Da Carrara rulers of Padua. acting in his capacity as diplomatic representative of the nearby city of Ravenna. Another version says that a boat was available. who took up the responsibility of servicing Dante’s humanist networks during the disastrous years around the middle of the fourteenth century. of the type common in Italy at the time.Malebranche. When Venice conquered Padua at the beginning of the fifteenth century. or personal dictatorship. 1347. the heart of the business and commercial activity of the city. Guido da Bagnolo. He was forced to follow a path through the swamps. Marin Faliero was publicly decapitated by the Council of Ten. with spirited counterattacks at every opportunity. Dante visited Venice in 1321. but that to board it would have meant certain assassination. Soon he began to receive the visits of four Venetian Aristotelians. Venetian records regarding this matter have conveniently disappeared. Aristotelian hegemony was imposed on the University of Padua. the books would remain as a bequest to the city after his death. the most celebrated intellectual of his times. . whom he later referred to as “my four famous friends. took up his residence on the Riva degli Schiavoni. The real story of Petrarch’s literary and political achievements has yet to be told. The Venice authorities accepted. forming the nucleus of what would have been the first public library in Europe. whose overlord was for a time his protector. Petrarch (”Fraunces Petrak the laureate poet” as Chaucer knew him) was the soul of a tenacious humanist rearguard action.

and is asked by a friend how he got so skinny. saying that Christ. Aristotle is more ignorant than an old peasant woman. His answer to the slanderers is contained in his treatise “De Sui Ipsius et Multorum Ignorantia” (1367) (with a swipe at Aristotle in the title). these four began to circulate the slander that Petrarch was “a good man. But these facts are not only useless. One of Erasmus’ goals in visiting Venice was to accelerate the publication of Plato. Petrarch pointed out that Aristotle provided his followers with all sorts of strange and curious lore. They had immediately attempted to seize control of the new medium. interestingly enough. After several discussions with Petrarch.” Real philosophy. Venice. Aldus brought out the works of Aristotle in Greek shortly after he began operations in 1495. Venetian nominalism went hand in hand with the most vicious avarice. blasphemy. and television. the Aldus who owned what was at that time the largest and most famous publishing house in the world. Erasmus writes about his Venetian sojourn some time later.millionaire in today’s terms. they are false. not Aristotle. he said. he said. since neither reason nor experience reveal them? Concerning the ultimate objects of philosophy. Plato had to wait for almost twenty years. In a play written in Venetian dialect by Carlo Goldoni in the eighteenth century. his most powerful piece of invective. a Pantalone-type miser comes home to find wife and daughter busily engaged in needlework. but preferred to follow their favorite philosopher in their sophistry. of the attempt to annihilate Venice in the War of the League of Cambrai. with the clear purpose of advancing morality.” Petrarch shortly abandoned the library project and soon thereafter left Venice permanently. is to be found in St. the movies. and were so pretentious that they could not even understand their own arguments. Venice had reacted to the invention of moveable-type printing by Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz in a way that foreshadowed the reaction of the British oligarchy in this century to radio.Leonardo Dandolo. Erasmus had been away. how elephants copulate backwards. Aldus appears as Antronius (”the caveman”). Augustine. All that Aristotle is capable of doing is providing a delphic description of what the external attributes of morality might look like. Aldus was the William Paley and Jack Warner of the industry. who was to the years after 1500 what Petrarch had been in his own time: Leader of the Platonic humanist faction. and impiety. like the number of hairs on a lion’s head or of feathers in a hawk’s tail. were not Christian. on the eve. Erasmus came to Venice in 1508. The Urbs Opulenta referred to is of course the wealthiest of all cities. the latter two of the most exalted lineage. He stayed at the home of Aldus’ brother-in-law. how the only animal that can move its upper jaw is the crocodile. Erasmus came to get in touch with Aldo Manunzio. in the dialogue titled “Opulentia Sordida” of the Colloquia Familiaria. They mocked Christ. The miser flies into a rage screaming “What? You quit working to pay me compliments!” An eminent witness of this typical Venetian vice was Erasmus of Rotterdam. The two women look up briefly and say hello. Petrarch scored Aristotelian scholastic philosophy as “a prostitute who delights to worry about vain questions of words. Dozens of Gutenberg’s apprentices from the Rhein-Main area were bought up and brought to Venice. Has he been working as . To the authority of Aristotle. but without any education. “How could Aristotle know such facts. described as a multi.” he asserted. where the production of books up to 1500 and beyond was frequently a multiple of the number of titles published in the rest of the world combined. was for him the decisive guide. Petrarch counterposed the Platonism of the New Testament. Martin Luther was one of that industry’s later creations. how the phoenix arises out of his own ashes.polemical writing. His “four friends. and Zaccaria Contarini.

a decline that Venice itself strove to organize. This was the case when the Venetian power was in its very infancy. In particular. a decree of the Byzantine Emperor by which Venice acquired tax customs-free access to the whole of the eastern empire. and was so hard it would break even a bear’s teeth. The Venetians also goaded forces out of the East to attack Christendom. In the sixteenth century.a galley slave? Erasmus replies that he has undergone something far worse: ten months of starvation in the home of Antronius. VENETIAN INTELLIGENCE What was the Venetian political intelligence method? The classical Venetian predicament is that of the weaker power attempting to play off two or more major empires. His bread was made not with flour. he was told that he was endangering his life by overeating. . the Venetians successfully incited the Norman barons operating out of Sicily under Robert Guiscard to attack Byzantium. This enemy had to be manipulated into self-destruction. A groaning board on the holidays for a houseful of people and servants was centered around three rotten eggs. and the English against the French. but with clay. sometimes in a long and gradual descending curve. where the Greeks themselves had to pay a tax of 10 percent on their own transactions. In the eleventh century. the Venetians were more willing to see territory – excepting Venetian territory – be occupied by the Turks than any other power. “divide and conquer. Venice parasitized the decline of much larger states. Mongols. and got along with the slave-trading factions in each of these groups about as well as a power like Venice could get along with anybody. but the usual fare was sometimes supplemented by shellfish from a colony that Antronius cultivated in his latrine. Later this was expanded to include playing the Dutch against the English. In fact. all Germans. but in the precise and specific way that served the Venetian interest. and survival depended upon playing off the Langobard Kingdom of Italy against the Byzantines. Erasmus’ friend in the dialogue concludes that at this rate. as indeed it was in a time when water was often very unsafe to drink. Wine was a strategic commodity in Erasmus’ opinion. To save money on wine. Erasmus takes his leave. This ploy was later replaced by the attempt to play the Byzantines off against the Carolingian Empire in the West. That siege. stirring it up so it would look like the real thing. who would be perfectly capable of crushing the Serenissima in short order. to head for the nearest French restaurant. Venice was repeatedly confronted with the problem posed by a triumphant enemy. Thus began a hatred for Venice among the Greek population which persists down to the present day. and Turks. Venetian strategic doctrine was to play the Ottoman Turks against the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs. however. and then to correct any residual strategic imbalance by playing the Hapsburgs off in their turn against the French. Venice was the manipulator of Saracens. The price for that protection was indicated by the famous Golden Bull of 1082. it is succeeding in a very real sense in the world today. When Erasmus consulted a physician. Sometimes Venice attempted to play the Portuguese rival power off against the Dutch. Here people freeze in the winter because there is no wood to burn. Englishmen. Finally. Does this sound impossible? What is astounding is how often it has succeeded. was not successful. and Poles are about to die. Antronius took water and faeces annorum decem miscebat (mixed it with ten year old shit). Venice was thus the past master of the more exotic permutations of the stolid old British dividi et impera. but sometimes in a quick bonanza of looting. an attempt that almost misfired when the army of Charlemagne under Pippin laid siege to Venice inside its lagoons. Danes. and then moved in to offer the desperate Byzantines protection. not in any old way. something sometimes described as the “collapse of empires” scenario.” But the essence of their strategic doctrine was something more abstruse. There was never meat or fish. at the height of his power.

and the French knights sent Geoffrey of Villehardouin to Venice to negotiate a convoy of merchant galleys with an appropriate escort of warships. which finally succeeded in breaking through the fortifications along the Golden Horn. and were Naxos and related islands. Venice took over threeeighths of Constantinople. The Venetian puppet “Latin Empire” was overthrown by the Paleologues in 1261. pointing out that the emperor of Byzantium was suspected of being in alliance with the Saracens. Federigo’s two sons and their Ghibelline supporters were defeated by Charles of Anjou. but which are often exhibited in other cities. which had been in revolt against Venice. On the Ionian side. from which the Venetians brought back as booty the four bronze horses which generally stand on the Basilica of St.The most spectacular example of Venetian manipulation of the dumb giants of this world has gone down in history as the Fourth Crusade. still owed the Venetians 35. the sultan of Egypt had paid a substantial bribe to Dandolo to keep the Crusaders out of Palestine in the first place. the Venetians appropriated Modon and Koron and several islands up to and including Corfu. Count Baudoin of Flanders was place on the throne of a new concoction titled the Latin Empire of Constantinople. he would join them on the crusade with an army of 10. blind and over eighty years old.000 French knights and infantry gathered on the Lido of Venice in the summer of 1202. the Fourth Crusade was an unmitigated tragedy. Here they were to reinforce a French garrison hard-pressed by the Turk Saladin. All Venetian trading privileges in Greece were restored. To this the knights readily agreed. not the least of which was a plot against their own sovereign liege. or about double the yearly income of the King of England or of France at that time.000 marks. from 1203 to 1204. At a tournament in the Champagne in 1201. and the feudal army forced the capitulation of Zara. a permanent Venetian colony with its own battle fleet. The pretender was the young Alexios. Thus. equal to 20. the king.000 Greek soldiers. The loot brought back from the sack of Constantinople was greater than anything Europe would see until the Spanish treasure fleets from the New World several centuries later. Constantinople was besieged by the joint Franco-Venetian expeditionary force. this involved penance for certain misdeeds. it was found that the French. As it happened. Lemnos and Gallipoli came into Venetian hands. and the last . Venice had acquired a colonial empire of naval bases. after pawning everything down to the family silver. Dandolo drove a hard bargain: for the convoy with escort to Jerusalem and back. Crete was annexed.000 silver marks. When 10. The doge of Venice received a piece of the action in the form of the title Lord of Three Eighths of the Latin Empire. but by that time Federigo was gone. For the human race. the bay on the north side of the city. the Duke of Champagne and numerous feudal barons collectively vowed to make a fighting pilgrimage to the sepulcher of Our Lord in Jerusalem. and was hegemonic in the eastern Mediterranean. At this point Dandolo made the crusaders a “geopolitical” proposal. For many of them. and the large island of Euboa. Mark. Byzantium was sacked in an orgy of violence and destruction. By 1266-68. King of Sicily. a Christian city in Dalmatia. who promised the knights that if they helped him gain power. the Venetians were supporting a pretender to the Byzantine throne. Reaching the Holy Land required transportation. To top it all off. The cunning Dandolo proposed that this debt could easily be canceled if the crusaders would join the Venetians in subjugating Zara. and that an advance to the Holy Land would be foolhardy unless this problem were first dealt with. The hypertrophy of Venetian power in the Mediterranean was one of the decisive factors ensuring the later defeat of Emperor Federigo II of Hohenstaufen. the French knights would have to fork over the sum of 85. across the Adriatic from Venice. since the current emperor was seeking to deny them their trading privileges. which the Venetians called Negroponte. Geoffrey closed the deal with the Doge Enrico Dandolo.000 kilograms of silver.

advance further westward. but the Mongol Golden Horde that imposed its hegemony over Russia was the beginning of Russia’s economic and cultural backwardness. a young Venetian patrician picks a quarrel with the prince. At about the time the Venetians were sacking Constantinople. founder of the Anthroposophy movement and the Waldorf schools. a nephew of Ghengis. Its central character is a Sicilian charlatan. He comes into contact with the Sicilian mountebank. and the Venetian family from which he came. where the offending patrician is strangled before his eyes. which leads to his repudiation by his entire family. for reasons that are not clear. He begins to frequent a semi-secret free-thinking club. The triumph of the Black Guelphs had become irreversible. In the meantime. this category swelled considerably with theosophists like Madame Blavatsky. Batu. No indeed. Friedrich Schiller and William Shakespeare both analyze the manipulative methods employed by the Venetian secret intelligence establishment. After Schiller’s time. expert at bringing the spirits of the departed back into the world for the thrill-seeking nobility at seances. So the great Marco Polo. defeated the Bulgarians in 1236. the Russians would have to fight the titanic battle of Kulokovo Field on the Don in 1380. This Sicilian charlatan is a figure for a whole class of Venetian intelligence operatives. masked Armenian. This valuable knowledge they obtained from Venetian merchants. and swept into Poland. there was something more than mere numerical superiority at work. who informs him. and with that archapparitionist Rudolph Steiner. captured Kiev in the Ukraine in 1240. the mountebank who claimed to be the reincarnation of the leading Mason of ancient Egypt. Annie Besant. both considered Venetian intelligence one of their most formidable enemies. and became for a time administrator of the Great Khan. the Mongol generals informed themselves ahead of time about the state of European courts. The omnipresent Venetian intelligence was also a factor in the Mongol destruction of the Arab cultural center of Baghdad in 1258. Ghengis Khan ruled over an empire that extended from Korea all the way to Iran. The Mongols did not. rumors are spread at his Protestant court that he has become a Catholic. and contracts immense debts. as one historian sums up the case: The Mongols did not sweep in wildly and suddenly. and which was rapidly advancing to the West. Another of this breed was Emanuel Swedenborg. was responsible for directing the destruction of Ghengis Khan against Europe. He takes to gambling. and learned what feuds and disorders would be advantageous to their conquests. In these Mongol victories. At least one cardinal is also a member of the Bucentoro. called the Bucentoro after the golden ship used by the doge on occasions of state. At the end of the fragment. who fears for his life until he is ushered into one of the chambers of the Council of Ten. It was thus not without reason that Polo himself was made welcome at the court of Kublai. . At every stage. including the Teutonic Knights. Schiller’s direct treatment of Venice is a fragment of a novel titled Der Geisterseher (”The Ghost Seer”). a young German prince in Venice for the grand tour is subjected to a series of manipulations by a sinister. before the fact. In Silesia in 1241 the German and Polish feudal army. like reckless barbarians. Much of Schiller’s writing is dedicated in various ways to fighting the Venice. In Schiller’s tale. they advanced according to careful plan. like Count Cagliostro. men like Marco Polo’s father. Later in the same year the Mongols defeated the Hungarians. Henry Steel Olcott. his life has been ruined. was annihilated. A further contributing factor in this tragedy was doubtless the Mongol hordes. For some loosening of the Mongol yoke.Genoa. At a gambling den. and his death is imminent. of the death of a close relative hundreds of miles away.Geneva combination that had held the financial reins of King Philip II of Spain. loses heavily. and then spends weeks attempting to ascertain the identity of a mysterious beauty he has seen at church.representative of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was beheaded in the public square of Naples.

and reward me. Iago asks? Would you. In Act 3. This handkerchief is an object of deep emotional and superstitious importance for Othello. He sets up a fight between Roderigo and the drunken Cassio that leads to the wounding of Montano by Cassio. When he sees it in the hands of Cassio. he is superstitious and has a propensity for jealousy. having just won a victory over the Turkish fleet attacking Cyprus. he manipulates Desdemona’s naive desire to help Cassio regain his post into prima facie evidence that Desdemona is an adulteress. himself. Iago is the figure of the Venetian intelligence officer. Othello is a Moor. He has no real insight into affairs of state. He sets up scenes where he cons one participant with one story. hired out to Venice as a mercenary. he gloats: I will in Cassio’s lodging lose this napkin. and makes him commit to the murder of Cassio. brings them together in a controlled environment. when the Venetians and Genoese had acquired vast powers in England through the accession of their puppet James I to the throne. It was written and performed shortly after 1603. love me. is a handkerchief which Iago obtains and plants on Cassio. who is ousted as chief lieutenant by Othello. as it had been given by his father to his mother. the supervisor. all without the slightest shred of proof. The Moor of Venice” is a more finished analysis of the same technique. He enjoys the full confidence of the Senate. Othello demands certainty that Desdemona is betraying him. After this. All of these weaknesses are systematically exploited by “honest Iago. sufficient to motivate the murder of Desdemona. the “erring barbarian. For making him egregiously an ass And practicing upon his peace and quit Even to madness. Above all. When he first obtains the handkerchief.” a member of Othello’s staff who is determined to destroy him.Shakespeare’s “Othello. he is ready to kill. this may do something. Trifles light as air Are to the jealous confirmations strong As proofs of holy writ. and exploiting above all Othello’s naive willingness to trust his “honest Iago. Iago is then able to goad Othello all the way to killing Desdemona and. or into psychology. At the center of the play are epistemological questions of truth and proof. And let him find it. Othello. Iago uses his throwaway agent. an expert in what he calls “double knavery” – the art of manipulation. grossly gape upon Behold her tupp’d? . What Othello then regards as definitive proof of adultery. What would be definitive proof. Shortly thereafter. It had been his first love token for Desdemona. and exploits the resulting fireworks for his overall strategy. He sets out to destroy Othello using an accurate psychological profile of the Moor. Iago drives Othello wild with innuendoes about Desdemona’s alleged adultery. Iago is well aware of Othello’s epistemological weakness. briefs another participant with a different story. and has just married Desdemona. and at the apex of his power. but his emotional makeup tends decidedly toward the naive and infantile. for financing and services.” is however something of a dumb giant: his proficiency in the arts of war is unmatched. finally. the dupe Roderigo. the daughter of a patrician.” Iago’s modus operandi is to: Make the Moor thank me.

Archbishop Bessarion of Nicea. heavily dependent upon the support of Cosimo de’ Medici at that time. he says. who held power from 1434 to 1464. Fleets and armies. The threat arose from the epistemological warfare and alliance system of the great Cosimo de’ Medici of Florence and his successors.” are potential victims of Venetian intelligence. and all enemies of natural law. perhaps the greatest outpouring of human creativity in history.deductive substitute: But yet. Venice mobilized every resource at its disposal to destroy the Renaissance. was moved to Florence at the urging of Cosimo de’ Medici. DESTRUCTION OF THE RENAISSANCE Since the Venetian oligarchy relied for its survival on the secret weapon of political intelligence manipulation. going so far as to arrange the ravaging of Italy by foreign armies. This delegation was dominated in outlook by men like Nicolas of Cusa. The Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. who.” But the lesson is that not only Othello. If imputation and strong circumstances. On one occasion he wrote. is impossible to obtain. The hope held out by the Council of Florence was to implement Nicolas of Cusa’s program of the Concordantia Catholica – a community of principle among humanist sovereign states for cultural and economic development. Leon Battista Alberti. The first. Turkish siege of Constantinople had already been mounted in 1422. In the final scene. a “murderous coxcomb … as ignorant as dirt. unsuccessful. Venice succeeded. but he offers an inductive. The potential political and epistemological power of the Italian Renaissance are best identified in the ecumenical council of the Church convened in Florence in the year 1438. Leonardo Bruni. In the face of such a threat Venice did – and does – kill.This kind of certainty. you might have’t. later Pope Pius II. John VIII Paleologue. Will give you satisfaction. In the East. the Ottoman Turks were beginning to recover from the crushing defeat that the Turkish Emperor Bajazet had suffered in 1402 at the battle of Ankara at the hand of Tamerlane the Great. which had been exacerbated by the struggle between the Council of Basel and Pope Eugene IV. The real danger was a hostile power that developed epistemological defenses against manipulation and deceit. and Aeneas Piccolomini of Siena. I say.” The council had to deal with the ongoing crisis in the western church. accompanied by his advisor Gemisthos Plethon and Plethon’s student. Cosimo was the major financial and political sponsor of the proceedings. and in a more concentrated form than it had ever faced before. could well redound to Venetian advantage. represented such a threat to the Serene Republic. . against Venetians. Cosimo was a self-declared enemy of Venice. “being wrought” and “perplexed in the extreme. but all those who love not wisely but too well. Which lead directly to the door of truth. Cardinal Capranica. The Latin delegation was titularly headed by Pope Eugene IV. even in the hands of a powerful and aggressive enemy state. The Greek and Latin delegations were each profoundly vitiated by powerful Aristotelian factions. After decades of sabotage. who had been driven out of Rome by a revolt. its primary strategic targets were first and foremost dictated by epistemological rather than military criteria. Turks. “Association with the Venetians brings two things which have always been rejected by men of wisdom: certain perdition and disgrace. To Florence came the Emperor of Byzantium. first convened in Ferrara. we can agree with Iago’s wife Emilia that Othello is a gull and a dolt. The council.

or from the Son as well. In 1461 the humanist Louis XI would take the throne of France. the humanist Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini would be elected Pope Pius II. attempting to resolve the question of whether the Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father. Medici Florence was at the center of a network of trade and finance that was beginning to rival Venice. predictably. Since the Roman Empire had finally ended. the Fondaco dei Turchi.but this was still one of the most impressive assemblies in history. in the meantime he was in a position to influence Frederick III of Hapsburg. Marsilio Ficino. Even so. In the end a purely formal reunification of the two churches was attained. The Paleologue emperor intervened repeatedly in these discussions. it was the Genoese troops who opened the gates of the city to the forces of the sultan. The Turks were aided by the Greek patriarch. During all these years the Turks possessed a combined warehouse.” In 1460. it was left to the Venetians to arrogate to themselves the task of building a new Roman Empire. who had pronounced the defense of the Paleologue dynasty a heretical cause. The Venetian reaction to this potential for the implementation of an ecumenical Grand Design on the platform of the Italian Renaissance humanists was. installed in power with the help of the Medici.procured artillery. most unavailable anywhere else since the library of Alexandria had been destroyed some fifteen centuries earlier. Francesco Sforza of Milan wrote that the Venetians were: “obstinate and hardened. Hardly a coincidence was the burning of the library of Constantinople with its matchless collection of Ionian and Platonic codices. Finally. stressing that there were no real differences in doctrine. of the textile products they offered for sale. tells the story of how Cosimo de’ Medici. “The Venetians are called new Romans. with the crucial difference that the Florentines were the producers.residence. a speech which went far beyond anything ever heard in the West. according to the Roman view. Spurred on by Venetian financing and Venetian.” confided the patrician Bernardo Bembo to his diary. Cosimo and his cothinkers came close several times to welding an alliance capable of dominating the world. The destruction of Byzantium by the Turks gave the Venetians a slogan with which to organize their war against the Renaissance. himself a participant at the council. in Venice. made up his mind to create the Platonic Academy in Florence. to bring on the Turks once again. In their own sack of Constantinople in 1204. The culmination of the council was an impassioned oration by Plethon on the antithesis between Plato and Aristotle. the Sultan Mohammed the Conqueror laid siege to Constantinople and captured it in 1453. The most immediate question to be addressed was the reunification of the Roman and Greek churches. the leading obsession of the oligarchs. . but it remained a dead letter. the Holy Roman Emperor. as the Greeks argued. The contending theologians debated the question of the “filioque” in the Latin credo. thanks to Cosimo’s dirigism. while listening to Plethon.safehouse in Venice. the Venetians had declined to appropriate these manuscripts. and considered the Venetians “insolent merchants. The foundation of a new Roman Empire became. This new king was determined to apply the concepts of statecraft developed in Italy. from the middle of the fifteenth century on. The Greeks eventually agreed to recognize the correctness of the Latin position. and an enemy of Venice. The Duchy of Milan would shortly come under the domination of the condottiero (mercenary commander) Francesco Sforza. and that anyone who let nonexistent divergences stand in the way of common action against the Turks was a worse traitor than Judas. abrogating the mutual excommunications issued by the pope and the patriarch of Constantinople in 1054. always keeping their mouths open to be able to bite off power and usurp the state of all their neighbors to fulfill the appetite of their souls to conquer Italy and then beyond. which facilitated dealings between the doge and the sultan. and the first to pay the price of their success would have been the Venetians. although they declined to modify their own credo accordingly.

” These megalomaniac plans of the Venetians were no secret. poi son Cristian. or after the manner of traders whose nature it is to weigh everything by utility.” In 1464 Pius II. who tried in vain to force Venice into joining a crusade against the Turks. They please only themselves. for example. which they regard as a deity. Your population so wickedly gathered together will soon be scattered abroad. they are not so much companions of men as of fish and comrades of marine monsters. A Venetian saying of this period was Prima son Vinizian. . In 1423. paying no attention to honor. thinking to compare themselves to the Romans when their power was at its apex. despite a serious illness. and establishes the fact that they are a pagan. but in reality they never think of God and. the Seine. It will not last long. You think [your] republic will last forever. and who are already planning to throw bridgeheads across the Danube. The offscourings of fishermen will be exterminated. nothing holy. for they live on the sea and pass their lives in the water. All law and right may be violated for the sake of power. He wished to force the hand of the Venetians. that is just which is for the good of the state. a revolt against Venetian rule in Albania was started. and Venice thereupon pulled out of any serious fighting against the Turks. the Rhine.” The most penetrating indictments of the Venetians during this period were issued by Pope Pius II Piccolomino. have acted in their diplomacy: “with the good faith characteristics of barbarians. he says. the Doge Tommaso Mocenigo had urged upon his fellow oligarchs a policy of expansionism which would make them the overlords “of all the gold and of Christendom. But what do fish care about law? As among the brute beasts aquatic creatures have the least intelligence. traveled from Rome to Ancona to personally lead a crusade against the Turks.” Machiavelli wrote that the Venetians had “fixed in their souls the intention of creating a monarchy on the Roman model. the Venetians made a deal with the Turks to crush the revolt. They wish to appear as Christians before the world.” During many of these years Venetians were in a tacit alliance with the Turks. and naturally so. When. then a Christian. totalitarian state. To a Venetian. No power was ever greater than the Roman empire and yet God overthrew it because it was impious. threatening the Venetian naval base at Durazzo. traitors to the Christian faith who have tacitly divided up the world with the Turks.” This is corroborated by a dispatch of the ambassador of Louis XII of France at the court of the Emperor Maximilian I some years did the Romans. (I am a Venetian first. who had promised him a battle fleet. and while they talk they listen to and admire themselves…. But his attack on “the mad state” was on target. and Tagus. attempting to reduce Europe to a province and to keep it subjugated to their armies. The Venetians. Pius II excoriates the Venetians for their duplicitous treachery. so among human beings the Venetians are the least just and the least capable of humanity. then and now. A mad state cannot long stand. they hold nothing sacred. except for the state. He died shortly after the Venetian warships arrived. and the Ebro. They are hypocrites. They are allowed to do anything that will bring them to supreme power. On one occasion Pius II received the Venetian ambassador to the Roman court and condemned Venetian policy with these words: “Your cause is one with thieves and robbers…. that is pious which increases the empire…. they use ships instead of horses. which described the Venetians as: “traders in human blood. and He put in its place the priesthood because it respected divine law….”) In his Commentaries. What the senate approves is holy even though it is opposed to the gospel….

Albizi. they must concentrate on duping the overwhelming military forces of European states like France. VENICE AND GENOA COMBINE . formed at the Peace of Lodi in 1453. In reality. This was the French king whom his father. successor of Francesco as Duke of Milan. They seized Padua. Venice more than any other state relied on armies of mercenaries. Their basic premise was that. secured a Florence-Milan alliance by supporting the claims of Francesco Sforza. reaching the Adda River. his family was closely related to the Padua Aristotelian community. Duke of Valentino. he went on to establish a tenuous hold on Naples. who set up a theocracy a la Khomeini. This was enough to bring about the fall of the Medici regime in Florence. This was the Italian League. Basing himself on this Florence-Milan axis. stymied in Italy. These oligarchs immediately sought to crush the Florentine Renaissance using the regime of the demented Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola. The most competent contemporary observer of these matters was Niccolo Machiavelli. and the other Hapsburg dominions into accomplishing this task for them. and Venice. active somewhat later in the post-Medici Florentine diplomatic service. in 1498. with the variation that this time it was they who blatantly invited the French to cross the Alps. a fatal blow to the Renaissance cultural ferment associated there with Leonardo da Vinci. as we have seen. and related oligarchs of that city. the Venetians repeated this maneuver. Louis XII. Cosimo de’ Medici. firstly because of the stated Venetian intention to subjugate Italy in a new Roman Empire. to the advantage of the Pazzi. Lodovico was responsible for the first major invasion of Italy in many years when he agreed to support the claims of Charles VIII of France to the Kingdom of Naples. In this it proved effective.MilanNaples combination designed to check Venetian expansionism. Milan. the Italian League was a Florence. Secondly. With Milan under Venetian control. His own hatred was directed especially against Venice. including the conquest of Cyprus. Shortly thereafter. Naples. giving the Renaissance almost half a century of time to develop under the longa pax of the Medici. Naples accordingly became the first beachhead of what would shortly become a totally destructive Hapsburg hegemony in Italy. just a few miles from Milan. In 1494 the French army crossed the Alps. the great Louis XI. much Venetian energy was devoted to a rapid expansion up the Po Valley toward Milan. and thus embodied precisely that practice which Machiavelli knew had to be extirpated. and the dupe was a new French king. the Venetians concentrated on overseas expansion. But on the death of Cosimo’s successor. accompanied by a Genoese advisor we will meet again later: Giuliano della Rovere. During these years. Savonarola proudly trumpeted that his rule was based on sound Venetian principles. if Italy was to be saved from humiliating subjugation to the likes of the Hapsburgs. ostensibly in an alliance against the Turks. and a factional ally of Cesare Borgia. As for Charles VIII. and Bergamo. they began their systematic campaign to destroy the civilization of the high renaissance. Several years later. Lorenzo the Magnificent. which united the leading powers of Italy. Vicenza. Louis XII decided to compensate the Hapsburgs with Naples. considered a hopeless imbecile. Brescia. Florence. The French army knocked out Milan in 1500. given their own inability to devastate the centers of Renaissance culture and economic development. fighting a was against Venice to do it. making him their agent of influence. Machiavelli pointed out that the disintegration of Italy began when the Venetians succeeded in turning Lodovico il Moro. Spain. the pope.During the first half of the fifteenth century. This time the pretext was the French claim to the Milanese dukedom. Verona. Machiavelli noted that the two most dangerous forces in Italy around the turn of the century were the Venetians and the pope. the “new Romans” could bid fair to dominate northern Italy and then the entire peninsula. in favor of citizensoldiers. Cosimo then proceeded to create an uneasy peace in Italy that was to last forty years. who had for a time held a toe-hold in Apulia.

For Venice. as Julius II). he said. sodomy. a legend that is centered on the coast of Lebanon. and announcing that Venice would vacate territory taken in the past from the Papal States. but after that. Agnadello brought on an orgy of hysterical self-flagellation among the terrified patricians. and they soon lost that as well. Mark. The doge sent a message to the pope asking for mercy. which was assembled in 15081509. The Venetians had their own Marduk cult. Venetian manipulations were about to boomerang in the form of an alliance of all of Europe against Venice. France. . newly appointed patriarch of Venice. the same dumb Valois and Hapsburg giants which had taken out three dangerous rivals were now to turn like Frankenstein’s monsters on the wily new Romans. Savoy. It nearly worked. The symbol of Genoa was St. lechery in nunneries. and Milan had been ruined. Inside Venice. in reality no saint at all but a thinly disguised version of Perseus saving Andromeda by slaying the sea monster. the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. although subordinated to St. on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore. the Venetian mercenary army was crushed by an army composed predominantly of Frenchmen. effeminate dress. Genoa gravitated toward the status of junior partner and close associate of the Venetians. Mantua. The modern British preference of Gorgons is too well known to need comment. Nunneries were catering to the sexual needs of the rich and powerful. violation of promises. They started with Pope Julius II. The Venetians had bested the Genoese by virtue of superior connections in the East. But more significantly. one of the highest level think tanks in the world. The Venetians were driven all the way down the Po Valley to Padua. At Agnadello. The banker Girolamo Priuli wrote in his diary that Agnadello had been a punishment for the sins of the Venetian nobility. Machiavelli exulted that on the day of Agnadello. the shock of Agnadello set into motion a strategic review in the Venetian intelligence community which led to very far-reaching conclusions. This pontiff was. as already noted. The defeat was a punishment for the city’s sins. Homosexuality was so widespread that female prostitutes had complained to him that they had earned so little during their youth that they had to keep working far into their old age. the Venetian position was desperate. The announced purpose of this alliance was to expunge Venice from the face of the earth. The “George” is said to come from the Gorgon Medusa. The opposing coalition was made up of the pope (by then the Genoese Giuliano della Rovere. whose head Perseus was carrying. some of which were not obvious before several decades had gone by. and luxurious and lascivious entertainments. among which he numbered arrogance. and Ferrara. Spain. This was the famous crisis of the War of the League of Cambrai. With nothing left but the lagoons. but otherwise their was a broad area of agreement. bringing a grant of Florentine cash to the aid of the Franco-Imperial forces holding Verona. so far so good: Florence. near the Adda River. Genoese. Naples. The first Venetian ploy was to attempt to dismember the Cambrai coalition. Antonio Contarini. gave a speech to the Senate in which he characterized the Serenissima as a thoroughly amoral city. home of a Dominican monastery and today of the Cini Foundation. the Syrian Apollo. Genoa and Venice had engaged in a series of highly destructive wars up till about the end of the fourteenth century. the Venetians lost everything that they had conquered in more than 800 years. Machiavelli was himself engaged in operations against Venice. George the dragon-slayer. Perseus is in turn nothing but a westernized variant of Marduk. But ironically. a deity associated with the most evil forces of ancient Assyria and Babylon.

capturing King Francis I. Thus. fearing a rapid French offensive. Florence. this time with more lasting success. the main centers of the Renaissance had been subverted or destroyed. Julius II suddenly discovered that the real issue was not Venice after all.What probably accounted more directly for Julius II’s decision to reverse his alliances was a deal mediated with the Venetians by Agostino Chigi. The emperor’s bankers and intelligencers were the Fuggers of Augsburg. Garrisons of imperial troops were shortly stationed in every major city. A Doria coup in Genoa then established a permanent de facto alliance with Venice. The sack of Rome in 1527 was the direct outcome of this combined Venetian diplomacy and manipulation. By 1525 the prevalent barbarians in Italy were the forces of Emperor Charles V. He proposed that the Venetians stop buying alum. Venice was the only major Italian state which had retained real sovereignty. With the end of the Renaissance. while the imperial army of Lutheran Lanzi under Georg Frundsberg devastated Italy. was sent to Venice for a period of apprenticeship at the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. and the Papal States under Pope Clement VIII Medici. At this point Doge Andrea Gritti. whose portrait by Tiziano speaks volumes about his personality. especially toward the East. began using the battle cry of “Italy and Freedom!” Thus the post-Agnadello crisis was overcome. Milan. the Genoese Admiral Andrea Doria.” uniting France. needed in textile and glass manufacture. and of their colleagues the Welsers as well. This was the case with Jacob Fugger the Rich. decided to agitate once again the banner of Italian freedom. but the need to expel the barbarians (primarily the French) from Italy. was acting as agent. the last intact Renaissance center. Venice was the pivot for Fugger metals trading. but contract for a large shipment at higher prices from the alum mines at Tolfa in the Papal States – mines for which he. the Venetians stayed in their phony war posture against Charles V. In 1530. defected to the imperial side. the Siena Black Guelph banker from whose financial empire the infamous Siena Group of today derives. The French lost their hold on Naples and Milan. Even the Venetian mercenaries. Charles V was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy in a ceremony at Bologna. To sweeten the pot. designed to play the French against Charles V once again to destroy Medici-controlled Rome. within a context of very heavy Venetian control of the cities of the Danube valley. Julius stipulated an alliance with Venice. Only the Chigi loan allowed them to hire enough Swiss mercenaries to hold out against the French and the Imperial Landsknechte. Virtually every young male member of the Fugger family. The Venetians. commanding the French fleet. To provide a plausible cover for his move. Chigi offered the Venetians tens of thousands of ducats in much-needed loans. the Venetians retired into defensive positions to await the outcome. mostly Swiss. accepted. THE CREATION OF THE JESUITS . Venice could feel free to start a delphic Renaissance among the throngs of intellectuals seeking asylum in the lagoons. Chigi. Venetian capacities to manipulate Charles V were formidable indeed. Venice. After having set up this alliance. who had defeated the French at Pavia. from the Turks. He then set up the slogan of Fuori Barbari! (Kick the Barbarians out!) which is still recorded by credulous writers of Italian school books as the beginning of the struggle to unify Italy. a banking house and a city that must be regarded as Venetian satellites. Their own state finances were in total shambles. Some years later the Venetians tried the same tactic in reverse. To make Charles V’s triumph complete. This took the form of the Holy League of Cognac “for the restoration of Italian liberty. Thanks to the tenacious policy of the Venetians.

Then Ignatius made his way to Rome. The Contarinis had produced seven doges. would severely undercut the influence of Erasmus and others like him.The “long autumn of the Italian Renaissance in Venice” during the rest of the sixteenth century was only one deployment among several. who offered him passage to Cyprus on a Venetian warship as first leg of his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. where he represented the Roman point of view in debates with schismatics like Melancthon. fleas and all. Clearly. What gave Luther and the rest of the Protestant reformers real clout was a publicity and diffusion of their ideas that owed much to the Venetian publishing establishment. all owing allegiance to Aristotle. In June . One evening the Venetian oligarch Marcantonio Trevisan was sleeping in his golden palace. France. Andrea Gritti. a poor pilgrim who needs your help?” Trevisan rushed downstairs to find Ignatius. a conflict between reformers and counter. and had a vision. and appointed Ignatius his personal confessor and spiritual advisor. where he took a role in setting up the Medici Pope Clement VII for the 1527 sack of Rome. but this is something of a secondary matter. In 1521. Mark’s Square and lived by begging. Venetian interest was well-served by a schismatic movement that would embroil Germany. where he camped out in St. By 1540. “Why are you sleeping so soundly in your warm bed. Contarini was sent as papal legate to the Imperial Diet at Regenburg. The cardinal took the Exercitationes Spirituales. who had been appointed to the College of Cardinals by Pope Paul III Farnese. Venetian influence on both Reformation and Counter. There. Here he became the protégé of Gasparo Contarini. who became a recipient of Ignatius’ patented brainwashing treatment. he had a hand in destroying any compromise between the Lutherans and the Emperor Charles. who did not let the fact that he was a Protestant in theology. prevent him from founding the Society of Jesus. He served the Serene Republic as ambassador to the court of Charles V. The more immediate controllers of Martin Luther have yet to be identified. What does this sublime Venetian patrician have to do with the founding of the Jesuit order by that itinerant and deranged mystic. well before Luther. Ignatius continued his travels. and the rest of Europe in a series of easily profiled conflicts. In addition. Ignatius of Loyola? Ignatius was the creature of Venice.000 copies of the writings of Luther. Ignatius was wounded while fighting the French in one of the wars of Charles V. and of Contarini in particular. while in the square there is a holy man. after which he took up the life of a hobo.reformers. and the heresiarch Juan Valdes. which would have helped to end the bloodshed and dissension of the Reformation years. but soon returned to Venice to develop relationships with other members of the oligarchy. After that. Toward the end of his life. During his convalescence.Reformation can be seen most clearly in the remarkable career of Gasparo Contarini. Contarini was the scion of one of Venice’s most prestigious LONGHI families. who became his house guest. Calvin. Pope Leo X publicly denounced the University of Padua as the hotbed of inspiration of the German disease of Lutheranism. Luther’s agitation in Wittenberg was merely one more example of protests against the papacy and the Curia that had been chronic and endemic for decades. and as ambassador to the Vatican. Contarini had personally interceded with the pope against Ignatius’ enemies within the church hierarchy to ensure the founding of the Society of Jesus as a new Church order. An angel came to him asking. Melancthon. he underwent his much-touted mystical crisis. especially popular in Italy. and Gasparo had his sights set on being the eighth. Making his way around Europe seeking funding for a pilgrimage to the holy land. Ignatius was given an audience with the doge. Ignatius found his way to Venice. the Exercitationes Spirituales. Another was the promotion of the Protestant Reformation. The Venetian presses quickly turned out 40. before he was tapped to serve Venice as a member of the College of Cardinals. These included Gasparo Contarini’s nephew Pietro.

in contrast to their rivals. and topped this off with a muck-raking History of the Council of Trent. the so-called Giovani. whose lack of noble birth kept him from public office. they said.” He engaged in a long pamphlet war with Bellarmino.1539. has become a feature of the turgid Jesuit homiletics. The Ridotto Morosini salon was in favor of tolerance and science. which needless to say whitewashed the role of Venetian intelligence in the Counter. corresponded to a metastasis of Venice’s power and influence through the world. The Vecchi. where he had been associated with Nicholas Bobadilla. The main supporter of Venice internationally was James I. METASTASIS The policies of the Giovani. the Enlightenment. who called him “my father. were paralyzed by too much fear of Spanish power. The Venetians and their Genoese Doria-faction associates were busily shifting their family fortunes into more profitable locations. under the leadership of a Servite monk named Paolo Sarpi. Contarini personally traveled to the pope’s summer residence at Tivoli. specifically Zuane Mocenigo. sponsored by the ancient family of the same name. They wished above all to cement alliances with the countries to whom they felt the future belonged: France. accordingly. His approving comment Hic est digitus Dei. Ignatius’ original hard core. later the Jesuit-general. against everything doctrinaire and narrow. not tied to the fate of what was rapidly becoming a third-rate naval power. and his direct adversary during the Interdict affair. The Borghese pope placed Venice under the interdict. They sheltered Galileo against the Inquisition. l’esprit libertin and the Philosophes – in a word. the Vecchi. when the Pope (now Paul V. and the Netherlands. In the years around 1570. (”Here is the finger of God”). the Stuart ruler of England. were in favor of profound innovations in Venetian foreign policy. He was close to Galileo. and prevailed on the pontiff to let him read aloud the statutes of the new order composed by Ignatius. The Giovani. At the same time.” Sarpi had lent a hand in the construction of Galileo’s telescope. Out of the Morosini salon came one of the rare public factions in Venetian political history. The noise created around the whole affair was so great that some people forgot that it had after all been the Venetians. and proceeded to excommunicate government officials. which is curiously similar to the writings of John Locke. Sarpi had been in Rome. He had been a friend of Bellarmino. Sarpi was the Venetian contact man for Sir Francis Bacon. propagandized by Sarpi and Doge Leonardo Dona’ during the struggle around the Interdict. The Giovani were able to implement their program in 1606. Sarpi admitted in private to being “a Protestant. and not ready enough to tangle with the people. Venice became the site of the first example in Europe of what the French later termed “salons” for socializing and literary discussion: the Ridotto Morosini. who had consigned Giordano Bruno – also of Ridotto Morosini – into the hands of the Inquisition just a few years before. Here the seeds were sown that would later produce free-thinking. one of St. the powerful Venetian propaganda apparatus swung into action. Camillo Borghese) strenuously objected to the arrest by Venice of several ecclesiastics in its territory. England.Reformation. BIRTH OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT An ironic postscript to this story is that later the Venetian oligarchy decided that it simply would not do to be too closely identified with the benighted excesses of the Spanish and the papacy they so thoroughly dominated. . Sarpi was lavish in his praise of Gilbert’s treatise on magnetism. The pope must have been favorably impressed by something. He was also the author of an Arte di Ben Pensare.

These ventures live on today in the biggest business enterprise associated with Venice. where foreign troops had never before in history been seen. leaving the state with no outstanding obligations of any type. the great Neapolitan Neoplatonic Giuseppe Cuoco wrote: “I don’t know what will happen to Italy. with about 14 million ducats in coins in reserve around 1600. This overall highly liquid situation is a sure sign that flights of capital are underway. England. The golden Bucentoro was burned and the gold carted off. the Gran Consiglio obeyed Napoleon’s ultimatum and voted itself out of existence. and of the Dutch East India Company. shifting to a silver standard from the previous gold standard in the middle of the sixteenth century. in cooperation with the restored – that is. Four thousand French infantrymen paraded on St. George’s Bank received virtually the entire world’s circulating gold stocks.” POST MORTEM Unfortunately. were serving with the British Royal Navy. Venice and Genoa were also the midwives for the great financial power growing up in Geneva. The Venetians. which soon had a turnover of 20 million ducats a year. The two cities teamed up starting around 1579 at the Piacenza Fair. of course. a prototype of a clearing house for European banks. which specialized in controlling the French public debt and in fostering the delphic spirits of the Enlightenment. degenerated – Medici interests. incredibly. and the Netherlands. but it continued most emphatically to exist in less visible but highly effective forms. the financial hinge of the seventeenth century. Venice got control of the silver coming from the Americas. Commenting on the liquidation of Venice. One particular of the last years of Venice is of special interest to us: During the American Revolution about 3000 Venetian naval personnel. and imparted their characteristic method to the British East India Company. The Genoese around the St. is to Machiavelli. This silver was used to pay for the spices and other products from the East. This fair was a precursor of the post-Versailles Bank for International Settlements. the Assicurazioni Generali Venezia. Venice was extremely liquid at this time. The Venetian “Republic” was finished. During the nineteenth century and up to our own time it has been the most important single . 1797. William Wordsworth lamented the demise of “a maiden city. one of the biggest if not the biggest insurance and real estate holdings in the world. but the fulfillment of the Florentine secretary’s prophecy in the destruction of the old. imbecilic Venetian oligarchy will be a great boon for Italy always. all the obituaries were premature: Venice has continued to be very much alive. in the direction of the countries singled out by the Giovani as future partners or victims: France.The Venice-Genoa partnership is in evidence first of all in the banking side of the Spanish looting of the New World. On the other side.” the “eldest child of liberty. At about the same time. corresponding to about one-third of the total available strength. Mark’s Square. the Venetian regime had completed the process of paying off its entire public debt. Venice and Genoa assumed direction of the finances of Stuart England. It is also this tandem that was present at the creation of the great Amsterdam Bank. On May 12. In 1603.” The reference. began a major move into maritime and other types of insurance.

– must now be welded together into one movement . and particularly since its 1972 release of the zero-growth model Limits to Growth was published. and the Dardanelles. which is generally recognized as the detonator of World War I. The Stones of Venice (1851). bringing on to center stage the so-called Parvus Plan for dismemberment of the Ottoman and Russian empires.incubator for fascist movements. The SEC counted among its members the cream of the postwar intelligencia: Adam Schaff of Poland. and so on. At the end of his life Wagner moved to Palazzo Vendramin Callergi. This volume popularized the notion that a “Venetian Gothic” style had been developed in the better times of the city’s history (which for Ruskin ended in 1418) and it was used systematically to discredit the Golden Renaissance. the peace movement. civil liberties. Francois Mauriac. Julian Huxley and Thomas Mann. Benedetto Croce and Norberto Bobbio. One story has it that the leitmotif of the Liebestod was inspired by the mournful call of a gondolier. a series of social movements has sprung up under the sponsorship of the ideas in the book. who was known as the doge of his era. * A turn-of-the-century new Roman Empire faction led by Venetian Count Volpi di Misurata. the Club of Rome is the institution that represents the most concentrated essence of Venetian influence and the Venetian method. along with a very large number of other Venetians. Venice’s importance for political culture is now greater than ever. sponsored the fascist Mussolini supporter Gabriele D’Annunzio to drum up enthusiasm for a new crusade into the Balkans and the East. the leading ideologue of the British Dark Ages faction. was also the home of Count Coudenhove. the founder of the Pan-European Union. for Thomas Mann. D’Annunzio incited the Italians to take back Trieste. consumer and minority rights. Friedrich Nietzsche loved Venice. Club of Rome founder Aurelio Peccei has just written a new book titled One Hundred Pages For the Future. Third World national liberation movements. gay rights. has for the past three decades pulled intellectuals from both East and West into organizing for an “international culture. and Jean Cocteau. the SEC launched the Third World national liberation ideology. a fully developed version of the argument that geometric population growth outstrips the much slower arithmetric progress of food production. The Club of Rome wants to convince the great powers and peoples of the world to commit collective suicide by accepting the genocidal doctrine of zero growth. the rest of Italia Irredenta. It is possible that the turnof-the. * John Ruskin. etc. These – the women’s movement.” based on rejecting the existence of sovereign nations. a global review of the impact of the Club of Rome. a think tank created in 1950 through the efforts of Venetian intelligence operative Umberto Campagnolo. Georg Lukas of Hungary. ecologists. Later. Bertolt Brecht of East Germany. began his career with a raving treatise on architecture.Kalergi.century super spook Alexander Parvus was ultimately employed by Venice. presently a gambling casino. Richard Wagner wrote part of Tristan und Isolde while living in the Palazzo Giustinian on the Grand Canal. This building. Other examples abound of how the Venetian oligarchy’s cultural and political influence has reached down into the modern era: * When British East India Company retainer Thomas Malthus published his Essay on Population he was plagiarizing from the Venetian Giammaria Ortes. It also hopes to abolish the sovereign nation as a vehicle for economic growth and scientific progress. where he died. * The Societe Europeenne de Culture. Venice was an inspiration for Lord Byron. and Boris Paternak of the Soviet Union. as well as Stephen Spender and Arnold Toynbee. With its military and financial power largely emigrated elsewhere. Volpi became finance minister in Mussolini’s cabinet. returned there incessantly. Today. Examples of this are inexhaustible. and dedicated certain poems to the city which today can still be used in lieu of a powerful emetic. around 1750. who produced.

the most urgent task of this generation of mankind is to definitively liquidate the horror that is Venice. Truly. The Venetian problem remains with us today.for a single strategic goal: the implementation of a zero-growth international order. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END .

where leading patricians lectured on December 27. The traditional rate of interest was above 20% – a Volcker prime rate. Cusanus. and in creating the pseudo-scientific. shortly after 1200.imperial current among the electors and other princes (Fuersten) of the Holy Roman Empire. irrationalist currents of thought that are called the Enlightenment. and of his associate Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini. Enlightenment. our philosophical association has advanced the thesis that many of the disasters of modern history have been rooted in the heritage of the former Venetian Republic. As has just been stressed. Without Nicolaus and Aeneas Silvius. 1993 During the last dozen years. and who is thus a prominent and typical representative of the anti-papal. saw religion as a tool of state power. Nicolaus and Aeneas Silvius saved western civilization from the Dark Age that had begun with the defeat of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen at the hands of the Black Guelph oligarchs.” The essence of Venice is oligarchism. the most eminent doctor of the Germans. and the Thirty Years’ War « TARPLEY. Paolo Morosini dedicated to Heimburg one of the landmark propaganda pieces on the Venetian oligarchical system to be published during the fifteenth century. and http://tarpley. We must remember that Venice was a branch of the Byzantine Empire which became powerful enough to capture Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade. Pope Pius II. the founder of modern science. and later. 191]. and with our efforts to launch a new Renaissance today. and the cult of Aristotle. religion and morality in the last half millennium is constituted by the work of Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. like Byzantium. Venice opposed both through the Morosini agent Gregory von Heimburg [Gilbert. . culture. the Roman Catholic Church had been substantially destroyed by the Avignon captivity and the Great Schism. This was the stratum of oligarchs played by the Venetians during the conciliar movement. the Wars of the Roses. The Venetians were the first in western Europe to read Aristotle directly in the Greek text – first at the School of the Rialto. the benchmark for civilization. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents ICLC Conference.” Gregory was the thug and agent provocateur who attempted to sabotage the work of Pius II. April. and the advance of the Ottoman Empire. appeared in New Federalist. I would like to return to some of these themes today in order to explore them in greater detail. where the Venetian nobles studied. anti. both against the backdrop of such events as the Hundred Years’ War. Counterreformation. slavery.The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in Reformation. During that Dark Age. “Concerning the affairs and structure of the Venetian Republic. Our interest in exposing the Venetian war against the Italian renaissance of the Quattrocento is coherent with our commitment to the Renaissance as an ideal. mobilized by Venice against Pius II’s proposed crusade. 6 September 1992. Venice. usury. This includes the central role of the Venetians in cutting short the Golden Renaissance of Italy. in precipitating the Protestant reformation and the wars of religion. and which would form the basis of Luther’s support during the “Reformation. dedicated to Gregory of Heimburg. there would have been no Europe and no church by 1500. at the University of Padova. with new cults to be concocted as the need arose. Through their cooperation with the best representatives of Medici Florence in the time of the Council of Florence of 1439. after about 1400.

The League of Cambrai was the first broad coalition of European states against a nominally Christian nation. and had to borrow from the Chigi of Siena. religion. Pope Julius II was induced to drop out of the League of Cambrai. the Venetian ambassador to Florence and the Florence handler for the Venetian Signoria was part of this (”The Venetians are called the new Romans. who rides a bull and carries a shield embossed with the arms of the member states of the league.scientific method cooked up by Francis Bacon using the epistemological writings of Paolo Sarpi portrayed itself as tearing down the authority of Aristotle in favor of scientific experiment. to invade Italy. Another family prominent in the effort were the Dona’. but between 1509 and 1513 the French forces. despite the Manichean dualism in Luther which led right back to Aristotle’s method. Venice sought help from the Ottoman Empire. Venice developed in Italy and in Europe an extensive Aristotelian network. Mantova. Florence. It included just about all of Europe: the France of Louis XII. the Venetians thought they could pick up the pieces. 236] It should then come as no surprise to find Martin Luther. Mark fighting Europa. lost all the land it had stolen in the course of centuries. whose residents were subjected to special discriminatory laws and were obliged to wear a yellow .THE ARISTOTELIAN NETWORK During the Quattrocento. the Duke of Savoy. Italy was indeed devastated by these rival armies. Pope Julius II. French troops crushed the Venetian mercenaries. Venetian diplomacy invited France and Spain. Venice. with Florentine money. but was left with no allies. Spain. Similarly. The Venetians were driven back to their lagoon. They appear to have been thinking of the fundamentalism of isolated Biblical quotations as it has in fact flourished among the Protestant sects. Bernardo Bembo. A painting by Palma Giovane in the Doge’s palace depicts Doge Loredan and the lion of St. Previously Jews had been restricted to the role of moneylenders on the terraferma. on the terraferma. It was also at this time that the Jewish community of Venice came into existence. packaging his own reform movement in a very similar “anti-Aristotelian” garb. the Papal states and Naples. In the decisive battle of Agnadello. Giustinian-Querini recommended Holy Scripture and Church fathers. Another prong of the Venetian war against the Renaissance was Venice’s expansion inside Italy. But this does not change the fact that Bacon’s method was Aristotelian through and through. in their pioneering 1513 reform proposals addressed to Pope Leo X attacked the decadent scholasticism of the Sorbonne. Bacon touted induction as the great alternative to syllogisms. perhaps depicted here with the features of the younger Ermolao Barbaro. and the “modern” Aristotle of Padova-Rialto. Some accounts include England. kept the Venetians on the brink of doom. who will pop up again and again in this account. the King of Hungary." p. 112] (Instead. Fighting began in 1509. Giorgione’s painting “The Three Philosophers” can be seen as depicting three Aristotles: the scholastic Aristotle of the Paris Sorbonne. the Holy Roman Empire of Maximilan I. There was a plan to carve up Venice.” [Jedin. but there is no qualitative difference. The state was close to bankruptcy.) [See also Schnitzer. p. the Dukes of Ferrara. the pseudo. But the Venetian oligarchs Giustinian and Quirini. The Barbaro family was represented by Francesco. Augustine. a few years later.). the Averroistic Aristotle derived from the Arabs. Florence. But the entry of the new great powers into Italy also prepared the greatest shock in Venetian history: the War of the League of Cambrai. Milan. This painting hints at an important feature of Venetian method. the emerging great powers. saying that the education of clergy must no longer be based on the “fallacious erudition of the Parisians” and similar “pagan fables. as Machiavelli exulted. as was his son Pietro Bembo. and politics through the expedient of concocting a series of Aristotelian cults or schools which then contend among each other. namely the strategy of dominating culture. Jews were obliged to live in the quarter called the ghetto. Between the French conquest of Milan in 1494 and the sack of Rome in 1527. In the 1400’s the Aristotelian school-men of the Sorbonne were a formidable force in theology. especially St.” he wrote. the King of Cyprus. their destruction was imminent. with the aim of conquering the entire Italian peninsula and then of using Italy to dominate the world. "Contributo. Ermolao the elder and Ermolao the younger. When it proved impossible to conquer Milan.

p. they hold nothing sacred. let us jump from Gasparo Contarini in Venice in 1511 to Martin Luther in the tower of his Wittenberg monastery in the years 1513-1514. some patricians realized that the lagoon city could now be crushed like an egg-shell. first on Murano and later near Arezzo. but this was abandoned.” This is all in addition to the attacks on the schoolmen mentioned above. Contarini had helped entertain Agostino Chigi when he was negotiating that vital loan. 150] At the deepest level. 743] One participant was Vincenzo Quirini. Giustinian and Quirini became the advance guard of the Catholic reformation. “Pamphlet to Leo X” to the Lateran Council. generally regarded as the starting point of the . 18. p. where he had been serving as the Venetian ambassador to the Empire. but the Doge told the 2. identified as “Sophi.” [Alberi. the Patriarch of Aquilea. which they do regard as a deity. p. 39] In the midst of the hysteria in the lagoon. he warned the Doge.] Gasparo Contarini corresponded with Quirini and Giustinian for more than a decade. Remember what Pius II had said of the Venetians: “they wish to appear Christians before the world. even more important was the prevalence of sodomy.” [H. shaking up the Camaldolese order and later sending the first Catholic reform manifesto. a religious revival broke out. p. If Europe could unite against Venice. and was not a suitable base for world domination. series 1. for the deified state and the immortal fondi were in gravest danger. indebted and humiliated Venice survived the War of the League of Cambrai. what could Venice do to divide and rend Europe so thoroughly that it would tear itself to pieces for more than a century? A LOOK AT CONTARINI To see how this was done. whose family will be at the center of our story.” [Gilbert.500 patricians that the new Spanish power had reduced the republic from a great power to “2. whose studies under the Aristotelian Pomponazzi were interrupted when Emperor Maximilian seized Padova. the Portuguese access to India had undercut the Venetian spice monopoly through the Levant. Back at Venice. A badly mauled. Venice had always thrived through divide and conquer. so now plans began to hatch that would facilitate a metastasis of the Venetian cancer towards the Atlantic world. During the grim winter of 1510-1511. p. except for the state. “All the princes of the empire. but in reality they never think of God and. who had just been in Germany.500 flies. As after 1200 there had been talk of moving the capital. Religious processions and demonstrations multiplied. harangued the Senate on Venetian immorality: “Nunneries served the sexual needs of the rich and powerful. (This proposes the death penalty for Jews who do not convert and a war with the Turks in alliance with the young leader of Persia. [Schnitzer. 6. in the midst of the mortal emergency of Cambrai. Quirini had seen that war was imminent. a sure marker for the presence of the Bogomilbugger tradition in epistemology. 38] Indeed: 10% of the population were female prostitutes at any given time. Giustinian and Quirini turned away from their patrician state careers and entered the austere Camaldolese order. Contarini. which I have seen and touched with my hands…. Contarini gravitated to a group of young patricians who gathered at the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele on the island of Murano to discuss the salvation of their souls. who had gone to the Levant in 1507 (looking for Turkish help?). Homosexuality was so widespread that female prostitutes had come to him complaining that they earned so little they had to exercise their profession into old age. let us look at Gasparo Contarini. spurred on by Antonio Contarini. To make matters worse. As the Cambrai crisis deepened. the years of Luther’s so-called “Thurmerlbenis” or experience in the tower. harbor a very ill will towards your most illustrious Lordship. To put them in perspective. there was talk of building a Suez canal. [Gilbert. Brown. Parts of this correspondence have survived. 227 ff.43].” [Pius II Commentaries. demagogic preachers attempted to blame the disasters of Venetian policy on the new Jewish of David. vol. Another was Paolo Giustinian. be they prelates or secular rulers. perhaps to Constantinople. and illuminate the actual origins of the Protestant Reformation.

Something not so different was professed by the Bogomils. the German scholar Hubert Jedin. and into which human weakness falls. the idea that good and evil are equally necessary parts of the creation. For Luther. A holy father told Contarini that the way to salvation is “much broader than what many people think. 506. In the Camaldolese monastery of Monte Corona above Frascati in the summer of 1943. the material world is inherently bad. FAITH AND WORKS The “Thurmerlebenis” brought Luther to the definitive standpoint of his theology: that salvation is by faith alone. therefore He punishes.’ I soon had the thought whether we ought to live justified by faith. and even many more.” Luther attempted to portray his own viewpoint as a return to St. The just shall live by faith.’ `justice of God. and with that small love of which we are capable. Contarini would have us believe that he was contemplating becoming a monk himself. and God’s justice ought to be the salvation of every believer. even if they were all taken together. Luther’s marginal jottings to Augustine’s Confessions have come to light. He is just. but this was disingenuous. And I truly understood that if I performed all the penances possible. Through this thought I was changed from great fear . "Luther. This knowledge the Holy Spirit gave me on the privy in the tower. Therefore it is God’s justice which justifies us and saves us. acting on the advice of Giuseppe de Luca. an interesting one recaptures Luther’s reaction to Augustine’s polemics against the Manicheans and their idea of the two coequal cosmic forces locked in struggle. this could be clearly recognized as a new variation on Manicheanism. Augustine’s stress on grace as against the ethical notions of the late Graeco-Roman world. One is from Eastertide 1511. Luther describes the experience thus: “These words `just’ and `justice of God’ were a thunderbolt in my conscience.] Luther appears to reflect the influence of the pseudoHermes Trismegistus and his “Book of the 24 Philosophers. Luther’s contemporary and sometime associate Philip Melanchton saw Luther in exactly these terms: “Manichean delirium. His passion is sufficient and more than sufficient. But once when in this tower I was meditating on those words. with hope.17: “For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written. As regards satisfaction for sins committed. having only by its goodness made us out of nothing and exalted us to such a height … We must attempt only to unite ourselves with our head [Christ] with faith. This is similar to Luther’s starting point. According to such a Gnostic view. Luther’s annotation: “This is false. and soon my soul was revived. Giustinian and Quirini. discovered 30 letters from Gasparo Contarini to the Cambai Camaldolese. they would not be enough to make up for my past sins. the devil is an independent power who rules over the material world.” [Grisar. and Theobald Beer. and only the spiritual world can be good. And having seen that infinite goodness. In those days of greater theological knowledge. when Contarini went first to the Benedictine monastery on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore.Protestant reformation. `the just lives by faith. to say nothing of meriting that felicity.] This was Luther’s celebrated explication of Paul’s Letter to the Romans I. with the good works of charity playing no role whatsoever." VI. and then to San Sebastiano. that love which always burns infinitely and loves us little worms so much that our intellect cannot fathom it. but concluded that even a monastic life of asceticism and good works would never be enough to atone for his sins. human reason is the “bride and whore” of the devil.” Contarini writes: “… I began to think to myself what that happiness [salvation] might be and what our condition is.” CONTARINI AND LUTHER But in the given historical context it is more than interesting that the top Venetian oligarch of the day – Gasparo Contarini – in 1511 went through a Thurmerlebnis of his own. They soon struck terror in me who heard them.” This passage was ripped out of scriptural and traditional context and made the total passkey.” [see Socci and Ricci. This is the origin of all Augustine’s errors. so good works belong to the devil. p.

I began with my whole spirit to turn to this greatest good which I saw. the wretch who had not had enough courage for the atonement of my iniquities to leave the world and do penance. which I myself was incapable of satisfying. nor must we rely on ourselves to the smallest degree. and say with him: `Blessed is the man without works. might have been transmitted to Germany. our knowledge and our will. Mutianus Rufus because of his learning and humanity and confess myself to be very much in his debt. and since I asked him to let me share in the satisfaction which he. on the cross. Let us consider first whether there was any way that the tidings of Contarini’s new stress on faith. and who were called evangelicals. on the one hand because he constantly speaks well of me. with his arms open. Whence I conclude that every living man is a thing of utter vanity.” [Jedin. 127] Contarini was always much more careful in the writings he published. the Elector of Saxony.” [Briefwechsel des Conradus Mutianus. although first I read it and heard it. 117 and Dermot Fenlon. or “spirituali.] The parallels to Luther are evident. the undisputed caposcuola among those in Italy who argued for salvation ex sola fede. Greek. Mutianus came to know Aldus Manutius. and that we must justify ourselves through the righteousness of another.8." p. Aldus had written to Mutianus’s disciple Urbanus: “I most highly esteem S.’” [Jedin. to whom the Lord did not impute sin…. and on the other because he kindly procured for me the . for love of me. in the form of a Venetian Aristotelian network which reached into the court of Frederick the Wise. turned to him. in a letter of 1523. who protected Luther from Pope Leo X’s extradition demands and from the ban the empire placed on Luther by Emperor Charles V. This I. make Contarini the first Protestant. including Venice. even though Contarini still allows hope and a little love a role in salvation. as Saint Paul says. and to humble as much as possible the confidence we feel in our works. developed during the Cambrai crisis. p. and that means of Christ: and when we join ourselves to him. and other learned texts (and the target of Erasmus’s satire in the hilarious Opulentia Sordida). but must say: `From ourselves we received the answer of death. "Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Ital. in addition to faith. had made for us. his righteousness is made ours. There was. just at the moment it is all the easier for him to fall. MUTIANUS RUFUS AND SPALATIN Our knowledge of this network begins with the figure of one Conradus Mutianus Rufus. but that it is necessary to have recourse to divine grace which is obtained through faith in Jesus Christ. 249] he wrote to a correspondent in 1509.” to whom we will return shortly. in his treatise De Praedestinatione he says that Christians should “seek to exalt as much as possible the grace of Christ and faith in him. now nonetheless through experience I penetrate very well with my intellect: and that is that no one can justify himself with his works or purge his soul of its inclinations. and his breast opened up right to his heart. with the Cambrai war clouds on the horizon.and suffering to happiness." p.” These letters. Later. the celebrated Venetian publisher of Latin. Mutianus Rufus had been in contact with members of the Signoria: “I saw Venetian patricians wearing a silken belt which hung down on one side and went around one arm. he would go beyond this and wholly embrace the Lutheran position: “Wherefore I have truly come to this firm conclusion which. With Aldus we are at the heart of the Venetian intelligence networks among the self-styled humanists around 1500. p. after Contarini had seen Luther. and who had studied in Bologna and visited other cities. "Ein `Thurmerlbenis' des jungen Contarini. he was quick to accept me and to cause his Father completely to cancel the debt I had contracted. without any sins of his own. In February 1506. who was in the early 1500s the Kanonikus of the Marienstift in Gotha. crypto-Protestants.’ Now I see both in myself and in others that when a man thinks he has acquired some virtue. a Latin and Greek scholar and cleric who had traveled to Italy during the period 1499-1503. first published in 1950.

” wrote Luther to Spalatin on December 12. “there is no one in our group whom I would prefer to you. Gradually Spalatin became something like a junior minister. And therefore if I did not only esteem you and Mutianus and Spalatinus completely as men both learned and well-disposed towards me. It is not known exactly when Spalatin met Luther for the first time. where he was responsible for purchasing books for the library. Mutianus and Spalatin received a report that Aldus was on his way to Germany with a cargo of precious Greek and Latin manuscripts. 1524. and also for the newly founded University of Wittenberg and for its library. 1956)] In 1505. for Burckhardt. In 1515-16 Luther gave his lecture on salvation through faith alone. and not permit the case to go to Rome. Frederick the Wise wrote to Aldus. This began a correspondence. Spalatinus. After Luther. In 1515. Spalatin made sure he had an escort provided by Frederick. George Spalatin (Weimar. p. 1516. in 1484. Here Spalatin acted as Luther’s intercessor. or Spalatinus in his humanist name. where he wrote: “First man must change himself. but in December 1512. and Spalatin prepared the Latin text. In December 1505.” says Hoess). of which 400 of Luther’s letters to Spalatin. Spalatin wrote to Aldus on March 25. on Halloween 1517. I would be the most ungrateful man of all. Mutianus Rufus found Spalatin a job at the monastery in Georgenthal. written by Ermolao Barbaro the Younger. in the greatest church split [Kirchenspaltung] of recent history. [Irmgard Hoess. second perhaps only to Luther himself. Spalatin. is the one we focus on. but Luther’s first extant letter to Spalatin is placed in about February 1514. have survived. Another of Mutianus’s network was Johann Lang of Erfurt. When Luther went to Heidelberg for a theological debate. 1512. Luther was summoned to Rome by the . In 1512. The orders were made with Aldus Manutius in Venice. but his adviser and indeed his controller in matters of political tactics and strategy. visiting him in his Gotha office where “Farewell to Cares” was inscribed on the door.friendship of a man decked out with learning and holy ways like you. only then can his works be changed” – a leading idea expressed by Giustinian-Quirini.] The other disciple of Mutianus Rufus named here. during the Cambrai war. in the middle of the Thurmerlebnis [tower experience] period.” [See Briefwechsel. it was Spalatin who convinced Frederick to keep the matter in Saxony. Frederick the Wise. Spalatin appears as Luther’s interlocutor in theology (”he influenced Luther very strongly in the direction of clarity. Spalatin had asked Luther’s opinion on the controversy over the Hebrew and Talmudic studies of Johannes Reuchlin. who had studied in Erfurt after 1501 at the same time as Spalatin. who would shortly reside in an Augustinian monastery alongside a certain Martin Luther. gradually acquiring responsibility for Frederick’s prized collection of relics of the saints. proposing that Aldus meet with Frederick the Wise for a major book purchase. with payment by way of the Fugger copper mines in Hohenkirchen. but also love you so very much in return. Spalatin placed a new book order for Greek and Latin texts with the Aldus firm. a student at Erfurt. Was Aldus planning a mission in order to secure strategic help for the Most Serene Republic in Venice’s hour of need? Aldus apparently did not make the trip. Georg Burckhardt was born in the town of Spalt. But I love you and honor and render you immortal thanks because you have summoned me to this mutual good will. Spalatin wrote to Mutianus to make sure that he included in the order the Castigationes Plinianae. In July 1518. although the first written expression of this seems to have been in a letter to Spalatin of October 19. became a protégé of Mutianus Rufus in 1504. had posted his theses on the door of the Wittenberg cathedral. 37. near Nuremberg. In September 1516 Spalatin joined the Kanzelei of Frederick. whom Frederick was supporting. was destined to play a decisive role. responsible for educational and religious affairs. but continue thereafter. especially after he became the confessor to the vacillating and indecisive Frederick in 1517-18. but only a few of Spalatin’s to Luther. His birthplace is an omen. Later Spalatin became a personal secretary to the Elector of Saxony. The letters peak in 1521.

Spalatin organized the coup de main which brought Luther into the safety of Frederick’s Wartburg Castle. Erasmus warned that those handling Luther’s case on behalf of the Roman curia were in effect acting as provocateurs. Here Contarini was also present. humanistic learning was Platonic. Perhaps because of his kinship with the Ernestine branch of the Saxon ruling line. warned him to flee. The young Capodistrian. In his response. spin doctor. a German friar. Here Luther’s fame and following grew rapidly while he enjoyed immunity. he had a standing commission from Frederick the Wise to purchase books and relics for the Elector’s outstanding collections. 1518: “For I know that I can make myself more agreeable to our most illustrious prince by appealing rather than by recanting.Holy See. Aleandro. and Luther organized a farewell dinner in his cloister. 136) Later the same autumn. though all sources consulted are suspiciously emphatic that Contarini. Spalatin. had been a reader in theology at the Franciscan convent of San Nicolo’ in Venice. Spalatin accompanied Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521 as his principal handler. After Charles V had set the ban of the empire on Luther. Burckhard Schenk von Simau. Apparently the response from Spalatin was encouraging.” (Hoess. So sure was Luther of Frederick’s support (and Spalatin’s influence) that he could write to Cardinal Cajetan on October 18. never met personally with Luther. present as the Venetian ambassador to Charles V. only to turn back at Innsbruck on account of illness. by reports of an outbreak of plague along the . and he could remain. p. a gifted youth who ranked high among the students of law at Padova [Padua] and was well trained in the humanities. which involved Frederick’s hobby of collecting the relics of the saints. seeking to exploit the Luther issue in order to suppress humanistic learning. and so does the honor of our whole university!” At the next imperial diet. the empire shortly went to war with France in one of the sequelae of Cambrai. There is every indication that Cajetan. Writing on October 19. For Erasmus. he stated that he had met Pier Paolo [Vergerio]. Schenk then turned his attention to another member of the Vergerio clan. by indirect means. Schenk asserted. he was deterred from starting his journey. Frederick protected him from extradition. and others acting in the name of Leo X were indeed doing what Erasmus suggested. Here Frederick was able to convince Maximilian to allow Luther’s case to stay in Germany. 1521 to Georg Spalatin. Assuring Spalatin that Vergerio would be a credit to the university. Later we find Spalatin unsuccessfully telling the hot-headed Luther to keep a low profile. (Hoess. (This puts Luther’s “Here I stay. for Pier Paolo made preparations to leave for Saxony. Aurelio Vergerio set off on a trip to the domain of Frederick the Wise. At one point Luther was requesting that official documents of Saxony be falsely dated to protect him. p. “Since 1515. and he appealed urgently for help: “I now need your help most urgently. Later. Accordingly. 131) When Luther was called to Augsburg. Were there other channels of Venetian communication between the lagoon and Saxony during this period? There was at least one other. my Spalatin. I cannot do otherwise” in a new light. however. Spalatin secured an escort. The anti-papal and anti-imperial princely oligarchical party coalesced in support of Luther. Cardinal Cajetan asked for money to fight the Turks. although the two were at the plenary sessions. the friar urged that he be strongly recommended to the Elector. who told him that the eastern coast of the Adriatic was a rich hunting ground for relics and suggested that younger members of his family might be available to make deliveries to Saxony. in July 1521. One of Schenk’s most useful Italian contacts proved to be [Pier Paolo] Vergerio’s brother Giacomo. Spalatin would go on to become Saxony’s chancellor or prime minister. Eck.) After Luther had publicly burned Leo X’s bull of excommunication in December 1520. and adviser. a practice Luther condemned as idolatrous. was interested in completing his legal studies at Wittenberg. a fellow Franciscan. This made what Leo X had dismissed as “a quarrel among monks” into the Reformation. Spalatin appealed for and got from Erasmus a statement in support of Luther against Rome. fearing Luther was in danger. the Elector’s counselor. only to be answered by a rehearsal of the complaints of the German nation against the Holy See. but a message from Spalatin then arrived telling him that the danger was past.

“On July 28. Haile. 8] THE SPIRITUALI Pier Paolo Vergerio of Capodistria attended the University of Padova and married Diana Contarini of the Contarini family in 1526. By the following summer the invitation had been withdrawn.P. they have little regard for death. who had come to Naples to teach that justification was given to us as God’s gratuitous gift. served as Venetian ambassador to Charles V and the Pope. and his works were published in Venice. the Low Countries.route.” Valdez’s followers were mainly oligarchs. Contarini began meeting with a group of patricians who represented the heart of the Italian evangelical or crypto-Protestant movement. if they were unified. he told the Senate: “The character and customs of the Germans are close to feral. through the circle set up by Reginald Pole at Viterbo. the spirituale bishop of Verona on Venetian territory. During the early 1530s. Contarini then. The forces of Germany. for in Venice they probably cost more and are valued more highly than here. are enough. Ochino. they are robust and courageous in war. p. interested in the writings of Juan Valdez of Spain. Vergerio was to become an active publicist in the Protestant cause. When Contarini returned in 1525 from his mission with Charles V in Germany. Contarini wrote De Officio Episcopi.” [Alberi. 30-31. and who would launch the Reformation inside the Roman Catholic Church during the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. like Contarini. and others. and brotherly love. These were the Spirituali. they are suspicious but not fraudulent or malicious. said Valdez. they are not sublimely intelligent. Vermigli. I. would be very great. Spalatin wrote to an unnamed “Venetian merchant” at this time: “I am returning herewith the relics as well as the crucifix. linked to the Oratory of Divine Love in Rome. a member of the former English ruling house of Plantagenet now living at Pietro Bembo’s villa (Bembo had changed his lifestyle enough to become Bishop of Bergamo and would become a cardinal). Later.M.” (Schutte. the Protestant alliance which warred against Charles V in 1546-47.” [H. who was about to become a bishop. as we have seen. There was the papal legate Vergerio. 21] Venetian publishing and Venetian networks would now be mobilized to guarantee the spread of Lutheranism and its variants all over Germany in order to perpetuate and exacerbate these divisions. Spalatin added that he could promise nothing further to the Vergerios. in which many are now devoting themselves and make great profit…. pp. G. and Spain. a year before Luther’s Wittenberg theses. 14] He later became a papal diplomat and met with Luther in Wittenberg in 1535. Later. who presided at the last sessions of the Council of Trent. through “esperienza. joined by Marcantonio Flamminio. Caraffa of Naples.) According to another account. [Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland. co-founder of the new Theatine Order and later Pope Paul IV. Giberti. Arrayed later around these were the Bishop of Carpentras Jacopo Sadoleto.G. and Vermigli . The meetings were often held in the gardens of Cortese’s San Giorgio Maggiore. Along with Contarini there were now: Gregorio Cortese. they are only small…. Spalatin informed Schenk that in the light of the recent religious developments in Wittenberg. Frederick the Wise considered it prudent to cease collecting relics. but because of the divisions which exist among them. p. Vergerio belongs to the group of Spirituali around Contarini. a treatise of church reform for his friend Lippomanno. and G. which were however without merit. Our responsibility. Ochino. Vergerio. p. Awareness of all this came to Valdez. 1522. but they apply themselves with so much determination and perseverance that they succeed as well in various manual crafts as they do in letters. the abbot of the Benedictines of San Giorgio Maggiore. Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga would come into the picture. In 1516. and Cardinal Morone. in hopes you will sell them as advantageously as possible. was to take this Beneficio di Cristo given to us through the Holy Spirit and manifested in good works. during the period of the Smalkaldic League. Here the common man is so well instructed that he thinks (and rightly so) that only faith and confidence toward God. the English émigré Reginald Pole.

456) Giorgi and Raphael were clearly acting for the Signoria and the Council of Ten. Sir Philip Sydney. Such were the Masonic beginnings of the Venetian Party. She had been in the Juan Valdez circle and the Oratory of Divine Love. Then there were the zelanti. which. and Contarini grew up and went to school with Giorgi’s nephews. became the dominant force in British life. among other names. was irrelevant. The Spirituali later tended to separate into two wings: The first were liberal. conciliatory. refused to grant an annulment. in which marriage between a man and his brother’s wife was forbidden. and included especially Pole. where they arrived in 1531. Shortly before the arrival of Giorgi. Henry VIII appealed to scholars and universities for their opinions. Bembo and Pole had their own contacts with Cabalists. and to marry the court lady Anne Boleyn. Deuteronomy 25. going over to Protestantism. Catherine had been previously married to Henry’s brother Arthur. Around 1540. the year of the Sack of Rome. Later. Giorgi-Zorzi told Henry. THE ENGLISH SCHISM In 1527. Giorgi is reputed to have contributed mightily to the initiation of a school of Venetian pseudo. by the accession of James I. Pole was close to the Venetian banker Alvise Priuli. Giorgi assured Henry VIII that the Biblical text applicable to his situation was Leviticus 18:16. King Henry VIII began to mature his plan to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon. The Beneficio had been written by a Benedictine (Benedetto Fontanino) using Calvin’s “Institutes of the Christian Religion” of 1539. Contarini and Giorgi became close friends. under occupation by Charles V. who tended towards militant and inquisitorial methods. and were popular among Benedictines. a member of the Venetian Zorzi patrician clan. One version has Cromwell working . Giorgi remained at the English court until his death in 1540. where he developed a close relation with Vittoria Colonna of the Roman black nobility. and. Morone. Cromwell had reportedly been a mercenary soldier in Italy during the wars of the early 1500s. and sold 40. chapter 5] With the help of Marcantonio Flamminio. a mystical work with influences deriving from the Hebrew Cabala. he was influenced by a certain Padre Marco of the Paduan Benedictines of Santa Giustina. Giorgi. One such opinion came from the Franciscan Friar Francesco Giorgi. journeyed to England. was at one time the clerk or bookkeeper to a Venetian merchant. Giorgi was the author of De Harmonia Mundi (Venice 1525). who had given him a daughter but no son. Vittoria Colonna was known as a poetess whose “Rime Spirituali” expressed some of the favorite themes of the pro-Venetian Spirituali. accusing them of heresy.5-6. Edmund Spenser. and Sir Francis Bacon. he is important because of his later role in England. Reginald Pole had been sent to Padova by Henry VIII because his claim on the English throne was as good as or better than Henry’s: Pole was a Plantagenet. In 1541. open to dialogue with Protestants. [Fenlon. p. and influenced such figures as John Dee. but Contarini had the inside track: Giorgi lived in Contarini’s immediate neighborhood. her kinsman. the Beneficio was published in Venice in 1543. Ascanio Colonna.Platonic mysticism in England. in which such a marriage is proscribed. Pole was the governor of Viterbo in the Papal states. Contarini had died before this division became pronounced. accompanied by the Hebrew scholar Marco Raphael. like Caraffa. tolerant. This Benedetto had been at Cortese’s San Giorgio Maggiore around 1534. Robert Fludd. Pole on one occasion advised Vittoria Colonna that she should believe as if salvation depended on faith alone. As for Pole.later became apostates. waged civil war against Pope Paul III Farnese but was defeated. according to Pole. (Dittrich. and who came into conflict with Spirituali like Pole and Morone. Cromwell had all the marks of the Venetian agent. and Vittoria Colonna. while acting as if it were dependent on good works as well. Contarini dedicated his treatise on the freedom of the will to Vittoria Colonna.000 copies in that city alone. This was later called Rosicrucianism. When he joined the general postCambrai shift out of Aristotelian letters and into piety. Thomas Cromwell replaced Cardinal Wolsey as the chief adviser to Henry VIII. When Pope Clement VII Medici. Many ideas common to this group were expressed in a tract called the Beneficio di Cristo.

Pole returned to England as the chief adviser and virtual controller of the Catholic Queen Mary Tudor. xviii] Pole also revealed to Henry that he had urged Charles V to cease hostilities with the Ottoman Empire. Anyone resisting your lies is punished by death. the eminent Erasmian. Thomas More.” Pole wrote later. even though he was one of the Spirituali. and those about him rejoiced for a while in the belief that he would abandon a policy so fraught with danger. but some 300 persons were burned for heresy. writing nine or ten years later. Their claim is dubious. was heard to declare with a sigh that he could prosecute it no longer.” Pole responded with a violently provocative tirade designed to goad the paranoid Henry into a homicidal fit. p. By the stench of his mind a flatterer happens upon such tricks. could be highly inquisitorial when the interests of Venice required slaughter to create religious enmities that would last for centuries: Between 1553 and 1558. Your pestilential flatterers…. and direct his military might to wiping out Henry’s regime. known as Bloody Mary.for 20 years for a Venetian branch office in Antwerp. but now he was a cardinal and papal legate. Mary’s succession was helped by Sir William Cecil. “I found this type of book to be written by an enemy of the human race. “Yet it was apparently at this very time. 271-78] Since Pole could easily have assumed the role of Plantagenet pretender. justice. who had both stayed behind in England and whose fate Pole had curiously neglected when he sent his challenge to Henry.” Pole. under the dominant influence of Cecil. Wars between England and France. “among whom nothing is more inconstant than their decrees on matters of religion. a Venetian agent who had been a key figure of the last period of Edward VI’s reign.” Pole wrote. which would have wiped out a large section of the English nobility. After the death of Henry VIII and the death of his son Edward VI.” “The succession of the kingdom is called into doubt for love of a harlot…. xxiii] But The Prince was published years later. The creation and preservation of a Protestant regime in England was one of the principal goals of Venetian policy. 113-140] Pole says that Cromwell offered him a copy of Machiavelli’s The Prince. and between England and Spain. p. and any inclination toward virtue could be destroyed. Henry. he tells us. that [Cromwell] found means of access to the king’s presence and suggested to him that policy of making himself head of the Church of England. “I know that your deeds are the source of all this evil. But a king was above the laws. Henry took revenge by executing Pole’s mother and brother. Pole and Mary presided over what many British historians claim to be the largest number of politically motivated executions in the history of England. which he highly recommended.” which would enable him to have his own way in the matter of the divorce and give him other advantages as well. which added to his mental imbalance.” [ Dwyer. pp. “It explains every means whereby religion. the first Baron Burghley. In his 1551 report to the Venetian Senate. who had early gone over to the opposition to Bloody Mary Tudor. This was the man who judicially murdered St. creating the possibility of an Anglo-Spanish rapprochement that was highly unacceptable to Venice. Henry had to take this very seriously. “I have long been aware that you are afflicted with a serious and most dangerous disease. They were considering the interests of his subjects more than his. But he had scarcely remained two days in this state of mind when a messenger of Satan (whom [Pole] afterwards names as Cromwell) addressed him and blamed the timidity of his councilors in not devising means to gratify his wishes. Earlier Pole had been considered a candidate to marry Mary. also insisted on full restitution of the church lands and property seized by Henry VIII. since one day they do one thing and the next day they do . and one Anglican prelate described Pole as “butcher and scourge of the Anglican church.” Pole wrote this in a dedicatory epistle to Charles V. Epistolae. So at least we must suppose from the testimony of Cardinal Pole. just after Cardinal Wolsey’s fall. [Pole. and in this case he had the law of God actually in his favor…. and seemed to think princes bound by the same principles as private persons were. These measures made Mary so unpopular that it was clear that she would not have a Catholic successor. Pole. as he had the power to change them. Daniele Barbaro remarked on the religious habits of the English. Henry VIII later called on Pole for his opinion on “the king’s great matter. were the essence of Venetian policy. [Dwyer. seeing that even Wolsey “could no longer advance the project [of his divorce]. Mary was wed to Philip II of Spain.” [Dwyer. Your miserable apes of sophists talk nonsense…. acting under instructions from Pope Paul IV. That successor would be Elizabeth.

and Caraffa and the rest of the Venetian group to the cardinalate. bishops who did not live in their sees. 242-43] THE COUNTER-REFORMATION What is called the Catholic Reformation or Counter. 135. From which it results without doubt that whatever the pope wants is also sanctioned by law. And in truth. In 1537. whatever it might be. This feeds the resistance of those who have accepted the new laws.” in the document that opened the campaign for the Council of Trent. to the point that because of us. except for an urgent and necessary reason.” [Alberi. in which colloquia there are many things which shape these uncultivated souls towards impiety. as was seen in the rebellions of 1549. this rule has to be observed before all others: that the laws have to be complied with as much as possible. two of whom he made cardinals and governors of provinces controlled by the church. Giberti. moral failures. volume 2. it necessarily follows that the pope cannot be accused of simony. The Contarini commission at the outset sought to identify the cause of the evils and abuses of the church. pp. Contarini was joined by Caraffa. and had attacked . Pole.Reformation is said to begin with the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia. since they are closer to the court. Cardinal Farnese was known as the petticoat cardinal. that we now see the church afflicted almost by despair of recovery. pp. that this has to be established before all other things: as Aristotle says in his ‘Politics’. and the path of truth to the ears of the prince was always a very difficult one. that. XII. It is true that the people of London are more disposed than the others to observe what they are commanded. The leading anti-Aristotelian Platonist of the day did not escape condemnation: “And since they habitually read the colloquia of Erasmus to children in the schools. Sadoleto. and other Venetians and Venetian assets followed. since a master can by law sell what is his. so in the ecclesiastical governance of the church of Christ. The news of these things has reached the unbelievers (as Your Holiness is told by experts) who ridicule the Christian religion chiefly for this reason. Aristotle was made the guiding light of the “reform. Later. even though they have been most severely punished. Because Giulia Farnese had been Alexander VI’s mistress at this time. Holy Father. emphasis in original) Thus. on that account. Morone.” (p. have come into the church of God so much abuse and such serious sickness. Pole. multiple benefices. the name of Christ is blasphemed among the peoples. even more because adulation always follows the supreme power just as a shadow follows a body. so that the will of the pope. Cortese of San Giorgio Maggiore. and the like. 134-35] The overall thrust of the document is best summed up in the following two passages: “We think. because of us we say. but who find them most offensive. despite the maneuvers of Spalatin. just as in any republic.” [Concilium Tridentinum.” (p. but gave all the blame to the excessive power which the Roman pontiffs had arrogated to themselves. must be the rule which directs these operations and action. sybaritic lifestyles among prelates. For we do not think we are permitted to exempt ourselves from these laws. including simony. The commission said nothing of oligarchism or usury. Paul III directed Contarini to chair a commission that would develop ways to reform the church. plus prelates from Salerno and Brindisi – an overwhelmingly Venetian commission. who teach that the pope is master of all benefices. if they had a leader. And from this source. This was the Consilium de Emendenda Ecclesia. as if from a Trojan horse. series I. Sadoleto. Paul III had several children of his own. therefore the readings of these things and any others of the same type ought to be prohibited in literary classes. 141) Erasmus had broken with Luther very early. “From this results. there is no doubt that they would rebel again.another. as the doctors immediately proclaim. Pietro Bembo. usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. It was Paul III who elevated Contarini. Paul III had studied with the humanist Pomponius Laetus.

In 1539. Pole turned out to be the papal candidate of the Emperor Charles V and of the Spirituali. The compromise was rejected by both Wittenberg and Rome. where he proposed a compromise solution on the key issue of justification. then and now. who had told Erasmus. who took the name of Paul IV. An honest attempt at reform would have based itself explicitly on these proposals. The first session of the Council of Trent was convoked under Paul III. the English version was issued by one Richard Morsyne in 1538. Cardinal Del Monte was elected as Julius III. and Paul III offered to make him a cardinal on one occasion. the Koran. the Anabaptists. In 1557. with Pole and Caraffa as members of the committee of cardinals to oversee the proceedings.Luther’s ideas of the bondage of the will with a reaffirmation of the Platonic concept of the freedom of the will. He was assisted by Priuli. one of the defenders of the church and of civilization: The Index banned those writings which Aeneas Silvius had retracted. Most stunning is the presence of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini himself. At one point. Then Marcellus II Cervini died after a month in office. Pole was almost made Pope by imperial acclamation. Caraffa instituted the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. and Pole was instructed to return to Rome to face a trial for heresy on account of his activities in Viterbo. Morone was jailed in 1557. Guise accused Pole of leaving the Council of Trent in order to avoid a debate on justification. Also outlawed were the scabrous Facetia of Poggio Bracciolini and the writings of Pietro Aretino. Lorenzo Valla. the Praise of Folly. and reigned from 1550 to 1555. Finally. since Caraffa preferred to act as an autocrat.Spanish Caraffa was the other homestretch contender. In 1541. Pope Pius II. Dante’s De Monarchia. these sustained theses of the conciliar movement. while retaining some role for the justitia inhaerens. The Vatican wanted the Contarini commission’s report to be kept secret. Luther. THE INDEX The pontificate of Paul IV marked a long pause in the Council of Trent. 1463. Calvin. which was alleged to be by Calvin. and the 1531 Augsburg Confession were banned on pain of excommunication and possible jail or banishment. The anti. Caraffa turned against Pole during the conclave and accused him of “certain errors” in religion. the Venetian banker. and was succeeded with Venetian help by Caraffa. The accusation made here is almost identical to Luther’s. and the German Protestant Sturmius. 1564] It was no surprise that the writings of Luther. most of the works of Erasmus (including the Colloquies. on the one hand recognizing a justitia imputata to satisfy the Lutherans. Contarini was the papal representative along with Morone at the discussions among Catholics and Protestants in Regensburg. Pole was protected by Mary Tudor. Pole was one of his seven commissioners for the protection of the faith. Pius II had also retracted youthful . Juan Valdez. The reform undertaken by the Contarini commission was going in a very different direction. Contarini died in 1542. Zwingli. and some of the works of Pius II were shortly placed on the Index of Prohibited Books. Pole died a few hours after Mary. “You are not pious!” The Vatican archives. contained the detailed reform proposals elaborated by Pius II and Nicolaus of Cusa during the previous century. all of Machiavelli. Venice: Aldus. Contarini and Pole had both corresponded with Erasmus. presumably in a papal bull of April 26. but it was promptly leaked and published by such diverse sponsors as Vergerio. many of them his former associates. receiving support from the French cardinals led by Guise. Caraffa started a reign of terror against the surviving Spirituali. and others). During one ballot. Caraffa claimed that Pole had maintained “a platoon of heretics and of highly suspect persons” in his home in Viterbo. At the death of Paul III Farnese in 1549. Melanchthon. and even a text identified as Alcuin’s commentary on the Trinity. Contarini was instrumental in convincing Paul III to approve the creation of Ignazio de Loyola’s Society of Jesus as a holy order. Pole came within a single vote of a two-thirds majority and thus of Peter’s chair. [Index. As it turned out. But also on the list were all of Peter Abelard. and to some it seemed that Contarini had been trying to create a third camp.

drawing into the mind the images of material things. which was founded at about this time. The Giovani were interested in France. it . the Servite monks Paolo Sarpi. Sarpi admired the French essayist Michel de Montaigne. nevertheless here below it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without the help of bodily sensation. The Cyprus war had cost 6 million ducats. Textile production of silk and wool also declined.” wrote Sarpi. After 1582. in spite of its wretched economy. Leonardo Dona. a professor at the Collegio Romano. Let us sample the epistemology of the Giovani. who had been steeped in Aristotle from his youth. In 1575-77. and Venice had been widely attacked for making a separate peace with the Ottomans. we have never acquired it and never will. and sometimes Giordano Bruno. in part because of English and Dutch rivalry. Shipbuilding in the arsenal diminished. and these were insatiable. the Monte Novissimo. In the early 1600s. Venice was in rapid decline. the Monto Novo. the effect on all of Pius II’s works was chilling. This was made easier by going from a gold to a silver standard in 1562. In 1600. The Giovani were determined to be more aggressive against Spain. Holland. Part of this impoverishment was due to the fact that Venice. Sarpi was a precursor of Bentham’s hedonistic calculus. The participants included Morosini. and food supplies did not return to normal until 1594. 296] Interestingly. The anti-Platonic and pro-Aristotelian bias of the Index was a barometer of who now held power in Rome. The naval victory of Lepanto in 1571 had not been sufficient to regain Cyprus from the Ottoman Empire. It is evident that family fondi that had been invested in the monti [loans] were being transferred elsewhere as flight capital: One destination was certainly the Amsterdam Bank. was pursuing a policy of totally retiring the public debt.” [Bouwsma. and the Monte di Sussidio. Venice entered into a permanent commercial crisis.” added Toledo. Venice was reported to have a reserve hoard in coin of 12-14 million ducats. Later in the century there would be the Bank of England. By 1565. Contarini’s friend Cardinal Morone was released after two years in jail and became the presiding officer of the final session of the Council of Trent. Man was a creature of appetites.writings on love themes. CRISIS IN VENICE During the second half of the 1500s. “We are always acquiring happiness. [Pensiero 250] Paruta had been an empiricist: “Although our intellect may be divine from its birth. Nicolo Contarini. and Fulgenzio Micanzio. Protestant Germany. The Giovani were skeptics. Out of the Ridotto Morosini would come the French Enlightenment. Antonio Querini. attributed to Aristotle’s logic a perfection so total that “scarcely anyone has surpassed him in any point. and the Thirty Years’ War. especially the libido dominandi. there was an outbreak of the plague. there were no fewer than seven Venetian cardinals. but the government now paid off the Monte Vecchio. By their means. with tens of thousands of deaths in Venice. The same happened with printing in part because of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. especially in the last millennium. the oligarchical Venetian government institutions were controlled by the Giovani. and he has been used in the instruction of youth to the exclusion of all others. so that by 1600 all had been liquidated. and England as counterweights to the Diacatholicon. Montaigne himself had made the pilgrimage to Venice. Galileo Galilei. the general of the Jesuits would be Bellarmine. British empiricism. full of contempt for man and for human reason. one of the largest if not the largest national caucus.” “Moreover. p. “it appears that he has been more received by the church than other philosophers. a cabal of patricians who had emerged from a salon of strategic discussions called Ridotto Morosini. using Sarpi and his precursor Paolo Paruta. which occupied Milan and Naples. Francesco Toledo. After the Cyprus war. In 1590. who had been educated by a father who had been in Italy as a soldier and probably imbibed Venetian teachings. there was a serious famine. Sarpi agreed with Montaigne that man was the most imperfect of animals. and against the papacy: these Sarpi called the Diacatholicon.

and a bugger. The first is the worst. p. p. Bacon’s ideas about inductive method were taken from the “Arte di ben pensare” and other Sarpi writings. [De Mas. and the fourth beginning with sense and ending with reason. rather than adjusting what we would like to what is. For Sarpi. and a precursor of David Hume: Every culture has its own idea of order. p. 498] Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon. 212] Paruta’s treatment of the fall of the Roman empire appears to be the starting point for Gibbon: “This stupendous apparatus. and “therefore the republics.” [Bouwsma. and with its ruin it brought on the greatest revolution in things. sometimes directly. Hobbes. Nature provides the brute animals with the things necessary for their lives.” he wrote disparagingly.” (”Scritti filosofici e teologici. For Sarpi there are no true universals: “Essence and universality are works of the mind. and subject to many needs. In Chatsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled “Hobbes’ Translations of Italian Letters. experience means the perception of physical objects by the senses. Sarpi was also a pragmatist.” [Pensiero 289] Sarpi was also a cultural relativist. 283] In religion. By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual contemplations not by itself but awakened by sense objects. the third with reason and then sense. whom it makes poor. 1951. we already have the economic man enshrined in the myths of Adam Smith: “The desire to grow rich is as natural in us as the desire to live.” [Bouwsma. Pensiero 146) That is Francis Bacon’s inductive method. p. the buildings.” containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called “Candiscio”). since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have been on the agenda. a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. were very much Spirituali on the ex sola fede line of justification. Sarpi and his right-hand man. Earl of Devonshire. [Bouwsma. Fulgenzio Micanzio. constructed over a long course of years through the great virtue and the many exertions of so many valorous men. had finally run the course common to human things. A papal nuncio assigned to surveil the two wrote that Fulgenzio “greatly exalts faith in the blood of Christ and the grace of God for our salvation. The third is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like. he said.” Bari: Laterza. but in man. accompanied by Hobbes. arguing that “we despise knowledge of things of which we have no need. This is no surprise. a Venetian-style Rosicrucian.” [Pensiero 159]. not what is. and Hume. Cavendish may have introduced Bacon to Hobbes. p. 155] VENICE AND ENGLAND The contacts between Venice and England during the period around 1600 were so dense as to . saying that wealth derived from farming and grazing is “more true and natural” than other forms. Locke. it inserts this desire for riches and gives him intelligence and industry to acquire them. naked. 206] Sarpi was an empiricist: “There are four modes of philosophizing: the first with reason alone. With Paolo Paruta. The fourth is the best we can have in this miserable life.” [Bouwsma. permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. that is to be dissolved and to fall to earth. the second with sense alone. According to Dudley Carleton. and leaves out or rarely refers to works.represents these things to itself and in this way forms its concepts of them. Cavendish visited Venice and Padova in September 1614. p. Bacon was of course a raving irrationalist. who soon became a couple. The second is true but crude. because from it we know what we would like to be.” [Bouwsma. 211] A speaker in Paruta’s dialogues expresses the views of the Physiocrats. the politics of the Tartars and the Indians are different. [Pensiero 371] Sarpi was brought up on Duns Scotus and William of Ockham. and sometimes through the intermediary of William Cavendish.

Especially the Spanish truce with the Dutch was viewed with alarm by the Venetians. and. the Giovani had favored a more aggressive policy against the papacy and the Hapsburgs. the court of last resort in world affairs. Bacon knew Italian because his mother had been active as the translator of the writings of Italian heretics. Venice. and was attempting to retrench on her military commitments. began to negotiate with the Dutch. and not by way of the pope. his “History of the Council of Trent” was first published in English in London in an edition dedicated to King James I. The son of the Venetian agent William Cecil (Bacon’s uncle) was Robert Cecil. the Vatican was obliged to remove the interdict without securing any expression of penitence or regret. James I. After taking over Venice in 1582. after decades of warfare. James was delighted with Sarpi’s arguments. Spain made peace with France in 1598. well into 1607. The use of the papal interdict against a nominally Catholic country caused a sensation in the Protestant world. who was an official of the Venetian regime. Lutherans and Calvinists cheered Venice. who turned against Rome and stayed for some time as an honored guest of the English court before returning to Rome. Holland. and Swiss and Dutch Calvinists were for Venice. and the French gave the clerics back to the pope. the Venetian government released the two clerics to a French cardinal who had undertaken a mediation. There was a Bacon cult among the Venetian nobility in those years. Much was made of national sovereignty. and translated by Nathaniel Brent. arranging for the translation and publication of his writings. but none supported Venice more than the degenerate King of England. James was the pedantic pederast who claimed that he got his divine right directly from God. by asserting an independent Catholic Church under state control during the interdict. with England in 1604. Bacon himself was attorney general and lord chancellor for King James I. One letter in Latin from Bacon to Micanzio has been located. In the end. [De Mas. soon became the idol of the libertines and freethinkers everywhere. Venice. Bacon was also in frequent contact by letter with the Venetian senator and patrician Domenico Molino. The Jesuit Bellarmine and others wrote for the papacy in this pamphlet war. Spain also started peace talks with the Ottoman Empire. After 1600. 156] Fulgenzio Micanzio was literary agent for Bacon in Venice. p. English ambassadors like Dudley Carleton and Sir Henry Wotton were also important intermediaries. Spain was showing signs of economic decline.” as Enrico De Mas asserts. Towards the end of the sixteenth century. As for Sarpi. Another translator of Bacon was the Archbishop of Spalato and Venetian agent Marcantonio de Dominis. the Grisons (the Graubuenden or Gray league of the Valtellina region in the Swiss Alps. which the Venetians said they were defending against the pope in the name of all nations. Sarpi. where tremendous sympathy for Venice was generated by an avalanche of propaganda writings. also appeared to be following the example of Henry VIII and the Anglican (or Anglo-Catholic) Church. and Venice led all Italian cities in the number of editions of Bacon’s works. who visited Venice shortly after 1600. and with their seeming victory. Sir Henry Wotton advanced the idea of a Protestant alliance encompassing England. VENICE AND JAMES I French Gallicans and Huguenots. here Bacon discusses a plan for a Latin edition of his complete works. and the Protestant princes of . Pope Paul V Borghese responded on profile by declaring Venice under the papal interdict.constitute an “Anglo-Venetian coalition. The Venice of the Giovani was horrified by the apparent winding down of the wars of religion. Bellarmine puffed the pope as the arbiter mundi. which remained in force for almost a year. above all those of Sarpi himself. Venice passed laws that made it harder for the church to own Venetian land and dispose of it. sought by Spain as a land route between Austria and Milan). and was soon one of the most famous and most controversial persons in Europe. since this would free up veteran Spanish troops who could be used in a war against Venice. this was followed by the arrest of two priests by the civil authorities. which appeared to have checked the inexorable advance of the Counter-Reformation.

Germany. similar to the pre-1914 or post-1945 European military blocs. and included in his alliance proposals plans to get Venice to go Protestant. Sarpi’s intelligence agencies went into action to create the preconditions for such a war. for in defending Venetian territory they would be helping the Protestant cause as well. 45] . 1833. as David Cherry has shown. one of the Italian Spirituali who had fled to Geneva. But later Sarpi and the Venetians found reason to be bitterly disappointed with the refusal of James I and Charles I massively to intervene on the European continent. The project included a plan for James to become the supreme commander of the Protestant world in a war against the pope. in order to guarantee that James would be suitably hostile to Rome and Spain. Verona.” he told the papal nuncio. including 300 of the top patricians.000 people in Venice. the senior advisor to the Elector Palatine. foreign Protestant armies would fight on Venetian soil. of which Sarpi was the leader. the Venetians used the conflict around the Interdict to inflame the religious passions of Europe so as to set the stage for a revival of the wars of religion. The Doge Leonardo Dona of the Giovani group even threatened indirectly to lead Venice into apostasy and heresy. p. During this period. helped by the crushing of the free city of Donauwoerth by the counter. making possible the religious conversion of the terra ferma (Bergamo. Sarpi invited the German Protestants to come to the aid of Venice in case of war. an alleged Catholic attempt to blow up the king and the Houses of Parliament. according to one account. This was the Cecil who. ["Scelte Lettere Inedite di Fra Paolo Sarpi. of the founding of the Bank of England at the end of the 1600s. staged Guy Fawkes’ Gunpowder Plot. The first step was to organize Germany into two armed camps. This was clearly a line that Sarpi and company sought to feed to the megalomaniac James I. Venice wanted a catastrophic general war in Europe from which Venice could hold aloof. As part of the scheme.) to some sort of Calvinism. [Cozzi. pp. [Julius Krebs. The grand design Sarpi peddled to Protestants called for an apocalyptic war between Catholics and Protestants with the latter led by James I and the Dutch United Provinces. not in Italy. etc. Beyond that." Capolago. But the survival of the withered mummy of Venice for a century or two would be possible only if all the other European powers were thoroughly devastated. Charles Diodati. 1608″ by Robert Cecil. say. the oligarchs would seek to preserve the Rialto as a cultural and ideological center. The seventeenth century would thus repeat the hecatomb of the sixteenth on an even vaster scale. The Venetian gambit of a clash with the Vatican set the stage for the Thirty Years’ War. but beyond the Alps in Germany. 265-68] At a deeper level. “You must warn the Pope not to drive us into despair. During the Interdict battle. It is remarkable to observe how many of the key protagonists who detonated the Thirty Years’ War can be identified as Venetian agents. He forwarded this to London where it was marked in the margin “The Project of Venice. Canton Ticino: Tipografia e Libreria Elvetica. pp. The former Calvinist King Henry IV of France might be won for such a league. First came the creation of the Protestant Union of 1608. Brescia. cxi-cxii] THE ROOTS OF WAR In reality.reformation under Maximilian I of Bavaria. “because we would then act like desperate men!” Sir Henry Wotton took this literally. thus surviving at least until the process of the metastasis of the fondi into northern Europe could be completed – until the time. Vicenza. In a battle between Venice and the papal states. Christian of Anhalt was a vital node of Paolo Sarpi’s network. an emissary of the Elector of the Palatinate reported that he had been taken by the English ambassador to Venice to visit a Calvinist Congregation of more than 1. The Protestant Union was organized by Prince Christian of Anhalt. and in the 1870’s the Archives of the German city of Bernberg contained a correspondence between Christian and Sarpi. some thought. was brought to Venice to preach.

" Padova. who can be considered his house guests. Christoph von Dona met with Sarpi in Venice. and of usurping the main functions of the government. In August 1608. His business has been to attempt to impede in any way possible any peace or truce in Flanders…. just before Henry IV was assassinated by the alleged Catholic fanatic Ravaillac. or Pregadi. Academic accounts of the Thirty Years’ War often stress the conflict over the succession in Juelich-Cleves (around Duesseldorf) after 1609. and although he has not been able to do much in this direction. Sarpi was soon aware of what had happened. Henry IV “had decided to reveal to the pope and to the Venetian Republic what was being plotted in Venice by Sarpi. p. with the English ambassador and with two or three French Huguenots. 257] From Venice. he has always comported himself in the same way: His most confidential dealings are with the agents of various German Protestants. Sarpi complained. in any case I am sure that if he can contribute to this. which embroiled the Dutch and the Protestants against the imperial Catholics. 259] Sarpi’s animus against Henry IV suggests that the superficial explanation of Henry’s assassination in 1610 may not be the correct one. and it would be decades before the Fronde was suppressed to the point that France was capable of international action once again.R. Some accounts portray Henry IV of France as eager to attack the Hapsburgs in Milan and on the Rhine during 1610. Writing to Christoph von Dohna on 29 September 1608. 1609 to Pope Paul V on the activities of the Venetian ambassador.” “How did it happen that that great principle was put to sleep?” he wrote to another correspondent that summer. and he has played a very bad role.” [Cozzi. p. pp. of being arrogant. 21-22] Within a year of the creation of the Protestant Union in 1608. Palmer. The Ten had been accused. referring to the French mediation of the Interdict crisis.. Henry’s death increased the tensions among the German Protestant leaders. from the senate.” [Federico Seneca. Bartholomew’s massacre of 20. Diodati added that “the English minister and ambassador [William Bedell. or at least by those who were moving around him. who passed it to the papal nuncio. The conflagration was set. 106] In the 1600s this civil strife was called the Fronde. with the Dutch. 1957. since they had now been deprived of their protector. Henry’s death meant that France. who were called the Vecchi (old) and who favored a more conciliatory line towards Spain and the papacy. he has been in a big rush to set up this league of Protestants in Germany.” This letter was intercepted by Henry IV of France. “The King of France has written that Venice is in favor of religion. a close associate of Sarpi: “From the first day that he came here. According to other accounts. Giovanni Diodati wrote to his friend Philippe Duplessis Mornay telling him of the “petite eglise reformee” (small reformed church) there. a power Venice ultimately hated and feared just as much as Spain. who sent it on to Rome and to the Venetian government. a Catholic League was formed under the aegis of Maximilian of Bavaria with Spanish support. . 245. In any case. p.When Christian von Anhalt created the Protestant Union. Christoph von Dona and his brother Achatius von Dona kept up a correspondence with Paolo Sarpi in their own right [Cozzi. 258]. and Sarpi told Dona about the measures taken by the Giovani in 1582 to “correct” the functions of the Council of Ten and its subcommittee of three (Zonta). The papal nuncio in Paris reported on March 3. Wotton's secretary] has been very helpful.” [Cozzi. Antonio Foscarini. including foreign policy. he’ll do it. The Venetian diplomatic corps was mobilized to exploit the Interdict to create the Protestant Union. In addition to these fine projects. “That is also the reason why it is impossible to incite others. Sarpi told Christoph von Dona. which up until that time had constituted a factional stronghold of the adversaries of the Giovani. who accused Henry IV of being a threat to the Catholic Church. p. he sent one Christoph von Dona (or Dohna) to talk to Sarpi in Venice about the entry of Venice into this alliance.000 Huguenots in 1572. "La Politica Veneziana Dopo L'Interdetto. would be plunged again into the internal conflicts epitomized by the St. Pope Gregory XIII had called those killings “more agreeable than fifty Lepantos.” [R.

which is otherwise known as della Torre. now styling himself King Frederick of Bohemia. When the Electoral Palatine. The Austrian Hapsburgs. the Venetians started a border war with Austria. Torre e Tasso. But Spanish forces did reach the front. was important because it brought a general European conflict perceptibly nearer. Osuna. was to declare himself independent under Venetian auspices. through their depredations and through the cost of measures undertaken against them. Hussites. and also against the Venetians. 151] The immediate detonator for the Thirty Years’ War is usually considered to be the revolt of the Bohemian nobles against the new Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. he went into the history books as the “unlucky Winter King. the previous emperor.Siegen raised forces totaling 5. although apparently minor. and Utraquists. Under Rudolph II.THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR In 1615. the Bohemian nobles had been granted the Letter of Majesty of 1609 which guaranteed them their religious self-determination (ignoring the cuius regio eius religio) and the right to elect their own king. Venetian land forces crossed the Isonzo River and laid siege to Gradisca. and who. ten English and twelve Dutch warships maintained a blockade of the Adriatic against any ships from Spain or Naples which might have sought to aid their Austrian Hapsburg allies. [Carl J. but he entered the imperial army and fought during a campaign against the Ottoman Empire. This was the signal that something big was coming. The uzkoks. So in December 1615. Thurn’s parents had become Protestants. Heinrich Mathias von Thurn demanded and got the Letter of Majesty.Reformation into Bohemia. in which two representatives of Ferdinand were thrown out of the window by a group of Bohemian nobles organized by the Count of Thurn. the Bohemian nobles deposed him and decided to elect a new king. 42] In the spring of 1618. many of whom were Calvinists.” Let us attempt further to reveal the fine Venetian hand behind these events. as we have seen. The key figure among the Bohemians is the Count Heinrich Mathias of Thurn-Valsassina (15671633). originally from Venetian territory.” [ Parker. feared that Ferdinand would introduce the militant Counter. in order to defend their frontier with the Ottoman Empire. and later as Thurn und Taxis. forcing the Venetians to accept a negotiated peace. pp. p. 40. employed a force of refugees from the Balkans called uzkoks (the Serbian word for refugees). who had his court in Heidelberg. They chose Frederick V. was routed at the battle of the White Mountain in 1620. were depleting the Venetian treasury. A recent study highlights the significance of this Venetian-staged conflict in the runup to the general conflagration: “The uzkok war was one of the more bizarre episodes of the earlier seventeenth century. This is the senior branch of the family. His announced program was the maintenance of Bohemian liberties for these nobles. which soon turned into the apple of Bohemian discord. As a reward he had gotten the important post of Burggraf of Marlstein in Bohemia. On the diplomatic plane. the Elector Palatine. He was vehemently opposed to the election of Ferdinand as Holy Roman . The Bohemians. Here Thurn built a base among the local nobility. who was also the King of Bohemia. The uzkok war. including especially the branch of the Hussites known as the Utraquists. When Ferdinand sent troops to restore his authority. He was named to a special committee of 30 Defenders of the Faith in Prague. Uzkoks settled in Segna and some other ports of the eastern Adriatic where they operated as corsairs against Turkish shipping. executions in Venice were attributed to the discovery by the Council of Ten of an alleged Spanish plot to overthrow the Venetian regime. yet it offered an alarming example of how a minor political conflict in a remote corner of Europe could threaten to engulf the whole continent with war…. counted Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona among his most trusted advisers. which are the opening rounds of the Thirty Years’ War. it cemented or occasioned alliances that favored aggression.000 men in the Dutch Republic to assist the Venetians. There followed the celebrated defenestration of Prague of 1618. Some skeptical historians consider that this was a cover story for a Venetian intrigue in which the Spanish governor of Naples. Friedrichs. called the Guerra Arciducale. Count John Ernest of Nassau.

We must also remember that the Elector was constantly controlled and advised by Sarpi’s friends Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona. 55] But Christian von Anhalt and his friend Camerarius answered that such a war was inevitable anyway as soon as the twelve years’ truce between the Spanish and the Dutch ran out. he never stopped retreating. which extirpated about half of the population of Germany between 1618 and 1648. [Yates. XLV. Rosicrucians in particular were heavily present at the electoral Palatine court. and then found himself in a hopelessly exposed position. Christian was notorious for his adventurism and brinksmanship.Austrian. one German account of these events speaks of “Anhalt’s crazy plans” [ADB]. He had captured some of the suburbs of Vienna when he was forced to retreat. he failed to rally the Palatinate for a war of self-defense. Frederick V was encouraged to believe that with the aid of a few troops from Venetian-allied Savoy. is thus exposed as a piece of utopian. Dudley Carleton. within the framework of other anti-Protestant measures. During the campaign leading up to the rout at the White Mountain. after Frederick had been deposed by the Catholic forces. let us look at Frederick V the Elector Palatine himself. One of Fludd’s friends was a certain German Rosicrucian alchemist named Michael Maier.Catholic hold on central Europe. wrote in September 1619 that “this business in Bohemia is like to put all Christendom into combustion. and this led directly to the defenestration of Prague of May 23. and the English presence at the Palatine court in Heidelberg was associated with the same sorts of cultist kookery we have observed in the cases of Zorzi and Bacon. saying that “acceptance would begin a general religious war. and Ferdinand responded by attempting to oust Thurn as Burggraf. and was permanently ousted. The Thirty Years’ War. and it was clear that Frederick could not keep Prague without some serious fighting. 169-171] Frederick was not the only one infected by the Rosicrucian bacillus in these years in which the saga of “Christian Rosenkreuz” first appeared in Germany. plus the Bohemians. parts of the Heidelberg library. Bohemia was prime Hapsburg territory. these included the ambitious project of wiping out the House of Hapsburg and making Frederick Holy Roman Emperor. The death of Gustavus Adolphus some years later closed the books on Frederick V’s hopes of being restored in the Palatinate. whose lengthy treatise on universal harmony. After the rout. Thurn was made the commander of the Bohemian armed forces. [See Serge Hutin. During the course of the Thirty Years’ War. pp. The future Winter King. were confiscated by the Inquisition and moved to Rome.Emperor. the Bibliotheca Palatina. Thurn was constantly disputing with the Palatine Elector’s generals about who was in command. Thurn then incited the Bohemians to rebel. he made his career as a general in later phases of the war. the daughter of King James I of England. 1618. After the White Mountain. and support from a few other German states.” Frederick accepted the Bohemian crown. p. rushed to Prague. had married Elizabeth. pp. [Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. he could break the Spanish. "Histoire des Rose-Croix. MORE ON BACON . In the face of Ferdinand’s military response. a Calvinist. In August-September 1619. the “Utriusque cosmi historia” was published on the Palatine city of Oppenheim in 1617-19.” [Parker. 104-06] Finally. Some advisers wrote position papers for Frederick warning him not to take the crown. One of them was the English irrationalist and freemason Robert Fludd. The Sarpi networks were fully mobilized.geopolitical tinkering from the satanic cell around Fra Paolo Sarpi. who was reputed to be close to the Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II. the Anglo." p. 125] Such Venetian-Rosicrucian irrationalism may provide the key to the Winter King’s legendary mental lability and failures of strategic planning. a thoroughly utopian undertaking. Frederick vacillated over whether or not to accept the Bohemian crown offered to him by Thurn and his cohorts.Venetian representative of James I in the Hague.

“Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie” (Leipzig. Aurelius Augustinus. Bavaria. Milton called Sarpi “Padre Paolo the great unmasker of the Tridentine Council. 1988). Graham Lowry. Lombado (New York: Newman Press. Savoy. [See Graham Lowry. Navarre.Even after he was ousted from all his court posts in the wake of confessed bribery and corruption. Thomas Cromwell. D. Eugenio Alberi (ed. Francis Bacon remained a loyal Venetian agent. to which the British historian Trevor-Roper has referred under the heading of the “little Dark Age. Bacon addressed a memorandum to the new King Charles I in which he urged that England declare war on Spain in order to help restore the Elector Palatine (and Charles’s sister) in Heidelberg. . Naples. 1853).” Indeed. "How the Nation was Won"] Thus it is that the Venetian methods that were used deliberately to provoke the wars of religion of the sixteenth century.” the one dealing with the Council of Trent.” trans. Ludwig Dehio and other historians have pointed out that the characteristic Venetian methods of strategy were also typical of the later English and British colonialism. 1876). a whole passage in Milton’s famous “Areopagitica. and Pietro Cicconi. The alliance proposed by Bacon was to include new variations on the usual Paoli Sarpi constellation: France. gutted cities and ethnic conflicts of the late twentieth century. who had repeated praise for Fra Paolo. and now even Persia. “Le Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al Senato durante il secolo decimosesto” (Firenze. and most obviously under the post-1688 oligarchical system. the combined effect of the Venicesponsored Protestant Reformation and the Venice.: Catholic University of America Press. Grace and Free Will. Later. It was the Venetian asset and architect of the English religious schism. David Cherry.] Sarpi had many English admirers. Russell (Washington. BIBLIOGRAPHY See the published and unpublished works of Al and Rachel Douglas.” [Bacon. which was attempting to seize the straits of Hormuz. the Protestant leader Gabor of Transylvania. “this realm of England is an empire. a bellum omnium contra omnes (war of each against all) which no nation and no people could seriously hope to survive. closely follows Sarpi’s account.” Another was John Milton.Reformation was to visit upon Europe the renewed horrors of 1520-1648.” and “the great and learned Padre Paolo. Thre Free Choice of the Will. In about 1624. by Robert P. The ascendancy of Venice after 1200 was instrumental in precipitating the near-collapse of European civilization between about 1250 and 1400. Aurelius Augustinus.” ed.” Gaining strength under James I.sponsored Counter. one was Izaak Walton. the author of the famous “Compleat Angler. 1968). “The Teacher. Gregory J. “On Faith and Works. for Christian von Anhalt and Frederick V Elector of the Palatinate.” Today the shadows of another such nightmare epoch lengthen over the ruined economies. who wrote.” “Padre Paolo the great Venetian antagonist of the Pope. Milan. Grisons.. the Venetian party acted out its imperialist impulse during the Stuart and Cromwell periods. Considerations Touching a War. Those wishing to survive must learn to defend themselves from the Anglo-Venetian hecatomb now looming. and later the Thirty Years’ War itself.. can be discerned in the global strategic commitments of today’s British oligarchy tending to unleash a global cataclysm.C. Bacon stressed the Venetian contribution: “It is within every man’s observation also that Venice doth think their state almost unfixed if the Spaniards hold the Valtoline.).

“The Venetian Republic” (London. Walter Friedensburg (ed. 1564). pp. 1980.” in “Historisches Jahrbuch. “Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums” (Vienna. 1890).G. Enrico De Mas. 274-97. 188-242. Carl J. Serge Huttin. pp. Mass. 1911. “Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty” (Berkeley. 1913-17).” XXXII.. 1978).Theobald Beer. “Der Reformentwurf des Kardinals Nikolaus Cusanus. Felix Gilbert. “Georg Spalatin 1484-1545″ (Weimar. Hubert Jedin. “Sovranita’ politica e unita’ cristiana nel seicento anglo-veneto” (Ravenna. “Der Briefwechsel des Conradus Mutianus” in “Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen” (Halle. “Paolo Sarpi fra Venezia e l’Europa” (Torino. Haile. Rudolph Haubst. “Nuntiaturen des Vergerio 1533-1536. Hartmann Grisar. 1971).” XLVIII (1953).” in “History: Choice and Commitment” (Cambridge. Franz Dittrich. H. 1972). “Der Froeliche Wechsel und Streit” (Einsiedeln: Johannes Verlag. “Concilium Tridentinum” (Freiburg im Breisgau. “Histoire des Rose-Croix” (Paris. “Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy: Cardinal Pole and the Counter Reformation” (Cambridge University Press. “Ein `Thurmerlebnis’ des Jungen Contarini. “Gasparo Contarini 1483-1542″ (Nieuwkoop. Dermot Fenlon. “Index Librorum Prohibitorum” (Venice. Einaudi. 1977). 1952). 1882). Karl Gillert (ed. Bouwsma.” “Historisches Jahrbuch” LXX (Munich- . “The Pope. Horatio Brown. “Der Reformentwurf Pius des Zweiten. and Venice” (Cambridge. Luther: “An Experiment in Biography” (New York: Doubleday. 1921). Frankfurt 1968). “Religion and Politics in the Thought of Gasparo Contarini. 1901).). “The Age of the Baroque” (New York.). Felix Gilbert. 1980). 1980). Stephan Ehses. 1968). 1956). 1892. His Banker. 1975). Irmgard Hoess. 1972). Mass.” volume 1 of “Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland 1533-1559″ (Gotha. Cozzi. “Luther” (London. “Dictionary of National Biography” (London..” in “Roemische Quartalschrift. 1902). Friedrich.

“Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age” (London. Pius II. “Pier Paolo Vergerio: The Making of an Italian Reformer” (Geneva. 1964). “Christian von Anhalt und die Kurpfaelzische Politik am Beginn des Dreissigjaehrigen Krieges” (Leipzig. Palmer. Cecil Roth. and “The Rosicrucian Enlightenment” (London.” 1992. pp. 1984). 1979). Paolo Sarpi. pp. “Die Unterstuetzung Friedrichs V. See also Hubert Jedin. II. 1972). October 1939 ff. 1904).” in “30 Days. Fra Paolo Sarpi. “A History of the Modern World” (New York. “Peter Delphin General des Camaldulenserordens 1444-1525″ (Munich. “The Commentaries. 1951). Joseph Dwyer ( Maryland. 1926). “Venetian Phoenix: Paolo Sarpi and Some of his English Friends (16061700)” (Wichita. “Scelte lettere inedite” (Capolago. 115 ff. “Il contribut veneziano alla riforma cattolica.” ed. und Karl I. R. 1977). von der Pflaz durch Jacob I. 1833). Kansas.Freiburg.” Julius Krebs.R. “Scritti Filosofici e Teologici” (Bari: Laterza. Frances A. 1967).” in “La civilta’ veneziana del rinascimento. Elmar Weiss. 1973). 5461. “Luther: Manichean Delirium. “Pole’s Defense of the Unity of the Church . 1872). Geoffrey Parker. Joseph Schnitzer. “The Thirty Years’ War” (London and New York. Anne Jacobsen Schutte. 1965). “Cardinal Contarini at Regensburg” (Oxford. “Geschichte der Paepste” (Freiburg im Breisgau. John Leon Lievsay. 1959) and “A History of the Jews in England” (Oxford. 1961). Federico Seneca. Ludwig Pastor. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . Antonio Socci and Tommaso Ricci. 1966). “Epistolae ” (Farnborough. Reginald Pole. Peter Matheson. Yates. 1951). 1957). 1972). “The Jews in the Renaissance” (Philadelphia. Switzerland. von England im Dreissigjaehrigen Krieg 1618-1632″ (Stuttgart. “La Politica Veneziana l’Interdetto” (Padova. Reginald Pole. Canton Ticino.” Smith College Studies in History.

In fact.N. the “optimum human population” of “number of people the planet can comfortably support. The British empiricists were. published the raving tract Reflections on the Population of Nations in Relation to National Economy. Ortes was one of the most important ideologues of the Venetian oligarchy in its final phase. In other words.” which was published in 1798. During the first part of the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) ho-originated-the-myth-of-carrying-capacity/ December 27. as usual. sterilization.27 billion to be imposed for the year 2050.N. butchers would like to establish scientific credibility for the idea that there is an absolute theoretical maximum number of persons the earth can http://tarpley. But all of Malthus’s argument is already contained in a more explicit form in the writings of Ortes. of one of the most putrid. the author of the infamous “Essay on the Principle of Population. are seeking to condition governments and public opinion worldwide to accept the notion of a “carrying capacity” for our planet. The originator of the “carrying capacity” argument was Giammaria Ortes. Many current proponents of U. June 20.” But where does the idea of “carrying capacity” come from? Is there any scientific basis for attempting to posit any limit for the human family? There is none whatsoever. Some preliminary documents for the Cairo conference set a world population level of 7. using compulsory abortion. Academic kooks like David Pimentel of Cornell University argue that the earth’s carrying capacity is even lower. in the entire school of British Philosophical Radicalism after the time of the American Revolution–including Malthus. and moribund oligarchical societies the world has ever known. Venetian territory was repeatedly . who in 1790. and claim that their studies show the need to cut world population down to 2 billion.N. Jeremy Bentham (17481732). scheduled to be held in Cairo in September of this year. An examination of the history of the “carrying capacity” argument reveals that it originated as one of the epistemological weapons of the dying Venetian Republic during the late eighteenth century–that is. 1994 During their preparations for the United Nations’ so-called International Conference on Population and Development. Ortes (1713-1790) was a Venetian charlatan and mountebank. euthanasia and other grisly means.Giammaria Ortes: The Decadent Venetian Kook Who Originated The Myth of “Carrying Capacity” « TARPLEY. and his “population possible to subsist on all the earth” has long since been exceeded and today has been doubled.-sponsored genocide would identify themselves as followers of Parson Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834). the genocidal bureaucrats of the U. a defrocked Camaldolese monk and libertine. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents Printed in The American Almanac. obliged slavishly to plagiarize their decadent Venetian originals. James Mill (1773-1836) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). decadent. Here Ortes set the unalterable upper limit for the world’s human population at 3 billion. It is clear that the U. the U. and its oligarchical supporters seek to exterminate population groups in excess of the limit. VENICE AND ORTES Venice during the eighteenth century was on the surface a state of almost total impotence. in the last year of his life. there is virtually nothing that cannot already be found in Ortes.

after 15 years as a monk. Ortes wrote that military service was always servitude. the few dozen families who were not were among the very richest in Europe. and anti-militarism with slogans strikingly similar to the peace movements of the twentieth century. After this. Although more and more of the nobility was impoverished. the Venetians signed the Treaty of Passarowitz with the Ottomans in 1718. but between Westminster and St. which by now was also collapsing. This completed the consolidation of Ortes as an arithmomaniac. From this point on. and the service sector. Paul’s. Giovanni della Giudecca.violated by the contending French and Hapsburg armies. including pimps. the oligarchical cancer that was Venice had largely metastasized to the City of London and the new British Empire. including his own monastic vows. where he also began to study law. Giammaria Ortes entered the Camoldolese monastery of San Mattia on the island of Murano in the lagoon. and population. At the same time. he entered the monastery of S. By the time of Ortes. published in 1744. like Giammaria. he got his vows nullified and returned to his family home. tourism. economics. Ortes had three brothers and two sisters all of whom. while attempting–as always–to envelop and destroy any and all positive figures in art. Here his professor was the Camoldolese Abbot Guido Grandi. Count Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo). gigolos. After a last war with the Ottoman Empire. Ortes left Murano and became a student at the University of Pisa in a different country. When Ortes returned to Venice in 1738. In the process. Grandi was already teaching a mixture of Galileo and the more recent views of the British charlatan and magician Sir Isaac Newton. chose holy orders and the religious life. the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. A second axis of Venetian attack was to undercut the influence of the German scientist and philosopher Leibniz. The center of the Venetian Party worldwide was now no longer in the Rialto. But in many areas of intrigue and manipulation. the Venetians of Rialto remained unequaled. Here he studied philosophy “with the Cartesian method” and was found to be of phlegmatic temperament. Although the work of Galileo had been condemned by the Roman Catholic Church and would stay condemned until 1757. In 1734. And while Venice had no army at all and no navy to speak of. its secret intelligence agencies and diplomats were among the most active and effective in all of Europe. From Grandi Ortes tells us he learned to think “with the geometrical method. a firm believer in the absurd propisition that everything that matters can be reduced to a column of figures. science and intellectual life. and other parasites. especially by weakening France and the economic school of Colbert.” What Ortes means by this is that he was inspired to attempt the Newtonian or quantitative formal-arithmetical analysis of human affairs. and the English countryside was filling up with Georgian copies of the Venetian architect Palladio. pacifism. So the general direction of Venetian intelligence operations was to act in support of the British Empire. which was his first book.” with the oligarchy drawing its income from landed estates on the Italian mainland. which once had been a jealously guarded preserve of the Venetians. Venice followed a policy of neutralism. with which Austria absorbed Venice. He says he began to doubt the validity of contracts. The general outlines of the life of Ortes are these: He was born in Venice in 1713 into a family of well-off artisans involved in the production of glass pearls. including history. Ortes . Living in leisure with the help of his father’s modest income. and the Venetians were powerless to do more than protest. he set to work on the biography of Grandi. the Venetians found ways to express their own devotion to absolute. music. From Passarowitz until the liquidation of the Venetian Republic by Napoleon’s invasion and the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797. satanic evil. In November of 1727. who taught philosophy and mathematics. prostitutes. Grandi was the editor of Galileo’s works. the Serenissima was able to spin out an “end of history. and the economist Giammaria Ortes. Among the Venetian assets devoted to these activities we find such figures as Giacomo Casanova. British and Dutch naval vessels operated freely in the northern Adriatic. Now.

the Erizzo. called itself the “conversazione filosofica e felice” (”philosophical and happy conversation group”). who were said to have participated at the election of the first doge in 697 A. Later. ORTES AND THE VENETIAN OLIGARCHY During these years. This title should suggest to no one that Ortes was some kind of holy man: During this same period. the notorious adventurer Casanova was admitted to the four minor orders of the Church and thus also qualified as an abbé. Ortes modestly wrote that he “had only been [Memmo's] maestro for a few months and only out of friendship. in 1741. These included the Labia. Conti translated Pope’s “Rape of the Lock” into Italian. was a Procurator of Saint Mark’s basilica. This was a Venetian salon in the tradition of the “ridotto Morosini” of the second half of the sixteenth century. Some of those who frequented this salon: Alvise Zuanne Mocenigo. Ortes became closely associated with one of the most important salons or ridotti of the Venetian aristocracy. out of which had come Galileo. who frequented the conversazione. the Memmo. and was a close personal associate of Casanova. and attracted attention for his 1713 debates with the French philosopher Malebranche. Andrea Memmo came from a family of so-called “twelve Apostles” patricians.D. the Vezzi. Andrea Memmo was one of the leading figures of European freemasonry. the Mocenigo. when world predominance passed into the hands of the British. Paolo Sarpi. a regular of the conversazione. The abate Antonio Conti (1677-1749) was a Venetian nobleman who was the most celebrated intellectual of the conversazione.” and thanked Memmo late in life for his “old friendship” and “modern-day protection. in 1763. This grouping. he also called himself a “disciple” of Ortes. the Conti.retained only the religious title of abate or abbé. The “conversazione filosofica e felice” was the ideological arm of a closely allied group of Venetian oligarchical families. In 1715. and sometimes at the summer home of the Labia. Ortes had dedicated a poem to Mocenigo when he was made procurator in 1737. like Ortes. the Nani. Sometimes the salon would meet at the palace of the Emo in Venice. he was told that a very high official of the Venetian government had greatly praised his labors. the Emo. and the Venetian orchestration of the Thirty Years’ War. If Memmo was unquestionably one of the leaders of Venetian foreign intelligence.” A total of three members of the Mocenigo family served as doge during the eighteenth century. Popular opinion was quick to give him the nickname of “the Duchess. The Procurator of St. this Mocenigo was elected the third to last doge or ruling duke of Venice.” When Ortes published his major work on national economy. and thus an administrator of the centralized investment fund of Venice. Ortes would contribute a sonnet to the marriage celebration of another Mocenigo. this turned out to be Girolamo Ascanio Giustinian. Mark’s Zuanne Emo was one of the leaders of the Venetian aristocracy during this time. Conti was also well known for his pseudo-classical poetry and tragedies on Roman imperial themes. In 1759. where Ortes usually went on vacation. but was defeated by Francesco Loredan. the Querini. Memmo worked with Casanova on Venetian intelligence operations against France during the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763). Conti traveled to Hannover to meet Leibniz and to undertake operations against him in court intrigue as well as in epistemology. and the Giustinian. for whom he became an international operative of great importance. obsessed with applying “geometry” to “political science. The patrician Giacomo Nani was.” Some of Nani’s essays are extant in manuscript at the library of the University of . which was at its height during the period 17401760. Emo was one of the leading candidates for the post of doge in 1752. he visited London and became a close personal ally of Sir Isaac Newton.

” But during these same years.” or destitute nobles. a point repeated obsessively by Ortes. All his life Ortes was officially celibate. But he was a passionate devotee of the theatre and the opera. Voltaire and Rousseau. In a letter written by Andrea Memmo to his friend Giuseppe Torelli.” “original” values of Venice. 1993). The libertines were a social movement especially in France from the days of Montaigne and Bayle through the French Revolution. “everything is converted into evil juices and everything becomes bad food.” In the ensuing affair. Calculation on the Value of Human Opinions.Padua.” wrote Nani.” Nani’s starting point was the obvious decadence and rottenness of Venice. “all the ills of our Republic were less bad than the remedies.” Therefore. hedonists. necromancers. According to Ortes scholar Piero del Negro. il patriziato e la politica di Venezia" in Giammaria Ortes: Un `Filosofo' Veneziano del Settecento (Florence: Olschki. the “poveri. alchemists. "Giammaria Ortes. These include “Political Reflections on the Government of Our City” and “Political Essay about the Aristocracy of the Republic of Venice for the Year 1756. they were the social milieu through which Casanova and Cagliostro moved. He said that the libertines really had “a spirit that matched that of the Republic” and represented the “real. Ortes’s book. charlatans. Libertine networks were an important asset of Venetian intelligence. On another occasion. and polyvalent procurers who advanced under the banner of Hobbes and Locke. a philosopher. and then two ideological groupings: the “good or quiet ones” and the “strong and free spirits. The libertines were a powerful force for the destruction of eighteenth-century European society. Ortes’s friend and ideologue Nani divided the Venetian aristocracy into four parties or classes: These were the “signori. In 1752.” Nani classed himself and his friends among the libertines. as “an indication of the ironic character of the definition. was that of an ultra-clerical . “good Christian” is underlined in the original. a Venetian literary newspaper attacked Ortes as being a “physiotheist. For Nani. The world of the libertines is evoked in Schiller’s novel Der Geisterseher. was outlawed by the Venetian censors.” Nani exudes the historical and cultural pessimism that is the hallmark of Ortes. a good man. especially to the popular game of faro.” In addition to his friends of the conversazione. especially after about 1760.” In other words. By contrast. gamblers. Memmo described Ortes as “a good Christian. 125-182. a Venetian abbé by the name of Milesi congratulated Ortes for “the honor in which he was held by the main and most illuminated persons of this Republic. “the lesser evil is to leave everything the way it is. He was also addicted to card playing. the public profile of Ortes. he always kept in touch with Memmo. These facts about Ortes are important because they undercut the efforts of Ortes himself and of his Anglo-Venetian successors to present him as a lonely and eccentric recluse. These were the freemasons. cabalists. an attempt by Ortes to get a book published in Bologna was blocked by the censors of the papal states. At the end of many of his writings Ortes added his motto: “Chi mi sa dir s’io fingo?” This means: “Who can tell me if I am pretending?” Those who conclude that Ortes was indeed a faker and a libertine will be on firm ground. Nani thought.” And as we have seen. Ortes was writing to the patrician Fiordelise Labia as her humble servant and to one of the Querini as “my good patron and friend. Towards the end of his life Ortes wrote of himself as a man “almost unknown to his own country” who had “very few friends and even fewer patrons.] In 1757. pp.” [Piero Del Negro. and totally indifferent” in the sense of being an agnostic.” The latter two were determined by their belief either in quietism or what Nani called “libertinismo. Ortes had built up his own direct relations with other influential patricians like Tomaso Contarini. and corresponded with a number of female singers and actresses. no reforms or government actions would ever produce positive results. “In a corrupt body.” or richest nobles.

” Axiom IV answers: “The incomes of churchmen cannot be excessive. The economic writings of Ortes also show that he was aware of the existence of extreme poverty in England. the Austrian foreign minister. the Grand Prior of Hungary and a secret counselor (Geheimrat) of the Imperial Austrian court. and not otherwise disposed of. Ortes travelled extensively through Italy. especially land. Ortes devoted another book to a defense of ecclesiastical mortmain (called fidecommessi or manomorte in Italian). 17] This recalls Malthus’s argument that a well-funded state church is necessary to provide the effective demand needed to prevent crises of overproduction–an argument summed up in Malthus’s creed that a “church with a capacious maw is best. p. comes down against the British-allied side. He went to Vienna in 1746. and Holland. Ortes was also in contact with the Austrian Empire’s ambassador to Venice. writing from Vienna on Nov. Louis XV of France and Count Kaunitz. During the following years. Austria. gives his views on a white paper of the Prussian government which set forth the official reasons for Frederick the Great’s termination of his treaty with Austria. In 1751. his 1771 Popular Errors Concerning National Economy is already largely given over to a defense of the prebends and livings of the priesthood and the holy orders. and Spain were opposed to Great Britain. the two phases of the world war of the mid-eighteenth century from which the British Empire emerged victorious. began to negotiate what became known as the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756.” Error V: “The incomes of churchmen reduce those of the general population. Around 1745. Later. At other times. Ortes became interested in the English writer Alexander Pope. where his contact with Sinzendorf is confirmed. ever the arithmomaniac. during the War of the Austrian Succession in which France. specifically against Great Britain and Frederick the Great of Prussia. in 1776. Count Philip Joseph Orsini-Rosenberg. During 1755. which was under attack by the Venetian government. p. since Ortes was clearly assigned at the time as an Austrian handler. 1756. states that “the survival of a principality depends on the amount of its own forces multiplied by its deception to defend itself from the forces of its neighbors. 12. formally speaking. which he describes.” [Errori popolari. Ortes. could only be passed on to members of the same family or ecclesiastical community. A short unpublished manuscript is conserved in the archives of Venice’s Biblioteca Marciana in which Ortes. Prussia. . Giustiniana Wynne. the famous “reversal of alliances” which for the first time in centuries saw French Bourbons and Austrian Hapsburgs allied. Then Ortes went on to Vienna. Anticlerical forces attacked mortmain. and he returned to Vienna at the end of that year.” Axiom V: “The incomes of churchmen increase those of the general population. This book contains a table in which widespread “errors” are answered by “axioms” formulated by Ortes.” In 1785. This is not surprising. he was in Tuscany with a lifelong contact. but Ortes supported it as necessary for the stability of church and state. Mortmain was a device used in wills to guarantee that property. perhaps with Sinzendorf. During the summer of 1755. 77] Ortes supports the Austrian position and thus. Count Kaunitz would ask for two copies of Ortes’s book on national economy. Count Octavian Karl Nicolaus von Sinzendorf. Ortes was in France. who had married a former lover of both Casanova and of Andrea Memmo. Bavaria.reactionary. The period of Ortes’s intensive travel roughly coincides with the 1748 to 1756 interval of peace between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War. Ortes’s first book on economics. Error IV reads “The incomes of churchmen are excessive. Ortes’s itinerary of the period touches three capitals immediately involved in the rapid policy shifts of 1755-56–Paris.” [Bartolo Anglani. Between April and August 1756 Ortes was in Berlin. and began work on an Italian translation of Pope’s “Essay on Man” which was published three decades later. A short biography of Ortes provided by his posthumous editor Custodi states that Ortes also visited England during these years. Ortes was also employed by Venetian intelligence as an operative in foreign countries.

The “necessity of the times created a similar authority.” [Anglani. beyond that margin of the earth where they had so thoughtlessly multiplied themselves. Then the entire package is commented upon by a European of the time of Ortes. without vices and not afflicted by any social establishment. with Some Considerations on these of a European Philosopher of the Current Century.” that is to say of the Europeans. The full story of Ortes’s role in these events is still hidden in unpublished materials in the Venetian archives. in the absence of a sword. without needs or desires which could not be easily satisfied. pp. offers a commentary on the decadence and corruption of “those barbarians. then it was certainly in the European race of that time. one of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Aza is later joined by another noble savage of the Americas. who offers further observations. and not being able to assign it on earth.” [Bartolo Anglani.Vienna.] Then came the invention of “another life” after life on earth. Aza and Zima embrace the typical doctrines of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.” Finally. Africa. 102.] Within society. This is a work full of hatred for western civilization. with thunderbolts and darts. These men were destined to consider themsleves as mediators between that spirit and every other common man…. but which have survived only in manuscript.” Aza continues: “It is true that in order to realize their error it should have been enough [for the Europeans] to extend their thoughts beyond what their eyes could see. named Zima. Aza traces the origin within western society of authority. pp. "Ortes e Rousseau: Le `Rifelssioni di un Filosofo Americano'|" in Giammaria Ortes: Un `Filosofo' Veneziano del Settecento. For Aza and Zima. It was agreed to give credence to a heavenly authority armed. living free and independent. and formed that famous union among themselves which they called Church. first as custodian and interpreter of the laws. expressed from a multicultural standpoint. and Asia. a life of “invariable and eternal length” to be lived out by “a special and separable essence” called “soul or spirit. and Berlin. religion was represented as quasi-human and modelled on “sublimated human authority. Ortes targets in particular religion for a special attack. the cause of European decadence is the existence of society itself. giving it human form and making it visible for all time in a succession of lieutenants.” Later. then as the arbitrary creator of laws. and they would have seen from the larger and more tranquil part of mankind what is their natural condition. to the vast tracts of America. 104. while the European philosopher answers with the ideas of Thomas Hobbes. Such is the case of Ortes’s work Reflections of an American Philosopher of a Few Centuries in the Future on the Customs of the Europeans of the Current Century. Writing two centuries in the future from Ortes’s time. 101] The answer given to all this by the European philosopher of 1760 is the brutal Hobbesian one that human beings are compelled to live together in society in order to avoid the attacks and aggressions of which they would otherwise be the target.” [Anglani. “a species of men took over the actual representation of this spirit. Here we see the constant themes of Venetian propaganda from the Third Crusade through the war against the Renaissance to Mazzini: the denigration of western civilization and Latin . And to make that more persuasive. says Aza. Here they would have seen humanity. they tried to make the spirit itself palpable. THE OUTLOOK OF ORTES Ortes often speaks most frankly in the works which he never published. 101-102. Aza finds that “if nature ever produced a bastard. they thought to extract it from the sky…. the noble savage Aza.

Ortes was well advised not to have published this piece of writing.” which Ortes was accused of having defined as “a useful deception. and that the lazy man is the most abject among men because he is without passions and without superstitions. that one superstition does nothing but fight another.” [Anglani. and that what is called pleasure is merely the momentary absence of pain. pp. This induces him to . and if I conclude that all the pains and pleasures of this life are only illusions. which would have placed him among the most raging libertines of his century.” a mathematical study of card playing. and prefigures the later hedonistic calculus of Jeremy Bentham. Given his need to preserve his cover as a churchman. that pain in man is in greater supply than pleasure. So that we would say that since in human affairs everything depends on passion. 27. that the man who is considered the most important is the most superstitious. Ortes published two essays in one volume entitled Calculation of the Value of Opinions and of the Pleasures and Pains of Human Life. Ortes sums up his argument thus: “That man is subjected by nature to pain and not to pleasure. the desire to wipe out the Roman papacy.” Then came “prudence. Pain is the norm.Christianity by a city-state that was always a part of the Byzantine-Orthodox tradition. The atmosphere here is Hobbes and Mandeville. 147-148] It was the Calculation of the Value of Human Opinions that got Ortes in trouble with the censors and brought him under public attack as a “physiotheist. and all are equally worth nothing.” Ortes had written that: “every man is inclined by nature to the pleasure of the senses. I do not except my own calculations. If these doctrines are thought to redound to the discredit of humanity. that the number of pains and pleasures depends on the force of application–this can be said with certainty…. Among these were that “every man is equal to every other. I find myself to be of this species without complaining about it. precisely because it is a persuasion for which no reason can be furnished…. that pain and pleasure proceed in man from the torment and from the relief of his fibers.” The Venetian newspaper Novelle della repubblica letteraria of Aug. Ortes published his “Calcolo sopra i giuochi della bassetta e del faraone. everything depends on superstition. and pleasure the brief exception. And when I say all. In 1757.” In the same year of 1757. I can add that all human ratiocinations are only madness. Ortes’s main point in the Calculation of the Pleasures and Pains of Human Life is that man is above all a creature dominated by pain and suffering. Here the abbé makes the following observation on the essence of gambling and human nature: “The fact that a passion for gambling is a superstition will not seem strange to anyone who considers that any human passion is just as much a passion and an error. and the exaltation of backwardness and irrationality. 1757 listed a series of propositions found by the reviewer in Ortes’s book. But Ortes’s published works are revealing enough.

as regards provision or increase of goods. was never said or at least was never proven by anybody. that measure opinions are those that we possess or that we acquire or that we can make use of by means of these opinions. After 1757. or without somebody’s suffering. Ortes published nothing for more than a decade. Ortes published his principal work. p. and thus become the common measure of opinions as of all the products of nature and of art. This is when he decided to become an economist. neither by the charms of a charlatan nor by the work of a philosopher nor even by the work of a sovereign. Ortes was interested in contemporary French writers like Maupertuis and La Mettrie. ORTES THE ECONOMIST In 1774. he wrote to a friend that he had stopped in society from which he derives a quantity of these pleasures. 122] Ortes further asserted that: “the value of opinions are riches. divided by the number of supporters of these opinions. be they the most common or the most bizarre. Those who have insight can see that: “national economy is a matter which cannot be improved in any way by any particular action. Naz.” [Anglani.. These riches. and all attempts by persons seeking to organize national economy according to a better system. in secret murmurings and with all kinds of books. then. as far as I know. 126] During these years. and that it cannot exceed this need by even a hairsbreadth. but is rather contrary to what is usually advanced on this subject in public discourse.” Ortes expands on this theme: “But that the general wealth cannot be increased for some without an equal deficiency of them for others. [Nuccio. 41-42] Ortes goes on to add some observations on what he calls “economic good and evil” or the . Della Economia Nazionale (On National Economy). Ec. p.” [Anglani. that no one can find himself better off without someone else being worse off. He begins by dismissing as superficial those believers in progress and humanitarians who wish to improve the material prosperity of humanity. have to end up as useless efforts. this is what. that the mass of common goods is determined in every nation by the need. In 1761. since it is clear that riches change and buy opinions like any other type of commerce.

but will be roused to work as much as necessary to survive or to satisfy other needs. pp. then those goods would have been produced and would be kept without sufficient reason. which will always be the product of its population multiplied by this irreducible minimum amount of work. 44] Ortes has thus preceded John Von Neumann and others in defining economic reality as a zerosum game. no one will ever work more than is necessary for survival and for the satisfaction of these needs. and since there is an inevitable lack of goods for some if these are to be abundant for others.” [Nuccio. or job of any kind without an impulse of motivation for this. be this motivation good or evil…. Ortes means that a human being will normally tend to inert torpor. that everything that is done.abundance and deficiency of products. without any abundance or deficiency. I say again. this good can only appear as a mixture of economic good and evil. can only be expressed between the individual and the commonality as the number zero. by contrast. and cannot otherwise be increased. In the course of this argument. thanks to the fact that if the goods were not there or were inferior to the needs of all. so if we suppose in any nation some number of persons. which means that nobody undertakes an action. destroy each other and resolve themselves into nothing.” [Nuccio p. without which nothing is ever done. Or. as we pointed out. is the most vulgar materialism and hedonism. which for him was a principle of the intelligibility of causality. all those persons would not survive. and if the goods were excessive or were superior to the need. or as the vector sum of forces which. they will require certain goods in order to survive. As a Venetian Aristotelian. 4344] This is doubtless a conscious parody of Leibniz’s famous doctrine of sufficient reason. Ortes sets up the single axiom upon which his entire study of national economy will depend: “This will be. The only problems that can be solved by human intervention or the policies of government are to some degree those of distribution. which is contrary to our supposition. and the reason for the production of these goods will only be precisely providing for these persons. these goods cannot fall short or be excessive in relation to their need. p. [Nuccio. What Ortes means. operating with equal energy in different and opposite directions. the substances spread throughout a nation and by means of which the nation exists must be determined precisely by the needs of the nation. which tends neither to one nor to the other. as Ortes says: “Having posited this truth. 45] . The experienced card-playing abbé makes this very explicit: “The good therefore. is done with sufficient reason. understood as the possession of goods in excess of what is needed. However. Because however these persons can only consume a determined quantity of goods. Hence derives for Ortes the fixed and unimprovable level of the wealth of each nation. Ortes believes that production is rigidly determined by the number of people involved. work.

ORTES AS DEMOGRAPHER Ortes’s most influential work was his Reflections on the Population of Nations in Relation to National Economy. to govern is to populate. p. But economic good and the lack of it were equal under these two emperors. Ortes attacks foreign trade: “I have no doubt in asserting that domestic trade is to be preferred to foreign trade in the certainty that domestic trade is the one by which a nation is provided with the goods necessary.” [Ortes. which can be convincingly shown by the fact that no matter how many people Titus made happy.” [Ortes. and that Nero promoted it in the totally opposite direction. and no matter how many people Nero made unhappy in order to make himself happy. who was certainly a bloody and repressive tyrant. arguing that . Ortes then argues that Roman soceity was just as well off under Nero as under Titus: “people will certainly say that Titus promoted [the common good] in his time. with the supposition of thus increasing wealth and by consequence the national greatness and power which depend on that wealth. published in 1790.Ortes then proceeds to provide a graphic and extreme illustration of these absurd ideas. p. without making anyone unhappy. p. since Titus pursued his own interests without destruction and Nero pursued his interests with the destruction of the common good. and pleasurable for its maintenance. Ortes starts off by noting that “these writers are all accustomed to teach that the growth of population is a great advantage to a nation. 8] In other locations Ortes endorsed free trade precisely as this type of supplement.50] Which goes to show that a determined Aristotelian kook can “prove” literally anything. Ortes contends that “the population in any nation must be contained within certain limits…. He sets up the contrast between the Roman Emperor Nero. and foreign trade is only a supplement for deficiencies in domestic trade. 7] Alongside of population growth. so that wealth grew under Titus and decreased under Nero. and Nero someone to make unhappy.” Against this. and the emperor Titus.” [Nuccio. Titus would nevertheless eternally have found someone to make happy. The dirigists and kameralists of the eighteenth century were agreed that one of the main purposes of government was the promotion of population as the key source of national wealth: gobernar es poblar. commodious. said the Spanish proverb. whom he presents as a model of good and mild government. but apparently written starting in 1775.

” but the economists do the opposite. but of these together with the rest of the population. no great nobles and no nation at all.” [Ortes.such free trade would be equally beneficial for all concerned. because the nation is made up not just of this sovereign or of those great nobles. p. He repeats his creed that: “the goods of a nation are in every nation in proportion to the population. and more powerful than the others is nothing but a fraud.” [Ortes. to increase a nation’s population and foreign trade with the goal of making that nation richer. the population. The current century claims to be the most illuminated. 12] To make the government and the nobility rich. Ortes comments: “Thus. a population which doubles every 30 years will reach more than 7. in which instead of looking at the whole nation only a few are considered. In his first chapter. far greater masses of people are made poor. it must be said that the greater wealth of some only occurs through just as much greater poverty for others in the nation itself. and that given the same population it is not possible to increase them for some people without reducing them just as much for others. that at this rate. but is in reality the most stupid and senseless of all. without excess or deficiency. [Ortes. Against all evidence. But he quickly adds that: “since the capital of money and of goods in every nation is in proportion to its population. 10] What of the fact that the sovereign. Ortes has no trouble in denying the obvious fact that the standard of living and productive capacities do vary among nations. taking into account only time and the faculty of generation. and great nobility of certain countries seem to be much wealthier than those of other countries? Ortes concedes that they may indeed be wealthier. without which there would be no sovereign. entitled “Unlimited Progress of Generations. greater. such as the sovereign and the great nobles who shine most brightly. He assumes a natural and unalterable tendency of each couple to produce 6 children.000 years which are usually counted from the creation of the world until today. of which 2 die before reaching the age of 20.5 billion. He produces further tables to show that after 900 years. resulting in “servitude and oppression. and this is a very false thing.” Therefore. 13] Economists ought to be concerned about redistribution of wealth by “diminishing the excessive wealth of the rich. p. government. with two surviving parents and one surviving grandparent. the population will double every 30 years. p.” Ortes starts from his standard population sample of two men and two women of an age suitable for reproduction. with tables. would by now be found to have grown to so many living persons not . Ortes then shows. after those 6.

clothing. to dress. or infant mortality and life expectancy. and dwellings of the vegetable and animal types as they are in use in human life…. For this. but even so many as could not be contained on all its surface from the deepest valleys to the steepest mountains. Ortes is interesting only as a kind of Canaletto of economic pathology who provides us with snapshots of a society of monstrous stagnation and decadence. Why had world population not already collided with the 3 billion upper limit? Ortes blamed the rich. who limited the size of their families in order to keep their wealth concentrated in a single line of inheritance. “if men were less greedy or did not oppress each other with poverty and with excessive riches. frozen. and that progression will have to stop when it arrives at that number. This makes known that there is a necessary limit at which the progress of generations stops….” [Ortes. If that progression [of population] were to proceed beyond this. Venice on the eve of its extinction. . In ignoring technological and scientific innovation.000 million persons. p. the parents would have to strangle their babies in their diapers or use them as food. Although Ortes set the world’s “carrying capacity” at an immutable maximum of 3 billion. unless the earth were expand like a balloon blown up from the inside. he estimated that in his contemporary world the total human population was slightly more than 1 billion. Human population increase is limited by mankind’s need for products like “food. human population growth must also be limited: “In this way. 34] Ortes always strictly ignored technological change and the impact that this might have on. packed numerous like dead and dried herring in their barrels. for example. Ortes thought. since it is believed that all the products mentioned above as necessary for human life which can be extracted from the entire surface of the earth and from the animals that are found there are as many as are sufficient to feed. the limit to population growth is provided by the actions of mankind or by predators and other natural factors. this will therefore be the maximum of persons capable of surviving at the same time on earth. this is something that will happen after 840 years if the 7 persons assumed had found themselves alone on the earth at the creation of the world or after a universal flood.” These are limited. p.” [Ortes. These arguments are deeply tinged with Venetian provincialism. and to house up to 3. 28] In the case of animals. For him. 35] Ortes believed that it was necessary to stabilize world population in a zero growth mode. Ortes ignored the primary data of economics and the main factors which determine relative potential poopulation density in the real world. There was no such thing as progress or improvement. Population would expand. Therefore. all forms of production were fixed. agricultural production. and thus kept the poor too impecunious to be able to maintain any family at all.” [Ortes. p.only as to not be able to breathe on the earth. and did not double its surface for each new generation until it filled the immensity of the skies. says the abbé. and never had and never would change.

Of the fourteen doges who reigned between 1675 and 1775.” In the artificial states. wealth and population were concentrated in the congested capital and other big cities. This gave a total European population of 160. Free housing and other provisions were offered to any of the barnabotti who agreed to remain unmarried and to have no offspring. with the youngest son often being given the responsibility for carrying on the line. spies for the Council of Ten. p. As undesirable alternatives to celibacy he listed prostitution.he recommended celibacy. This was the policy warmly recommended by Ortes as one of the main policy points of his Reflections on Population: a way of selling luxurious state rooms on the Titanic. He estimated that Asia was five times bigger than Europe. He added that if a country got any bigger. and in Venice’s final century to 66%. ORTES ON VENETIAN DECADENCE Ortes admitted more or less openly that he was writing about Venice. . but was merely describing some aspects of the moribund society of which he was a part–decadent Venice a few years before its end. characterized by “immense numbers of people on lands that are even more immense in relation to their numbers. and Switzerland. polygamy. with a population of 1 million. and Poland. such a state would allow the optimal use of economic resources by minimizing the depradations of government and court. and used tables to show that if this were the case. According to E. In order to avoid the decimation of the ranks of the aristocracy. Rodenwalt. Many barnabotti lived on government welfare payments. He called for as many persons to remain celibate as got married. or the Americas. eunuchs. and a population density of 200 persons per square mile. population would remain permanently stationary. But he thought that Asia was more densely populated than either Africa. where the population density reached 200 per square mile. More than two-thirds of the daughters of the aristocracy had no hope of finding husbands.000 square miles of territory of the type found in the Italy of his day (The miles used by Ortes are old pre-metric system Italian miles which approximate nautical miles). 41] Later Ortes established his model of an ideal or “natural” nation. and generally entered convents and other religious institutions which quickly acquired a reputation for licentiousness.000 because of an even lower population density. Prussia. according to his estimates. all the sons but one had to remain unmarried. Ortes contrasted to this model of a “natural” nation the “artificial” nations. It may be obvious already that Ortes had never studied population growth as such. which was a state of 5. in the seventeenth century this had risen to 60%. At this stage the city of Venice had about 160. In Russia and European Turkey he estimated 40 inhabitants per square mile. political fixers. The impoverished nobility formed a social class known as the barnabotti who retained their membership in the Maggior Consiglio. only four were ever married–and this does not count the “dogaressa” mentioned above.000 inhabitants. but who were forced by their noble status to abstain from any productive work and who thus tended to become corrupt state officials. he estimated a population density of 72 per square mile. but with a population of only 480. His chapters on the demographics of noble families reflected the Venetian decadence: for the family fondo to remain concentrated in a single line of biological inheritance. a sizable decline from earlier centuries. leaving vast areas empty. In Spain. In his view.000. Austria. and “other modes of incontinence used by the barbarous nations…” [Ortes. France.000. in the sixteenth century 51% of Venetian male nobles remained unmarried. etc. Whether his ideal state has 1 million people or 3 million (as at various points in On National Economy) it is clear that he has only Venice in mind. Great Britain. Holland. with 240 million. family membership in the Maggior Consiglio was offered in return for large cash payments at various times during the eighteenth century.000. Ortes thought that the more “natural” European states were the petty Italian and German states. with 220 million. the mutual intelligibility of dialects would be lost and the people would no longer speak the same language.

Ortes always provides a class analysis imbued with class conflict according to the shifting alliances of the various strata of Venetian patricians. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE For summaries of the biography and writings of Ortes. He was a writer of excruciating boredom who managed to be a pedant while citing no authors other than himself. See also material on Ortes in Gianfranco Torcellan. “Giammaria Ortes. see Giammaria Ortes: un “filosofo” veneziano del Settecento (Florence: L. See also in the same collection Bartolo Anglani. Popular Errors Concerning National Economy is in volume 32. Ortes was distinguished by his steady contemplation of “the fatal destiny that makes misery eternal….S. Reflections on the Population of Nations is in volume 31 of this collection. For Ortes’s relations with the Venetian oligarchy. I will limit myself to investigating the cause of their unhappiness. .’|” A number of the shorter and/or previously unpublished works of Ortes appear in Bartolo Anglani (ed. Yet it is in the name of doctrines of population stability and world carrying capacity traceable back to this raving faker of Venetian intelligence that the international Malthusian movement and the United Nations bureaucracy propose to carry out the greatest genocide of human history. Settecento Veneto e altri scritti storici (Torino: Giappichelli. pp. Giammaria Ortes: Cacolo sopra la verita’ dell’istoria e altri scritti (Genoa: Costa & Nolan. Olschki. The samples of Ortes’s demagogy proivded here may cast some light on the reasons for this affinity.” For Marx.In addition to having provided the main ideas for the English philosophical radicals. il Patriziato e la Politica di Venezia” in the cited Giammaria Ortes collection. Ortes was no economist. Ortes was “one of the great economic writers of the eighteenth century [who] regards the antagonism of capitalist production as a general natural law of social wealth. 1993). Della Economia Nazionale (Milano: Marzorati).” In Marx’s view. 1982). “Ortes e Rousseau: Le `Riflessioni di un Filosofo Americano. but an evil Venetian charlatan. The insanity of Giammaria Ortes is one more good reason to boycott and shut down the Cairo Conference. see Piero del Negro. based on the proceedings of a conference of the Cini Foundation. A History of Venice (New York. 1984). Knopf. For material on Venice in the eighteenth century.” Marx quotes Ortes’s remark at the opening of On National Economy that “instead of projecting useless systems for the happiness of the peoples. 1969). see–among many others–John Julius Norwich. Ortes also received high praise from Karl Marx. In reality. 125-182. In volume I of Capital Marx praised “the Venetian monk. edited by Custodi. but summoned only respect for the Venetian Ortes. Quotes from Reflections on the Population of Nations and other economic works are from the multi-volume anthology Scrittori Classici Italiani di Economia Politica (parte moderna). On National Economy quotes refer to Ortes.). edited by Oscar Nuccio. Marx railed against Malthus as a reactionary plagiarist. Ortes” as “an original and clever writer.” Doubtless instructed by his master David Urquhart.

« Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . 1969). see John Masters. Casanova (New York: Bernard Geis.For Anrea Memmo and Casanova.

who were active in the first part of the 1500s. Gasparo Contarini. Their factional creed is the idea that human beings have no creative mental powers. the area where human powers of hypothesis and creative reason become a force for improvements in the order of nature. there is the group of Paolo Sarpi and his right-hand man Fulgenzio Micanzio. the shift of the Venetian Party from the Adriatic to the banks of the Thames. the world center of gravity for the forces of oligarchism was the oligarchy of Venice. 1994 There is a cancer growing on world history – the cancer of oligarchism. They can be called the “dead souls” faction.D.How the Dead Souls of Venice Corrupted Science « TARPLEY. the Venetian Party seeks to control the way people think. and bombs. the Venetian oligarchy decided for various reasons to transfer its families. This was the group that created the Newton myth and modern materialism or utilitarianism and combated Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. First there is the group around Pietro Pomponazzi. whom the Venetians have done everything possible to destroy. This was the metastasis of the cancer. THREE GROUPS OF VENETIAN GAMEMASTERS We can approach these Venetian dead souls in three groups. Second. wherever it is. Third. The Venetian Party is implacably hostile to scientific http://tarpley. the case officers for Galileo Galilei. you can control the way they respond to events. we have the group around Antonio Conti and Giammaria Ortes in the early 1700s. and cannot make scientific discoveries. If you can control the way people think. and Francesco Zorzi. This was the group that opposed Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. they have attempted to suffocate scientific discovery by using formalism and the fetishism of authoritative professional opinion. These have been used to usurp the rightful honor due to real scientists. Since the days of Aristotle. believes in epistemological warfare.. It is therefore vital to the Venetians to control philosophy and especially science. This is because their factional pedigree is based on the belief that human beings have no soul. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents ICLC -the-dead-souls-of-venice-corrupted-science/ December 27. These three groups of Venetian gamemasters are responsible for a great deal of the obscurantism and garbage that weighs like a nightmare on the . The Venetian Party. or perhaps the “no-soul brothers” of Venetian intelligence.D. September. The Venetian Party has also created over the centuries a series of scientific frauds and hoaxes. fleets. Toward the end of that time. and characteristic outlook to a new base of operations. We can identify the Venetian faction which has been responsible for the most important of these scientific and epistemological frauds. say the Venetians. The Venetian Party knows that ideas are more powerful weapons than guns. and about 1600 A. fortunes. In order to secure acceptance for their imperial ideas. and this has been the main project of the world oligarchy during the past five centuries. which turned out to be the British Isles. Between 1200 A. no matter what those events may be. The old program of a worldwide new Roman Empire with its capital in Venice was replaced by the new program of a worldwide new Roman Empire with its capital in London – what eventually came to be known as the British Empire. are incapable of forming hypotheses. which have been elevated to the status of incontrovertible and unchallengeable authorities.

and France in conflicts with the Austrian and Spanish Hapsburgs and the papacy. It is with Pietro Pomponazzi that we see the explicit factional pedigree of the dead souls faction. and the Italian crypto-Protestants known as gli Spirituali. using agents like Max von Thurn und Taxis. and the Elector Palatine Frederick. This meant that there is no part of our mental life which is not contaminated by matter. SARPI AND GALILEO Until about 1600. as a practical matter. Think of Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus. England.brain of humanity today. the group around Sarpi succeeded in changing their public profile from being the enemies of science to being the embodiment of the most advanced and sophisticated science. Contarini was the cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who masterminded the early phases of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. as reflected in the sympathy of Soviet writers for figures like Galileo. Paolo Sarpi personally exterminated about one-third of the entire population of Europe. For Contarini. so as to stifle the process of discovery. Christian von Anhalt. the Ridotti Morosini. The Morosini were the direct ideological heirs of Gasparo Contarini. They would claim to represent the highest expression of scientific values. since it has no immaterial substance. Sarpi and his friend Fulgenzio Micanzio were Servite monks. We have told in other locations how Sarpi organized and unleashed the Thirty Years’ War in Central Europe. The Vecchi. Not exactly a role model for science nerds of any age. a necromancer. this profile began to present serious drawbacks and limitations. the so-called Winter King. Aristotle asserted that there is no thought which is not mixed with sense impressions. Contarini warned Pomponazzi not to take this matter any further. the so-called Giovani. These Venetian intelligence officials are the original atheists and materialists of the modern world. but also remarked that the only time that the existence of the soul is really certain is when the person is already dead. King Henry VIII of England. there is no empirical human soul that you can be aware of while you are still alive. As the 1500s turned into the 1600s. including Martin Luther. At the same time. Contarini also convoked the Council of Trent on an Aristotelian platform. and about one-half of the population of Germany and surrounding areas. For several centuries after this. Zorzi illustrates the typical profile of a Venetian intelligence operative in the early 1500s: He was a Franciscan friar whose main occupation was black magic of the Rosicrucian variety. set into motion the Protestant Reformation. Jean Calvin of Geneva. as the Venetian Party always does. Contarini was the personal protector of Ignatius of Loyola. The leading figure of the first grouping in the early 1500s was Gasparo Contarini. who became powerful after 1582. and you have the portrait of Zorzi. But in the early 1600s. Pomponazzi started from Aristotle. for Venetian raisons d’état. Newton. Francesco Zorzi was the envoy of this group to Henry VIII. The Giovani favored a policy of cooperation with Holland. the oldies. Paolo . this proved that the soul does not exist. The chief of Venetian intelligence who made this possible was Paolo Sarpi. which were also quite extensive. which met for discussions in the palace of the Morosini family on the Grand Canal. serviced the Venetian networks on the Spanish and papal side. the posture of the Venetian Party toward science was one of more or less open hostility. and Voltaire as ancestors of what was later called dialectical materialism. Sarpi was part of an important Venetian salon of the day. and it became the nucleus for the youthful faction of the Venetian oligarchy. In this sense. Sarpi also caused the assassination of King Henry IV of France when Henry opposed Sarpi’s designs and exposed him as an atheist. Christoph von Dona. In other locations we have told the story of how Contarini. the Venetians would work inside the scientific community to take it over. an apparitionist. The Morosini salon centered on a discussion of science. to whom he became the resident sex adviser. favoring black magic. and played a decisive role in establishing the Jesuit Order. He was a conjurer. In this way. they could institutionalize the dead hand of formalism and the fetishism of authority. For Pomponazzi.

” In 1597. author. including on magnetism.” Notice: Galileo “and some of our other people. who enthused that Galileo had been born to solve the question of motion. Galileo was a paid agent of Sarpi and.” wrote Sarpi. too. offering to find publishers in Germany if the Italian climate were too oppressive. which instantly made him the premier scientist in Europe and thus a very important agent of influence for the Venetian Party. In 1611. Galileo proposed some of his first ideas on falling bodies to Sarpi. “who is considered the greatest mathematician here. and the phases of Venus. of Sarpi’s right-hand man Micanzio. but without giving Kepler credit. Galileo taught mathematics in Padua from 1592 to 1610. but that the “adviser. Mysterium Cosmographicum. because he found it occult. He wrote on March 16. Galileo’s fame was procured when he used a small telescope to observe the moons of Jupiter. and did not need to read what Galileo had written about them. but from Paolo Sarpi’s Servite monastery in Venice. therefore in spring 1608.” This is the view of Sarpi held by Galileo Galilei. But Sarpi in his own time was considered an eminent mathematician. Rey. telescopes began to turn up in Holland. Sarpi’s companions at the Ridotto Morosini during the 1590s included the influential mystic Giordano Bruno. Sarpi’s version of these events is more revealing. He reported these sightings in his essay The Starry Messenger. and refused to comment in detail on Kepler’s book. which was Sarpi’s favorite.Sarpi. explaining that he. Galileo did not do this. to Galileo. Johannes Kepler had sent a copy of his new book. By 1608. “our mathematician of Padua [Galileo] and some of our other people who are not ignorant of these arts began to use the telescope on celestial bodies. and preferred to sit on the whole business because of the climate of opinion. “Once this was found. in the following years Galileo used material from Kepler in his lectures. Starting in 1592. a native of Florence. the rings of Saturn.” saying that he had “frequently discussed with him at the time” about the results of the telescopic observations. and director” of the telescope project had been Father Paolo Sarpi. Susan Welsh has called attention to the research of Domenico Argentieri on Leonardo’s optical manuscripts. Kepler and Galileo were in frequent contact for over 30 years. Sarpi wrote about Galileo as “our mathematician. There are reports of a telescope made in Italy in 1590. adjusting it and refining it for the purpose…. According to Kepler’s biographer Max Caspar. which demonstrates that Leonardo’s telescope had a convex lens at one end and a concave lens at the other. This entire telescope operation had been devised by Paolo Sarpi. there was also a professor of mathematics at the nearby University of Padua: Galileo Galilei. Its magnifying power was rather weak. One contemporary wrote of him: “…I can say about him without any exaggeration whatsoever that no one in Europe excels him in the knowledge of [mathematical] sciences. is a worthy predecessor to Bertrand Russell. Kepler commented with benevolent . a Polish visitor to Venice. after Sarpi’s death. but that he “had not dared” to come forward with this view because of fear. and it was during his stay on Venetian territory that he became a celebrity. but it was a telescope. was a follower of the Copernican or heliocentric view. Galileo thereupon sent a letter to Kepler. we see. and Galileo says he was encouraged by reports of them to build his own telescope in 1609.” It would appear that the observations were made not from Padua. Kepler had written back urging Galileo to be confident and to go forward with the struggle for truth. 1610 that a telescope had been found in Holland two years before. The first telescope had been built by Leonardo da Vinci about a hundred years before Galileo. There is a correspondence on scientific subjects between Sarpi and Galileo. wrote that Galileo had not really been the inventor of the telescope. This was the work in which Kepler proposed the Platonic solids as the basis for understanding the harmonic ordering of the planetary orbits around the Sun.

From this he proceeds quickly to a reductionist theory of atoms. and go for shapes. Again. such as the Jesuits of the Collegio Romano. In the same manuscript. and the Arte di Ben Pensare. and noses. which he thinks are a matter of our nervous system. This allowed the Venetians to preserve the essential Aristotle. These are the Pensieri. well after his own death. sense certainty could be kept as the basis of scientific experiments. smells. tastes. We can see this in Galileo’s 1623 essay Il Saggiatore. The Assayer. Some years earlier. one of the characters says that he is surprised at Kepler for being so “puerile” as to attribute the tides to the attraction of the Moon. in . are mere words. Kepler is hardly mentioned. the soul dies with the body. or Thoughts. Galileo says. Galileo’s epistemology comes straight from Sarpi. the trademark of the Venetian dead souls faction.” Sarpi in 1616 seemed to know very well what would happen more than 15 years later. Urban VIII turned abruptly from a pro-French to a pro-Spanish policy. and sounds. not of outside reality. sounds. expounding his first and second laws of planetary motion – that the planets move in ellipses of which the Sun is one focus. the Art of Thinking Well. If you brush a feather over the soles of the feet or the armpits of a marble statue. In this way. tongues. Kepler published his Astronomia Nova. Galileo makes the famous comparison of these to tickling. Sarpi had forecast that if Galileo went to Rome. the Jesuits and others were likely to “turn … the question of physics and astronomy into a theological question. But Galileo never commented systematically on Kepler’s laws. and sounds. For Galileo. you will not produce a tickle. tastes. In the Art of Thinking Well. The Bacon-Hobbes menage was in close contact with Sarpi and Micanzio. published in 1533. These writings by Sarpi have not been translated. They exist only for our bodies. which are objective. He suggests that an impression made on our sensory apparatus by outside objects has to be distinguished from those objects. which had no hope of accounting for the observed positions of the planets.000 pages to write what Sarpi had put down in 30. the trial was one of the greatest public relations successes of all time. and seemed ready to sweep down on Rome. and that the planets sweep out equal areas in equal times between themselves and the Sun as they revolve. Especially he points to tastes. At the end. Sarpi’s philosophical and scientific writings were not published until after World War II. but they are the basis of everything written by Sir Francis Bacon. The gesture of repression against Galileo carried out by the Dominicans of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome established the equation Galileo=modern experimental science struggling against benighted obscurantism. In Galileo’s Dialogues on the Two Great World Systems. and never odors. size. you will cause that tickling sensation.interest – and with subtle polemics – about Galileo’s published works. numbers. But if you do this to a human being. and motions. Sarpi repeats the argument of Pomponazzi that since there is no knowledge without sensation. and this tragic misunderstanding has had terrible consequences for human thought. Lost in the brouhaha about Galileo is the more relevant fact that Kepler had been condemned by the Inquisition more than a decade before.” so as to condemn Galileo as “an excommunicated heretic” and force him to “recant all his views on this subject. So. Sarpi’s achievement for Venetian intelligence was to abstract the method of Aristotle from the mass of opinions expressed by Aristotle on this or that particular issue. and Aristotle’s embarrassingly outdated views on certain natural phenomena could be jettisoned. when the Swedish Protestant army of Gustavus Adolphus fought its way through Germany. That equation has stood ever since. while the discussion centers on Copernicus. reached the Alps. while attacking exponents of the Aristotelian or Peripatetic school. The Spanish ascendancy is the backdrop for the trial of Galileo carried out by the Dominicans with Jesuit support. It is evident that the scenario sketched here corresponded to Sarpi’s own long-term plan. But in 1631. During the first years of the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII Barberini. In a different category are ideas of quantity. In 1609. it is time to get rid of ears. Galileo was the semi-official scientist for the pope. who took almost 1. Sarpi can also be found in Locke. and time. Sarpi starts from sense perception and sense certainty. colors. odors. For Galileo. Sarpi lists the immortality of the soul as one on a list of wrong ideas. with his perfect circle orbits of the planets around the Sun.

” (Nov. Mechanics and Local Motion. Some might try to dismiss these admissions as a distortion of Galileo’s outlook caused by the crackdown of which he was still a victim. And by the way. Micanzio reminded Galileo of the assignment he had received from Sarpi 20 years earlier: to write a treatise on motion. the practitioner of cold and untinctured reason? No. Newton’s nineteenth- .” Indeed. and written in mathematical characters. but are already in Kepler. He was the last of the magicians. Galileo threw further light on his own scientific method. “the things that you bring are not new. to put it better. Newton was not the first of the Age of Reason.2 million words. the last wonderful child to whom the Magi could do sincere and appropriate homage. This is what Galileo means when he denies Aristotle to say that the truth is written in the book of nature. he recoiled in horror and slammed the lid. 19. said Keynes. resident magus of the new British Empire. but when he saw the contents. 1640). Keynes based his view on the contents of a box. a cultist kook. ending his Cambridge career and beginning his new life in London as member and president of the British Royal Society. In 1634. Sarpi died in 1623. their “quomodo. Micanzio wrote to Galileo that he had been talking to an expert in science and philosophy – called a virtuoso in the parlance of the day – who had commented that although he did not deny Galileo’s scientific ability. For the oligarchy. But. with a view to publication. Which brings us to Newton. Galileo complained that he had been misunderstood: “Against all the reason in the world. 1640). After Newton’s death. A century passed. Because Galileo had been condemned by the Inquisition.” (June 23. Bishop Horsley was asked to inspect the box. Micanzio therefore arranged for Galileo’s book to be printed by the Dutch Elsevir press in Leyden. Inside the box were manuscripts and papers totaling some 1. “my way of philosophizing is so different from his. Galileo was a reductionist. In letters written in 1640. Galileo responded to Micanzio’s orders with the 1638 Discourses on Two New Sciences. whereas I profess and am certain of observing more religiously the Peripatetic – or. director of the mint. I am accused of impugning Peripatetic doctrine. The British oligarchy praises Newton as the founder of modern science. 24. What Galileo is trying to express here is the same thing Isaac Newton meant with his infamous “hypotheses non fingo” [I do not fabricate hypotheses]. their “an sit” [if it be]. 1634). Galileo’s epistemology is identical with that of Sarpi. What was in the box? The box contained papers which Newton had packed up when he left Cambridge for London in 1696. and Galileo’s case officer became the Servite monk Fulgenzio Micanzio.which heat is explained as the effect a “fiery minims” of igneous atoms. Was Newton the first and greatest of the modern scientists. the last of the Babylonians and Sumerians. but I would submit that this is the real Galileo talking. NEWTON: A CULTIST KOOK The next phase of the corruption of science by Venice depends on a rather obscure Cambridge don by the name of Isaac Newton. I have 258 pounds here for you. After Galileo had been condemned. Galileo wrote back that the correct answer to this virtuoso is that although Galileo and Kepler may sometimes seem to agree about certain astronomical phenomena. Among the oligarchs. Newton and Galileo are the only two contenders for the honor of being the most influential thinker of their faction since Aristotle himself. Galileo asserted that he had tried to study phenomena: “that in all natural effects assure me of their existence. he could not be published anywhere that papal authority was strong. they have been unable to keep secret the fact that Newton was a raving irrationalist. Micanzio would procure Galileo a pension of 60 scudi per year from the coffers of the Venetian state. Later. whereas I gain nothing from their how.” (Aug. it was the British economist Lord John Maynard Keynes and a fellow Cambridge graduate who began to open the black box of Newton’s real character. added Micanzio. at the same time. Aristotelian – teachings than many others….

Pepys and Locke thought that he had become deranged. Newton owned all six heavy quarto volumes of Ashmole. In the past decades. as Keynes says. One treatise that dealt with these issues was the “Metamorphosis of the Planets. The box became known as the Portsmouth Papers. Instructio de arbore solari. A sample from the 1690s: “Now this green earth is the Green Ladies of B. but he falsified the rest with straight fibbing. but other papers were scattered from Jerusalem to America. In 1936. nitre of the wise. Valentine the beautifully green Venus and the green Venereal emerald and green earth of Snyders with which he fed his lunary Mercury and by virtue of which Diana was to bring forth children and out of which saith Ripley the blood of the green Lyon is drawn in the beginning of the work. dew of heaven which makes the earth fertile. Newton was a suspicious. needed money. The alchemists hoped the philosopher’s stone would give them other magical powers. It is the Saturnine stone. What can we see inside the box? First. It is called Prometheus & the Chameleon. Newton had a nervous breakdown and never regained his former consistency of mind. Also common mercury. looked into the box. Newton expressed this with a picture he drew of Jupiter Enthroned on the obverse of the title page of this book. A few mathematical papers were given to Cambridge in 1888. Newton “was wholly aloof from women. the current owner.” This would appear to have been written in the 1670s. the lid of the box has been partially and grudgingly opened by the Anglophile scholars who are the keepers of the Newton myth. the fires never went out during six weeks of the spring and six weeks of the autumn. He decided to save Newton’s reputation by printing a few selections. and therefore also the Filioque and the concept of Imago Viva Dei. the sixth of which reads as follows: “The young new born king is nourished in a bigger heat with milk drawn by .” although he had some close young male friends. Here. Also Androgyne. so he had the rest auctioned off. What were Newton’s findings? Let him speak for himself: “Concerning Magnesia of the green Lion. The goal of the alchemists was the quest for the mythical philosopher’s stone.” As Keynes stresses. Newton emerged from his breakdown slightly “gaga. As Keynes points out.” Since the planet Jupiter had precedence among the planets. Even in the Church of England. Newton had to keep these views secret or face ostracism. Keynes thought that Newton was “a Judaic monotheist of the school of Maimonides. such as rejuvenation and eternal youth. it also occupied a privileged position among the reagents of alchemy. Alchemy also involved the relations between the astrological influences of the planets and the behavior of chemicals. Keynes bought as many as he could. Cambridge was fitted out for alchemy. And what is alchemy? What kind of research was Newton doing? His sources were books like the “Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum” of Elias Ashmole. which would permit the alchemist to transmute lead and other base metals into gold. Newton was a supporter of the Arian heresy. paranoid. ALCHEMY AND GREEN LIONS Newton’s real interest was not mathematics or astronomy. unstable personality. He once angrily accused John Locke of trying to embroil him with women. Lord Lymington. Sir David Brewster. to worship Christ as God was idolatry and a mortal sin. He denied and attacked the Holy Trinity. the Rosicrucian leader of British speculative Freemasonry.” During the 1680s Newton also composed a series of aphorisms of alchemy. For Newton.century biographer. his friends said. and virgin verdant earth in which the Sun has never cast its rays although he is its father and the moon its mother.” which suggests that he was a Cabalist. His laboratory at Trinity College. In 1692. It was alchemy.

Then there is the story of Newton’s invention of the calculus. in an unpublished note. In his “Opticks. Pan and Osiris. By 1710. 143). And so it goes for more than a million words.C. European scientists had been working with Leibniz’s calculus for several decades. Newton’s alleged law of universal gravitation. Newton “arrived at the inverse square relation by substituting Kepler’s Third Law into Huygens’s recently published formula for centrifugal force” (Westfall. 293. you can obtain the inverse square relationship. it turns out that he had no discoveries. Newton’s love of alchemy and magic surfaces as the basis of his outlook. Newton’s system was unable to describe anything beyond the interaction of two bodies. And this may be called the third work. Washington. What I call attraction may be performed by Impulse. by which they act at a distance….destellation from the putrefied matter of the second work. I deduced that the forces which keep the Planets in their Orbs must be reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve…. How those attractions may be performed. 1991]. This was supplemented by a second allegation. or some other means unknown to me. with Green Lions. or forces. he drew up plans for King Solomon’s Temple. NEWTON’S “DISCOVERIES” And what about Newton’s supposed discoveries? Upon closer scrutiny. pp. and of a mysterious medium he called the ether. With this milk he must be imbibed seven times to putrefy him sufficiently and then dococted to the white and red. This is Newton’s so-called inverse square law. “Have not the small particles of bodies certain powers. the second goes to the white and the third to the red. and later a chronology of Biblical events which foreshortened that history by cutting out several hundred years.” (Westfall. In reality. The first goes on no further than to putrefaction. that his great achievement was cribbed from Kepler. 402). that Leibniz was a plagiarist who had . Hooke and Sir Christopher Wren claimed to have done the same thing at about the same time. By opening the lid of the box. which states that the force of attraction of two point masses is equal to the product of the two masses divided by the square of the distance between them. and in passing to the red he must be imbibed with a little red oil to fortify the solary nature and make the red stone more fluxible. What he cooked up was a theory of so-called fluxions and infinite series. But the partisans of Newton still claim that Newton explained gravity.: Schiller Institute. but rather derived by some tinkering from Kepler’s Third Law. What the basis of these is in alchemy is not clear. Kepler had established that the cube of a planet’s distance from the Sun divided by the square of its year always equaled a constant. including in his supposed scientific writings. male and female principles. Truly it has been said that Newton had probed the literature of alchemy as it had never been probed before or since. In addition. 292. virtues. which Leibniz rightly mocked as black magic. Newton never in his entire life described a calculus. This issue is settled in the appendices to The Science of Christian Economy [by Lyndon LaRouche. D. Take. 358). By supplementing this with Huygens’s formula for centrifugal acceleration and making some substitutions. for example.” he asks. Androgynes. It was about that time that Newton and the British Royal Society launched their campaign to claim that Newton had actually invented the calculus in 1671. Newton wrote: “…I began to think of gravity extending to the Orb of the Moon and (having found out how to estimate the force with which a globe revolving presses the surface of a sphere) from Kepler’s rule of the periodical times of the Planets being in sesquialterate proportion of their distances from the center of their Orbs. we find that Newton himself confesses. all during the time he was supposedly writing his Principia Mathematica. It has long been known that this was not really a new discovery. times a constant.” This is Newton’s notion of gravity as action at a distance. and supposed an entropic universe that would have wound down like clockwork if not periodically re-wound. Newton also wrote of an electric spirit. This was not a calculus and quickly sank into oblivion when it was published nine years after Newton’s death. He never had one. although for some strange reason he had never said anything about it in public print during a period of 30 years.” (Westfall. I do not here consider.

since his patroness. in which the British. an experienced man of the world. How then did the current myth of Newton the scientist originate? NEWTON: THE APOTHEOSIS OF A CHARLATAN The apotheosis of Newton was arranged by Antonio Conti of Venice. the center of our third grouping of the dead souls faction. Turning on his . That would take a tactful mediator.copied his calculus from Newton after some conversations and letters exchanged between the two during the 1670s. wrote a very friendly letter to Leibniz. who better than an Italian. otherwise understood as the network of French Anglophiles. By 1715. In 1713. were not at all convinced by Newton’s case. after which the throne would go to a regent of the House of Orleans. Born in Padua in 1677. but the Venetians did. the permanent secretary of the French Academy of Sciences. What a shame that these two eminent scientists were fighting each other! Perhaps these two outlooks could be reconciled. and certainly not exalted. had died in May 1714. Conti arrived in Paris. including Galileo and Descartes. In order to create the myth of Newton as the great modern scientist. He also worked closely with Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle. but then left it to pursue literary and scientific interests. Conti built up a network centering on the philosopher Nicholas de Malebranche. He began to call attention to the polemic between Newton and Leibniz. Newton’s reputation on the continent was at best modest. and their allies had invaded. Leibniz’s political perspectives were very grim. This was at the time of the Peace of Utrecht. made members of the Royal Society.Venetian Party. Conti become a celebrity in Paris. Conti claimed that he was going to London as a supporter of Leibniz. A solar eclipse was in the offing. with a hard core of 20-25% of anti-Newton feeling within the Royal Society itself. and Conti organized a group of French astronomers to go to London and observe it – probably the London fog would be helpful. He was a defrocked priest who had joined the Oratorian order. Conti was still an abbot. Sophie of Hanover. With Conti’s help these Frenchmen would be turned. to come forward as mediator? Perhaps such a subtle Venetian could find a way to settle this nasty dispute about the calculus and propose a compromise platform for physics. When Conti got to London. they would become the first French Anglophiles of the eighteenth century French Enlightenment. But scientists in continental Europe. still the premier research center in Europe. thanks most recently to the work of such figures as Montaigne and Pierre Bayle. the end of the long and very bitter War of the Spanish Succession. and weakened the France of Jean-Baptiste Colbert. and especially the decisive French Academy of Sciences. a member of the Venetian nobility. Leibniz was not going to become prime minister of England. but he soon announced that he was growing tired to Descartes. and when they got back to France. who would defend his cause in London just as he had done in Paris. Conti began telling the Paris salons that he was turning more and more to Newton and Leibniz. Before leaving Paris. a Venetian. Conti. What the British could never have done. The same line was churned out by scurrilous hack writers directed by Newton. Those Frenchmen who were degraded enough to become Anglophiles would also be degraded enough to become Newtonians. introducing himself as a supporter of Leibniz’s philosophy. In Paris. the dominant figure on the French intellectual scene. There was resistance against Newton in England. Since the English and the German scientists were at war. These slanders against Leibniz were written up by Newton and put forward in 1715 as the official verdict of the British Royal Society. King George I. the Venetians accomplished for the greater glory of the Anglo. The British had no network in Paris that could make this happen. Conti saw immediately that Fontenelle was a follower of Giordano Bruno of the Ridotto Morosini. Conti was obliged to do what might well have been considered impossible at the time: to create a pro-British party in France. with classical Venetian duplicity. Louis XIV had only two more years to live. Conti succeeded. Conti was a patrician. and vice versa. because the new British king was Georg Ludwig of Hanover. the Dutch. and stands as the founder of the Enlightenment. he began to act as a diabolical agent provocateur. defeated.

Conti also had extensive contacts with Edmond Halley. “If there were no void. Newton’s friend Samuel Clarke began an exchange of letters with Leibniz about these and related issues. when young.inductive pseudo mathematical formalism masquerading as science. it seems. and then added that Cartesian philosophy was nothing but a “tissue of hypotheses. sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion. to stoke the fires of Newton’s obsessive rage to destroy Leibniz. Conti became very popular at the British court. Italy had Galileo. Conti encouraged Newton to make a full reply to Leibniz. (Voltaire later remarked of Clarke that he would have made an ideal Archbishop of Canterbury if only he had been a Christian. M. But he could understand Descartes very well. since Venice desired to use England above all as a tool to tear down France with endless wars. 63). the Princess of Wales. King George agreed with this. to take the position that the review of documents would not be enough. the Hanoverian minister and husband of George I’s mistress. who had been an ally of Leibniz. the only way to decide the LeibnizNewton controversy was through a direct exchange of letters between the two. Newton tried to get the ambassadors of the London diplomatic corps to review his old manuscripts and letters. but as it could be. Conti was soon a regular dinner guest at Newton’s house.” (Badaloni. “all bodies would be equally heavy and the comets could not pass through heavenly spaces…. Newton and his followers also had a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. otherwise. Conti tried to convince Leibniz to accept the 1715 verdict of the Royal Society which had given . so that both letters could be shown to the king. the king indicated that Newton’s facts would be hard for Leibniz to answer. Whenever Conti got a letter from Leibniz. According to their doctrine. the chameleon Conti was a total partisan of Newton’s line of atoms and the void. after which he tried a trigonometry book with equal failure. Leibniz had pointed out that the Royal Society had stacked the evidence. and attacking Newton for his occult notion of gravitation. with Newton’s anti-Trinitarian parish priest Samuel Clarke. and Conti provided the intrigue and the public relations needed to produce one. When he heard Newton’s version. Conti organized the Baron von Kilmansegge.” wrote Conti. and others view God as a corporeal being.” and of course Newton would never tolerate hypotheses. represented the ideal cult figure for a new obscurantist concoction of deductive. Newton confessed that he had understood nothing of his first astronomy book. kook that he was. Newton was impressed by his guest and began to let his hair down. which God uses to perceive things.magnetism. “I was myself. THE LEIBNIZ-NEWTON CONTEST Conti received a letter from Leibniz repeating that Newton had never mastered the calculus.) Leibniz wrote that natural religion itself was decaying in England. Leibniz has written his speech to Princess [Caroline]. and other self-styled scientists. and France had Descartes. Conti used this matter to turn George I more and more against Leibniz. Venice needed an English Galileo. and he presents the world not as it is. Conti might have considered concocting a pseudo scientific ideology for the English based on Descartes. and by November 1715 he was inducted by Newton as a member of the Royal Society. Conti also became friendly with Princess Caroline. his inductive method. he charmed Newton.” said the sage wistfully. but that clearly would not do. During this time. He seems to have dined with Newton on the average three evenings per week. it would cease to move. By now. He had not.” This gave rise to the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Conti understood that Newton. the axioms of Newtonian absolute space. Newton said that space is an organ. where many believe human souls to be material. Antonio Conti. in a way not so different from Paolo Sarpi a century before. “God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time. Conti told Newton that he had been trained as a Cartesian. a Cartesian. he would show it to Newton. With the ground thus prepared. in which we can also see the hand of Conti. Thanks to the Venetians. hoping they would endorse the finding of the Royal Society that Leibniz had plagiarized his calculus. his insistence on the existence of atoms and the void.

These powers would be the decisive swing factors in the epistemological war. to secure his benevolent neutrality regarding Newton. But now Conti’s most important work was just beginning. staying a month. and at another salon. Montesquieu. plus Italy. who wrote a profile of France called “Historical and Political Discourse on the State of France between 1700 and 1730. 4. into the Newtonian camp. would be decisive. The ground is being prepared for Newton. we will find the Cardinal-Prince de Rohan as the sponsor of the Venetian agent Count Cagliostro. and despotism as the three forms of government. Freret. the parlements. During the late teens and ’20s in Paris. This family was aligned with Venice. the residence of one of the greatest families of the French nobility. This was already a circle of freethinkers and libertines.” In his treatise. monarchy. 1716. Oliva presided over a Venetian-style conversazione attended by Conti. the best known of the participants was Charles-Louis de Secondat. and claimed to have duplicated Newton’s experiments. Newton received word of the death of his great antagonist through a letter from Conti. his Parisian friends. Conti used his friendship with Fontenelle. was the first important figure of the French Enlightenment – more respectable than Voltaire and Rousseau – and the leading theoretician of political institutions. the Club de l’Entresol. Conti generously conceded that Leibniz’s calculus was easier to use and more widely accepted. By now Leibniz was well aware that he was dealing with an enemy operative. the attitude which prevailed in France. Newton had received immense publicity and had become a kind of succes de scandale. praising Britain’s allegedly constitutional monarchy as the ideal form. Italians. which became a main focus for Anglo-Venetian destabilization efforts going toward the French Revolution. Dutch. Montesquieu’s major work is The Spirit of the Laws. and the Encyclopedia. In particular. but still had great sympathy for Leibniz. This is a work of decidedly Venetian flavor. and Desmolets. and other continentals wavered. a few days before Conti arrived in Hanover to meet him. Later. Conti had observed that while the English sided with Newton and the Germans with Leibniz. The first components activated by Conti for the new Newtonian party in France were the school and followers of Malebranche. the greatest European power. Leibniz was still held in high regard in all of continental Europe. but Leibniz died on Nov. The direct exchange mandated by George I suggested to some an equivalence of Leibniz and Newton. the pro-British bent of Conti’s Enlightenment philosophes is established. an important salon met at the Hotel de Rohan. Conti was in London between 1715 and 1718. Montesquieu came to visit him there. Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu. before Voltaire. The librarian at the Hotel de Rohan was a certain Abbe Oliva. Conti met Montesquieu at the Hotel de Rohan. Here Conti was mobilizing the Malebranche network he had assembled before going to London. Rousseau. with republic. Montesquieu appears to have taken many of his ideas from Conti. Conti’s other friends included Mairan. Montesquieu raises the theme of Anglophilia. when Conti had returned to Venice. and a separation of powers for the calculus to Newton. later. something no Frenchman had done until this time. His mission to France lasted from 1718 through 1726. CONTI’S DEPLOYMENT TO FRANCE Thanks to Conti’s intervention as agent provocateur. The Malebranchistes first accepted Newton’s Opticks. the secretary of the French Academy of Sciences. Montesquieu points out that France has an independent judiciary. In retrospect. and numerous Italians. published in 1748. With this. who died in 1715. Reaumur. and the power of France was still immense. to sweeten this galling proposal. . Conti now sought to deliver above all France. Conti and the Venetians wished to destroy both. In return. Its result will be called the French Enlightenment. L’Age des Lumieres. the French. In the LeibnizNewton contest. Montesquieu was an agent for Conti.

taken from the head note to Conti’s tragedy Giulio Cesare. One of his most incorrigible pupils had been a libertine jailbird named Francois-Marie Arouet. since Leibniz cannot be wrong. Beyond that. He began to work on another book. preserved at the Hermitage in St. The Century of Louis XIV. Conti’s collected works and one of his tragedies are in Voltaire’s library.” meaning self-willed. Conti is referred to a number of times in Voltaire’s letters. Voltaire’s view of Shakespeare as sometimes inspired. of course. replied Pangloss.” I agree with Conti. which was supposedly masterminded by the Spanish ambassador to Venice. Voltaire knew both Conti personally and Conti’s works. which Voltaire had observed during his three years in London. whom he considers a great genius because everything bores him and nothing pleases him. Senator Pococurante is clearly a figure of Abbot Antonio Conti. who was so stubborn and headstrong that his parents had always called him “le volontaire. Voltaire’s Philosophical Letters center on the praise of Newton. Voltaire writes that Shakespeare is considered the Corneille of England. but barbarous and “crazy” for not respecting French theatrical conventions. In the essay on Shakespeare. there are four chapters on Newton. when you were hanged. Gradually this was shortened to Voltaire. and since pre-established harmony is the most beautiful thing in the world. “but I don’t care.” Voltaire also translated Newton directly. the guts of the work. French literary historians are instinctively not friendly to the idea that the most famous Frenchman was a Venetian agent working for Conti. The book which made Voltaire famous was his Philosophical Letters. that all geometry can give us are about forty useful theorems. Candide asks Pangloss: “Tell me. In one letter. In 1759. Pangloss. should we try to find the proof of the existence of God in an algebraic formula on one of the most obscure points in dynamics? He cites Conti in a similar situation with Newton: “You’re about to get angry with me. by comparison. I’m a philosopher. sometimes called the English letters. the man whom Voltaire quoted . and the point where Anglophilia becomes Anglomania in France. and published Elements of Newtonian Philosophy. Louis XV. But most important. This was an idea that we can also find in Conti’s manuscripts. Newton was the first discoverer of the calculus. Count Bedmar. my dear Pangloss. His “sublime ideas” and discoveries have given him “the most universal reputation. Louis XV was. but the proof is convincing. We can thus associate Conti with Voltaire’s first important breakthrough. a main target of the Anglo-Venetians. because after all. a distillation of Venetian cultural pessimism expressed as a raving attack on Leibniz. he meets Senator Pococurante. cruelly beaten. Voltaire also relates Conti’s version of the alleged Spanish conspiracy against Venice in 1618. The idea here was simple: to exalt Louis XIV as a means of attacking the current king. because they are devoted to the exaltation of all things British. it’s nothing more than a fascinating subject. Conti was. dissected. Voltaire asks. is close to Conti’s own practice. Voltaire published his short novel Candide.” When Candide visits Venice. For Voltaire.ANOTHER CONTI AGENT: VOLTAIRE One of Conti’s other friends from the Hotel de Rohan was a Jesuit called Tournemine. and forced to row in a galley. who was also a high school teacher. says Voltaire. did you still think that everything was for the best in this world?” “I still hold my original opinions. After chapters on Francis Bacon and John Locke. Petersburg. Toward the end of the story. along with the plenum and subtle matter. and it wouldn’t be proper for me to recant.” says Conti to Newton. This is a quote from Conti. through the vicious caricature Dr. the dismantler of the entire Cartesian system. we must remember. Voltaire admiringly shares an anecdote about Conti and Newton. The Philosophical Letters were condemned and Voltaire had to hide in the libertine underground for a time. which had been published in Paris in 1726. provided you don’t let metaphysics creep in.

Ortes is the author of a manual of Newtonian physics for young aristocrats. More research is likely to demonstrate that most of the ideas of the French Enlightenment come from the Venetian Conti. by this time more than two. who published Newton’s book on fluxions in French. We are moving toward the world portrayed in Schiller’s Geisterseher. In Venice he became the central figure of a salon that was the worthy heir of Ridotto Morosini. which gave Britain world naval supremacy. as well as by Grandi. Among Conti’s masks was certainly that of worldly boredom.thirds of male nobles. Louis XV banned Casanova from France with a lettre de cachet. Conti’s work was also the basis for the later unleashing of the French Revolution. and the Giustinian. whom he destabilized through their own folly in the celebrated Queen’s Necklace Affair of 1785. the dominant figure was Andrea Memmo. Another agent of this group was Count Cagliostro. In the epistemological war. who labored to rehabilitate Galileo inside the Catholic Church. Conti later translated one of Voltaire’s plays. In Italy. Cagliostro was able to make Louis and especially Marie Antoinette personally hated. One may speculate that Casanova’s networks had something to do with the approximately 25 assassination plots against Louis XV. in Italian. After Conti’s death. who carried out the diplomatic revolution of 1756. Finally. anti-Leibniz party of French Anglomaniacs was a decisive contribution to the defeat of France in the mid-century world war we call the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War. later popularized by Benedetto Croce. the Nani.admiringly in his letter cited above telling Newton that he didn’t care – non me ne curo. never married. This was the sinister coven that called itself the philosophical happy conversazione (”la conversazione filosofica e felice”) that gathered patrician families like the Emo. in the same way that Galileo . who had been taught Newton by Conti personally. there were Venetian writers like Voltaire’s friend Algarotti. one of the leaders of European Freemasonry. Conti was active until mid-century. The main point is that only with the help of Venice could the senile cultist kook Newton attain worldwide respect. There is good reason to believe that Louis XV’s foreign minister De Bernis. An agent shared by Memmo with the Morosini family was one Giacomo Casanova. freethinkers. Merope. the Memmo. CONTI AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Conti’s discussion of the supremacy of the sense of touch when it comes to sense certainty is echoed in the writing of the philosopher Condillac. the French Newtonians were indispensable for the worldwide consolidation of the Newton myth. And then there is Buffon. Casanova’s main task was to target the French King Louis XV through his sexual appetites. the Querini.Newton. CONTI’S LEGACY OF EVIL Another member of the Conti-Memmo conversazione was Giammaria Ortes. Venetian oligarchs turned to homosexuality because of their obsession with keeping the family fortune intact by guaranteeing that there would only be one heir to inherit it. a charlatan and mountebank whose targets were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. and world domination. into Italian. Here we have the roots of Henry Kissinger’s modern Homintern. the author of a book of Newtonian Philosophy for Ladies. Newton’s ideas were also spread by Abbot Guido Grandi. a homosexual who was backed up by a network of lesbians. Emperor Napoleon later said that this operation by Cagliostro had marked the opening phase of the French Revolution of 1789. Another Italian intellectual in Conti’s orbit was Gimbattista Vico. including a chapter on electricity which manages to avoid Benjamin Franklin. a necessary precondition for mass insurrection against them. Satanists. perhaps. Echoes of Conti have been found by some in Diderot’s Jacques the Fatalist. Ortes was another defrocked cleric operating as an abbot. he died in 1749. The creation of a pro. and an even higher percentage of female nobles. These were libertines. was an agent of Casanova.

the two Mills. as supported by the Cammeralist school of Colbert. the soul perished with the body itself. Conti reportedly said of the soul: “Since it is united with a material body and mixed up with matter. Favaro and I. “Paolo Sarpi: Between Renaissance and Enlightenment” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). 1951). Jeremy Bentham. BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES On the general thesis involving Contarini as the instigator of the reformation and counterreformation.” Conti got off with the help of his patrician aristocrat friends. Franklin. 1979). This meant that everything had to be expressed in numbers. Adam Smith. “Galileo: Heretic” (Princeton: Princeton University Press. The Galileo-Kepler correspondence is in Galileo’s 20 volume “Opere. see Webster G. On Galileo: Pietro Redondi.criticism for the mistake of having made ideas themselves the object of philosophical attention. and Bertrand Russell. He produced a calculus on the value of opinions. An overview of the Galileo-Sarpi relationship is found in Gaetano Cozzi. and jokingly confessed his ignorance. a calculus of the truth of history. Del Lungo (Florence. Ortes posited an absolute upper limit for the human population of the Earth. Sarpi and the Giovani as the organizers of the Enlightenment. He commented that God is something that we cannot know about. But this Senatore Pococurante still lives in every classroom where Newton is taught. True to his factional pedigree. Other works of Sarpi are assembled in his “Opere. Ortes carried out Conti’s program of applying Newtonian methods to the social sciences.” edited by A. Tarpley. Newton. Ortes provided all of the ideacontent that is found in Thomas Malthus. Ortes was like the constipated mathematician who worked his problem out with a pencil. They are available only in Italian as Fra Paolo Sarpi. There is some discussion of the pensieri in David Wooton. This is the first appearance of carrying capacity. 22-46. and many pensieri and other material remain in manuscript in the libraries of Venice. . and others. 6 September 1981. which he set at 3 billion. Conti has left a commentary on Plato’s Parmenides. could never do any good. Conti was accused of denying the existence of God. “Scritti Filosofici e teologici” (Bari: Laterza. Cozzi avoids most of the implications of the material he presents. All our ideas come from sense perceptions. “Paolo Sarpi tra Venezia e l’Europa” (Torino: Einaudi.” edited by Gaetano and Luisa Cozzi. Conti also denied the immortality of the human soul. and the rest of Lord Shelburne’s school of British philosophical radicalism in the time after 1775. see the work of Domenico Argentieri. Conti described his own atheism as merely a version of the docta ignorantia [referring to Cusa's book by the same name. 1929-1939). Conti writes that the fundamental error of Plato is to attribute real existence to human ideas. “The Venetian Conspiracy” in “Campaigner” XIV. In 1735 Conti was denounced to the Venetian Inquisition because of his reported religious ideas. which he interprets as Plato’s self. But this collection is not complete. and the post-Cambrai metastasis of the Venetian fondi to England and elsewhere. says Conti. In his Treatise on Ideas. On Sarpi: The most essential works of Sarpi’s epistemology are the Pensieri and the Arte di Ben Pensare. Surely it is time for an epistemological revolution to roll back the Venetian frauds of Galileo. pp. Using these methods. 1987) has material on the political background of Galileo’s relations with the papacy and the holy orders of the day. He even compared himself to Cardinal Nicolaus of Cusa. Ortes was adamant that there had never been and could never be an improvement in the living standard of the Earth’s human population. This is the model for Jeremy Bentham’s felicific or hedonistic calculus and other writings.avoided Kepler. a calculus of the pleasures and pains of human life. He argued that government intervention. On Leonardo da Vinci and the origins of the telescope. On Learned Ignorance].

For Conti as the teacher of Ortes. pp. Duncan (New York: Abaris Books. including “The Secret of the Universe” translated by A. see his edition of Voltaire’s “Lettres philosophiques” (Paris. “Isaac Newton: A Biography (New York: Dover. 1959). 1968).On Kepler: The standard biography is Max Caspar.” edited in many volumes by Theodore Besterman (Geneva.” Voltaire’s “Candide” and “Philosophical Letters” are available in various English language editions. 221-233. pp. “Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton” (New York. and on Ortes as a popularizer of Newton see Mauro di Lisa. 276. p. see A. See Leibniz’s letters for what really happened. see “Voltaire’s Correspondence. II p. “Antonio Conti: Scritti filosofici” (Naples: Fulvio Rossi. 90. “Kepler” (London: Abelard-Schuman. Westfall. “Antonio Conti: Un abate libero pensatore fra Newton e Voltaire (Milano: Feltrinelli. 310-323. 1917). Donahue (New York: Cambridge University Press. 1992). 1964). 1972). For the typical lying British view of the Newton-Leibniz controversy. and “New Astronomy” translated by William H. see Robert Shackleton. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . vol. see the catalogue of Voltaire’s library now conserved in Leningrad published by the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1961. For the Conti. 1981). For Voltaire’s possession of Conti’s books. For Voltaire’s references to Conti.Les Delices: Institut et Musee Voltaire. Some of Kepler’s main works are now in English. Selections from Conti’s many manuscript works which are found in libraries especially in and near Venice are in Nicola Badaloni (ed.M. On Conti: A recent biography is Nicola Badaloni. “‘Chi mi sa dir s’io fingo?’: Newtonianesimo e scetticismo in Giammaria Ortes” in “Giornale Critico della filosofia italiana” LXVII (1988). “Montesquieu: a critical biography. 1987) dips somewhat deeper into the box and supplies the green lion quotes. 1962) includes a small sampling of material from Newton’s box. On Newton: Lord Keynes’s revelations on Newton’s box are in his “Essays in Biography” (New York: Norton. Louis Trenchard More.Oliva. Gustave Lanson is an example of French literary critics who stubbornly avoid the obvious facts of Conti’s piloting of Voltaire. 1963). “Philosophers at War” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).).Montesquieu Paris salons. Cambridge University Press. Rupert Hall. Richard S. but still tries to defend the hoax of Newton as a scientist. Note that Voltaire also had extensive correspondence and relations with Algarotti.

net/online-books/against-oligarchy/venices-w ar-against-w estern-civilization/ December 27. oligarchs have been identified by their support for the philosophical writings of Aristotle and their rejection of the epistemology of Plato. Oligarchs identify wealth purely in money. whose position was one of the most powerful under the Venetian system. During most of the past 2. Examples of this are the fourteenth century Black Plague crisis and the Thirty Years War (1618-48). serfdom. the . and continues the outlook and methods of an oligarchical faction which can be traced far back into the ancient world. plague. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents Appeared in Fidelio. This fondo was administered by the procurers of St. and which absorbed the family fortunes of nobles who died without http://tarpley. such as the Mocenigo. both of which were created by Venetian intelligence. The essence of oligarchism is summed up in the idea of the empire. the largest fondo was the endowment of the Basilica of St. In Venice. At the center of oligarchy is the idea that certain families are born to rule as an arbitrary elite.500 years.” The oligarchy has constantly stressed race and racial characteristics. and practice usury. and pestilence. If oligarchical methods are allowed to dominate human affairs. often as a means for justifying slavery. the Cornaro. The post. Oligarchism is a principle of irrational domination associated with hereditary oligarchy/ nobility and with certain aristocratic priesthoods. in which an elite identifying itself as a master race rules over a degraded mass of slaves or other oppressed victims.Venice’s War Against Western Civilization « TARPLEY. which was closely associated with the Venetian state treasury. The oligarchy has believed for millennia that the earth is overpopulated. Around this central fondo were grouped the individual family fortunes of the great oligarchical families. with economic depression. In international affairs. and therefore represents absolute evil. This crisis can only be reversed by repudiating in practice the axioms of the oligarchical mentality. Summer 1995 The British royal family of today typifies the Venetian Party. or fondo as it is called in Italian. Oligarchical policy strives to maintain a balance of power among such adversaries for its own benefit. famine. He also reduced the question of human knowledge to the crudest sense certainty and perception of “facts. they always create a breakdown crisis of civilization. Mark. or slavery. Mark. because some are born to rule and others to be ruled. Oligarchs have always been associated with the arbitrary rejection of true scientific discovery and scientific method in favor of open anti-science or more subtle obscurantist pseudo-science. and looting at the expense of technological advancement and physical production. The continuity of the family fortune which earns money through usury and looting is often more important than the biological continuity across generations of the family that owns the fortune. This evil is expressed by the bestialist view of the oligarchs that human beings are the same as animals.” Aristotle’s formalism is a means of killing human creativity. Aristotle asserted that slavery is a necessary institution. war. while the vast majority of any given population is condemned to oppression. oligarchs recommend such methods as geopolitics.industrial society and the derivatives crisis have brought about the potential for a new collapse of civilization in our own time. but this attempt always fails in the long run and leads to new wars. understood as the method of divide and conquer which lets one power prevail by playing its adversaries one against the other. monetarism. the oligarchical commentary on the Trojan War was that this conflict was necessary in order to prevent greater numbers of mankind from oppressing “Mother Earth. A pillar of the oligarchical system is the family fortune.

Diocletian. Marc Antony and Cleopatra wanted the capital of the new empire to be at Alexandria in Egypt. Rome dominated the Mediterranean by about 200 BC. until 1453. and very heavy taxation. which became the leading bank of the eighteenth century. But the Roman Empire in the East.Dandolo. King Pepin of Italy. Venice. Then. the empire collapsed. which called for King Philip of Macedonia to conquer Athens and the other great city-states so as to set up an oligarchical empire that would operate as a western version of the Persian Empire. the first Triumvirate (Julius Caesar. Augustine. which dominated Europe during the seventeenth century. Until the end of the eighteenth century. . After the series of monsters called the Julian-Claudian emperors (Tiberius. Charlemagne’s son. the ruling dynasties of Byzantium continued the oligarchical policy of Diocletian and Constantine. Venice became the location of a Benedictine monastery on the island of St. Octavian (Augustus) secured an alliance with the cult of Sol Invictus Mithra and became emperor. the Zorzi. Perseus. Around 700 AD. and Lepidus). but rather a disguise for Apollo. Caligula. The Persian Empire was an oligarchy. etc. and Marduk. attempted to revive civilization from the Dark Ages. When the Venetian oligarchy transferred many of its families and assets to northern Europe. tried unsuccessfully to conquer the Venetian lagoon. Pompey the Great. and L. the dozen or so wealthiest Venetian families had holdings comparable or superior to the very wealthiest families anywhere in Europe. In the years around 800 AD. idols of the oligarchy. Later. These are associated with the Social War. This post was not hereditary. With certain exceptions. and the Tron. or duke. John the Divine is not a mystical construct. using the ideas of St. the conflict between Marius and Sulla. who finally destroyed the Persian Empire before being assassinated by Aristotle. St. George Major. The “whore of Babylon” condemned in the Apocalypse of St. between 180 and 280 AD. George is not a Christian saint. whose agents included Lycurgus of Sparta and later Aristotle. Crassus). and Constantine with a series of measures that centered on banning any change in the technology of the means of production. continued for almost a thousand years. is supposed to have been founded by refugees from the Italian mainland who were fleeing from Attila the Hun in 452 AD. defeating the other contenders. and the collapse of civilization into a prolonged Dark Age. Charlemagne. This plan failed when Philip died. and of the Bank of England. then the Byzantine Empire kept going until shortly after World War I. There followed a series of civil wars that aimed at deciding where the capital of the new empire would be and who would be the ruling family. It was reorganized by Aurelian.) the empire stagnated between 80 and 180 AD under such figures as Hadrian and Trajan. Marc Antony. and the second Triumvirate (Octavian. the center of oligarchical banking and intelligence was the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Then the Delphic Apollo developed the Isocrates plan. Other oligarchical centers included Hiram of Tyre and the Phoenicians. ORIGINS OF THE VENETIAN PARTY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD In the pre-Christian world around the Mediterranean. and the Platonic Academy of Athens decisively influenced Alexander the Great. sometimes called the Byzantine Empire. but a very specific power cartel of evil oligarchical families. but was controlled by an election in which only the nobility could take part. In the Greek world. The Diocletian program led to the depopulation of the cities. For this reason. the Delphic Apollo intervened into the wars between Rome and the Etruscan cities to make Rome the key power of Italy and then of the entire Mediterranean. the Contarini. And if the Ottoman Empire is considered as the Ottoman dynasty of an ongoing Byzantine Empire. the Morosini. Early on. The Delphic Apollo tried and failed to secure the conquest of Greece by the Persian Empire. the Venetian fondi provided the nucleus of the great Bank of Amsterdam. the Venetians claim to have elected their first doge. King of the Franks. The Roman Empire in the West finally collapsed in 476 AD. Venice was the enemy of Charlemagne. serfdom for farmers. oligarchical political forces included Babylon in Mesopotamia. Venice erroneously called itself a republic. Nero. the city built on islands in the lagoons and marshes of the northern Adriatic Sea.

Charlemagne was forced to recognize Venice as a part of the eastern or Byzantine Empire. Machiavelli.” The University of Padua became the great European center for Aristotelian studies. By this point. the Venetians. the Venetians tried to sabotage this result. the Orthodox Christian city which was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. The Venetian economy grew through usury and slavery. In the midst of the chaos. the fourteenth century had become a catastrophe for civilization. The Venetian bankers. Venice had replaced Byzantium as the bearer of the oligarchical heritage of the Roman Empire. In the midst of the crisis of the 1300’s. which was assisted by Venetian agents and provocateurs. including the onset of the Black Plague. Venice was never a part of western civilization. The program of Cusanus. and the Venetians imposed a short-lived puppet state called the Latin Empire. the Black Sea. By 1082. Venice refused to respond to Pope Pius II (Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini) when he called for the recovery of Constantinople. or terra firma. and the Italian mainland. the Venetians used an army of French feudal knights to capture and loot Constantinople. In the Fourth Crusade of 1202 AD. Authors like Barbaro and Bembo popularized an Aristotelian “humanism. The Venetians were one of the main factors behind the Crusades against the Muslim power in the eastern Mediterranean. More fundamentally. A series of wars with Genoa led later to the de facto merger of Venice and Genoa. The Venetians caused the death of the poet and political figure Dante Alighieri. and the Medici.sponsored Council of Florence of 1439. The successful . often called Lombards. Venice developed as a second capital of the Byzantine Empire through marriage alliances with certain Byzantine dynasties and conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire based in Germany. The Venetians fought the Renaissance with a policy of expansion on the Italian mainland. The first nation-state was created in France by King Louis XI during the 1460’s and 1470’s. The ultimate sabotage was the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. These transactions created the basis for the Venetian Party in England. When Cusanus and his friends succeeded in reuniting the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox and other eastern churches at the Council of Florence. who developed the concept of the modern sovereign nation-state in opposition to the Venetian plans for empire. Pius II. When the Lombard bankers went bankrupt because the English failed to pay. the friends of Dante and Petrarch laid the basis for the Italian Golden Renaissance. the Venetians had tax-free trading rights in the entire Byzantine Empire. began to loot many parts of Europe with usurious loans. a breakdown crisis of the European economy ensued. During the 1200’s. This was then followed by the Wars of the Roses in England. Venetian intelligence assisted Genghis Khan as he attacked and wiped out powers that had resisted Venice. Leonardo da Vinci. which depopulated the continent. which reached its culmination with Nicolaus of Cusanus. Pope Pius II. Henry III of England in the years after 1255 became insolvent after taking huge Lombard loans to finance foreign wars at 120-180 percent interest. which brought them to the outskirts of Milan. Venice also encouraged the Ottoman Turks to advance against Constantinople. Joan of Arc defeated the English. and other Italian Renaissance leaders for the creation of powerful national states proved impossible to carry out in Italy. This led to a new collapse of European civilization. the Venetians promoted the pagan philosophy of Aristotle against the Christian Platonism of the Florentines. The Venetian doge Enrico Dandolo was declared the lord of one-quarter and one-half of one-quarter of the Byzantine Empire. which hurled France into chaos before St. now at the apex of their military and naval power. Over the next four centuries. the Venetians encouraged their ally Edward III of England to wage war against France in the conflict that became the Hundred Years War (1339-1453). set out to create a new Roman Empire with its center at Venice. They expanded into the Greek islands. As a result of Venetian domination. They helped to defeat the Hohenstaufen rulers of Germany and Italy. under the protection of the Emperor Nicephorus. The school of the Rialto was an Aristotelian academy where Venetian patricians lectured and studied their favorite philosopher. which was now controlled by the Paleologue dynasty of emperors.

Freemasonic party at the English court that later produced writers like Edmund Spenser and Sir Philip Sydney. Venice’s long-term outlook was very grim. Contarini also began the process of organizing the Council of Trent with a letter on church reform that praised Aristotle while condemning Erasmus. was Venice’s Cardinal Gasparo Contarini.Byzantine model. Contarini pioneered the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone. and typified by Pope Paul IV Caraffa. Contarini’s networks encouraged and protected Martin Luther and later John Calvin of Geneva. The League of Cambrai soon included France. who was bribed to break up the League of Cambrai. Savoy. and others. Venice managed to survive. 1508-1529 The Venetians tried to use the power of the new nation-states. who denied the immortality of the human soul. Milan. who later evolved into the party of the Venetian oligarchy called the giovani. who serviced Venetian networks in the Vatican and the Catholic Hapsburg dominions. especially because the Portuguese had opened a route to Asia around the Cape of Good Hope.Reformation. Henry created the Anglican Church on a Venetian. The goal was to divide Europe for one to two centuries in religious wars that would prevent any combination like the League of Cambrai from ever again being assembled against Venice. During the decades after 1570. oriented toward repression and the Inquisition.nation-building methods of Louis XI compelled attention and imitation in England and Spain. The Venetians considered building a Suez canal. Contarini organized a group of Italian Protestants called gli spirituali. Spain. By rapid diplomatic maneuvers. and who serviced growing networks in France. which banned works by Dante and Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II). Florence. THE CRISIS OF THE WAR OF THE LEAGUE OF CAMBRAI. the Venetian mercenaries were defeated by the French. The zelanti evolved into the oligarchical party called the vecchi. Germany. REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFORMATION One result of the Cambrai crisis was the decision of Venetian intelligence to create the Protestant Reformation. the Contarini networks split into two wings. the Venetians would use England for attacks on Spain and France. Venetian diplomacy played on the greed of the Genoese Pope Julius II Della Rovere. but decided against it. As the Counter. Holland. with no regard for good works of charity. England. to crush Milan and allow further Venetian expansion. Contarini was also the leader of the Catholic Counter. But ambassadors for the king of France and the Austrian emperor met at Cambrai in December 1508 and agreed to create a European league for the dismemberment of Venice. and the city was nearly bankrupt. At the battle of Agnadello in April 1509. Ferrara. Mantua. Zorzi acted as Henry’s sex counselor. Despite their incessant intrigues.Reformation advanced. Contarini sent his neighbor and relative Francesco Zorzi to England to support King Henry VIII’s plan to divorce Catherine of Aragon. and opened a phase of hostility to Spain. the Venetians were now confronted with large national states whose military power greatly exceeded anything that Venice could mobilize. the salon of the Ridotto Morosini family was the focus of heirs of . He sponsored St. One was the pro-Protestant spirituali. the Papacy. especially France. The Venetians dominated the college of cardinals and created the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The leading figure of the Protestant Reformation. although foreign armies threatened to overrun the lagoons on several occasions. Zorzi created a Rosicrucian. As a result. The apparent conflict of the two groups was orchestrated to serve Venetian projects. Contarini was a pupil of the Padua Aristotelian Pietro Pomponazzi. including oligarchs like Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga. On the other wing were the zelanti. the leading Platonist of the day. the first Protestant in modern Europe. Henceforth. Ignatius of Loyola and secured papal approval for the creation of the Society of Jesus as an official order of the Church. and Venice temporarily lost eight hundred years of land conquests. and Scotland.

and their network were brought into Great Britain under the supervision of William Petty. assisted by his deputy. the Earl of Shelburne. During the reign of “Bloody Mary. England. Holland. The ideas of Conti. against Leibniz. Conti’s agents in this effort included Montesquieu and Voltaire. Sarpi was the main Venetian propagandist in the struggle against the papacy during the time of the papal interdict against Venice in 1606. and along with the French scientist Pierre Louis de Maupertuis he helped form the homosexual harem around British ally Frederick the Great of Prussia.” the Stuart period. but on the basis of Aristotelian formalism and sense certainty. Ortes was a student of the pro-Galileo activist Guido Grandi of Pisa. Conti also influenced Georg Ludwig of Hanover. the Venetians had been openly hostile to Cusanus and other leading scientists. Ortes. often to the Bank of Amsterdam. These were the giovani. Sarpi’s agents in Prague. Under Zorzi and Contarini. The Shelburne stable of writers. and later to the newly founded Bank of England. whose networks were strongest in the Atlantic powers of France. whom Conti portrayed as a plagiarist of Newton. the Venetian Party of England grew in power. The central figure here was the Servite monk Paolo Sarpi. and economist Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Heidelberg. During the first half of the 1700’s. and Scotland. Conti directed the operations that made Newton an international celebrity. scientist. Sarpi also marks a turning point in the methods used by Venetian intelligence to combat science. and the 1688 installation of William of Orange as King of England by the pro-Venetian English oligarchy. and Vienna deliberately organized the Thirty Years War. Conti went to London where he became a friend of Sir Isaac Newton. all take their main ideas from Conti and especially Ortes. Conti was a Venetian nobleman. and especially with Sir Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes. Ortes applied Newton’s method to the so-called social sciences. Sarpi and Micanzio were in close touch with the Stuart court in London. Participants included Giammaria Ortes.” was another Venetian in the orbit of the Conti conversazione. supported free trade. the most important activities of Venetian intelligence were directed by a salon called the conversazione filosofica e felice. By seizing control of the scientific community from the inside. Thomas Malthus. including Adam Smith. the Venetians could corrupt scientific method and strangle the process of discovery. Sarpi sponsored and directed the career of Galileo Galilei. the civil war in England. which killed half the population of Germany and one-third of the population of Europe. the Stuart Restoration. the Venetian fondi were transferred north. whom the Venetians used for an empiricist counterattack against the Platonic method of Johannes Kepler. author of a treatise on “Newtonian Science for Ladies. Charles Darwin.the pro-Protestant wing of the Contarini spirituali networks. where he was close to Malebranche. Francesco Algarotti. John Stuart Mill. Ortes denied the possibility of progress or higher standards of living. The Conti conversazione was also sponsored by the Emo and Memmo oligarchical families. later King George I of England. Jeremy Bentham. originally a follower of Descartes. who was the de facto Doge of the British oligarchy around the time of the American Revolution. Sarpi realized that the Venetians must now present themselves as the great champions of science. the dictatorship of Cromwell. the Venetian economist who asserted that the carrying capacity of the planet Earth could never exceed three billion persons. James Mill. who got their ideas from Sarpi’s Pensieri (Thoughts) and Arte di Ben Pensare (Art of Thinking Well). Fulgenzio Micanzio. Algarotti was close to Voltaire. and other exponents of British philosophical radicalism. GROWTH OF THE VENETIAN PARTY During the 1600’s. opposed dirigist economics. including especially the creation of a pro-Newton party of French Anglophiles and Anglomaniacs who came to be known as the French Enlightenment. Frederick the Great was Britain’s principal continental ally . and polemicized against the ideas of the American Revolution. Conti was also active in intrigues against the German philosopher. which centered around the figure of Antonio Schinella Conti. who lived for a time in Paris.

during the Seven Years War against France, when British victories in India and Canada made them the supreme naval power of the world. The homosexual Frederick made Algarotti his court chamberlain at his palace of Sans Souci. Maupertuis had become famous when he went to Lapland to measure a degree of the local meridian, and came back claiming that he had confirmed one of Newton’s postulates. Frederick made him the president of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Frederick corresponded with Voltaire all his life; Voltaire lived at Sans Souci and Berlin between 1750 and 1753. Voltaire quarreled with Maupertuis and attacked him in his “Diatribe of Doctor Akakia.” The mathematicians Leonhard Euler of Switzerland and Joseph Louis Lagrange of Turin were also associated with Frederick’s cabal. The Conti salon directed the activities of Venetian intelligence agent Giacomo Casanova, a protégé of the homosexual Senator Bragadin. Casanova was employed primarily in operations against King Louis XV of France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Venetians helped the British to emerge as a great power at the expense of Holland and Spain. In the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War, the Venetians helped the British to defeat the French as a world-wide naval power, ousting them from India and Canada. Later the Venetian agent Alessandro Cagliostro would destabilize Louis XVI with the Queen’s necklace affair of 1785, which according to Napoleon Bonaparte represented the opening of the French Revolution. Venice ceased to exist as an independent state after its conquest by Napoleon in 1797 and the Austrian takeover of the lagoon under the Treaty of Campo Formio. But the influence of the Venetian oligarchy over culture and politics has remained immense. From 1945 to about 1968, one of the most important of these influences was the Societe Europeene de Culture, based in Venice and directed by Umberto Campagnolo. The SEC operated freely in eastern and western Europe, and agitated against the nation state in the name of supernational values. The SEC launched the career of Franz Fanon, author of the Wretched of the Earth, whose ideas form a justification for terrorism. The premier foundation of the world is the Cini Foundation, which provides ideological directives for the far wealthier but junior foundations with names like Ford, Rockefeller, Carnegie, MacArthur, Volkswagen, etc. BEFORE BONAPARTE: THREE CENTURIES OF VENETIAN SUBVERSION OF FRANCE, 1500-1800 The War of the League of Cambrai proved that Louis XI’s modern French nation-state was a threat to the survival of Venice. The Venetians wanted to destroy France. But how? Direct military force was out of the question. The Venetians therefore decided on a strategy of cultural and political subversion. This subversion of France between 1500 and 1800 by the Venetians has few parallels in modern history. Of all the national cultures of the modern age, the French is the most prestigious. In culture, the Anglo-Americans provide trash for the mass market, but the French provide the luxury goods for the elite. In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, intellectuals and elites who are tired of MacDonald’s look, above all, to France. French culture, however, has been polluted by centuries of unrelenting operations by Venetians like Paolo Sarpi and Antonio Conti and others. Century after century, the most famous French writers professed their admiration for Venice, and made their personal pilgrimage to Venice. Exceptions there are, but they are few and far between. As Machiavelli or Leonardo might have put it, “La culture Francaise e una porcheria Veneziana”: French culture is indeed a Venetian monstrosity. British Prime Minister Robert Walpole gloated that “the French are ten times more idiotic than the British since they are so easily duped….” The French pride themselves on their knowledge and urbanity, on their glittering, cynical intelligence. They think they are true sophisticates and connoisseurs of intrigue. The worst thing that can happen to them is to be fooled. Well, the worst has happened, and the proud French are the dupes, fall guys, and suckers for the Venetians. British oligarchs who went along with the Venetians stood to gain. French oligarchs who went with

the Venetians stood only to lose. The French are the pathetic losers. The Venetians had been profiling the French since the Fourth Crusade of 1202, when Doge Enrico Dandolo duped the French feudal knights into capturing Constantinople for the Venetians. The old chronicles of Robert de Clari and Villehardouin show us something of the minds of the French dupes. The heart of the Venetian cultural warfare after Cambrai was the no-soul thesis. Aristotle had taught that man has no soul. The Venetians taught the same thing. This is not theology, this is the essence of politics. The no-soul thesis means that man has no reason, man is an animal, man is a beast. But the soul is empirically there: You know it through creativity, through your own insights and discoveries, the fruits of which are permanent – immortal. You know your soul through love and charity and through your yearning for the good. If man is a beast, then the oligarchy and the empire are simply unavoidable. Venetians are materialists in this sense. The no-soul thesis has technical names. It is called mortalism, annihilationism, thenetopsychism. All mean the same thing: no human soul. Around 1500, the University of Padua, the university of the Venetians, had a famous professor, Pietro Pomponazzi, warts and all. His doctrine was that there is no immortal human soul – in other words, that there is no soul at all. The whole person dies, body and soul. The main idea of what is called the Paduan school of Aristotelianism is that there is no human soul. Around 1600, this was taught at Padua by Cesare Cremonini. When Cremonini died, he ordered a tombstone with the inscription: Hic jacet totus Cremoninus – “here lies all of Cremonini.” The idea was that there had been no soul, and that all of Cremonini had gone into the grave. Pomponazzi and Cremonini exercised immense influence on France. The no-soul thesis is the one infallible marker for a Venetian agent. Every Venetian agent, every Venetian asset, claims man has no soul, including Pomponazzi, Contarini, Cremonini, and Antonio Conti. In England, the no-soul idea was proclaimed by Venetian assets like Robert Fludd, Thomas Hobbes, John Milton, Cromwell’s ally Sir Henry Vane, and various of the Cromwellbacked radicals including Richard Overton of the Levellers, Laurence Clarkson of the Ranters, Lodovic Muggleton and his Muggletonians, Gerard Winstanley of the Diggers, and Anne Hutchinson of Boston. Martin Luther had his own variation, that the soul slept until the last judgment. Every time you find the no-soul thesis, you have a Venetian agent, and generally also vice-versa. The modern Venetian Party in France was founded by Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623), a no-soul Satanist and chief Venetian policy maker of the period around 1600. The best name for the Venetian Party of France is the cabal of the libertines. That is what they called themselves. Their creed was the no-soul thesis, mixed with various forms of Satanism and mysticism. To found the cabal of the libertines, Sarpi first needed a war of religion. I have shown that Gasparo Contarini of Venice was the prime mover behind both Martin Luther and King Henry VIII, thus creating both Lutheranism and Anglicanism. Neither of these doctrines could be sold in France, so a new and more militant form of Protestantism had to be created. It featured total depravity and absolute predestination, and it came to be called Calvinism. Calvin had to be taught how to create a synthetic religion. His teacher was Pierre Taisan de l’Estoile. This Pierre Taisan de l’Estoile was a Venetian operative; his son was an admirer of Paolo Sarpi. The younger de l’Estoile wrote in his Journal (after the Interdict crisis of 1606) that “Father Paul, the Venetian monk of the Servite Order… is, in my judgment, the one who has best and most sincerely written for my lords the Venetians…. The treatise of Paul Sarpi, a monk and professor of Venice, along with his other writings published at this time in support of the Venetians against the attacks of the Pope, are seen in Paris, and are praised and collected by all the men of

character and learning…. Sarpi’s life is even more persuasive than his writings, and make him admired and revered in Venice as a holy man and give a great weight of authority to his books.” Thus wrote the son of Calvin’s teacher. Calvin was a Venetian agent. The French King at this time was Francis I, who had been in Spanish captivity after the Battle of Pavia in 1525 in the Cambrai Wars. Francis I was inclined towards a reasonable policy of peace and tolerance until 1534, the year of the so-called Placards Affair. The placards were leaflets with violent protests against the Pope and the mass, put up in numerous public places and on the door of the King’s bedroom. Francis I went wild; 20 heads rolled, and Francis persecuted the Protestants. One of the provocateurs had been Jean Calvin, who had a previous arrest record for such actions. One of the victims of this operation had been Calvin’s own brother, who was executed and buried under the gallows. The greatest French writer, Francois Rabelais, opposed Calvin. In the fourth book of his Gargantua, Rabelais condemned the “little Calvinist demons and other impostors of Geneva.” Calvinism was directed much more against the King than against the Pope. The French Calvinists were called Huguenots, meaning confederates. When the Calvinists of Geneva became embroiled with the Catholic Duke of Savoy, these Calvinists, since they were Swiss, were called the Eidgenossen, citizens of the Confoederatio Helvetica, and, thus, confederates. For French speakers, Eidgenossen became Huguenots. Huguenots were drawn chiefly from the oligarchy; it is estimated that, around 1570, more than a third and possibly half of the French nobility were Protestant. Huguenot ideology permitted a comeback for the French feudal barons who had been crushed by Louis XI. These barons had been fighting the central monarchy for centuries, and now they had a new ideology to rationalize their desire for civil war. Some oligarchs became Huguenots to spite their enemies who stayed Catholic. Many oligarchs wanted to determine the religion of their own peasants, as they could in Germany. Admiral Coligny of the Huguenots called in the English, while the Guise, the leaders of the Catholic Party, called in the Spanish. Crushed in the middle was the state built by Louis XI, and crushed along with that state was the expiring Valois monarchy, a series of the sons of Catherine de Medici. Irrationality loomed large in daily life; this was when the seer Nostradamus acquired his reputation. France had nine flare-ups of civil war between 1562 and 1598. The French wars of religion had no clear fronts and were marked by looting and raiding operations by groups of armed oligarchs on each side. All of the contending factions had leaders who were Venetian agents, and, as time went on, more and more were agents of Sarpi personally. Sarpi’s main French operative was Arnaud du Ferrier, who had been the French ambassador to the Council of Trent. Du Ferrier used his notes on the council to help Sarpi write his most famous book, The History of the Council of Trent. Arnaud du Ferrier was in direct personal touch with Jean Bodin and Michel de Montaigne. Sarpi’s friend, fellow monk, and biographer Fulgenzio Micanzio says that Sarpi was “intrinsichissimo” – extremely friendly – with Arnaud du Ferrier. Among the Venetian operatives were:

Michel de l’Hospital, the Grand Chancellor of France during the 1560’s. He advised Henry II, Francis II, and Charles IX. It was on his watch that the weakness of the monarchy allowed the Guise to open the hostilities of the civil war. Michel preached moderation and tolerance; he has been called the first politique. We can

imagine what would have happened to the United States if Abraham Lincoln had made tolerance the supreme virtue. Michel grew up in a family marked by treason to France: His father was a retainer of Duke Charles of Bourbon, the Constable of France, who went over to the Emperor Charles V and died fighting for the Hapsburg empire during the Sack of Rome in 1527. Michel had studied at Padua for six years; he wrote a Latin ode glorifying Venice: “Salve, Urbs antiqua, potens, magnaeque urbs aemula Romae.” Michel’s career benefited from early sponsorship by the Guise. According to the Venetian ambassador Andrea Barbaro, Michel was always a secret Huguenot. Even so, Michel took King Charles IX on a tour of France, allegedly to build his popularity and stability. In practice, the impressionable young king was shocked to see many churches that had been destroyed by the Huguenots. During the same trip, Michel left the suggestible Queen Mother Catherine de Medici alone at Bayonne in the company of the Spanish Duke of Alba, the butcher of Holland for Philip II. It is thought that the bloody-minded Alba directly or indirectly provided the idea for the St. Batholomew’s Day massacre of 1572. Philippe Duplessis-Mornay, correspondent of Sarpi, was the leader of the French Calvinists after the death of Admiral de Coligny in 1572; his nickname was the Huguenot Pope. He had visited Venice at the age of 18. He was a direct correspondent of Sarpi. He was the finance minister and money man for Henry IV, who later dumped him in a process of rapprochement with the Pope. Jacques-Auguste de Thou was in correspondence with Sarpi. He was taught by Scaligero and Cujas. He visited Venice in his youth, and went there again in 1589 to seek assistance as a minister of King Henry III. For five years, de Thou accompanied the future King Henry IV in his field campaigns during the civil war. De Thou helped to write the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which provided tolerance, meaning an armed Huguenot party in the state with its own armies and fortresses. At one time, de Thou was named ambassador to Venice. One of de Thou’s books was a life of Jean Bodin. Another was a monumental Latin history of France in his time, parts of which were translated into French by J. Hotman de Villiers, a Sarpi correspondent. De Thou bequeathed his library to his relatives of the Du Puy family, and it became an organizing center for the cabal of the libertines. De Thou’s son was part of the attempt to assassinate Richelieu by the Count of CinqMars.

Tracing this network is easier if we recall that the Venetians first supported Henry of Navarre to become King of France as Henry IV and were the first to recognize him. The Venetians controlled Henry IV’s advisers. When Henry IV refused to back Venice in the Interdict, refused to start a war with Spain, and attacked Sarpi as a heretic, Venetian intelligence assassinated Henry IV, the most popular king in French history. Sarpi held his French Calvinist network in contempt. He wrote: “The heretics of France are for the most part bad men….” After the 1572 massacre of Huguenots on St. Bartholomew’s Day, there was a growing reaction against religious fanaticism. This was expressed by a third force called the politiques. The politiques are much misunderstood. They were not just fed up with religious fanaticism. Several of the politique leaders represented an early form of the cabal of the libertines under Venetian control.

was one of Sarpi’s biggest fans. Curtius the Calvinist. and the latter very libidinous as a result of their melancholy temperament. Sarpi became celebrated in all of Europe by arguing that the Pope could not interfere with the prerogatives of the sovereign state. The scene is Venice. Kuntz [ed. Venice itself managed to be the most thorough totalitarian police state while at the same time tolerating the exercise of many religions. for example. and Octavius the Moslem. Cabala is of course not a part of Judaism. Octavius. 1974]). a convert from Rome to Islam. For the Venetians. the slogan of sovereignty was used as a device to create conflict between any given government and the Pope. where a group of oligarchs discuss religion. the Lutheran. or at any rate elective monarchies. it is Salomon the Jew who emerges as the dominant figure. This is completely unfair to real Islam. Sarpi. King James I Stuart of England and Scotland. relying on their physical prowess. Senamus the skeptic. the first philosophe and an intelligence agent who worked for the Duke of Alencon.” Bodin also talks of tolerance. but this is not the modern concept of sovereignty. who claimed to get his divine right directly from God without any papal intermediary. Toralba the naturalist or empiricist. There is no doubt that Jean Bodin was the author. is also a great expert on .unpublished Latin work. Telling the princes of the Holy Roman Empire that they were not really sovereign was also a great way to stir them up against the Hapsburgs. Bodin was involved in plots to kill Queen Elizabeth of England. Jean Bodin was in close contact with Sarpi’s friend Arnaud du Ferrier. This close parallel between Bodin and Sarpi has been noticed by Italian writers including Federico Chabod and more recently Paolo Frajese. Heptaplomeres. According to some commentators. but represented an entirely different polytheistic religion much inferior to Judaism itself. Fridericus the Lutheran. The real Jean Bodin emerges in obscene relief in his long. xlv] If Coronaeus acts as ireneic mediator. “… southern peoples are cruel and vindictive in consequence of their melancholy. notice that Bodin’s model for tolerance is none other than Gasparo Contarini. and was the judge in a trial in which a woman was executed for sorcery. Colloquium of the Seven about Secrets of the Sublime. As we can see in sixteenth. Salomon the Jew. (See Marion L. North America might have become a madhouse for depraved sectarians. the Venetian patrician who started the Reformation and the Wars of Religion as a wartime measure against the League of Cambrai. or those who live in mountainous regions.D. In any case. the tolerant Catholic Coronaeus “in several ways resembles the eminent Cardinal Gasparo Contarini. in that the former are modest and chaste. Fridericus. posed as the defender of Venetian sovereignty against Pope Paul V Borghese during the Interdict. The Jesuit Cardinal Bellarmino had proclaimed that all temporal rulers were subordinated to the supremacy of the Roman Pope. Northerners succeed by force.” [Kuntz.” From such arid banality it is not far to Henry Kissinger’s idiotic dictum that “history is not made in the South. as well as with Cecil in London. This is because he is able to draw upon the Cabala. are proud and warlike. which appears as a racist determinism. [Princeton.” Or: “northern races. the son of Henry II and for a time the politique candidate for the monarchy. They are Coronaeus the Catholic.The leading politique was Jean Bodin. the mass of mystical writings much fetishized by Bodin and Postel. His Six Books of the Commonwealth talks much about sovereignty. p. and will not endure to be ruled by pretentious boasters. famous for its atmosphere of perfect freedom.century England.” And: “There is another very notable difference between northerners and southerners. Jean Bodin was a disciple of Contarini and of Pomponazzi. southerners by cunning. Much of Bodin’s book is also devoted to a weird theory of climate. tolerance often meant opening the door to gangs of Venetian madmen organized as religious sects.]. and so they prefer popular states. is the resident expert on mummies and other exotic spiritual phenomena of the East. If Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts had caved in to Cromwell’s pressure to tolerate these sects. which engenders extreme violence in the passions and impels men to take vengeance for what they suffer.

we reached Venice. If I shall ever meet with you again. I shall never allow myself to be separated from you. through his agent Spalatin. p. .” [Kuntz ed. talk of Cabbalist Hermes Trismegistus. legate of the Roman See of this point of view. accepts no religion but at the same time rejects none. whether they are interested in commerce or crafts or leisure pursuits as befit free man. Pflugius. When we had a difficult time sailing along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Cardinal Contarini. in agreement with the German princes. The first sentence of the actual dialogue is. if I could have taken delight in your companionship. at the imperial Diet at Ratisbon the Emperor Charles V. a port common to almost all nations or rather the whole world. not only because the Venetians delight in receiving strangers hospitably. sing hymns to Isis. Senamus. the Lutheran spokesman. Everything would have happened to my liking. Eckius. the Venetian intelligence chief of the Cambrai period: “Fridericus: When. died a little afterwards. The dialogue is preceded by an introduction which sets the stage: “You ask me in letters to write you about my foreign travel. They are interested in necrophilia. “Don’t you think we have talked enough about the immortality of souls?” Voila: the Venetian party. and Groppeus to their position and had likewise persuaded Cardinal Contarini.. 423] It is no coincidence that Bodin puts this speech into the mouth of Fridericus. this seemed to me to be nearly the only city that offers immunity and freedom from all these kinds of servitude. one of the Catholics. Whereas other cities and districts are threatened by civil wars or fears of tyrants or harsh exactions of taxes or the most annoying inquiries into one’s activities. and it was strongly suspected that he died of poisoning. that the world is full of demons. Toralba recommends reverence for God and following the laws of nature. and that true wisdom is to be found in the mysticism of the Cabala. but also because one can live there with the greatest freedom.demons. convinced by him. This is the reason why people come here from everywhere. had selected six most upright theologians of each religion to settle the religious controversies of the Romans and Germans … they thought they should begin with the question of human justification. Fabrus. Contarini was the founder of Lutheranism and assured the protection of Luther.” [Kuntz ed. namely. forced Charles V to dissolve the discussion twenty days after it had begun…. When in this discussion three theologians of the Augsburg Confession had drawn the Catholics. the most learned Venetian patrician who was said to have agreed with the Lutherans. and praise Gasparo Contarini.. that man is blessed by faith alone and by no merit of his own. the skeptic. became so angry against his colleagues that the Catholic bishops and princes. What they all agree on is that mummies can stir up storms and have miraculous powers of healing. 3] There is also much praise for Cardinal Contarini. wishing to spend their lives in the greatest freedom and tranquillity of spirit.

when a wife recoils from the embrace of her husband. This indicated only that lesser spirits and demons were enclosed by their particular boundaries. By their fall they terrify mortals…. “Salomon: Into their myths the Greeks wove the truth which they received from the Hebrews. At that point. an opinion too frivolous to deserve refutation. But. The captain later told Octavius that “the transportation of Egyptian corpses always stirred up storms and… that the nautical laws of the Egyptians scrupulously prohibited this. “Curtius: The ancient theologians identified three thunderbolts of Jupiter. when the private parts lose hair though the skin is unblemished. We have observed that those fiery rocks made by demon’s art smell of nothing but sulphur. and the storm calmed immediately. suddenly with a clap of thunder the assemblage of demons and magicians is dissolved…. Bodin moves on to the demons of Book II. the ship on which he was traveling with the mummy was overtaken by a terrible storm. Since Pliny did not comprehend this. . his 1580 On the Demonomania of Witches and his 1596 Universae naturae theatrum. when utensils burn in a closed and untouched cupboard. With Bodin. who tells of how he robbed a grave. as illustrated by the soi-disant Moslem Octavius.” [Kuntz. The terrified passengers began praying for safety according to Roman Catholic.The first phase of the search for true religion in Book I of Heptaplomeres is centered on a discussion of the amazing powers of Egyptian mummies. and even Venetian rite customs. black…. stole a mummy. Let us sample some of the exchanges: “Fridericus: … those who have been present when magicians assembled together agree if anyone uninitiated to demonic rites is brought there and shudders at the detestable devotions. A Spanish soldier even tried blasphemy of the Christian God. Moslem. all prayers and incantations were useless until the ship’s captain threatened to execute anyone with a mummy in his baggage. he thought that the white lightning fell from the body of Jupiter himself.” From the mummies of Book I. and tried to ship the mummy home by sea from Alexandria. namely white. who is so blind that he does not see the actions of demons in the flashing of lightning…. so also those places in which lightning has struck are filled with the foulest odor of sulphur. we must admit these things happen contrary to nature only by the force and power of demons or angels. since he also wrote about their powers in two of his other books. the power of demons is also indicated when swords melt in an unharmed scabbard. to keep them from breaking out above the region of the clouds and were cast out by higher angels and powers and hurled down on the earth. Octavius recounts. And just as the assemblages of soothsayers and the dire poisons of magicians smell of sulphur. whom our people call Tamerlan. red.” After Octavius left Egypt. “Octavius: I hear that Timurbecus. we are not far from the later British intelligence stunt known as the “curse of King Tut’s tomb. Greek Orthodox. Jewish. He wanted the mummy because “there was so much healing power in these corpses that they warded off almost all diseases. In countless actions which are most alien to nature. followed this method of imposing punishment…. Now. Mummies were a favorite theme of Bodin’s. Octavius surreptitiously threw his mummy overboard. 14] The message is clear: All the monotheistic religions put together are no match for even one good old-fashioned mummy. They represented Juno as presiding in the air and hurling down avenging spirits from the midst of the air to keep them from flying into heaven.

if they terrify men with thunder. recalled this vexation. supposedly the guardians of treasures and corpses. whirlwinds. famous even among physicists.“Senamus: You have explained these matters elegantly and charmingly. if then they regulate and overturn powers. families. “Curtius: Pliny and Strabo wrote something similar to this…. [. For they guard with unusual diligence the hidden treasures and kill those who dig them up…. states. “Octavius: Perhaps demons envy men the salutary remedies which are recovered from those corpses of Egyptians. sometimes to Asia. districts. that greatest magician and poisoner. and even to Italy without a storm. “Curtius: Surely by Roman law money is denied to those who search out treasures by means of detestable sacrifices or from any other forbidden art. however. cities. finally if they are added to individual men as guardians and avengers. I do not doubt that impure spirits wander around the foul and loathsome regions and stir up storms and winds. Fridericus has maintained that there were demons of each nature and sex. I find it strange. wrote that demons stir up lightning and thunder. in the unions of witches with incubi and magicians with succubi…. that no one who had sought a treasure with a demon’s help had ever found it or was enriched with the find. “Salomon: The divine law wholeheartedly curses this impiety and mischief that magicians used and those who thus feast on blood with demons. “Fridericus: The Chaldeans say their terrestrial demons. are more deceitful and cruel because they are farther from the purity of light and divine knowledge…. George Agricola has many stories of this kind in which he relates that many people saw demons of pygmy size in the mines…. Plutarch thought that the causes of this extended silence [of oracles] must be attributed to the death of demons.] “Coronaeus: Senamus has proposed a very difficult but proper question..… let them pay just punishments with daily torment. ephilates and hyphilates. “Senamus: If demons disturb the visible sky. “Fridericus: But if those demons are the souls of wicked men who either had placed all their hope in their buried treasures secured from plunder. “Toralba: …it was not without cause that Thomas Aquinas. fires. A long time ago. consider how great a multitude of demons and angels must be stationed up and down in all parts of the world and in individual places…. the seas. Finally. but I do not know why demons pursue the bodies of Egyptians rather than Greeks or why they are accustomed to stir up tempests only when those bodies are stolen. Or demons may be the spirits of those who must pay the penalties for directing all their efforts to building palaces and towers with the blood of the people…. winds. If Toralba . if they hover over divine and human ambassadors. lands. lightning. earthquakes. and unexpected portents. “Fridericus: But those corpses were not yet buried….. Apuleius. Greece. Surely everyone knows that corpses are customarily carried on ships.

Of this latter Salomon says in Book III: “Since that teaching is perceived only by hearing. we received nothing which has not been common knowledge throughout the world and available to everyone. 83-89] The “divine communication” which Toralba appeals to. we can see that all of the interlocutors of the Heptaplomeres. their place. After Postel’s death. this rationalist. The problem is that this modern thinker. whatever their nominal religious affiliation. the Cabala. Bodin is a ‘rationalist’.will explain it with his usual care. and death seems far removed from positive proofs. tires de l’histoire de M. it is called qabbalah (tradition). others you will relate to the wise’…. probably a disciple of Pomponazzi…. are Venetian cultist kooks. he will render a great service not only to Senamus but to all of us. “Salomon: After our ancestors returned to Chaldea as prisoners.” [Kuntz. is understood only by the most learned. who was Postel’s paymaster by 1538-40. synthetic. the Venetian Party of France. Chancellor of France. the sacred books were written in such a way that those things which pertain to the salvation of everyone. 94-95] In sum. However. this was Gabriel Bouvery. Postel’s seminar was a founding constituent of the cabal of the libertines. and which Salomon declines to discuss is of course the Cabala. The occult rites and sacrifices which have less to do with salvation are understood only by the learned. surely we ought to seek an explanation of these things from the Hebrews. In like manner. condition. Bodin and Postel shared the same patron. Eloges des hommes savants. one of the classics of Cabala. and the knowledge of natural mysteries. and satanic religion using scraps of the three monotheistic faiths. avec des additions (Leyden. but had actually taken place in Venice. The goal of the discussions had been to create a new. the first Frenchman to read the Cabala and publish an edition of the Zohar. who drank divine secrets from those very fountains and sacred sources…. Postel had attended them. As Jacques Roger wrote. “since he has assembled in his dialogue all the traditional arguments against the divinty of Jesus Christ. Bishop of Angers.” Bodin was in a tandem with Guillaume Postel. and nephew of Guillaume Poyet. There is not one of them who stands up to confront the others with the plain fact that they are all wallowing in wild insanity and black magic. the party of the Ridotto Morosini salon attended by Paolo Sarpi. syncretic. Postel’s Venetian seminar could only have been sponsored by the Giovani Party of the Venetian oligarchy. Bodin got his stenographic notes and made them into the Heptaplomeres.” [Kuntz. This is what Esdras meant when he said: ‘Some things you will make common knowledge. The goal of Bodin and Postel was to synthesize a new religion. they became acquainted with many things by divine communication. as related by Antoine Teissier. firmly believed in demons and witches…. de Thou. the discussions described in Heptaplomeres were not a work of fiction. 1715): . such as the decalogue and everything connected with it are easily understood by all…. According to various sources. “Toralba: … since a discussion of the origin of angels and demons.

Moreover. which is amoral and cannot be opposed. it would be necessary to compose a religion from those of the Turks. who died in a suspicious tournament accident which Nostradamus claimed to have predicted. p. Evremonde praised “la bonne loi naturelle. Francesco della Vigna. Wisdom is a matter of giving expression to one’s own Nature by seeking enjoyment. What was natural was good. that there had been at Venice four men who had met twice a week for the purpose of establishing philosophical discussions about the various religions. Francesco della Vigna. etc. other states were less good. Guillaume Postel. who acted as stenographer.” [Kuntz. which had previously been the base of operations of Francesco Giorgi. Postel came under the influence of Madre Zuana during 1549-1550. came into the hands of Bodin and were used to complete this work. St. and the Christians. a woman he found working among the poor at the Ospedaletto of Venice. Diecmann’s 1684 De Naturalismo: “And so it was pleasing to arrange his whole scene with Bodin as chorus-leader so that any religion might be applauded more than the Christian religion. a 50-year old Venetian Virgin – in this case a certain Mother Zuana. physician and royal professor at Paris. had heard from Gabriel Naudé whom he knew very intimately. lxi] As for Postel.” The same notion is conveyed by an earlier source. the Jews. Mr. Among those were Coronaeus of Rouen and the one whom I mentioned. I am not at all deceived in this conclusion which I learned not so long ago from a French manuscript which mentioned that Guy Patin. the cabalistic term for the female aspect of the deity. Jewish. Most of the so. His [Postel's] manuscripts. Postel claimed that the departed spirit of Mother Zuana had occupied his body through a mysterious process he called “immutation. After the death of Postel these writings fell into the hands of Bodin and became the material for the book entitled About the Secrets of Sublime Things…. whom Henricus Stephanus heard saying publicly now and then at Venice that whoever wishes to fashion a form of good religion ought to blend this from those three – the Christian. and Turkish religions. Guillaume Postel.called Enlightenment boils down to these . after he had died at Paris in 1584. Madre Zuana’s father confessor was a member of the Convent of St. and that Postel wrote what took place in their discussions. The state of nature was good. Later. It is a safe bet that Postel imbibed the Francesco Giorgi version of Cabala and Rosicrucianism from Giorgi’s old colleagues at St. Naudé said that at the time when Postel was at Venice there were four men who gathered twice every week to discuss with complete freedom all the religions of the world. the relative of Contarini who had earlier moved to the English court as resident sex therapist for King Henry VIII.“Henri Etienne assures us that he saw Postel at Venice publicly proclaiming that if one wished to have a good religion. that he seems to have wished to unite himself clearly to the intention of his most insane citizen. he tried to start a cult around that rarest of commodities. in 1552. etc. Postel became an early feminist. or that religion might be mingled by Samaritan confusion with Jewish and Turkish treachery. Postel identified her with the shechinah.” Perhaps as a result. He was also Royal Lector for King Henry II of France and was close to the king. what was unnatural was bad.” The world is ruled by blind fate. The exoteric ideas of the cabal of the libertines involved much verbiage around the idea of Nature.

with the latter of whom he wanted to retire to his beloved Venice at the end of his life. cutting across all changes in government or literary taste. The elder Montaigne had served with Lautrec. and these writings of Charron also find their reflections here and there in Sarpi’s notes for his neo-Aristotelian. so who are we to say? And. was Michel de Montaigne. and in tearing by tortures and the rack a body still full of feeling. so instructed and developed from their cradles that they would not exchange for all other delights of the world an iota of their freedom. the popularity of Montaigne in France survived. than in roasting and eating him after he is dead. There is a tradition that Montaigne was on a diplomatic mission. Montaigne’s “honnete homme” remains the foundation of the French ideology to this very day. and maintaining his power at the cost of their lives? Who would believe that these two groups of people had an identical origin? Would one not rather conclude that upon leaving a city of men he . cynical. what do I know? His answer reflected his pessimism about human knowledge and human creativity. who are we to talk? “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in eating him dead. Montaigne was Sarpi’s favorite writer. on the pretext of piety and religion). and there contemplate with composure a people unwilling to live except to serve him. until the regime of Napoleon. Montaigne claims that he heard only Latin until he was six years old. sensual.” Montaigne’s father had been a French soldier in the War of the League of Cambrai. he kept a diary of his Italian years which has never been found. Montaigne’s father had brought back from Italy a system of education supposedly endorsed by Italian humanists. could visit today the territories of the man known as the Great Doge. but among neighbors and fellow citizens. neo-Ockhamite empiricist method. in roasting a man bit by bit… (as we have not only read but seen within fresh memory. paid tribute to Montaigne as the founder of their tradition. Some of Montaigne’s ideas on magnetism are reflected in Sarpi’s Pensieri. the inventor of the essay form and the founder of the modern French ideology of the honnete homme – clever. skeptical. a fact that helps to explain the political success of such creatures as Georges Pompidou. and Jacques Chirac. For two centuries. he might have been representing his king or perhaps a faction on the French political scene. Montesquieu and Voltaire. Montaigne was close to Sarpi’s correspondents DuPlessis-Mornay and de Thou. familiar with the original nature of such a people. and what is worse. Only after de la Boetie died did Montaigne get married. not among ancient enemies. given our wars of religion. another fanatical admirer of Venice. Parallel to Bodin. The main idea was to speak only Latin around the child so as to make Latin the child’s native language. a handful of people living so freely that the most wicked among them would not wish to be king over them. Giscard d’Estaing. It is quite likely that Montaigne met Sarpi when he visited Venice in 1580. Etienne de la Boetie wrote a praise of Venice in his Discourse on Voluntary Servitude. many cultures think it is fine. especially for his essay on friendship with its homosexual overtones. a book which still elicits enthusiasm from Murray Rothbard and other libertarians of today: “Whoever could have observed the early Venetians. who. Bodin and Montaigne were linked by their common acquaintance with Sarpi’s favorite Frenchman. Montaigne’s disciple Pierre Charron wrote various tracts to popularize his master’s point of view. Montaigne thought that even the “brutal stupidity” of animals assisted by their instincts could do better than “everything of which our divine intelligence is capable. Montaigne’s motto was “Que sais-je?”. Arnaud du Ferrier. Had the Venetians furnished the plan embraced by the elder Montaigne? Montaigne wrote of cannibalism: While we think it is barbarous. “Tonton” Mitterrand. Later. Montaigne’s partner was Etienne de la Boetie. so born and trained that they would not vie with one another except as to which one could give the best counsel and nurture their liberty most carefully. I say. urbane.few banal notions.” Antonio Conti’s later assets.

and anticipated several important ideas of Descartes. The procedure of the Venetian Party was to establish or take control over the most prestigious and fashionable of the salons. His remarks on Venice correspond exactly to the general political line of the Giovani Party. friends of Sarpi and controllers of Milton. Diodati was in direct touch with Galileo and hosted Milton during the latter’s grand tour. who had studied with Cremonini. The libertine poet Tristan was an imitator of the Italian pornographic poet Marino. that the members of the Vecchi Party who dominated the Council of Ten should be ousted and replaced by Giovani. The reform of the Council of Ten was carried out in 1582. founded the Academie Francaise on the model of the Venetian controlled Aristotelian academies of Italy. In the same circles traveled the atheist and libertine Abbé Boisrobert. Diodati functioned as its secretary. the permanent secretary of the Academy of Sciences and an ally of Antonio Conti. They later also sent Vanini. and later Fontenelle. During the first phase of the Academie Puteane. Now for a few key figures from the cabal of the libertines over the centuries. a disciple of Bruno.had chanced upon a menagerie of beasts?” Etienne de la Boetie died in 1563. and cabinets. and marked the transition to overall domination by the Giovani. and he would have been right. who was almost burned at the stake himself. Vanini was accused of propagating the no-soul thesis and was burned at the stake. French intellectual life during the 1600’s was often centered in salons. Among the poets of the same time.” For his own part. . Naudé. The Council of Ten was the organ of government that supervised internal security. and surveillance. Tristan the Hermit. Bruno has since had a following in France. but also that he was a partisan of the Giovani Party specifically. who. of course. his paramount goal was Venice. along with some other formal changes. Boisrobert. Close to him was Theophile de Viau. and that he had been assigned France by drawing straws. including Cyrano de Bergerac. 1600-1700 The Venetians sent Giordano Bruno to Paris. Vanini testified that he had attended a Naples meeting of 12 operatives dedicated to spreading atheism in Europe. Montaigne wrote of his friend: “if [la Boetie] had been able to choose. who admired Cremonini’s powers of deception. the patrician association meeting in the Ridotto Morosini. Its organizer was Elie Diodati of the infamous Calvinist Diodati family of Geneva. spying. This Theophile de Viau was reputedly a bisexual and for certain Descartes’ favorite poet. and Theophile de Viau. the Academie Puteane. a nucleus of libertine poets emerged in Paris. These included Maynard. A prime example is the leading cultural academy of the early 1600’s. Vanini’s doctrine was that men were without souls and died in the same way that dumb animals do.” meaning that Cremonini was an initiate who had seen everything. Saint-Amant. there was Desbarreax. when Montaigne crossed the Alps for the first time in 1580. In the wake of Bruno and Vanini. academies. At his trial. it could and did conduct secret trials of patricians and sentence them to death. Another member was Gabriel Naudé. The Giovani demand was. which spread sympathy for the libertines. The agitation of the Giovani was that the Council of Ten and its Zonta (or Giunta) had robbed the Venetians of their ancient liberties. was Cardinal Mazarin’s librarian. he would have preferred to have been born at Venice than in Sarlat [near Bordeaux]. with the support of Richelieu. His travel journal notes that Montaigne “was saying that he would not have been able to stop at Rome or anywhere else in Italy and be at rest if he had not first seen Venice.” The French writer who most distinguished himself in attacking Montaigne was Blaise Pascal. who had studied with Cremonini in Padua and admired him as a “deniaise. and then use the hegemonic influence of these Venetian dominated leading salons to set the tone the lesser and provincial salons and academies were expected to follow. Etienne de la Boetie’s treatment of Venice shows that he was not only an admirer of the Venetian oligarchy.

Another center of the Venetian Party was the Palais Royal. among other things. LaFontaine. Descartes. the antagonist of Leibniz. or philosophical trances. Gassendi taught an empiricism similar to Sarpi’s.A third member was the philosopher Gassendi. 1700-1800 . This was a secret society and included a pervasive spy network. including the French army of the Alps. After Richelieu died. The three dreams were the sources of Descartes’ theory of vortices. came into conflict numerous times with the cabal of the devout. Other Puteane activists included Guy Patin. Patin said that the patient had indeed come back. This included a material soul which was as rarefied as the simplest atoms. we find Pierre Bayle. was influenced by Gassendi. also a prominent author. a land corridor which permitted direct communication between the possessions of the Austrian archdukes. like the Orleans. where the dominant figure was the Grand Prieur de Vendome. Martin’s day. Patin had a joke about the immortality of the soul: He said that he once asked a moribund patient to come back and report on the afterlife. The turning point in Descartes’ intellectual biography was a series of three rapti philosophici. Another famous frondeur was La Rochefoucauld. Mazarin formally dissolved the Company of the Holy Sacrament. libertines and atheists met at the Societe du Temple. were atheists and libertines and frondeurs. created in 1629 by the Duke of Ventadour. who was also steeped in the Cabala. St. leaving him ignorant about the immortality of the soul. whose fables imitated not just Aesop but also much more recent Venetian models. The Valtellina was the territory of the Protestant Grisons or Grey Leagues. and St. but its networks were still active as the “cabal of the devout” at the court of Louis XIV. all this was perfectly coherent with the anti-Spanish policy of the Venetians. Soon countergangs emerged with the announced purpose of countering the cabal of the libertines. and Spanish-occupied Lombardy and Milan on the other. and the skeptic La Mothe le Vayer. then in progress. who was for a time the director of Louis XIV’s entertainments. November 11 was St. sent back such accurate reports that a French force was soon able to seize the Valtellina. Under Louis XIV. There is also St. An example was the Company of the Holy Sacrament. It had been seized by the Spanish in 1619. a professor of medicine. controlled by the Duke of Orleans. When Gassendi went out of fashion around 1660. he was replaced by the notorious Rosicrucian Descartes. Descartes completed his own pilgrimage to Venice. experienced on the night of November 10-11. Descartes arrived in Venice to see the traditional yearly ceremony acting out the marriage of the Doge to the Adriatic Sea. Evremonde’s pose was that of the refined voluptuary. which was one of the nodal points of the Thirty Years’ War. the dominant philosopher of the period from 1640 to 1660 in France. Evremonde. Many rebellious nobles. Descartes visited the highly strategic Valtellina region of Switzerland. 1619 in a heated room in a German village. severing the Austrian-Spanish communications. a veteran of the Fronde and the de facto libertine envoy to London. the sanctimonious hypocrite who affects a mask of piety to pursue his often immoral goals. When he was at college with the Jesuits. the author of the many cynical and worldly maxims. and combined it with successful espionage for clients. Naturally. satirized the religious activists in the figure of Tartuffe. but had refused to speak. who was something of a libertine himself. Among the libertines of the second half of the 1600’s. the oligarchs rose up in rebellion against Mazarin under the leadership of the Cardinal de Retz. but material nonetheless. The playwright Moliere. This was the Fronde of 1650. by then an expert in fortification and siege warfare. on the one hand. Moliere. Descartes had been a pro-Galileo activist. Martin’s eve was one of the great drinking bashes of the old Christian year – something like New Year’s Eve today.

Dictionnaire des Litteratures). after three centuries of subversion. assassination. Based on his reading of the Apocalypse. Diderot. the ambient portrayed by Mozart in the “Viva la liberta” scene in Don Giovanni. a judicious and sincere man. who hath carefully wrote this History. and terrorism. also led him. the Terror. and one of the most obvious precursors of the spirit of 1789. the Venetian networks of France were reorganized around Newtonianism by Antonio Conti. revealing the open secret that so much of the dark side of French culture had been produced by the Venetians all along.” which generated widespread hatred against Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI. an espionage agent in the service of William of Orange active around 1700. Niderst. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . He has all the Perfections required to compleat an Historian…. France’s most famous dictator turned out to be a post-1380 Genoese Corsican and therefore a de facto Venetian.” (A. “Jurieu made himself the tenacious defender of Calvinist orthodoxy. Finally. to the most revolutionary theses. Venetian operatives like Giacomo Casanova moved through the network of the cabal of the libertines. He refused any compromise. Jurieu announced that in 1689 both the regime of King Louis XIV and the French Catholic Church were going to collapse. which gives him a somber grandeur. had capabilities for espionage. any relaxation. who organized scandals that helped. a moderate. and other leading lights of the celebrated French Encyclopedia. he thus legitimized insurrection and was one of the fathers of democracy. None of these operations could have succeeded without the cabal of the libertines. one that in a word was the greatest man of his age. French society had been degraded to the point that Frenchmen were willing to submit to the dictatorship of a foreigner – of a Venetian. by about 1800. according to Napoleon. According to one commentator. But this intransigence. He was followed by the Venetian agent Cagliostro. Conti’s later network included Buffon.” After about 1710. Jurieu severed the French Huguenots from any duty of obedience to the King. Condillac. The cabal of the libertines had set the stage for the Revolution. from the very beginning. Casanova’s mission for Venetian intelligence was to attack and undermine the regime of Louis XV. a wise. and for Bonaparte. Conti worked with Montesquieu and Voltaire. The Public Record Office in London has thousands of pages of espionage reports from Jurieu’s extensive network. Jurieu was a Huguenot minister and a translator of Paolo Sarpi.The cabal of the libertines. to start the Revolution with the “queen’s necklace affair. any tolerance. by apparent paradox. Jurieu on Sarpi: “…it hath pleased God in his Providence to raise up even in the Church of Rome. A good example is the network of Pierre Jurieu.

and replace them with the http://tarpley. is a philosopher. scribes. whether he knows it or not. In the face of this kind of public opinion. The axioms define human nature.The War of the League of Cambrai. making up at most 5% of the population. The crisis of the citizen needs to be seen in a long historical perspective – we need to look at the five hundred years since the Italian Renaissance opened the modern era. The axioms are self-evident ideas that are recognized and accepted by everybody in sight. Now and then a good ruler might appear. Most of these feudal aristocrats were very ignorant. uproot them. This depraved public opinion reflects not so much the admitted failure of political leadership as the degradation of the intellectual life of the average citizen. but a republic demands educated and capable citizens. brutish. 1996. Is there a remedy? It must be to uncover the false axioms. Some were better. priests. the French frondeurs. Their lives were nasty. and even these were decimated by frequent plagues and famines. the content of history. Aristotelian philosophy – these are the trademarks of oligarchy. the leading center of oligarchy in Europe and nearby Asia was Venice. The aristocrats had military retainers. who had inherited the methods of Babylon. Each of us necessarily develops a theory of how the world works. racism. serfs. and short. oligarchical – and suicidal. They were peasants. The mass made up 95% of the population. A dictatorship or a monarchy can get by with slaves or subjects. . but they were generally two-class systems: ruling elite and mass. Oligarchs come in many forms: the Roman senate. Paolo Sarpi and John Locke « TARPLEY. a republic cannot survive. and crude. brutal. some were worse. 18. there was a discouraging sameness in most known forms of human society. the barons of the dark ages. and slaves. Under these conditions. The most dangerous force in American life today is public opinion itself. the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. waiting to drag the society down again. the purpose of government. slavery. Usury. appeared in New Federalist. east European magnates. Monarchy is bad enough. the workings of economics. world civilization as we have known it cannot long survive. This theory is expressed as a set of axioms. March 18. Without citizens. world population potential was measured in the hundreds of millions. 1996 Every person. the goals of life. The medieval feudal aristocrats were easily manipulated by the Venetians. but most of the pre-Renaissance societies were something worse: they were small ruling classes called oligarchies. In today’s crisis. From about 1000 AD until about 1600. public opinion rejects out of hand all the urgent measures needed to promote national survival. Rome. Over these peasants and serfs commanded a feudal aristocracy. This public opinion is stupefied by television and spectator sports and crassly manipulated by the news media. constant warfare. almost always illiterate and benighted.” Feb. along with excellent philosophers and scientists. and Byzantium. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents From ICLC Conference panel titled: “The Axioms of the American System. But the oligarchy was always present. Today’s American population operates according to axioms which are false. History and philosophy are two powerful weapons in this fight against false axioms. Before the Renaissance started about ar-of-the-league-of-cambrai-paolo-sarpi-and-john-locke/ December 27. and lackeys. and did appear. almost always laboring on the land. the Russian boyars.

This was done with taxation. The momentum of the Renaissance art. The population and prosperity of France increased accordingly. by virtue of possessing God-like qualities of intellectual creativity in the form of a human soul. science. At the heart of the League of Cambrai was the joint commitment in 1508 by King Louis XII of France and Maximilian. The same goes for most of the depressions and economic crises of these years. the great world war that marked the opening of the modern era. were faced in 1509 by a . Therefore the dignity of the human person had to be respected. convened under the sponsorship of the Medici rulers of Florence. who had been waging their own war against Florence and the other Italian Renaissance states for a century. his portrayal by Rex Harrison in the movie The Agony and the Ecstasy is much too kind. Julius II della Rovere was a professional soldier and an oligarch. The King of Spain joined in because he wanted to take Venetian possessions in southern Italy. similar to God. He was called the papa terribile. Florence. the masters of geopolitics and encirclement. but their presence also drew in the forces of Spain. this council embraced the theology of the filioque. the main powers had all been antagonized by Venetian perfidy and geopolitics. drained swamps. as well as by the rulers of Spain. France was the first nation to reach the take-off point into the modern age. The human mind was capable of scientific discovery.The first sustained breakout from this 2-class model came with the movement starting with Dante and Petrarch and culminating in Cusanus. If Venice had been destroyed in this war. It was a time of rapidly shifting alliances. we would have been spared the British Empire and most of its wars. to divide the territory of Venice between them. grabbing for every fly that flew by them. If the Louis XI model were to prevail everywhere. and also capable of creating the modern nation-state. enacted public health statutes. French military power also grew. studied events in France carefully. we would have been spared the wars of religion. Before long. which also financed the beginnings of the modern administration. the Venetians invited his unworthy and inferior heir Charles VIII to conquer Milan. The Venetians. protected the rights of labor. Without Venice. As soon as Louis XI was dead. The high point of the early Renaissance was the Council of Florence in 1439. there was the hope that the oligarchs as a class might be crushed. and the Italian Renaissance of the 1400’s. The French conquered Naples. and Milan. The impulse from the Council of Florence reached around the world with Columbus and the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci. and built up a national army. Venice was essentially a citystate with an inland empire in northern Italy and a marine empire in the Mediterranean. the Holy Roman Emperor. the Medici envoy who gave his name to the new continents of the Americas. In political terms filioque meant that each and every human being is made in the image of God. In addition to briefly re-uniting the Christian world. including the American Civil War and the two world wars of this century. Leonardo. Louis promoted industry and commerce. This was a matter first of all of breaking the power of the turbulent feudal aristocracy. including the Thirty Years’ War. It was clear that the future belonged to the larger nation-states that were smart enough to imitate the methods of Louis XI. and statecraft might overwhelm all resistance and become unstoppable. Louis XI had a social base in the commercial and manufacturing classes of the cities and towns – the origins of the modern middle class. At first the Venetians thought they could survive as a great power by playing off the new nation-states one against the other. This was soon noticed by the new Tudor regime in England. built infrastructure. What followed was the War of the League of Cambrai. For the Venetians had been filching territory on all sides. The same impulse of human progress reached into France. A little later Pope Julius II della Rovere also joined the League. the European oligarchy would have been deprived of its command center and is likely to have perished. But now the Venetians. As King between 1461 and 1483. where King Louis XI used Florentine methods to create the first modern national state.

Henry VIII. Only twice before had the Venetians been in such dire straits. The old Venetian monopoly in the spice trade with the east was now a dead duck. retreating into the natural fortress of their lagoons. Julius II must bear the historical responsibility of permitting the survival of Venice and thus of oligarchy into the modern world. The Venetians gave up Verona. now under siege in their lagoons. In the spring of 1509. a French army of 20. a few months before. sealed an alliance with France. and signed a friendship treaty with them. Julius II della Rovere now switched sides. the Venetians had received news of the naval battle of Diu in which an Egyptian fleet supported by Indian princes had been wiped out by the Portuguese navy. so a loss of the land empire. Venice had dropped off the list of European great powers. proclaimed his desire to destroy the Venetian oligarchy because of their opulent contempt for God and Christendom. and even Padova. By this time Venetian wealth derived more from its land possessions than from its ocean trade. The program of the League of Cambrai was to expropriate all Venetian territory except for the city itself in its lagoon.” The Florentine secretary Machiavelli exulted that in one day the Venetians had lost the fruits of 800 years of aggression.000 soldiers left Milan and crossed the Adda River into Venetian territory. At first the Venetians. In February. In the spring of 1512 came a new shift: the Emperor Maximilian decided to join Venice. Henry VIII also joined this Holy League as a pretext for attacking France. Bergamo. Henry also offered the Venetians a loan. but had to defend it against the German Emperor and 100. Then it turned out that they did have a friend: the new King of England. finally died. From the top of their bell towers the Venetians watched as the Spaniards burned the towns along the edge of the lagoon. About a month later the Venetians. They had been besieged in the lagoons in 810 AD by King Pepin of France. Now Spain followed Julius and joined the Venetian-Papal alliance against France and the Empire. To multiply the catastrophe. In one battle. but their flank was attacked by Julius. re-occupying their battered land empire for the third time. and Spain against the French. Henry VIII urged Pope Julius to betray the League of Cambrai. The Venetians were able to retake Padova.000 troops. or terrafirma. and again by the Genoese during the war of Chioggia in 1379. and Venice was preserved.” But soon it was clear that Julius was not so far from Henry’s position. When Julius first found that Henry VIII was supporting Venice. which once again reached the shores of the lagoons. and fired their cannon toward the . Vicenza. Among the French there were those who wanted to go further: the French general Bayard. The Venetians took advantage of this. the heir of Charlemagne. 1511 brought a third Franco-Imperial offensive. Venice now faced the attacks of the Spanish general Cardona. In Venice. On May 14. he was furious. In the summer of 1510 the French and Imperial forces reached the lagoons a second time. 1513 Julius II della Rovere. whose courage is proverbial in France until this day. The modern era had indeed begun. were totally isolated. Advised by Cardinal Woolsey and the Cecils. who had made possible the survival of oligarchy into the modern world. desperately maneuvering to avoid being despoiled by their nominal allies. Julius told the English ambassador: “You Englishmen are all scoundrels. 1509 this French force met and destroyed an evenly matched Venetian mercenary army.league of virtually all the European states with the exception of Hungary and England. 1510 Julius was the ally of Venice in exchange for territorial cessions and some bribes. The entire Venetian land empire had been lost in a single day. Brescia. and ally with Venice. would have been a fatal blow. and by February. The Venetians called it a “second Cannae. the Council of Ten assumed emergency powers. the Pope.

Sarpi became one of the most famous persons in Europe through his role as Venetian propaganda boss during the Pope’s Interdict against Venice in 1606-1607. including Carlo Borromeo. Sarpi authored the assassination of King Henry IV of France in 1610. The Danish Viking invaders who opposed Alfred were instruments of the Byzantine Empire.Locke. including both the Bacon. But the move to England and the creation of a British Empire were only part of the answer. the British. Sarpi soon . Venetian factions were dominant at the court of Henry VIII.Reformation. Sarpi was also a follower of Pomponazzi. But the irrational domination of oligarchs could not coexist with continuous progress in science and technology. But the roots of Venetian and Byzantine influence in England were much deeper. The Wars of the Roses had been fought by factions manipulated by the Venetians. he was an instrument of Venice. but Cardona had to retreat. Only the wars of religion. 1515 the French and the Venetians finally won the key battle of Marignano. Sarpi was decisive in starting the Thirty Years’ War. After that only Verona remained in the hands of the German Imperial forces. a desperate Venetian wartime operation masterminded by Gasparo Contarini bore fruit when Luther nailed his theses to the door of Wittenberg cathedral. he became an admirer of William of Ockham. on pain of being militarily defeated. and all the others would be forced to imitate it and duplicate it. Sarpi was a Servite monk of modest origins who rose to be number two in his order. which killed half of the population of Germany and one third of the population of Europe as a whole. the power that had been most friendly during the late war.French Encyclopedia school. and the future Pope Urban VII. and Venice and the Emperor Maximilian finally signed a peace in 1517.reformation.Newton. This task fell to the Venetian intelligence leader Paolo Sarpi. There remained the question as to how this small and weak state could hope to impose its oligarchical axioms on future humanity. The Norwegian army that invaded England in 1066 was commanded by a Byzantine general. So the Venetians moved their family fortunes and their characteristic world outlook to England.Voltaire. Part of the answer was the metastasis of the Venetian oligarchical cancer to take over a large modern state. Venice had survived. During the 1200’s Henry III of England was bankrupted by loans masterminded by the Venetians. saved Venice from being finally crushed. Pope Sixtus itself.Rousseau.Hume English empiricism and the Descartes. reformation and counter. Early in life. The war dragged on through 1514.Hobbes. religious conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Germany and elsewhere would begin to relieve the immediate pressure on Venice. Harold Hardrada. And. The Venetians could not simply attack science from the outside. the Venetian professor who argued that man has no soul. For this the Venetians eventually chose England. As long as the forward motion of Renaissance science continued. the Venetians. Sarpi lived in Rome and knew the main personalities of the Counter. who viewed Wat Tyler’s rebellion and Wycliff’s Lollards as a dress rehearsal for Luther. with the help of his assets at the court of Frederick V in Heidelberg. Venice was 5 million ducats in debt. Sarpi’s most lasting achievement is the launching of the European Enlightenment. From this point on. Roberto Bellarmino. since the Venetians wanted to prevent France from interfering with their wars against Genoa. They needed to seize control of science and corrupt science from within. whose influence reached Scandinavia along the Varangian way through Russia. one of the stupidest of the medieval nominalist philosophers. When Edward III started the Hundred Years’ War against France around 1340. For 8 years Venice had been devastated by the endless maneuvers of huge armies.Berkeley. In the same year of 1517. Sarpi was one of the greatest corrupters of science and philosophy. Venice was on the verge of perdition for the fourth time. In September. who lived from 1552 to 1623. Yet.

Sarpi was the chief corrupter of modern science. Many of Aristotle’s specific conclusions could be junked.” The leading British authority on Sarpi is H. was also an admirer of Sarpi.” Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay.R. Sarpi became. and contemporaries recognized that Sarpi had been the adviser. now Lord Dacre. the boss of half of Venice. the Venetians attempted to prove for many years that Sarpi had been the first to discover the valves in human veins. Trevor-Roper. Galileo wrote that Sarpi was a mathematician unexcelled in Europe. Sarpi was simply the greatest among all Catholic historians. corresponded with Sarpi and his group. but rather written in mathematical characters in the great book of life. The way to get this truth was to use sense certainty. Here we find that Sarpi created the basis of modern empiricism. Sarpi also tried to build up a reputation as an expert on magnetism. but his method and thus his overall domination could be preserved. In his great tome. Gibbon wrote: “Should Rome and her religion be annihilated. In astronomy and physics. the author of Magia Naturalis. Galileo’s observations were done from Sarpi’s monastery. author. the “Art of Thinking Well” (Arte di Ben Pensare) and the “Thoughts” (Pensieri). Bacon’s inductive method is simply a bowdlerization of Sarpi. John Milton is the English author who praises Sarpi at the greatest length.B. became dominant in Venice during the 1580’s. One of Sarpi’s Pensieri reads: . della Porta. The Contarini. the greatest charlatan of all time. His method was to assert that scientific truth was to be found not in Aristotle. Sarpi wrote A History of the Council of Trent. For today’s Lord Dacre/Trevor. [Sarpi's] golden volume may still survive. But what of Sarpi the philosopher? Sarpi never published a work of philosophy. It is his doctrines which are taught in the universities today. who calls the friar an “indefatigable polymath” or master of all the sciences. Sarpi had studied the French mathematician Francois Viete. All his life Hobbes went around blathering that motion was the only thing that mattered. and his influence on historiography has been immense. In anatomy. well before Harvey. and praised him as the “great unmasker” of the papacy. the Earl of Devonshire. They and their protector. called the Giovani party. The telescope itself had been invented by Leonardo. the Venetian Party historian of the nineteenth century. Sarpi was the case officer who directed the work of the Padua professor Galileo Galilei. with Hobbes doing the translation. In this he was praised by G. The plan for Hobbes’ career as a writer emerged from his meeting with Galileo in 1636. and even that he had been the first to describe the circulation of the blood. Galileo was until the end of his life a paid agent of the Sarpi group. was the leading historian of the British Venetian Party during the eighteenth century. Hobbes belonged to the Sarpi networks all his life. in the words of the papal nuncio. which were published in 1910 and again more fully in 1951. and ran a salon for Calvinists and libertines which the Vatican attacked as an “academy of errors.became a creature of the Contarini and Morosini families. which fascinated him because of its magical overtones.Roper. a philosophical history and a salutary warning. Sarpi was also famous as a mathematician.geometrical method. Edward Gibbon. 1614 and probably met Sarpi. the author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. So Sarpi was indeed a prodigy among oligarchs. Milton used Sarpi as a major source. and probably wrote a treatise of mathematics which was lost when his monastery burned in 1769.Morosini faction. when Galileo suggested that Hobbes write a book of ethics according to the mathematical. who were committed to the Venetian metastasis into northern Europe. Hobbes visited Venice in September. In reality. but the Venetian archives were found to contain his philosophical manuscripts. Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes both understood Italian. exactly as Aristotle had recommended. and director of Galileo’s telescope project.

The senses deliver the sensations through the nervous system. serving mainly to win debates. Hobbes and Descartes quarreled.” [II. along with Sarpi’s favorite theme of church-state conflict. but phenomena of our intellect. . Marco Foscarini. is the substance of Hobbes’ Leviathan. This is all closely parallel to Locke’s second book. but rather the ideas of the speaker. Sarpi admits compound ideas.” Sarpi writes that “knowledge by experience is of greater certainty than knowledge through reason. and essence. Locke. as does Locke. distinguishing between the object which creates the sensation and the sensation itself. Locke reproduces this argument in toto. Descartes. and discursive reasoning can become confused. Sarpi and Locke also agree on the value of syllogisms. species. and Gassendi. The corollary of this is that there is no human soul. says Sarpi. he rubbed elbows with Venetian assets like Mersenne. “Every body which moves operates on what it touches. and so does Locke. made up of more than one simple sense impression.” The sensations we feel are not qualities of the objects. saying that words were invented not to identify things. combines. and that animals are better off in their natural ignorance than we are. In “Art of Thinking Well. Both devote space to methods for fixing mistakes in processing sense ideas. reflection on the sense impressions already stored in the brain.” is Sarpi’s point of departure. The doge writes that Sarpi’s “Art of Thinking Well” is “the original from which Locke copied. This meshes exactly with Sarpi. For Locke. asserting that knowledge is actually harmful. Locke’s second book has similar remarks. The discursive reasoning orders. but also partied together. Sarpi is even more pessimistic.31] From these bundles. Sarpi argues that the intellect orders ideas according to notions of genus. Sarpi “shows how external objects operate on our senses. also denies every claim made for the syllogism – although he hastens to add that this does not in the least diminish the prestige of Aristotle. and their essences… amounts to no more than this: That… men… enable themselves to consider things in bundles…. stating that “…all words… signify nothing immediately but the ideas in the mind of the speaker.” [405] This. Sarpi goes on to definitions and then to axioms (ipolipsi). although sometimes impaired vision and the like will cause distortions. and he argues that they are of limited utility. Sarpi also discusses reflection. Experience comes from sensation or from reflection.“From the weakness of man derives his characteristic of living in society.32] Sarpi regards words as sources of confusion and errors.” [II. Lord Macauley and other English writers treat Sarpi as one who anticipated Locke.” Locke’s first book argues that the mind is a blank slate without any inborn or innate ideas. and no reason can ever manage to equal experience. And for this we have the testimony of no less a personage than a mid-eighteenth century doge of Venice. but from man’s depravity derives the need to live under a supreme authority…. Then there is the question of Locke. Sarpi warns that syllogisms can often be perverse in form. which they also consider to be quite limited. “all the great business of genera and species. distinguishing between cognition and later reflection on that same cognition. with a discussion of color blindness. Sense impressions in general do not err. Locke was a plagiarist of Sarpi. Then discursive reasoning or the active intellect comes into play with ideas of number and size. who with Aristotle and Pomponazzi tries to show that nothing enters the mind except through the senses.” Locke’s second book states that all our knowledge is founded on and derives itself from experience. When Hobbes lived in Paris during the English civil war. and compares sense-ideas which have been stored in memory. wanting to show that he is fully modern and in no way a scholastic or schoolman. Locke prefers to address axioms as maxims. In reality. Sarpi ends with some notes on language.

is the founder of modern British empiricism and as such the chief philosophical charlatan of the British Empire and the English.Most of Locke’s modern editors and biographers make no mention of Sarpi. Locke owned Sarpi’s works in 6 volumes. plus Micanzio’s first biography of Sarpi. Sarpi’s Italian letters. including many Americans today.speaking peoples. But there is no doubt that Sarpi. The dead hand of Paolo Sarpi is reaching out of his sarcophagus once again. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . threatening to throttle world civilization. his history of Pope Paul IV. In this way. Sarpi’s histories of the Council of Trent and of the Inquisition. whatever his obscurity. But the catalogue of Locke’s library shows a lively interest in the Venetian. Sarpi has become the most popular and influential thinker of the modern world. while Locke requires just short of 1000. for a total of 13 books Sarpi uses 22 pages.

but protected the license of marauding feudal barons against the central monarchy. 1681 One of the best governments in English history was that of King Alfred the Great. Thus began the Norman Yoke. to renew their attacks on England. and stands as a founder of Old English literature. who is called our prince. England was held hostage to parasitical feudal overlords that a more centralized (or “absolute”) monarchy . The victory of the Venetian party in England between 1509 and 1715 built in turn upon a pre-existing foundation of Byzantine and Venetian influence. featured such figures as Richard I Lionheart. a Byzantine general who had served as the commander of the Imperial Guard in Constantinople. the Plantagenets. The Byzantine Empire saw in Alfred a flare-up of the Platonic Christian humanism of the Irish monks and Alcuin of York. for otherwise. June 3. political forms. Alfred pursued a policy of literacy. Henry Neville. The Magna Carta extorted from Richard’s successor King John in 1215 had nothing to do with political liberties in the modern sense. I who am a Venetian. The next dynasty. Byzantium accordingly incited Vikings and Varangians. the principal adviser to Charlemagne a century earlier. imposed by Norman oligarchs and a century of Norman kings. and Venetians which has been transplanted into the British Isles through a series of upheavals. family fortunes. and imperial -the-venetian-system-w as-transplanted-into-england/ December 27. who had been defeated by Alfred the Great. Byzantines. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents New Federalist. Romans. may be apt to think that our Doge. and nation-building. 1996 The oligarchical system of Great Britain is not an autochthonous product of English or British history. Harold Hardrada was killed by the English at Stamford Bridge in 1066. It represents rather the tradition of the Babylonians. education. a flamboyant homosexual who avidly participated in the Venetian.How the Venetian System Was Transplanted Into England « TARPLEY. Then. in 1066. The status of Britain as the nation foutué of modern history is due in particular to the sixteenth and seventeenth century metastasis into England and Scotland of the Venetian oligarchy along with its philosophy. But in that same year the weakened English forces were defeated at Hastings by William of Normandy (”the Conqueror”). may have as much power as yours. who ruled from 871 to 899. The first was the Norwegian army of King Harold Hardrada (”the pitiless”). two armies converged on England. Since civil war and private warfare were by far the greatest curses of society at that time. Plato Redivivus. The enforcement machinery of the Magna Carta permitted the barons lawfully to wage war upon the King in case their grievances were not settled. NOBLE VENETIAN: …pray tell us what other prerogatives the King [of England] enjoys in the http://tarpley.sponsored Crusades in the eastern Mediterranean.

Boccaccio grouping. There is every reason to view the Lollards as a Venetian pilot project for Luther’s 1517 . and were susceptible to easy manipulation by Venice. were easily the most reactionary element in English society. which itself resulted from Venetian debt service policies. King Edward III of England sent an embassy to Doge Gradenigo announcing his intention to wage war on France. Lollard leaders like John Ball and “Jack Straw” preached social revolution with slogans such as. For the nobility and the court. In 1340. This is the mortalist heresy. which was decided in favor of Venice. who by robbing from the rich to give to the poor combined plunder with class struggle.might have mitigated. Venetian influence in England was mediated by banking. Later. Finally. Gradenigo accepted Edward III’s offer that all Venetians on English soil would receive all the same privileges and immunities enjoyed by Englishmen. Lollardy contained a strong dose of primitive socialism. there was the myth of Robin Hood. Henceforth. and an end to the tithes or taxes collected by the church.Petrarca. who. which had now conquered Byzantium and was approaching the apogee of its power. free use of forests.scale civil war. “When Adam delved and Eve span. whose sociopathic prerogatives were anchored in the Magna Carta by a license for civil war. Lollardry spread into central Europe through the medium of the Hussites of Bohemia and caused a series of wars of religion there. but his theology was inferior and his stress on every person’s right to read and interpret the Bible was designed to spawn a myriad of fundamentalist fanatics. and can more accurately be called the Venetian heresy. The year 1381 saw an uprising in London and southeast England on a program of abolishing feudal dues. best seen through the prevalence among the Lollard rank and file of the belief that the soul is not immortal and dies with the body. from a total of 4 to 2. there was the anti-Christian myth of King Arthur and his Round Table of oligarchs seeking the Holy Grail. and proposing an AngloVenetian alliance. English armies laying waste to the French towns and countryside would do so as Venetian surrogates. which ended when Wat was killed by the Mayor of London. This was called Wat Tyler’s rebellion. Lollardry as a social phenomenon had a specific Venetian pedigree. For the mute and downtrodden masses. During the wartime 1370’s. Who was then the gentleman?” This is the ultimate source of that communism which David Urquhardt taught Karl Marx five centuries later. Lollardry lived in the form of sects called the Familists and the Grindletonians. The barons. Contemporary with this was the rise of Lollardry. It was under Venetian auspices that England started the catastrophic conflict against France known today as the Hundred Years’ War. Lollardry kept going for centuries as an underground religion for the disinherited kept going by itinerant preachers.5 million. during the 1250’s. The degeneracy of English society during these years of Venetian ascendancy is chronicled in the writings of Chaucer – the greatest English writer of the age – who was an ally of the anti-Venetian Dante. the University of Padua and Pietro Pomponazzi were notorious for their advocacy of mortalism. These finally flowed into the Puritan Revolution of the 1640’s. the Oxford scholastic. the prototype of English Protestantism promoted by John Wycliffe. France was in no position to interfere in the final phase of the rivalry between Venice and Genoa. and declined to join in the fighting. The bankruptcy was followed by a large. Venetian oligarchs were a guiding force among the Lombard bankers who carried out the “great shearing” of England which led to the bankruptcy of the English King Henry III. In seventeenth. Wycliffe’s anti-clerical campaign had many easy targets. In 1377 Wycliffe was saved from prosecution by an uprising of the London mob. beginning in the early sixteenth century. The Venetians accepted the privileges. because of its deep roots within the Venetian oligarchy. because of the Black Death. Hus begat Luther. During Queen Elizabeth’s time. the population of England collapsed by 1. and Luther begat truth.5 million souls.century England there was a slogan to the effect that Wycliffe begat Hus. The Venetians concocted myths to enhance their influence on English society. repudiated his debts and went bankrupt.

the dominant political figure of the Venetian oligarchy. Later. Henry VIII attracted the attention of the Venetian oligarchy when he – alone among the major rulers of Europe – maintained a proVenetian position during the crisis years of 1509-1510. Both groupings derived from quarrels among the seven sons of the pro-Venetian Edward III. Venice was also fundamentally hostile to the modern nation-state. Gasparo Contarini. with relative internal stability and a clear dynastic succession. Since the oligarchs routinely intimidated local courts. One of the reasons for the great ineptitude demonstrated by both sides in the English Civil War of the 1640’s is that under the Tudors the nobility and gentry had largely forgotten how to wage civil war. brought English society to the point of breakdown. Henry VII set himself up as the Big Policeman against the oligarchs. when Henry VIII sought to divorce Catherine of Aragon. Spain. the Earl of Richmond. Henry VII’s policy was based on an alliance of the crown with the urban trading and productive classes against the latifundist barons. cabalistic. and Freemasonic tradition in the Tudor court. sent to the English court a delegation which included his own uncle. who had started the wars with France. consummately skilled in playing on Henry’s lust and paranoia. Conveniently. these had been decimated by their own handiwork of civil war. Barons were excluded from the state administration. Henry VIII was for a time the formal ally of Venice and Pope Julius. who became king as Henry VII. promoting trading companies to expand overseas commerce. which relied rather on city merchants who were much more likely to be loyal to the king. Henry VII established for the central government an effective monopoly of police and military powers. the Venetians were able to reassert their oligarchical system. Under the Tudor state. Henry VIII was King of England between 1509 and 1547. In 1527. the barons. The private armies of oligarchs along with other bandits and pirates were liquidated. The Venetian oligarchy became intrigued with England.launching of the Reformation during the war of the League of Cambrai. just as Venice was on the brink of destruction. The Wars of the Roses. The English defeat in the Hundred Years’ War (1453) left English society in a shambles. and the papacy of Pope Julius II della Rovere joined together in a combination that bid fair to annihilate Venice and its oligarchy. His accession to the throne coincided with the outbreak of the War of the League of Cambrai. Henry VII was an active dirigist. which Henry was promoting in England. became the founder of the powerful Rosicrucian. The precondition for the revival of England was the suppression of the pro-Venetian oligarchy. Hermetic. The League of Cambrai was the world war that ushered in the modern era. The Venetians wanted England to become embroiled with both France and Spain. including France. in which most European states. Henry VII gave new prominence to the court of the Star Chamber. Francesco Zorzi. the Holy Roman Empire (Germany). Henry VII in fact sought good relations with both France and Spain. a special royal court designed to impose central authority on the barons. This was the setting for the oligarchical chaos and civil war known as the Wars of the Roses. From this crisis England was saved by the coming of Henry Tudor. It was under Henry VII that England began to become a modern state and to participate in the Renaissance progress associated with Medici Florence and the France of Louis XI. Henry VII’s suppression of the oligarchs displeased Venice. secured by the marriage of his heir to Catherine of Aragon. fought between 1455 and 1485. which pitted the House of York with its symbol the white rose against the House of Lancaster with its red rose. England existed as a nation. The oligarch and intelligence operative Zorzi. Like that of Louis XI. Henry VIII took the momentous step of breaking with the Roman Papacy to become the new Constantine and founder of the Anglican . the Venetian-controlled University of Padua endorsed Henry’s legal arguments. Venice also did not like Henry’s policy of alliance with Spain. When Henry VII’s son Henry VIII turned out to be a murderous pro-Venetian psychotic and satyr.

clearly because of dynastic ambition and raison d’état. These executions of the “Marian martyrs” were immortalized in John Foxe’s celebrated Book of Martyrs (1554 ff. Mary re-established Papal authority and married King Philip of Spain. their ancestral home at . an heir to the Plantagenets. which were sold off to rising families. As was first suggested by the present writer in 1981. a copy of which was later kept in every church in England and which attained the status of a second Bible among Protestants of all types. when the Catholic Queen Mary I (”Bloody Mary. Those who refused to follow Henry VIII down this path. Pole incited Bloody Mary to carry out a bloodbath with 300 to 500 prominent victims. since this made conflict with the Catholic powers more likely. This first phase of Anglicanism lasted until 1553. Under the impact of the War of the League of Cambrai. The Cecils were notorious assets of Venice. the future center of a new. the Venetian oligarchy realized the futility of attempting a policy of world domination from the tiny base of a city-state among the lagoons of the northern Adriatic. and exercised profound influence over them. Thomas Cromwell was Henry VIII’s business agent in the confiscation of the former Catholic monasteries and other church property. Elizabeth was for 40 years under the influence of William Cecil. were executed. world-wide Roman Empire based on maritime supremacy. The Venetians insisted on the maintenance of a Protestant dynasty and a Protestant state church in England. Bloody Mary died in 1558 and was succeeded by Elizabeth I. psychological.Spanish policy on the part of London. The overall Venetian policy was to foment wars of religion between the Lutherans.). Elizabeth forcibly restored her father’s Anglican or Episcopal Church.” the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon) took power. France. so it was sure that she would rule as a Protestant. whom she created First Baron of Burleigh and Lord Treasurer. Calvinists. and the Jesuit-dominated Catholic Counter. Elizabeth’s anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish policies fulfilled the basic Venetian imperatives. Under Henry VIII. the English population continued in their traditional Roman Catholicism. From the Catholic point of view Elizabeth was a bastard. and the Netherlands. The destruction of the English mind was fostered by the Venetians under the banner of murderous religious fanaticism. and political methods into such states as England. and intellectual destruction involved in this process was permanent and immense. The Venetians had spawned both sides of this conflict. Three times within the span of 25 years the English population was thus coerced into changing their religion under the threat of capital punishment. Thomas More and many others. which had been established in 644 at the synod of Whitby. a Venetian agent who had become his chief adviser. in 1534. Then. and Anglicans on the one hand. and most immediately to prevent the Spanish army stationed in Milan from getting an opportunity to conquer Venice.Church. the supposedly eternal verities taught by the village parson were turned upside down. as a possible pretender. He did this under the explicit advice of Thomas Cromwell.reformation of the Council of Trent on the other. The moral. The Venetians demanded an anti. The events orchestrated by Pole seemed to many Englishmen to prove the thesis that a Catholic restoration would threaten their lives and property. Three times. the Venetian oligarchy (especially its “giovani” faction around Paolo Sarpi) responded by transferring its family fortunes (fondi). who had lived in Venice for some years and was part of the immediate circle around Gasparo Contarini. Thomas Cromwell thus served as the midwife to many a line of oligarchs. generally to energize the imperial rivalry with Madrid. the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Bloody Mary’s main adviser in her proscriptions was Cardinal Reginald Pole. Henry VIII had feared Pole. and Pole had done everything to excite Henry’s paranoia. Success of this policy required oligarchical domination and the degradation of the political system by wiping out any Platonic humanist opposition. philosophical outlook. The struggle against the Spanish Armada in 1588 also gave these policies an undeniable popularity. like St. Soon the Venetians decided that England (and Scotland) was the most suitable site for the New Venice. Henry’s and Thomas Cromwell’s Act of Supremacy made the Roman Pope anathema.

Hatfield house was festooned with Lions of St. Mark. When William Cecil was too old to act as Elizabeth’s controller, he was succeeded by his son Robert Cecil, the 1st Earl of Salisbury. The Venetian- Genoese Sir Horatio Pallavicini was an important controller of English state finance. Elizabeth’s economic policies had strong elements of dirigism and mercantilism. The numerous industrial monopolies she promoted had the result of establishing new areas of production in the country. Cecil developed the merchant marine and the navy. There were taxes to support those unable to work, and a detailed regulation of jobs and working conditions. Many of these successful measures were coherent with the Venetian desire to build up England as the new world empire and as a counterweight to the immense power of Spain. At the death of Elizabeth, Robert Cecil masterminded the installation of the Stuart King of Scotland as King James I of England. Cecil was for a time James’ key adviser. James I was a pederast and pedant, an individual of flamboyant depravity, an open homosexual who made his male lovers into the court favorites. In addition to pederasty, James aspired to tyranny. James I was a leading theoretician of the divine right of kings. He delivered long speeches to the parliament, telling the wealthy latifundists and the Puritan merchant oligarchs of London that they could as little tell him what to do as they could tell God what to do. Policy, said James, was “king’s craft” and thus “far above their reach and capacity.” James I was an enthusiastic supporter of Paolo Sarpi in Sarpi’s 1606 struggle against the Papal Interdict. James I did this in part because he thought he had received his crown directly from God, without any mediation by the Pope. Venetian influence at the Stuart court was accordingly very great. Sarpi even talked of retiring to England. James was also an occultist. Shakespeare left London not long after the coming of James, and died after unwisely sitting down to drinks with the Aristotelian hack Ben Jonson. James’s feeble pro-Spanish appeasement policy bitterly disappointed Paolo Sarpi, Cecil’s boss and the leading Venetian intelligence chief of the era. James made peace with Spain in 1604, ending 19 years of war. Cecil then tried to induce James into an anti-Spanish policy with a planned provocation – Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder plot of 1605. Sarpi schemed to unleash the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) as an apocalyptic confrontation between Protestant and Catholic Europe, and he wanted England in the fray. James’s adviser, Sir Francis Bacon of the Cecil family, urged James to enter the war against Spain and Austria, but James first attempted to mediate the conflict and then did nothing. Charles I was equally disappointing: He married the Catholic Princess Henrietta Maria of France, and helped France to defeat the French Calvinists or Huguenots – a Venetian asset – in their stronghold of LaRochelle. The early Stuarts were unable to assert England as a great power because war required taxes, and taxes required the vote of Parliament, which they did not wish to convoke, since it would undercut their claims of divine right. Between 1628 and 1639, Charles I attempted to rule as an autocrat, without calling a Parliament. English naval power grew so weak that even ships bringing coal coastwise from Newcastle upon Tyne to London were not protected from pirates. This outraged the City of London and its Puritan merchants, followers of doctrines derived from Calvin of Geneva. With their tirades about their own divine right, the early Stuarts were violating a cardinal point of the Venetian political code. Venice was an oligarchy ruled by, at most, a few thousand male nobles. In practice, power belonged to several dozen patrician leaders. But no single patrician was strong enough to dominate all the rest as dictator. The Grand Council (Maggior Consilgio) was the general assembly of the nobility, and elected the Senate or Pregadi. The Grand Council, using a complicated procedure, also elected the Doge or Duke, who occupied the highest post in the state. The Doge was accordingly an elected and limited executive who served for life. This office was never hereditary; when one Doge died, a new one was elected by the Maggior

Consiglio. The Doge was surrounded by his cabinet or Collegio, including the ministers (savi) of various departments. Under this system, the Doge was not the leader of a nation and the protector of all the people, as an absolute monarch might be; he was the chief functionary of a consortium of noble families who owned and ran the state for the private profit of their own fondi. For the Venetians, an oligarchy required the weak executive power of a Doge, and this was the system they wanted transplanted into their clone, England. These issues were prominent in seventeenth-century Europe. Louis XIV of France in his better moments exemplified the benefits of centralistic absolutism, as directed against the pro-Venetian French nobles responsible for the civil wars of the Fronde and the wars of religion. Colbert pursued economic unification by wiping out local interests intent on collecting parasitical taxes. Louis compelled the great nobility to be towel-boys and fixtures at Versailles, while the French departments were ruled by Intendants sent by the king. A little later, in Russia, some of the same issues were fought out between the centralizing absolutist Peter the Great and the great latifundist nobles, known in Russia as the boyars. Real economic and social development was best served by breaking the power of the aristocracy. England, by contrast, was the country where the triumph of the oligarchs was eventually most complete. (This is even clearer if we bear in mind that the English gentry and squires correspond to the level of count in the continental titled aristocracy.) The English gentry were determined that they, and not intendants from the government in Whitehall, would rule in the shires. When Charles I was forced to call a Parliament in 1640 because he needed money, a conflict between oligarchy and monarchy developed. The House of Commons theoretically represented men with property capable of bringing in 40 shillings per year; this was the threshold of free subjects who had a stake in the state. The Commons were elected by about one-tenth of the people of England. The House of Lords was full of latifundists, but it was estimated that the landowners and merchants of the House of Commons were rich enough to buy the House of Lords three times over. Parliamentary leaders like Pym and Hampden wanted to establish an oligarchy by the surrender of the King to Parliament so they could build up a navy and hasten the looting of the Spanish Empire in the Caribbean. They wanted a more vigorous pursuit of the slave trade. Pym and Hampden asserted Parliamentary authority by passing bills of impeachment and attainder against royal favorites like Strafford and Archbishop Laud, the head of the Church of England, who were both executed. In 1641, Charles I tried to arrest Pym and Hampden. The proVenetian City of London, the ports, and the south and east of England rebelled against this botched coup by the stupid King, who fled north. The English Civil War, or Puritan Revolution, was on. Many English were appalled by the miserable level of leadership and wretched programs of both the sides. A contemporary wrote that many people tried to remain neutral because they thought that “both sides raised an unlawful war, or …could not tell which (if either) was in the right….” The civil war was artificially imposed by two rival London cliques, both under Venetian influence. England would be the only major European country in which a war of religion would be fought between two pro-Venetian Protestant factions – the Anglican royalist cavaliers and the Parliamentary Puritan Roundheads. One result would be the liquidation of the remaining positive and dirigist features of the Tudor state. During the first phase of the civil war, (1642-1646), there emerged two factions among the Parliamentarian Roundheads. A more conservative group favored a limited, defensive war against Charles I, followed by a negotiated peace. They hoped to defeat Charles by using a foreign army, preferably the Scottish one, in order to avoid arming the English lower orders. The Scots demanded for England a Presbyterian state church on the model of their own kirk – run by synods of Calvinist elders – but that was what the majority of the Long Parliament wanted anyway. So this faction came to be called the Presbyterians. Among them were the Calvinist town oligarchy of London.

The other group wanted total war and eventually the execution of the King and the end of the monarchy and the House of Lords. This group was willing to accept a standing army of sectarian religious fanatics in order to prevail. This group was called the Independents or Congregationalists. They were favored by Venice. Oliver Cromwell emerged as the leader of this second group. Oliver Cromwell was a Venetian agent. Prominent in Oliver Cromwell’s family tree was the widely hated Venetian agent Thomas Cromwell (1485-1540), Earl of Essex and the author of Henry VIII’s decision to break with Rome and found the Church of England. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) was descended from Thomas Cromwell’s sister. Oliver Cromwell’s uncle had married the widow of the Genoese- Venetian financier Sir Horatio Pallavicini. This widow brought two children by her marriage to Pallavicini and married them to her own later Cromwell children. So the Cromwell family was intimately connected to the world of Venetian finance. One of the leading figures of Parliament, John Hampden, was Oliver Cromwell’s cousin. Cromwell’s home was in the Fens, the large swamp in eastern England. The swamp- dwelling Venetians, true to form, came to choose another swamp- dweller as their prime asset of the moment. Cromwell ridiculed the weakness of the Parliamentary army, which he said was made up of “decayed tapsters” (elderly waiters). Cromwell’s own Ironsides regiment was made up of relatively well-off cavalrymen of heterodox religious views. This regiment was highly effective against the Royalist or Cavalier forces. The Ironsides contained numerous Independents. It also contained many of the more extreme sects. Some of the most important roots of modern communism can be found in the sects represented in Cromwell’s Ironsides. After 1640, the censorship of printed books practically collapsed. The church courts, which prosecuted crimes like heresy and blasphemy broke down. Especially in the City of London, but also in the countryside, a lunatic fringe of radical religious sects began to gather followers. What boiled up reflected the pervasive influence of Venetian kookery in England going back to Wycliffe. Ideas came to the surface which went back to Francesco Zorzi and Edmund Spenser, to Francis Bacon, Robert Fludd, and Bernardino Ochino, one of Contarini’s Italian Protestants or spirituali who had been active in London around 1550 under Edward VI. There were the Levellers, radical democrats of the Jeffersonian or sans culotte type, who wanted to expand the franchise for Parliamentary elections – although they would have left half or more without the vote. Apprentices, laborers, and servants would remain disenfranchised. Levellers wanted no monarchy, no House of Lords, no monopolies, no tithes, and no state church. Their petitions sound well today, but so do parts of the Jacobin Club’s Declaration of the Rights of Man. Among the Leveller leaders were John Lilburne, Richard Overton, and Sir John Wildman. The latter two were double agents, taking money from Royalists as well as from Thurloe, the director of Cromwell’s secret police. Sir John Wildman was a land speculator and an agent of the Duke of Buckingham (as Pepys’s diary tells us). He plotted against every regime from Cromwell to William III. He was a member of Harrington’s Rota Club, a nest of Venetian agents in 1659-1660. He appears as a classic type of Venetian provocateur. Richard Overton was the author of the tract Mans Mortalitie, which argues that the soul dies with the body – the Venetian heresy once again. As for Lilburne, he died in jail after becoming a Quaker. In 1647, with the Royalist forces wiped out, the Presbyterian faction tried to disband the army, and the Levellers responded by electing Agitators – in effect, political commissars – for each regiment. But the Leveller movement was soon crushed by Cromwell. Other groups owed their continued existence to the pro-toleration policies of the Ironsides, which Cromwell often respected. There were the True Levellers or Diggers, with Gerard Winstanley as main spokesman. Winstanley supported mortalism, the Venetian heresy. The Diggers in 1649

began to form communes to squat on land and cultivate it – three centuries before Chairman Mao. Their idea was primitive communism and the abolition of wage labor. Private property they condemned as one of the results of Adam’s Fall. Their program was “Glory Here!,” the creation of heaven on earth. With the communist, materialist (and some would say, atheist) Gerard Winstanley, we see the Anglo-Venetian roots of the later Marxism financed and directed by Lord Palmerston’s stooge David Urquhardt. Then came the Ranters, devotees of the antinomian heresy, the free love party. The Ranters, many of whom were ex-Levellers, held that sin and the law had been abolished – at least for the elect – leaving mankind with “perfect freedom and true Libertinism.” Some of them thought that fornication and adultery were positive religious duties, necessary to enjoy a maximum of grace. Ranter leaders included Laurence Clarkson and Abiezer Coppe. Clarkson supported mortalism, the Venetian heresy. The Ranter John Robins proclaimed that he was God and agitated to lead 140,000 men to conquer the Holy Land – thus foreshadowing later British policy in the Middle East. Ranters were heavily repressed. The Quakers, a new sect in those days, had not yet made their pacifist turn. Often Ranters became Quakers. Many of them were highly militaristic troopers in Cromwell’s New Model Army. Quakers were heavily represented in the English army that carried out Cromwell’s genocide against Ireland. But Quaker James Naylor was cruelly punished for blasphemy after he re-enacted at Bristol Christ’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. In 1657, the Quaker leader George Fox criticized the English army because it had not yet seized Rome. Pacifism was adopted only after the Stuart Restoration, in 1661. The other group that came out of the Ranter milieu was the Muggletonians, led by John Reeve and Lodowick Muggleton, who claimed that they had been commissioned by God in 1652 to serve as the Two Last Witnesses foretold in Revelations 11. Muggletonians supported mortalism, the Venetian heresy; they were also anti-Trinitarians and materialists. If formal positions on theological issues are counted up, John Milton turns out to have been very close to the Muggletonians. The Muggletonians kept going in Britain until about 1970. The Fifth Monarchists were radical millenarians, believing that the Second Coming and the Rule of the Saints were close at hand – some thought as close as the Barebones Parliament convened under the Commonwealth in 1653. Some Fifth Monarchists in the Barebones Parliament wanted to re-impose the Mosaic law in place of the English common law, and wanted a Sanhedrin of the Saints to assume state power. Diminishing interest in the New Testament was also documented by the official banning around this time of Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost (Whitsunday), which were all condemned as popish idolatry. The roots of the British Israelite movement are clearly revealed. There were also the Seekers, who thought all existing religions were inadequate; they claimed they were still looking for the right one. One Seeker was Milton’s friend and language teacher Roger Williams, later of Rhode Island. Finally, there were the extreme sectaries, parties of one, unable to get along with any of the above. John Milton was an example of these. These were the Hydra-like components of the army which was Cromwell’s power base. Cromwell attacked all the sects at certain times, but leaned heavily on them at other times. But he always relied for his power upon the army, of which the sectarians were the backbone. In 1648, Colonel Pride, acting for Cromwell, expelled from the Long Parliament some 100 of the most Presbyterian members, some of whom had been negotiating under the table with Charles I, by now a captive of the Army. What was left, was called the Rump Parliament. Cromwell then tried Charles I for treason and executed him on 30 January 1649. The Commonwealth was declared and the monarchy abolished. Cromwell’s problem was now to govern a country in which no elected Parliament could

Cromwell declined the title of king but accepted all the rest. poet and member of Parliament. Milton thought. The Parliament was made more oligarchical. But it was a doge’s crown. Milton had wanted religious tolerance. His son Richard attempted to rule. was a hand-picked selection of the godly. The country was divided into 11 ad hoc districts. Cromwell accepted the Instrument of Government. but he was willing to sacrifice this to obtain an oligarchy without a single-person executive. The next Parliament. In March 1655. and a major-general of the army was put in charge of each district. General Monck. A moderate faction around Major Gen. Observing these events. so Cromwell dissolved it in January 1655. which harbored its own desires of becoming a ruling oligarchy. was dispersed by Cromwell’s troops in 1653. the commander of the winning piece. Milton was close to the Rota Club. The second Protectorate parliament was impelled by desperation to pass the Humble Petition and Advice. Cromwell was named Lord Protector. the Barebones. the first written constitution of England. with the restored Rump alternating with direct army rule. But they alienated many oligarchs who found this interference far worse than that of Charles I.” Milton’s “Ready and Easy Way to Establish a Free Commonwealth.” issued in March. the diarist Samuel Pepys. The Rump. many nominated by Independent congregations. dominated the proceedings. 1659-1660 was a time of great chaos. This could be obtained. convinced he was the Son of God. Milton effusively praised Venice. the army split into pieces. During this time. The Protector was backed up by a Council of State of generals serving for life. with life tenure and co-optation of new members. he would ultimately make it four. 1660. a pro-Venetian salon dominated by James Harrington. Cromwell decided in favor of a “thorough” Bonapartist military dictatorship. The first Protectorate Parliament refused to fund the standing army (now 57. Other Rota members included Milton’s close friend Cyriack Skinner. The Barebones was modeled as an oligarchy: it chose a Council of State as its own executive. and Richard . The franchise was restricted. later president of the Royal Society. proposed a regime based on a Grand Council along explicitly Venetian lines. a limited monarchy of the House of Cromwell subject to Parliament. which had made its “whole aristocracy immovable” with similar methods. This was already Cromwell’s third dissolution. Cromwell suddenly went from being the New Moses to being the small horn of the Antichrist. Major-General Thomas Harrison of the New Model Army. All of this was done arbitrarily. For many sectaries. In February 1658. At the same time. Cromwell dissolved his last Parliament. joined the new Parliament in recalling Charles II. The rule of the Major-Generals prefigured European fascism. and Andrew Marvell. appointed all officials. the pro-Venetian writer John Milton – who had been Latin secretary to Cromwell’s Council of State – lamented that the City of London had concluded that “nothing but kingship can restore trade. There were Sir John Hoskins. the intelligence operative Sir John Wildman. which meant much greater wealth. the economist Sir William Petty. Instead. Lambert caused the dissolution of the Barebones with a coup de main. but left after a few months. author of the book Oceana and one of the most important Venetian ideologues in England. who propagandized Harrington’s views in his political dialogue Plato Redivivus of 1681. by declaring the Rump perpetual and capable of co-opting new members when the old ones died off. extended his secret tentacles into every pore of society and into every country of Europe. the Fifth Monarchist Thomas Venner (who had led and would lead abortive uprisings in London). and suppressed public immorality.countenance the army and its gun-toting sectarian iconoclasts. There was also the Rumper Henry Neville. with little reference to law. and was supposed to choose its own successors before it disbanded. going up from the old 40-shilling freehold to a personal net worth of 200 pounds. the son of the executed Charles I.000 troops) and rebelled against toleration (toleration of the sects). Harrington was the direct precursor of the great Whig aristocrats of the Venetian Party who were frequently in power after 1688. the Lavrenti Beria of the regime. and died the same year. Under pressure from the army generals. which urged Cromwell to take up the crown. ran the courts. Finally. secretary Thurloe. The major-generals controlled the local militia.

Sackville, the Fifth Earl of Dorset. Charles II assumed power later in 1660. Today some members of the British oligarchy are calling for the end of the monarchy and the creation of a republic. We must recall that the last time this was tried, the result was the fascist dictatorship of Oliver Cromwell and his major-generals. A “republic” in Britain in the early 21st century might turn out to be a military dictatorship rather similar to Cromwell’s, with animal rights freaks acting the part of the Ranters and Diggers. So what had the Puritan Revolution accomplished, beyond killing 500,000 persons? First, Cromwell had founded the British Empire. Between 1651 and 1660 he had added 200 warships to the British Navy, more than the early Stuarts had managed to build during their 40-year tenure. Cromwell’s war with the Dutch (1652-1654), which hardly made sense for a Puritan, made plenty of sense in the light of the 1,700 Dutch ships captured. Cromwell set up a convoy system for English merchant vessels, including those bringing coal from Newcastle. The basis of British naval domination was thus laid. After making peace with Holland, Cromwell made war on Spain, in exact conformity with Venetian requirements. Cromwell conquered: Jamaica, St. Helena, Surinam, Dunkirk, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (in Canada). In addition, he established the status of the Portuguese Empire as a satellite and auxiliary of London. It was under Cromwell that English ships established a permanent presence in the Mediterranean; in his last years, he was considering the conquest of Gibraltar to facilitate this stationing. Jamaica, a center of the slave trade, stood out in what was called the Western Design – making war on Spain in the New World. Cromwell was also personally responsible for the campaign of genocide and starvation in Ireland that began with the 1649 massacre of the garrison of Drogheda. Cromwell told the Parliament that if he waged war according to international law and the rules of war, the campaign would be too expensive. So Cromwell relied on massacres and famine. Cromwell’s genocide eventually killed about one-third of the Irish population. Cromwell also invaded and reduced Scotland, which had switched to the Stuart cause in 1649. This laid the basis for the myth of a “British” people as a label imposed on Irish, Scottish, Welsh, and English victims of an oligarchy not of Englishmen, but of Venetians and their tools. Until 1991 there was talk of a “Soviet” people, but this is now nowhere to be found. Perhaps the fraud of a “British” people will also not survive too long. Cromwell’s rule marked the triumph of free trade, as it was understood at that time. All attempts by government to supervise the quality of production, to fix prices, to maintain jobs and employment, to influence labor- management relations, or to influence wage rates were wholly abandoned. The City of London demanded free trade. It got the abolition of all industrial monopolies, which had previously covered some 700 staple products. Laissez-faire was established in every sphere. Whatever the Restoration Stuarts tried to change in this regard was immediately rolled back after 1688. In the years after Cromwell, it was estimated that cottagers and paupers, laborers and servants, who had no property and no vote, made up half of the population of England. One-third of all English households were exempted from the Hearth Tax because of their poverty. After 1660, wheat prices were kept artifically high because, it was argued, only fear of starvation could coerce the poor into working. Under the Restoration, the gentry and latifundists had been released from their feudal dues to the King, but there was no protection for small farmers and tenants. By 1700, the family farm was well on its way to being wiped out in England, giving rise to a landless mass of agricultural day laborers. The English countryside was full of de facto serfs without land. Craftsmen and artisans in the towns were increasingly wiped out by merchant oligarchs and bankers. Through this brutal primitive accumulation, England acquired its propertyless proletariat, forced to live by selling its labor. Usury became thoroughly respectable. This is the world described by Karl Marx, but it was created by Anglo-Venetian finance, and not by modern capitalism. What might be called the middle class of small farmers and independent producers was crushed, while Puritan initiatives in

popular education were suppressed. English society assumed the bipolar elite-mass structure which is a hallmark of empires. As for oligarchism, it was estimated in the 1690’s that Parliamentary elections were under the effective control of about 2,000 men. Charles II, who had been deeply impressed by his father’s death and the civil war, was tolerated by the oligarchy because he had learned the virtue of caution. But Charles II had not given up on his royal prerogatives. During the 1670’s, Charles II became the satellite and toady of Louis XIV of France, who paid him a subsidy which he used to circumvent Parliament. This enraged the Venetian Party. By now, the Venetians wanted to use England against the growing power of France, which had supplanted Spain at the top of their hit list. In 1678, Titus Oates alleged a new “popish plot” in which France, and no longer Spain, was the bogey-man. Charles II announced on his death-bed that he was a Roman Catholic, violating another key point of Venetian doctrine. That his brother and successor James II had also become a Catholic had been known and was the center of political battle for some time. The Whig party, the main vehicle of Venetian rule, made its mark at this time as the group most devoted to a Protestant succession to the English throne. James II was also in the pay of the Sun King. When the Duke of Monmouth, the illegitimate but Protestant son of Charles II, attempted to land and stage an uprising, he was quickly defeated. In response, James II’s lackey Judge Jeffries brought his Bloody Assizes court to the southwest of England, and began an orgy of thousands of death sentences. James II was trying to set up a standing army with Catholic officers, and put a Catholic admiral in charge of the Royal navy. Louis XIV’s revocation around this time of the Edict of Nantes, which had provided toleration for Protestants, made it appear plausible to some that James II would now attempt to play the role of Bloody Mary. The Anglo-Venetians decided that they were fed up with the now-Catholic, pro-French and wholly useless Stuart dynasty. Representatives of some of the leading oligarchical families signed an invitation to the Dutch King, William of Orange, and his Queen Mary, a daughter of James II. John Churchill, the future Duke of Marlborough, was typical of James’ former supporters who now went over to support William and Mary. William landed and marched on London. This is called by the British the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688; in reality, it consolidated the powers and prerogatives of the oligarchy, which were expressed in the Bill of Rights of 1689. No taxes could be levied, no army raised, and no laws suspended without the consent of the oligarchy in Parliament. Members of Parliament were guaranteed immunity for their political actions and free speech. Soon, ministers could not stay in office for long without the support of a majority of Parliament. Parliament was supreme over the monarch and the state church. At the same time, seats in Parliament were now bought and sold in a de facto market. The greater the graft to be derived from a seat, the more a seat was worth. Within a few years after the Glorious Revolution there was a Bank of England and a national debt. When George I ascended the throne in 1714, he knew he was a Doge, the primus inter pares of an oligarchy. The regime that took shape in England after 1688 was the most perfect copy of the Venetian oligarchy that was ever produced. There was a flare-up of resistance during the reign of Queen Anne because of the activity of the Tory Robert Harley and his ally Jonathan Swift; there was also the threat that the Hanoverian succession might bring Leibniz into England. Otherwise the Venetian Party was broadly hegemonic, and Britain was soon the dominant world power. The English masses had been so thoroughly crushed that little was heard from them for one and one half centuries, until the Chartist agitation of the 1840’s. The franchise was not substantially expanded until after the American Civil War, with industrial workers getting the vote in 1867 and farm laborers allowed to cast ballots in 1884. The struggles of seventeenth- century England were thus decisive in parlaying the strong Venetian influence which had existed before 1603 into the long-term domination by the British Venetian Party observable after 1714. These developments are not phenomena of English history per se. They can only be understood as aspects of the infiltration into England of the metastatic Venetian

oligarchy, which in its British Imperial guise has remained the menace of mankind.
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The British Empire Bid for Undisputed World Domination, 1850-1870 « orld-domination-1850-1870/ December 27, 2010

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Schiller Institute Food For Peace Conference, Chicago, IL, Feb. 22-23, 1992 [The following paper is a transcription of a tape recording at the above conference of an oral presentation by Mr. Tarpley.] I would like to attempt to illustrate the Versailles thesis in a certain amount of detail. I would say to people at the beginning, the best seats are emphatically here in the front part of the auditorium, because if you don’t see these maps, it will be a little difficult to follow. So I urge you if you can, come up to the front. The Versailles thesis has been referred to several times in the course of today’s proceedings, and it is, in short, the idea that the world system or world order which is presently collapsing around our ears is rooted above all in the events of the first World War between 1914 and 1918; and then in the Versailles Treaty of 1919, actually in the Peace of Paris of 1919. The thesis goes on to specify that World War I itself was the consequence of British geopolitical geostrategic decisions that were made in the period around 1870, in the wake of the American Civil War. The British, from 1870 to 1914, actively sought a general conflagration for the purpose of destroying civilization and for preserving the British Empire against the challenges that had emerged. Now the theme in this is constantly the British quest for the single empire. Lyndon LaRouche referred to it before, I believe – the idea of a single new Roman Empire, an empire that would encompass the entire world, which would be under the ultimate domination of what the British considered to be an Anglo-Saxon master race. It would be oligarchical, colonial, imperialistic, malthusian; [it would] condemn large areas of the world to depopulation, poverty, and so forth, [and would be directed to] the preservation of the British Empire. As we will see, the British came very close to establishing just such a single empire in the period between 1848 and 1863. That is the period we’ll look at in some detail, because it’s a period that’s very like our own today, a period when the British – the Anglo-Americans – came close to establishing this kind of universal domination, the new Roman Empire. In the course of this, I will have to simplify some things. We can certainly clarify some of those in the discussion, and I will have to proceed somewhat from the point of view of the British thrust in these directions, and you’ll see the areas that pop up. We will also see the irony of history, that if the British between 1850 and 1860 came close to establishing their worldwide dominion, the irony is that the world then blew up in their faces – especially around the events of the American Civil War, the Russian cooperation with Lincoln during the Civil War – to the point where, by about 1870, the British had to fear a convergence of the United States, Russia, and a united Germany, in such a way that the future of the British Empire would have been put in jeopardy, [even] might have been terminated.

as you see here.In the course of this. very ugly figure. the chief minister of the Hapsburg Court. you will see what a tissue of lies the history of the last 200 years as presented in Anglo-American sources actually is. What I thought we would do. what you see – and this I think is a characteristic of the period – [is that] after about 1820 the British begin to drop out of the Congress of Vienna system. Indeed. [Display MAP OF EUROPE as redrawn at Congress of Vienna. Notice that Poland is completely submerged. the Turkish Ottoman Empire extends far into continental Europe. plus all of the French socialists – Louis Blanc. The French July monarchy in the person of bourgeois King . the names of Mazzini. and this is what gave birth to the revolutions of 1848. The British have been allied with Serbia for about two hundred years. which is a complete tissue of lies. 1815] The question is. in case people have forgotten this. I have to caveat this. Basically every government in Europe was overthrown. Karl Marx. is to skip to the end of the Napoleonic Wars. they stop signing the declarations. particularly the official U. So here’s our starting point. Fourier. They rule the seas. Italy is divided. including India and so forth. and in the middle of everything you’ve got this crazy quilt of Germany divided into dozens and dozens of petty states. to British imperialism. as a challenge. needless to say. simply specifying that in the period before 1815 the British were able to extend their colonial domination to vast areas of the world. And they fomented these things. where do you start some kind of a review like this? We could usefully start it at the time of the American Revolution. Prince Metternich. This is the Europe of the Holy Alliance. The British created modern Greece in 1821. Any idea of German war guilt for World War I has to go out the window. as Al Haig would say. what they do is to assume a position of splendid isolation and at the same time foment revolutions against all of their alleged allies on the continent of Europe. Bakunin. their only significant challenge coming from the United States. though. The British started a revolution here. Notice also that Belgium has been added to the Netherlands. – and this is Lyn’s [Lyndon LaRouche's] tremendous merit. Russia. This is the Europe that you associate with Metternich. rather. to be able to do this given the conditions that he’s working under – we will develop a radically new view of the last 200 years of history which you will not find in any textbook. the guy who was ruling here in Vienna at that time. as have the victims of the Serbs. the First International Workingmen’s Association. There are a lot of very good people active in 1848. Remember that in the world outside of Europe at this point. as you’ll see. and all these other people – [all these constitute] a society of British agents for the destabilization of Metternich and company on the continent of Europe.S. version of World War I and World War II. Let me show you what happened in 1848. So let us leap to the end of the Napoleonic Wars. the British dominate. with of course the new nation – the United States – standing out as a barrier. and Prussia for balance of power purposes. except of course their own. The British are forced to deal with him almost as an equal. and it has to yield to the idea that World War I was a British creation which the British schemed for the best part of a half century to bring about. and the Serbs have endured a monumental bloodletting as a result. but the general thrust of the British policy is clearly [that] the British were destabilizing Austria. Metternich is a very. from the point of view of this concept. They stop going to the congresses. Here’s Congress of Vienna Europe. and the word went out from London that the British oligarchs would support everybody’s revolutions. However. And in particular. in Serbia – they created that revolution in 1817. It is a condominium in which the British are obliged to co-exist with Metternich and the kinds of Central European oligarchs that he represents. what many people know as the Europe of the Congress of Vienna. by saying 1848 is also other things. This was Europe as the map was redrawn by the oligarchs gathered at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

Kansas is the beginning of the American Civil War. and the creation of a British Viceroy of India. and the creation of this Hapsburg Maximilian Empire in Mexico. The idea is that the single empire. they had Corn Laws. And you could say. And Kansas. you had Kossuth in Hungary. is within their grasp. Before that. and in forcing the pope to flee from Rome. well. So as so often happens in the history of French imperialism. it really looks like the Anglo-Americans have dominated the world. the only country that had survived those 1848 destabilizations. It’s very similar today. where there was no internal revolution.Louis Philippe of Orleans was overthrown in favor of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. it looks like the British on paper have wrapped up the entire world. Metternich himself was forced to flee from a revolution in Vienna. in particular. which set up very high tariffs to keep the price of grain extremely elevated. similar things in Spain. a British agent and adventurer. If you look at this. but certainly the prime ministers. He had studied the wars of Napoleon I. This is the famous Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. but this was then turned around. In China. [and] there’s not one continent of the entire globe where the British are not in a tremendous offensive. That’s exactly what he did. They wanted to occupy China militarily as they had India. and had concluded that Napoleon’s big mistake was fighting the British. Now. pause for a second. With one fell swoop. the British had succeeded in overthrowing every government on the continent of Europe. if you calculate. free trade. because they could look forward to the idea of being able to loot the world. Napoleon III. This is an absolutely original concept that LaRouche has developed. How does Kansas fit it? Well. This is the British grabbing a whole series of ports and other bases on the coast of China. where the British and French join together to invade Russia. But let me just anticipate . or pro-slavery and proabolitionist groups. which led to the end of the direct rule of the British East India Company out there. Filibustering expeditions by protoConfederates into Latin America. Bleeding Kansas. if you look at the map. and that the Anglo-Americans will continue to dominate the world for the next century. with gangs of pro-Confederate and pro-Union. The only country that escaped this was Russia. and it was clear at the time that they were about to go into China to partition the entire country. a reorganization of British rule in India. Let us look at the tremendous worldwide offensive of the British imperialists back in the 1850’s. The British were able to install their puppet. We also got. here’s a French imperialist who believes that the way to have a French empire is to be a junior partner to the British. as you may remember. Where did free trade ever come from? Free trade was introduced by the British in 1846 and in the following years. every government in Germany was overthrown – not necessarily the monarch. and so forth. in terms of a worldwide offensive. Prime Minister Disraeli made Queen Victoria the Empress of India. Mazzini succeeded in creating his Roman republic. the Second Opium War fits precisely into this period. First of all. You look at this together. Every government in Italy was overthrown. [Display NEXT MAP: 1848] Here is this extremely interesting period between the 1848 revolutions and the turning points of the American Civil War. and this is something you won’t find in any history book. fighting it out in continuous bloodletting. you could say. in particular forcing Metternich to disguise himself as an Englishman and flee to London. the universal monarchy. and therefore they favored free trade. his ancestor. This is then acted out in the Crimean War.

later on this was the same Jefferson Davis who became the president of the Confederate States of America. [Do] you remember Tennyson’s “Charge of the Light Brigade?” This is one that Fred Wills could quote at great length.B.Confederate slave holders. [Display MAP OF MEXICO] Maximilian! Remember him? The Hapsburg heir who was placed on the throne of Mexico by a French army. [Display MAP OF INDIA] In India. Don’t be fooled by the Confederacy. Barbara Bush. and there are some very large Russian forts in the background. If you look at the United States in the 1850’s. proto. Don’t be fooled by that Sir Walter Scott aura of chivalry. ruling over maharajahs and other local potentates. And. And they succeeded in defeating the Russian army.” with this great empire. This was based on human slavery. traitors. and that’s what the British threw their Light Brigade against. they could make great careers in the United States Army. [Display MAP OF CRIMEAN WAR] Here’s the Crimean War. (Someone said that this shows that one President Buchanan was enough. [But] we have to pay special attention to the 1850’s in the United States. the scum of the earth. This was the president under whose term the Civil War actually began to break out. Franklin Pierce. and J. sent by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte? There he is. of course. while the U. by British or British puppet states.that it’s not going to be so. Why? Let’s start with the leadership. then you have to conclude that the place was a dead duck – lost. The charge of the Light Brigade took place here. Central America. So what you had under presidents like Fillmore. although what they find is that their forces were not significant enough to push further inside the country. the ancestor of Barbara Pierce. and Lyn has been very emphatic about this. was so tied down by the Civil War that the Monroe Doctrine could not be asserted by Washington. the largest up to that time to be sure.) What happened under these [men]? This is typical: Here’s Jefferson Davis.S. and Buchanan [were] Confederate traitors – like Jefferson Davis – members of the British Scottish Rite Freemasons. The idea was to begin to reintroduce direct colonialism. of course. Let’s look at the great series of presidents: Millard Fillmore. wearing his uniform of major general of the United States Army. and what do we find here? The Ottoman Empire. So here we are in the Crimean War. He was not just a major general. and before too long Queen Victoria was proclaimed “Empress of India. Here we are on the Black Sea. This was one of the largest amphibious war operations.E. [Display MAP OF BALACLAVA] This is the city of Balaclava. Anglo-American invasion. and they actually invaded the Crimea here. Russia up here. as we saw. sending out a viceroy from London. he was the Secretary of War under these administrations. the Sepoy Mutiny led to a vast reorganization of British colonialism in the area. starting in the 1850’s. into Mexico. so who goes in? The British and the French bust through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. that despicable puppet state. Stuart wrapped up in God knows what he’s palmed off as the ethos of the Confederacy. This is the British invasion fleet. and Ibero-America in general. and James Buchanan. this was one of the most despicable proto-fascist states that . Pierce.

who in 1861-62 was the commander of all the Union armies. Grant. was a convergence of the United States. just as his country was under tremendous attack. and you refused to do it. “I can sit down with Robert E. That’s George McClellan. The ADL today continues the characteristic mentality of Judah Benjamin. France and Farragut at Mobile Bay.has ever been seen on the face of the earth. and Abraham Lincoln doesn’t really belong in this. We’ve talked a lot about him. This is one that’s hardly known. the arrival of the Russian fleets in New York and San Francisco. as we will see. [He] came in with a vast program of reforms. he fled to Britain.” Here’s the way this was viewed in a carton of the day.” This is an interchange where Lincoln is basically telling him. But he refused to do that. the twin Union victories of Gettysburg and Vicksburg especially. Judah P. He is of course an agent in particular of the Rothschild family of London. People like Ulysses S. when all seemed to be lost. This is pro-McClellan propaganda. that the negotiated settlement would leave the Confederate States of America in existence as a British puppet state. McClellan refused to attack on many occasions. and here’s George P. At the end of the Civil War. the reforming forces in Japan divide pretty much between proAmerican and pro-German. McClellan who’s trying to reconcile them. this tremendous turnaround of the 1860’s. This was the [1866] defeat of Austria by Prussia. and this mixture of what you would have to call Zionism and Confederacy today is what animates an organization like the Anti-Defamation League. This is the battle where McClellan had a good chance to destroy the Confederate Army under Lee. This is precisely the kind of British imperialist agent that you find in the upper reaches of the Confederate government. The collapse of Maximilian’s Hapsburg Empire in Mexico. And here he is at Antietam. Now let’s look at the way in which this world. That’s exactly what this is. Russia. blew up in the face of the British. which seemed lost. and if it hadn’t been for Sherman at Atlanta and Phil Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley and the naval battles off Cherbourg. The Seven Weeks’ War. and Prussia – or call it Germany by that time – which attracted the attention of key forces in Japan and China. . And as we’ve stressed. or he’s checking if he’s still got his wallet. And then you look in the Union officer corps. Now the Civil War’s going to go on for three more years. which was the immediate prelude to the complete unification of Germany [in 1871]. because he doesn’t understand these things the way I do. what came out of these events. Here’s Lincoln on the one side. because he wanted a negotiated peace. [who] was the secretary of the treasury of the Confederate States of America. He said. that you see here. It’s interesting to see that while Jefferson Davis was getting promoted. and that would have been the end of the Union – because that was the idea. in particular the freeing of the serfs in 1861. Lee and work this out. could not make a career in the army. and Jefferson Davis on the other. and. [and] German unification completed.S. And of course he was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1864. Then we’ve got the turning point year of 1863: the Emancipation Proclamation. then McClellan might have won. Davis was the president. Alexander II. mediating between them if you will. If you go back to Japan in this period. Benjamin. military service. A reforming czar in Russia. Here’s a typical Confederate. Here was a potential for a new combination in the northern hemisphere – the United States. How about this guy? He thinks he’s Napoleon. “Why didn’t you pursue Lee? You could have destroyed him on the battlefield. He came in the midst of the Crimean War. They had to go into business – into the private sector – to try to earn a living. where he lived. generals like Sherman and Grant were forced out of the U.

Mecklenburg. I can assure you the British didn’t like that.. the secretary of the navy for Lincoln in those days. also in the sense that they opened the door to the unification of Germany. Cassius Clay of Kentucky. they tend to situate the British Empire high point back in the days of George III.” Here’s that other one that I just mentioned. another Russian fleet came to San Francisco. [The photo] was a token of the fact that if. which is of course where the British royal family comes from. and they had been ordered by the Czar to place themselves under the command of Lincoln in the case of war between Britain and France on the one side and the Union on the other. here. And here’s the Admiral. [and] would have done something about this if they had not been so thoroughly defeated in the U. Napoleon III sent an army to fight the United States. One interesting fact: The kingdom of Hanover. for example. So. There are other accounts that will . and Mathew Brady. a war between Prussia on the one side and Austria on the other.S. This is a war you almost never hear about in the United States. The Prussians simply put an end to the existence of Hanover. U. Here’s unified Germany.Schwerin. and spent the winter of 1863-64. and he secured really the only military assistance from any foreign power for Lincoln and for the Union. who came into New York City in the fall of 1863 and played a key role in the saving of the Union. Civil War. What has never really been looked into is the relation of Gettysburg on the one side with German unification on the other. Again. I think what the interesting thing about this is. and Prussia. It had ceased to exist as a result of this war. Many people think. Baden Wurttemburg over here. and about one-fifth of the world’s land surface. The Russian fleet arrived in September and October. This is Admiral Lisovsky. Prussia.Russia. In September and October the Russian Atlantic fleet arrived in New York City. over a period of a couple of weeks. the British Empire was of course very powerful at this point. if you look at this map with the colors.S. if Lincoln had not won the Civil War? I would submit to you that Gettysburg and Vicksburg are key turning points of world history. It sort of came in one ship after another. Did he come all the way to have his picture taken? Obviously not. Russia was going to join in that war. Similarly. This is the Seven Weeks’ War. Would it have been possible for Germany to achieve unification. Petersburg at the time of the Civil War. They had just fought the Crimean War against the British and the French. This is Lincoln’s ambassador. the great Civil War photographer. Russia. Let’s take a look at how this went. this took place in 1866. you can see the crazy quilt that had existed – Bavaria down here. who administered one of the most severe defeats that British imperialism has ever had to absorb in the last 200 years. then he would probably have to deal with Russia on the continent of Europe. these are figures from 1909. and they will show you that in 1909 the British dominated one-quarter of the population of the world [within] the British Empire. and they were ready to continue fighting. One quarter of the world’s population was subject to the British Empire. within a period of about 50 days. He was the Union ambassador to St. The Prussian army was capable. However. plus China and Japan – that would have been sufficient to dominate the world. had his studio in New York City. Well. the commander of the Russian Atlantic Fleet. These are actual sailors of the Russian Atlantic fleet. The photographer here is Mathew Brady. This is the original Cassius Clay. This was now brought together as one powerful unified national state by 1871. and so forth. of vanquishing the AustroHungarian forces. Of course the principal figure in this is Abraham Lincoln. and finish off the British Empire once and for all. As Gideon Welles. was an island. Here is another photograph by Mathew Brady. said: “Thank God for the Russians.

and then go into the so-called heartland. it would have challenged the British domination of their empire lifeline. reached Baghdad. comes right across to Iran. which is simply the axis of British colonialism around the Indian Ocean. across the Bosporus on barges. there’s a second railway system which is called the Transcaspian. It linked up to the Chinese railway system – for example from Harbin to Beijing and to these other areas here – Darien. The British geopolitical strategy. with a low density of railroads there. with just this little Afghani buffer state in between.” And there. This was then called “the British Lake. the greatest infrastructural project of the 19th century. and indeed 25 percent of the land surface. and so on down the line. Gladstone. Germany. all the way across Central Asia. . and it would have robbed the British of their geopolitical strategy. At the same time. so much so that the entire coastline of the Indian Ocean was completely British controlled. That would have spared them all the carnage of World War I. it goes all the way from St. As you see. This was primarily the idea of Georg von Siemens of the German industrial family. and finally Kuwait. which gets right down to the base of the Caspian Sea. So it’s clear that a European infrastructure and railroad triangle. there’s Berlin. and – look – here’s British imperialism in India. And here’s the other great railroad project. who grew up as an employee of the Russian imperial railway system. came down here through the Hapsburg dominions. The original form of it went across Manchuria to Harbin and then to Vladivostock. and later finance minister. but then you’ve got the Alps here. Basra. He worked first of all in the railway ministry. Petersburg up here.tell you it’s about 25 percent of the population. this is the railway system on the continent of Europe at about 1900. Mosul. and there’s Vienna. Just to follow this a little bit. Germany against Russia. And what he promoted was the building of this Trans-Siberian railway. Now some people may ask: If the British decided in 1870 or thereabouts. Port Arthur. Remember that the British Empire got even bigger after the First World War by absorbing German colonies. if Disraeli. through what is today Syria. does comprehend the densest area of industrial and infrastructural development. there were railroads being built out here into the Russian Empire. So look at this tremendous ability of Witte’s project to reach out and create an actual Eurasian railroad bloc. with the ability to call on an entire Eurasian hinterland. to avoid Chinese territory. went through Anatolia. of course. and so forth. greater even than Lincoln’s transcontinental railroad. in particular. a second line was added up here. play France against Germany. the Balkan and Asia Minor parts. and Russia should not fight each other. The only thing that comes close is Milan. And this was going to be built between about 1900 and 1915. And if you put together the two maps that I’ve just shown you. It was never completed. here. That’s Budapest over there – think of that as a kind of second center. As was mentioned before. but suffice it to say that this started in Berlin. This is now the Berlin to Baghdad Railway. was to dominate the United States. They should make an alliance against Britain in particular. Witte’s strategic concept would have made World War I impossible. of course. dominate Japan if they could. You only see the Asia Minor part of it here. I think that one interesting thing to us as you look at it is that it’s clear there are three key points in the European railroad system: there’s Paris. reached Kirkuk. This would have provided an alternate route to India. is the old Brzezinski arc of crisis. and of course this the British were determined to avoid at all costs. Iraq. and then into Mesopotamia. There is also a Russian system. What could the continental Europeans do to resist this kind of British domination? Well. coming up against the Russian Empire. we have to mention here the great Count Sergei Witte. Witte’s strategic concept was that France. but it was pursued also as a goal of German foreign policy. later on. the Trans-Siberian Railway and this Berlin to Baghdad railway. and play the forces of the heartland against each other. you would have made Berlin the rail hub of the universe. as you see. became transportation minister.

the United States had refused to back the British. So from 1870 to 1890 or thereabouts. we’re going to start over here in Dakar. of course. And here’s the fighting. And I particularly would stress the good relations between Berlin and St. you’ve got to do it with the British. The guy who superintended the creation of united Germany was. everything is ready for World War I. and very soon after that the British were brought into this. It was wrong for France to ally with the British against Germany.” and they did that in 1870. This was the way the British wanted to put Africa together. for example. Bismarck as a realpolitiker was a great realist. of course. all directed against Germany. The catastrophes of this century would have been avoided to a very large degree if. he rejected the importance of an alliance with Russia. and as you can see. The other thing to stress about this is the colonial rivalry in Africa. but had rather insisted on arbitrating the war – ending the war by forcing a just peace on all the contending parties. and look: even out here there was a Kuwait front. He’s a mixed figure: part monster. and you have the Triple Entente of Russia. [though] this was not a good ally. Kaiser Wilhelm did not understand. This allowed France to make an alliance with Russia in 1894. Petersburg. an Italian front. the Ottoman Empire here. The Russian Empire. Russian. the Austro-Hungarian Empire. why did it take so long for World War I to come about? I would simply point to a couple of questions of Bismarck’s foreign policy. but it was doubly wrong for the United States to go into World War I on the side of the British. and go to Djibouti. the reality of World War I is that this is the greatest single tragedy. [and] France has none. That would have created a much better world than the one that we’re confronted with today. first under the so-called Alliance of the Three Emperors – Dreikaiserbund – and then the so-called Reinsurance Treaty. and Austro-Hungarian Empires. And you can see the result of it is that Germany has plenty of allies. The British wanted to unite a strip of territory from Cairo all the way down to the Cape. With that. This picture you see up here is the alliance system created by Bismarck. Norman Schwarzkopf. With allies like this you don’t really need enemies. part realpolitiker. These are French troops getting out of . Here you see Europe as it was in July and August of 1914. let’s have World War I. That’s one of the key turning points in which the twentieth century went wrong. the Austro-Hungarian Empire. a very large Germany. He knew that there could be no general war in Europe as long as Germany and Russia maintained good relations. and the way for World War I was actually clear. there it is. And. That’s the key to the Entente Cordiale of 1904. and that’s about what they did. England and France. Queen Victoria. The British had played their Eastern Question card. the Eastern Question meant their desire to destabilize the Ottoman. there’s a Russian-Turkish front out here. France cannot start any wars – [even with] these pro-British governments in Paris – and the British are forced to stay off the continent of Europe pretty much. 1890 by] the lunatic Emperor William II (this is the guy you remember from the World War I period) when he came in. there’s a tremendous eastern front. and these two groups clashed in Fashoda. They were attacking Baghdad. make a deal with British imperialism. and the mentality that won out on the French side under Theophile Delcasse was the idea that if you want to have an empire. The thing that we have to stress about the way the war was conducted is that the United States fought on the wrong side. between Germany and Russia. Nine million dead. and a few other people sat down at the table and said. the greatest single hecatomb of western civilization. this is what Europe looked like. “Well. there’s a Balkan front. where are you? This was done by the British. You see these fighting fronts? There’s a western front over here.Lord John Russell. Lyn has talked about the Fashoda incident of 1898. Bismarck. There were some French imperialists who said no. because you’re not strong enough to do it against them. Germany is left with only one real ally. That would have made all the difference. therefore. The bottom part shows what happened when Bismarck was forced out of the scene [in March.

that they were responsible for World War I. Notice the areas that were taken away. Lebanon. It’s about 9 million killed outright. Israel. a very large Poland up here. then as Helga was saying earlier there is every danger that those states will be re-engulfed by a Russian Empire within about 15 or 20 years. where. And Russia: the Russian Empire was dismembered.their trucks. Croatians. Slovaks. the Baltic States taken off. is the existence of Yugoslavia. Probably the most typical territorial change of Versailles. And we must warn that unless economic dirigistic policies are introduced in these new states to make them viable. It was fought in particular by Ataturk in Turkey. sort of a pro-Woodrow Wilson map.S. the Oder-Neisse line over here is the border of Germany. Syria. because here we can really see the degree to which today’s world is an extension of the Versailles system. Israel took a little bit longer to create. but basically the mandate of Palestine under the British is what then later became Israel. Croatians. Nobody was really satisfied with all of this. Iraq. And the majority of [those were from] Germany and France. Bessarabia. the two most developed countries of western Europe. and if you add in the Spanish flu of 1919 and a few other things. It was said that the Germans bore the war guilt. This is a U. was required to pay $32 billion of reparations. Notice also that Yugoslavia has been created. In this [1919] case. a fairly large Hungary. a rather large Czechoslovakia. under the Treaty of Versailles. Woodrow Wilson. today Moldova taken off. [and] there was a mass movement in China against the idea that the German colonial possessions were transferred to the Japanese under this same treaty. You can also see the creation of Finland and Latvia. Slovenians. Hungarians. The other thing about Versailles that I would like to stress very much is the financial arrangements. Hungary. because it lists “Yugoslavs” as Serbs. Kuwait. Lithuania. Big lie! But the reason for the big lie was that they [therefore] had to pay $32 billion.. I would stress in the Versailles system the way in which the Ottoman Empire was partitioned in 1919. and so on down the line. This did not have anything to do with the wishes of those involved. This was a reward to Serbia by the British and their friend. It’s now going through the second dismemberment. This was all the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire has already been through one dismemberment in the 20th century. this Peace of Paris of 1919. The territorial system that came out of this was vastly unpopular. to make them prosperous. nobody liked it. So this is now Versailles. areas in the Transcaucasus taken off. Here’s Germany as it came out of World War I. over a period of 6 or 8 months. Austrians. or even less. Austria: this empire ceased to exist. Germany. Here is now the Europe that emerged after the peace of Paris. up here in the Baltics. Similarly in Germany. a large Rumania. and now. Czechs. and of course that’s precisely what Yugoslavia was all about. Saudi Arabia – all of these were created at the Peace of Paris – in particular the Treaty of Sevres. You can see the changes that have been made. In Italy there was so much discontent that it led to the rise of fascism. we’re now in the midst of Versailles. more than a million men were killed. 20 million wounded. you get up to the area of about 25 million to 30 million dead as a result of World War I. it took about 15 or 20 years for the Russian Empire to make its comeback under Stalin. of course. It’s hard to calculate that in . Estonia. Everything that you think of as being the Middle East – including Turkey. and Slovenes. Here we see Finland taken off. and I of course have to apologize for this map. It awakened desires on the part of various groups. and others departed this empire. to make them stable. Italians. bringing World War I to an end. They’re going to fight the battle of Verdun.

Notice that the French had to also pay the British. but the British wanted to run the world that way. and under Yalta. the Iran-Iraq War of ‘80. Under Yalta. the same thing. Under Versailles. to go into certain postwar events that are better known. Continuing this comparison. but above all [by] the conditionalities of the IMF as they have been imposed on the former colonial sector. this was going to be paid over about 60 to 70 years. not simply cut down. And that is a system of usury and destruction. [But the amount owed] was going to go up to about $100 billion because of the accrued interest over the period. By one calculation. They were kept blockaded for a long time. but even divided. That brings us pretty much up to the present time. So here’s the merry-go-round. This is widely considered today to be more powerful than the IMF and the World Bank and the other institutions that were put up under the Yalta system after the Second World War. and because of the 5 percent interest rates. Typical are the geographic changes that I’ve just mentioned.. that there would be no development of the Third World as a result of European capital goods being sent out. as Keynes said. look at the Middle East as one example of what this meant for the Third World. the $10 billion in war debts. That then became Israel. $100 trillion of reparations. and Japan. 67. What we’ve done here is to compare the Versailles arrangements of 1919 with the Yalta arrangements of 1945. What does that lead to? To your typical Yalta arrangement of endless wars of Israel against the Arab states. And of course under the U. you have the Bank for International Settlements in Basel. for reasons of time. the immense internal debts of all these countries. and the British and the French had borrowed about $10 billion from the United States. didn’t even join it. This was then included in the secret British-French Sykes-Picot accords. which have now collapsed. simply taking it out. Every German is responsible for everything that Hitler did. Britain. I haven’t been able. under Versailles you had a war guilt clause saying that Germany was responsible for World War I. 73. The British Foreign Office with the Balfour Declaration announced that it was going to create the state of Israel. It of course meant that the heart of Europe would be economically depressed.S. that Germany would be depressed economically. we’ve got the Security Council. maybe $32 trillion is some idea of what that would have meant today. those were real dollars.N. . the Germans would have wound up their payments about 1990. Germany of course was not allowed to export. and it had within it the seeds of World War II. All these Middle East wars. Switzerland. The British got the mandate of Palestine. So let’s say. So let’s just summarize what we’ve gone through on this Versailles system. as a condominium. Those were the Big Five. The French and the British then paid the United States and the Wall Street bankers under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan.S. They had to pay these reparations to the British and the French. The French had borrowed $25 billion during the war. We’ve mentioned the $32 billion in reparations. In other words. and then refinanced the Germans so that they could keep paying. The Versailles System had a League of Nations. and finally the Gulf War of 1991. Collective guilt. primarily by the Russians. The U. what Lord Keynes said about this – that it would require economic slavery in Germany – was absolutely accurate. Italy. And then. They would have just finished paying for World War I two years ago. After the Second World War there was the demontage of German industry. 69. it’s the two Germanys. and finally the Treaty of Sevres. 1948. Those were gold dollars. Yugoslavia is a very typical one. which was the treaty with the Ottoman Empire. 1956. It was a way of squeezing Germany until you could hear the pips’s terms. It virtually guaranteed fascism and bolshevism advancing against the middle class societies. A couple of things to say in conclusion. It’s still there. Who was in the Security Council? The U. France. Under the League of Nations there were these mandates.

because there is now a complete political and strategic vacuum. to keep them divided. that these are now collapsing in front of our eyes. all around the world. It’s a system that literally devours its own flesh – as you see today. the dwarves – and you can see that that is a vacuum of personalities. but at the same time they’re collapsing internally so fast that they will not be able to impose any permanent world order of any type. creating tremendous political opportunities. when it looks like the Anglo-Americans are ready to take over the entire world. which is directly due to these Versailles and Yalta arrangements. There is a vacuum of ideas. We also have to ask ourselves: What is the center of evil in the world? Well. you can say its really directed against Germany to keep the Germans down. the purpose of this entire system is to crush humanity. imbecilic principle of their power. We also have to recall. British geopolitical thinking. which is what you see here. because it has turned out not to be fundamentally. the British drive toward the single empire. that when the British seemed to be on the verge of taking everything. And I think finally. the British House of Lords. but rather. But the purpose of it ultimately is to crush the entire human race. Mussolini and the fascists. and then that convergence of Lincoln. to keep the French and the Germans at each other’s throats.What is the purpose of all this? Why did the British insist on this? The British insist on a world system or a form of organized chaos. but it destroys its sponsors and its owners with an even greater certitude. because one of the effects of this entire system is the poverty and economic backwardness of the developing sector today. a vacuum of strategy. Therefore. that is the moment when the intrinsic weaknesses of their system pop out. any of those. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . So all of these great nations are humiliated. [and] a political vacuum. Mao and his heirs in China are still in power. You cannot engage in politics today unless you have this kind of a scope – unless you go back to the Congress of Vienna. Sure. policies. to be sure. in the last analysis. It could be reconstituted. what it means for us. for the past 70 to 90 years. So ultimately you have to ask yourself: What is the problem of evil in the 20th century in particular. We must take advantage of the fact that the systems that have controlled the world in a certain manner of speaking. and ideas. The Bolshevik Party has gone out of existence – Stalin’s party. It also implies that the United States is subjected to colonial rule. to keep the Germans and the Russians at each other’s throats. The idea of dividing the world along these lines. based on an irrational principle of arbitrary power – Oligarchy – the idea that the British royal family. I suppose. and united Germany that gave the British such a scare that they started World War I and created the Versailles System. for a while there was Hitler and the Nazis. as we saw back in the 1850’s. And they can inflict suffering on the entire rest of the world in the name of this lunatic. 1848. This was certainly very evil. which you see. This is an Anglo-American system that destroys its enemies. Lenin’s party. and the British aristocracy and oligarchy have the God-given right to rule [as] the Anglo-Saxon master race. and economic vacuum. the British oligarchy. and creating a series of endless wars. is really no longer there. Look at the 1992 Democratic candidates for president – the five-pack. Alexander II. each in its own way. by this Versailles System. but it looks like their future is going to be a limited one. is that this is a tremendous opportunity. This is now the time to advance to fill that vacuum.

” thundered Lord Palmerston. Disraelis. What follows is Tarpley’s introduction. always a disciple of Jeremy Bentham. and the Danes. the empire upon which the sun never sets. In London they call him Lord Cupid. Tarpley served as tour guide through the centuries. it is an oligarchy on the Venetian model. are but the satellites of the British Empire. in this year of 1850. between 1830 and the end of the American Civil War. Subtitles have been added. perfectly at home in a ménage à trois. the Spanish. he can flaunt the laws. Britain is the mistress of the seas. A quartercentury from now Victoria will be made empress of India to reward her for so much breeding. He has declared it here in the Houses of Parliament. shortly to embrace between one-fifth and one-fourth of the total population and land area of the Earth. Lord Palmerston. “Civis Romanus sum. This capital city is now the center of the greatest colonial empire the world has ever known. Schiller Institute U. then a Whig. A NEW ROMAN EMPIRE It is 1850. the Dutch. Lord Palmerston’s campaign is not a http://tarpley. between Big Ben and the Foreign Office. Palmerston is the man the others – the Russells. secure that the British fleet will support him.Gotha to take over the royal houses of Europe. who is largely occupied with Prince Albert in her business of breeding new litters of Saxe. client. And here. and as the “choral” backdrop to the historical drama. all of these. Although in theory there are still empires ruled by the French. old Pam. and the most powerful leader of the British oligarchy in these times. “Pam” is an occultist who loves Satanism and seances.Coburg. the Belgians. On the continent they call him Lord Firebrand. the London of Dickens and Thackeray. Britain is not really a monarchy. of John Stuart Mill and Thomas Carlyle. every Briton is a citizen of this new Rome. But for all of Victoria’s wealth and power. worldwide Roman Empire. Around me lies Victorian London. 20. the Portuguese. President Webster Tarpley chaired the panel on “Lord Palmerston’s Multicultural Zoo” at the Schiller Institute’s conference on Feb. Lord Palmerston is engaged in a campaign to make London the undisputed center of a new. Henry Temple. It is the new Rome on the banks of the December 27. I am now standing in the shadow of the Houses of Parliament in the part of London called Westminster. The empress is Queen Victoria. introducing each of the seven speakers in turn and concluding the panel. He is attempting to conquer the world in the way that the British have already conquered India. and fallguy for British imperial policy. It is the year of grace 1850. and with that. and for 35 years there is scarcely a cabinet without Palmerston as foreign secretary or prime minister. . is Lord Palmerston. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents Speaking from the vantage point of Lord Palmerston’s British Empire circa 1850. The schoolboys of Vienna sing that if the devil has a son. saying that wherever in the world a British subject goes. that son is Lord Palmerston. the third Viscount Palmerston. a Regency buck always on the lookout for a new mistress.century devil.Lord Palmerston’s Multicultural Human Zoo « TARPLEY. the universal empire was proclaimed. and Gladstones – simply cannot match.S. are the haunts of this nineteenth. Palmerston was first a Tory. reducing every other nation to the role of a puppet.

Shortly after that. where they now spend their time playing cards. Typical John Stuart Mill. There was war in Italy. the British will back Napoleon in his project of putting a Hapsburg archduke on the throne of an ephemeral Mexican Empire – the Maximilian Project. despite the defeats. Palmerston and the East India Company have been waging Opium Wars against the Chinese Empire. British policy has been to play the card of national liberation against each of these rival empires. under the autocrat Nicholas I or the reformer Alexander II. Already the British have Hong Kong and the other treaty ports. But in the conflagration the British will get rid of the Great Mogul and the Mogul Empire. As soon as the war against Russia is over. These projects will be closely coordinated with Palmerston’s plans to eliminate the only two nations still able to oppose him – the Russia of Alexander II and the United States of Abraham Lincoln. when the Stars and Bars are lowered over Vicksburg. Then. the British Empire will be stopped – just short of its goal. or Bonapartists – are generally pliant tools of London. There is also the matter of the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. and it will be called the Crimean War. the Holy Alliance of Austria. is the author of “On Liberty. and Prussia had to be broken up. Metternich of Austria and King Louis Philippe of France fled to London. partly to get them to open their ports to opium from India. when Lee’s wave breaks at Gettysburg. Men said his rule was shored up by a standing army of soldiers. Lord Palmerston likes to call these the “arbitrary powers. also known as Napoleon le Petit. Since 1842. Just short – and yet. looting and burning the summer palace of the emperor. barricades in Paris. a kneeling army of priests.” Above all. and in the course of that year. at least for a time. Palmerston and John Stuart Mill at the British East India Company will start the Great Mutiny in India. Lord Palmerston arranged an insurrection in Sicily. But when the Russian fleets sail into New York and San Francisco. civil war in Austria. Lord Palmerston will be the evil demiurge of the American Civil War.” The British would like to give China the same treatment they are giving India. with the exception of the United States. and now Lord Palmerston is preparing to invade Russia. The imperial theme was sounded in 1846 with the free trade policy. and impose their direct rule in all of India. using British networks that went back to Lord Nelson. And as we look forward for a century and a half from 1850. and also as a way to conquer China. not for the sake of Poland. Palmerston hated Metternich. There was vast Imperial Russia. Russia. Britain’s declaration of intent to loot the world in the name of the pound. British geopolitics. the French – be they restored Bourbons. despite the challenges. a sitting army of bureaucrats. Muslim soldiers will be told that new cartridges are greased with pig fat. But in central and eastern Europe. Orleanists. but for the sake of starting a general European war against Russia. Starting with Lord Byron’s Greek Revolution in the 1820s. which some historians will call the Sepoy Rebellion. There was the Kingdom of Prussia. a very strong land power. The only exception to the rule was Russia. Lee.During the Napoleonic Wars. That started the great revolutionary year of 1848. despite the putrefaction of Britain itself. British hegemony will still be great enough to launch the two world wars of the twentieth century. He. with the help of his strategic catamite. For Britain to rule the world. and every monarchy badly shaken. and the result will be what you would expect. That will start in about three years. and the third conflagration that will start in 1991. the mastermind of secession. Metternich presided over one of the most pervasive police states in history. there was Prince Metternich’s Austrian Empire. of course. the embodiment and ideologue of the Congress of Vienna system. every government in Europe was toppled. will remain the dominant . Napoleon III. and a creeping army of informers. Hindu soldiers will be told the cartridges are greased with cow fat. After 1815. And in the midst of that war. By 1860. the British managed to conquer most of the world outside of Europe. in January 1848. Palmerston will detonate a rebellion in Poland against Russian rule. and tumult in Germany. far more important for the Confederacy than Jefferson Davis or Robert E. the British will be in Beijing.

Then. but when he needed to start the 1848 revolutions. For a while Mazzini worked for the Carbonari. leadership of the Slavic world. The fleet is formidable. the duty of thought and action to serve the destiny of the racial collectivities.” says Mazzini. and the fleet – are the heart of what is called the British Empire. these Three Stooges are named Giuseppe Mazzini. and that if you can control culture. in 1831. Mazzini thinks that each modern nation has a “mission”: The British would take care of Industry and Colonies. There is only one monarchy which Mazzini supports. the Poles. or when the time will come for the American Civil War. the Russians. the papacy. Under Lord Palmerston. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. but that the era of Christianity. so Mazzini does not support the independence of Ireland. the bulldog breed. it is the negation of every authority that fails to represent the Collective Aim of the Nation. our first Stooge. and so forth. So do not be surprised if we find Palmerston’s Three Stooges lashing out with slanders. Pam has the Foreign Office. Mazzini is a Genoese admirer of the diabolical Venetian friar Paolo Sarpi. but Britain lives by looting the colonies. Lord Palmerston himself.determination in a centralized dictatorship. For some strange reason. Victoria. PALMERSTON’S THREE STOOGES How do the British do it? How can a clique of depraved aristocrats on this tight little island bid to rule the entire world? Don’t believe the stories about the workshop of the world. and every other institution which attempts to bring God to man must be abolished. Mazzini teaches that Christianity developed the human individual. Mazzini’s cry is “God and the People” [Dio e Popolo]. only a collective soul. and Curly. the Germans get Thought. The French get Action. Moe. the protagonists of history are not individuals any more. “Liberty. They are Lord Palmerston’s Three Stooges. he turns to a troika of agents. These Three Stooges – far more than the Union Jack. MAZZINI’S TERRORIST REVOLUTION Mazzini has concocted a very effective terrorist belief structure. and bombs against each other. but also overrated. and Curly often had to work together on this or that project. today’s President of France. The army is third-rate. Populism becomes an ersatz religion. According to Mazzini. But their relations were never exactly placid. Mazzini founded his Young Italy secret society. of human rights. the Catholic Church.] You understand: Their stock in trade was infantile violence. There is only Duty. We will get to know Lord Palmerston’s Three Stooges better. the thin gray line of heroes. England supports all revolutions – except her own – and the leading revolutionary in Her Majesty’s Secret Service is Giuseppe Mazzini. Every national grouping that can be identified must be given independence and self. and even against their august master. Larry. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. you can control the way people think. and very vulnerable to serious challenges. sent him articles for his magazine. understood as racial nationalities. one thing must be understood. but peoples. But first. the Home Office. Mazzini’s father was a physician to Queen Victoria’s father. “is not the negation of all authority. Take our friend Lord Palmerston. there are some factories here. Larry. [Slapstick episode from a "The Three Stooges" movie is shown to the audience. is now over.” There is no individual human soul. and then statesmen and fleets and armies will bend to your will. In the coming century. which means that the people are the new God. there is no mission for Ireland. the civilizing of Asia.factor in world affairs. Mazzini is adamant that there are no inalienable human rights. But the British have learned from the Venetians that the greatest force in history is the force of ideas. and David Urquhart. one of Napoleon’s Freemasonic fronts. From now on. of freedom. But instead of Moe. because he says it has deep roots among the people: You . knives. Mussolini and the Italian Fascists will repeat many of Mazzini’s ideas verbatim. and Whitehall.

During this time he was planning to set up his own Italian national church on the Anglican model. arranged with Gioberti. William Henry Ashurst. death squads operated in Rome. Mazzini’s agents. In 1860. God.” Right now Mazzini is here in London. Ramorino was executed for treason. the Earl of Shaftesbury. through an Italian confederation. In the thirties and forties. members of Young Italy. In November 1848. and other Piedmontese. he rushed to Milan as soon as the Austrians had been driven out and tried to start trouble. Mazzini ruled the Papal States as one of three dictators. and their supporters. Cavour. Mazzini will be a hated and reviled figure. enjoying the support of Lord Ashley. Mazzini is close to the protofascist writer Thomas Carlyle. The defense of Rome was organized by Giuseppe Garibaldi. Queen Victoria. Lord Palmerston said that Mazzini’s regime in Rome was “far better than any the Romans have had for centuries.guessed it. Bowring is Jeremy Bentham’s literary executor. a Protestant fanatic who also happens to be Lord Palmerston’s son-in-law. Mazzini travels readily on the continent using false passports. Mazzini’s direct access to the British government payroll comes through James Stansfeld. Garibaldi. a junior Lord of the Admiralty and a very high official of British intelligence. mainly to stop Russia from allying with Austria in the Crimean War. Some churches were sacked. all Grand Orient Freemasons. One of Mazzini’s agents. Mazzini has tried to put this into practice just last year. During that time. From March to June of 1849. let the Austrian commander Radetzky outflank the Piedmontese and win the battle of Novara. and has been having an affair with Carlyle’s wife. Mazzini’s role in Italy has been that of a marplot. without making her powerful. Palmerston’s special envoy for Italy. For this. there was a chance that Pius IX’s very capable reforming minister Pellegrino Rossi could unify Italy and solve the Roman Question in a constructive way. and the People. and many confessionals were burned. featuring himself. In 1855. Mazzini was targeting Piedmont in the north. who had joined Mazzini’s Young Italy in the early 1830s. which would harm England. Mazzini is also an assassination bureau. as is John Bowring of the Foreign Office. and then try to provoke a civil war between Garibaldi’s dictatorship in the south and Cavour’s Piedmontese government in the north. Last year. Mazzini preaches an Italian revolution for the Third Rome: After the Rome of the Caesars and the Rome of the Popes comes the Rome of the People. a terrorist. an assassin. In 1848. John Stuart Mill of India House is another of Mazzini’s friends. In 1848. an Englishman. the man who will provoke the second Opium War against China. a rabbi. still trying to break up Piedmont. The king abdicated. General Ramorino. By that time. and Mazzini tried to break up Piedmont with a revolt in Genoa. One of Metternich’s henchmen has said that Palmerston’s policy is to make Italy turbulent. a wrecker. Ancona. a Mazzini agent named Giovanni Pianori will . and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the south. he will be thrown out of Naples as a provocateur. the pope must be driven out. Stansfeld provided the money for Mazzini’s Roman Republic. which is bad for Austria. especially after Napoleon’s army finished off Mazzini’s Roman Republic. chaired by the pope. but British propaganda and British support will keep him going. Mazzini staged a monstrous mock Eucharist in the Vatican he called the Novum Pascha. stabbed Pellegrino Rossi to death. In 1860. Stansfeld’s father-in-law. and other cities. Three years from now. Stooge violence between Mazzini and Napoleon III is always intense. For Easter 1849. His specialty is sending his brainwashed dupes to their deaths in terrorist attacks. But a French army sent by fellow Stooge Louis Napoleon drove out Mazzini. but Piedmont had lost the first war for Italian liberation. A few years after that Mazzini will try another insurrection in Genova. Mazzini will stage an abortive revolt against the Austrians in Milan. is another of Mazzini’s patrons. He hides out and always succeeds in saving himself. The killer was in touch with Lord Minto. armed Young Italy gangs forced Pope Pius IX to flee from Rome to Naples. he will encourage Garibaldi to sail to Sicily. posing as an American.

Coburg. whose leaders included the revolutionaries Lelewel and Worcell. Ledru-Rollin. when they have none? Attempts to kill Napoleon are financed by the Tibaldi Fund. Young Europe was billed as the Holy Alliance of the Peoples. Aldo Moro. in February 1858. a Russian house. now the king of Belgium. Shortly thereafter there followed Young Poland.attempt to kill Napoleon III. 20 years from now. Stanley Worcell. George Sanders: Mazzini. stretches back in unbroken continuity to the Mazzini networks of today. and ruining the economy. Mazzini’s Young Italy is always the party of the dagger. poor. there . Felice Orsini. and Polish components. 21. Garibaldi. Like the Foreign Office and the Admiralty which he serves. THE ETHNIC THEME PARKS OF MAZZINI’S ZOO Mazzini’s work for the British extends far beyond Italy. By 1835. featuring Arnold Ruge. this crew will come together at the home of the American consul. Have Napoleon’s forces outshone the bungling British in the Crimea? Are the British nervous about Napoleon’s new ironclad battleship. Leopold of Saxe. Jurgen Ponto. In 1834. a monkey house. opposed to Metternich’s Holy Alliance of despots. Mazzini encompasses the world. Detlev Rohwedder. bringing down one government after another. This is the Young Germany satirized by Heinrich Heine. it will come in the form of a highly centralized state dominated by Grand Orient Freemasons. and the like. Louis Kossuth. When unity comes.Gotha. In a normal zoo there is an elephant house. Mazzini tried to kill King Carlo Alberto of Piedmont. the Italian Republican Party will identify with Mazzini. and U. 1854. The Mazzini networks offer us a fascinating array of movements and personalities. the Catholics will refuse to take part in politics. who had published some material by an obscure German “red republican” named Karl Marx. holy was the dagger which Harmodius crowned with roses. like DePretis and Crispi. one for each ethnic group. Then came Young Germany. attracting the young sailor Giuseppe Garibaldi and Louis Napoleon. traitor and future President James Buchanan. professional killers. Mazzinis. Mazzini founded “Young Europe. holy was the dagger of Brutus. London’s future ability to assassinate men like Walter Rathenau. a Hungarian house. holy the poniard of the Sicilian who began the Vespers. and Ugo LaMalfa and his friends will continue Mazzini’s efforts to make sure that Italy is weak and divided. Swiss.S. and a French court will convict Mazzini. At other times. as we have seen. Arnold Ruge. In Mazzini’s human zoo there is an Italian house. On Feb. the sword which cut short the life of Holofernes was holy. Later. For 30 years the prime ministers will be Mazzini’s agents.” with Italian. After Mussolini. Felice Orsini. there will be an attempt to blow up Napoleon by one of Mazzini’s closest and best known lieutenants from the Roman Republic. There are agents and dupes. Aleksandr Herzen. Young Italy. Legranges. an American house. of the stiletto. Let us walk through the various theme parks in the zoo and identify some of the specimens. a Polish house. Napoleon will get the message that it is time to get busy and start a war against Austria in 1859. etc. and criminal energy types. holy the arrow of Tell. Because of the violent liquidation of the Papal States. fellow travelers. Italy will remain weak. Mazzini’s court of miracles was a public scandal.” Indeed. There will also be a Peabody from the counting house. Alfred Herrhausen. LedruRollins. Mazzini’s human zoo is divided into theme parks or pavilions. run by Mazzini and set up by Sir James Stansfeld of the Admiralty. We can think of Mazzini as the zookeeper of a universal human zoo. … to let loose occasionally on the continent to render its quiet and prosperity impossible. was founded in 1831. Mazzini is actually doing everything he can to prevent Italian unity. has been complaining to his niece Queen Victoria that in London there is maintained “a sort of menagerie of Kossuths. German.” Vintage Mazzini. and divided. “In the hands of Judith. an alligator pond.

each other. and with the military forces of the Croatian leader Jellacich. and to his Serbian south Slav entity. Germans. a nationality means a race. Cats fight dogs. and sometimes called B’nai B’rith. a Masonic group in the United States is gearing up to support the pro-slavery doughface Franklin Pierce for President in 1852. he has a Serbian organization. Croatians. We have seen some Italian cages. Kossuth was for free trade. Because of the ceaseless strife of Hungarians and Croatians. and others. a close friend of Mazzini’s who was with him last year during the Roman . Romanians. a fixed array of behavior like a breed of dog or a species of animal. Young Bosnia.was also a Young Switzerland. next comes the Hungarian theme park in the zoo. and for that reason. stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the shores of the Black Sea. Mazzini had promised the same territories to Hungary.49. who later became the interior minister in Lamartine’s short-lived Second French Republic of 1848. Ukrainians. And yes. there is also a Palmerston. which they did. Young Egypt. These hatreds are the main datum of sensory perception. In that same year Mazzini launched Young France. Young India. There was also Young Corsica. Serbs. By the end of this century we will have a Young Argentina (founded by Garibaldi). Young Armenia. Germans fight Poles. it proved possible for the Hapsburgs to save their police state with the help of a Russian army. In the orbit of Young Poland is the poet Adam Mickiewicz. French fight Germans. which was the Mafia. Young Russia. Mazzini’s warhorse is the Territorial Imperative. In the future there will be the Young Turks. It is a matter of blood and soil. and Greece. But within the Hungarian part of the Hapsburg Empire there were many other national groups – Poles. This includes an explicit denial that any Ukrainian nation exists. He wanted equal status for Hungarians in the Austrian Empire – equal with the Austrians. not only Hapsburgs and Romanovs. Bulgaria. Hungary. the Young Czechs. Our principal specimen here is Louis Kossuth. race is unchangeable. He is not thinking of a national community united by a literate language and a classical culture to which any person can become assimilated through a political choice. a leader of the Hungarian revolution of 1848. last year. and they call themselves Young America. We will find the same thing in viewing the Polish and Russian pavilions. and each finds a way to oppose and sabotage dirigist economic development. they are the radical wing of the Democratic Party. So Young Hungary and Young Romania were pre-programmed to fight to the death over Transylvania. claimed by the Hungarians but also by the Young Romania of Dimitirie Golescu. The Young Poland of Lelewel and Worcell demands the re-creation of the Polish state and rollback of the 1772-95 partitions of Poland. There was also conflict with the Serbs. For Mazzini. Each of Mazzini’s organizations demands immediate national liberation for its own ethnic group on the basis of aggressive chauvinism and expansionism. Young Romania’s program was to restore the Kingdom of Dacia as it had existed before the Roman Emperor Trajan. Right now. Would they receive political and linguistic autonomy? Kossuth’s answer was to ban all official use of the Slavic and Romanian languages in favor of Hungarian. Each one is eager to submerge and repress other national groupings in pursuit of its own mystical destiny. But they go much further. but most of all. The guiding light here was Ledru-Rollin. That will have to wait for Mazzini’s student Woodrow Wilson and the Versailles peace conference of 1919. plus similar groupings in Romania. Mazzini is especially interested in creating a south Slavic federation dominated by Belgrade. Hungarians and Romanians.Mazzini group for Jews. The ethnic theme houses of the zoo thus sally forth to fight. sometimes called Young Israel. another Mazzini agent. This is Mazzini’s racist gospel of universal ethnic cleansing. and so on through all eternity. and race is destiny. For Mazzini. Kossuth was therefore on course for a bloody collision with the Illyrian movement for Greater Croatia. to the Illyrian Croatians. Each is obsessed with borders and territory. laying claim to Poland in its old Jagiellonian borders. Hungarians and Serbians. Then there was the question of Transylvania.

If Mazzini relies on the stiletto.” both leak sheets for British secret intelligence that will build up their readership by divulging Russian state secrets. But already today we can see the conflicts ahead between Young Poland and Young Russia. Herzen’s obvious target is Czar Alexander II. the Tuscan Freemason Adriano Lemmi. Herzen prints the ravings of Bakunin. plus the Russian legal Marxists.” By this he means Russia. Sanders. Kossuth will refuse to call for the abolition of slavery.Confederates or strict abolitionists. Young America will back the dark horse doughface Democrat.” Mickiewicz dreams of uniting all the west and south Slavs against the “tyrant of the north. Herzen. Poland is “the Christ among nations. and will lose most of his readers. London will be betting on the nihilist terrorists of the Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will). Franklin Pierce. the British will have little use for Herzen. Herzen is an agent of Baron James Rothschild of Paris. the future editor of the “Democratic Review. In the 1852 election. all British agents. who preaches pan-Slavism. Turin. During the American Civil War. By then. who will finally kill Alexander II.S. Mazzini’s American contacts are either proto. let us view the cages in the American theme park in Mazzini’s human zoo. This subversion will be showcased during the famous tour of Kossuth in the United States. Kossuth’s line will be that the “tree of evil and despotism” in Europe “is Russia. he preaches reliance on the aboriginal Slavic village. the mir. Right after the Crimean War. Now. Here they will support Mazzini and his gang. such as William Lloyd Garrison. Kossuth will be accompanied by Mazzini’s moneybags.” the “barbarians of the north. He writes of the need for a “new Attila. In the moment when the British will seem so close to winning everything. . for Bakunin it is “the peasant’s axe” that will bring down the “German” regime in St. Once the American Civil War is over.” is totally hostile to western civilization.” Kossuth will try to blame even the problems of Italy on Russia. although he is usually called a “westernizer. the United States will emerge as the only power friendly to Russia during the Crimean conflict. Young Poland’s program also foreshadows the obvious conflict with Young Germany over Silesia. which meshes perfectly with the secessionist program. with “communal ownership of the land” plus the ancient Slavic workshop. seizure of Cuba. the main target. Herzen is interested in sabotaging Alexander II and his policy of real. South Carolina. The name was popularized in 1845 by Edwin DeLeon. Scott’s Whig Party will be destroyed. Edwin DeLeon will later be one of the leaders of the Confederate espionage organization in Europe. who will be able to tear down the old Europe.” perhaps Russian. Petersburg. “Out of an ocean of blood and fire there will rise in Moscow high in the sky the star of the revolution to become the guide of liberated mankind. against the patriot Winfield Scott. the artel. Kossuth will call for the United States to join with England and France in war against Russia – Lord Palmerston’s dream scenario. the ally of Lincoln. Young America operatives will receive important posts in London. On the eve of the Crimean War. Young Russia means the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin and the aristocratic ideologue Aleksandr Herzen. Mazzini will favor both the abolition of slavery and the destruction of the Union through secessionism – the London line. the son of a Scottish Rite. This is Young America. In the conflicts among Mazzini’s national chauvinist operations. Jewish slave-trading family of Charleston. next year and the year after.” Young America’s view of Manifest Destiny is a slave empire in Mexico and the Caribbean. perhaps American. since he will also be attempting to mediate a U. The leader of Young America is George N. Herzen will support Palmerston’s Polish insurrection of 1863. Herzen sees Russia as the “center of crystallization” for the entire Slavic world. with Palmerston doing everything to isolate Russia. To block real industrial capitalist development. Kossuth will get on well with the slaveholders. Herzen will start publishing “The Polar Star” and “The Bell. Despite Kossuth’s efforts. Mickiewicz argues that Poland is special because it has suffered more than any other nation. and other European capitals.” Vintage Bakunin. anti-British reform in Russia.Republic. we can see the roots of the slaughter of World War I. The mir will never build the Trans-Siberian railway. perhaps both. meaning that Russia will take over all the other Slavic nations. Madrid.

Napoleon III.” Marx is a professed admirer of Urquhart – acknowledging his influence more than that of any other living person.” Palmerston understands that his subversive methods will always generate opposition from the Tory gentry and the straight-laced crowd. the problem of Great Britain is that Palmerston is a Russian agent. The custodians are Palmerston’s two other Stooges. Urquhart will move to France. So he has taken the precaution of institutionalizing that opposition under his own control. multicultural zoo. Petersburg. Marx and Urquhart agree that there is no real absolute profit in capitalism. Urquhart’s demonization of Russia foreshadows something that will be called McCarthyism a century from now. Urquhart’s positive contribution to civilization was his popularization of the Turkish bath. the unification of Italy is a Russian plot. who lavishly praised “our David” in his letters. To these workers Urquhart teaches something he calls dialectics. and concluded after ten minutes that Mazzini was a Russian agent! The usual Stooge on Stooge violence again! For this Russophobe. which was always on the verge of war with Russia. the Russian Countess Lieven. “The people of England were better clothed and fed when there was no commerce and when there were no factories. “The Free Press. He also kept a harem for some time. the most aristocratic of Palmerston’s Stooges. THE SECOND STOOGE: DAVID URQUHART There is also a theme park for the English lower orders.Mazzini is the zookeeper for all of these theme parks. Urquhart will be a member of Parliament and he controls a weekly paper. he started off as a Carbonaro and terrorist in contact with . David Urquhart and Napoleon III. Another of Urquhart’s operatives is Lothar Bucher. Urquhart bought up working class leaders and drilled them in the litany that all of the problems of the English working man came from Russia via Lord Palmerston. but then found he liked Turks better after all.” based on Urquhart’s wild obsession that Pam is a Russian agent of influence. Urquhart became convinced that all the evil in the world had a single root: Russia. For Urquhart. The keeper here is the strange and eccentric Scot. Does this talk of pre-capitalist economic formations strike a familiar chord? Do you smell a big. he will meet Pius IX and will join members of Cardinal Newman’s Oxford Movement at the First Vatican Council in 1870. and open a theme park for right-wing Catholics. Otto von Bismarck himself. David Urquhart is the founder of modern communism! It is Urquhart who will prescribe the plan for “Das Kapital. But there are other zookeepers. having been recruited by one of his many mistresses. Urquhart’s remedy is to go back to the simplicity of character of Merrie England. and later of the Iron Chancellor. who earns his keep as a writer for Urquhart’s paper. Urquhart was chosen for his work directly by Jeremy Bentham.” As we have seen. A very convenient view for Palmerston’s Britain. the machinations of the court of St. During the years of Chartist agitation.” becoming an Ottoman pasha in his lifestyle. He once met Mazzini. fat commie rat? How interesting that Urquhart should be the controller of British agent Karl Marx. Marx will even compose a “Life of Lord Palmerston. He secured a post at the British Embassy in Constantinople and “went native. and that technological progress causes a falling rate of profit. After Gettysburg. Urquhart also thought that late Ottoman feudalism was a model of what civilization ought to be. This says enough about Marx’s acumen as a political analyst. “Napoleon le Petit. David Urquhart. with a raving megalomaniac leader to discredit it. in the sense of retrogression to bucolic medieval myth. THE THIRD STOOGE: NAPOLEON III Our third Stooge is the current President and soon-to-be emperor of France. a confidant of the German labor leader Lassalle. and still more theme parks in the human.” That is vintage Urquhart. In Turkey. Urquhart took part in Lord Byron’s Greek revolution.

but only erred in trying to expand his empire at the expense of Great Britain. He began work on his book. he will bequeath to France a party of protofascist colonialists and revanchists beating the drum for Alsace. The French pavilion of the zoo is being redecorated with a new version of British empiricism: This is positivism. After his defeat in the Franco.Prussian war.” That means all of France as a theme park in the British zoo. causing hysteria on the part of the Victoria and Albert palace clique. THE IDEOLOGY OF BRITISH IMPERIALISM The British Empire exists in the mind of its victims. egged on by Camillo Benso di Cavour who knows how to play the interstices. and he has a bladder ailment. The bladder operation designed to make him a man on horseback once again will instead kill him. Palmerston was forced out. Think of him as a blow-up British agent. Bismarck will defeat Napoleon and send him into exile in England. Napoleon tried to parlay his famous name into a successful putsch.” His main idea was that the original Napoleon was not wrong to be an imperialist. he will pick up a junior partner colonial empire in Senegal and in Indo-China in 1862. This is the empire of senses. Palmerston quickly endorsed the coup. In 1836. Napoleon III is Palmerston’s strategic catamite. and the French Socialist Party of today. This will lead to the French structuralists.” the “Anglo-French. These revanchists will turn up again in Vichy. but he was soon back. During the American Civil War. something that will set the stage for the Vietnam War a century later. the Fourth Republic. The “western powers. Napoleon. Here Napoleon will plan a comeback after the Paris Commune. In 1870. There is plenty of room for a French Empire as a junior partner to the British. There Napoleon III used his name to become President. Soon an open Anglo-French entente was in full swing. Napoleon III gave Palmerston one indispensable ingredient for his imperial strategy: a powerful land army. In 1860 Napoleon will sign a free trade treaty with the British. and then organized a coup d’etat that made him emperor. it was the first war in 400 years to see France and England on the same side. ethnologists. placed under a more or less dependable British puppet regime. When Napoleon joined Palmerston in attacking Russia in the Crimea. Napoleon’s pro-Confederate stance will be even more aggressive than Palmerston’s own. usually with as much will of his own as an inflatable sex doll. he failed and was exiled to America. of sense . will oblige with the war of 1859 and the great Battle of Solferino. The preferred form of government would be democratic Caesarism. France will build the Suez Canal. And so it will come to pass that Lord Palmerston will attempt to rule the world through the agency of a triumvirate of Stooges. After the Crimea. which Napoleon will lose to Bismarck. The reason why must now be confronted. Under Napoleon. Along the way. each one the warden of some pavilions of a human zoo. In 1848 Napoleon was working for the British as a special constable – a riot cop – to put down an expected Chartist revolution. the miserable outlook of Auguste Comte and Ernest Renan. France at last had been broken. only to have it fall under the control of the British. stronger than ever. Napoleon will be eager to send a fleet and an army. he was then shipped to Paris. Napoleon III will furnish the prototype for the fascist dictators of the twentieth century.Mazzini. When Victoria came to Paris it was the first such visit by an English sovereign since Henry VI had been crowned King of France in Notre Dame in 1431. When the time will come for Maximilian’s Mexican adventure. “Les Idees Napoleoniques. but he will need to be seen on horseback. with frequent plebiscites. Napoleon III calls himself a socialist and will style the latter phase of his regime “the liberal empire. After hundreds of years of warfare.Lorraine. and even deconstructionists of the late twentieth century.” were born. Palmerston will need a land war against Austria in northern Italy. Then Napoleon was given a private study at the new British Museum reading room and frequented Lord Palmerston.

and in that of Pomponazzi’s pupil. Venice was a cancer consciously planning its own metastasis.scholastic and Averroist outgrowths. The result was a century and a half of wars of religion. It is the empire of British philosophical radicalism. After the defeat of Leibniz’s attempt to save England. for one thing. the monopoly on slave commerce with Spanish America. First. and Henry VIII. The Venetians responded by launching the Protestant Reformation with three proto-Stooges – Luther. their fondi. Earl of Chatham. there came the great war of the mideighteenth century. By winning the coveted asiento. Contarini’s relative and neighbor Francesco Zorzi was sent to serve as sex adviser to Henry VIII. Here the hegemonic Giovani party would relocate their family fortunes. The wealth of Bristol and Liverpool would be built on slaves. but the main bets were placed further north.’” During the years after the Council of Florence in 1439. and pragmatism. the great Venetian gamemaster of the early 1600s. the British became the biggest slave merchants in the world. The great Whig and Tory aristocrats set as their goal a new. To combat Cusa’s Renaissance Platonism. and put Dante and Piccolomini on the Index of Prohibited Books. The Venetians knew that France or Spain could crush them like so many flies. Great Britain set off on the path of empire with its new Hanoverian Guelph dynasty. When James I and Charles I disappointed the Venetians in that Thirty Years’ War. After several decades of Walpole and the Hell-Fire Clubs. they call themselves the Venetian Party. and their characteristic epistemology. the architect of the Thirty Years’ War.” culminating in the Great Crisis of the seventeenth century. whose raging libido would be the key to Venetian hopes. the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688 gave birth to the most perfect imitation of the Venetian oligarchical system ever created. world. Milton. Louis XIV and Colbert were defeated by divide. The Venetian Party in England grew under the early Stuarts as Francis Bacon and his wife Thomas Hobbes imported the neo. Zorzi brought Rosicrucian mysticism and Freemasonry to a land that Venetian bankers had been looting for centuries.conquer Venetian geopolitics. The Peace of Utrecht left the British supreme on the oceans.and. During the War of the League of Cambrai of 1509-17. as British cash was used to hire states like Brandenburg and Savoy to fight the French. At the same time. and with a ‘Venetian constitution. Calvin. From their lagoon. This was the time of the Irish genocide and the foundation of the overseas empire in Jamaica. of utilitarianism. the Venetians chose a swamp and an island facing the North Atlantic – Holland and the British Isles. Why are the British liberal imperialists called the Venetian Party? Well. the Venetian enemies of Nicolaus of Cusa plotted to wage war on the Italian High Renaissance and Cusa’s ecumenical project. of hedonistic calculus.certainty. the empire of empiricism. France was also colonized. Contarini and his Jesuits made Aristotle a central component of the Catholic CounterReformation and the Council of Trent. The War of the Spanish Succession in 1702-13 was the first war fought on a world scale and the last gasp for rivals Spain and Holland.encompassing Roman Empire with its center in London. William Pitt. the Venetians of the Rialto and Padua turned to a new-look Aristotelianism. Gasparo Contarini. making the kings into doges. an alliance of virtually every power in Europe threatened to wipe out the Venetian oligarchy. After the depravity of the Restoration. and a menagerie of sectarians were brought to power in an all-Protestant civil war and Commonwealth. existentialism. Cromwell. the Austrian Succession followed by the Seven Years’ War.Aristotelianism of Fra Paolo Sarpi. featuring Aristotle’s characteristic outlook shorn of its medieval. The future prime minister Benjamin Disraeli will write in his novel “Conningsby” that the Whig aristocrats of 1688 wanted “to establish in England a high aristocratic republic on the model of [Venice]. This was expressed in the work of Pietro Pomponazzi. and a “little dark age. . This was the end of France as a naval power and worldwide rival for the British.

and he remained at the court for the rest of his life. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815. 1825. free trade. and Washington. Napoleon’s final defeat was the work of Scharnhorst. for nothing could now stand against them. the group of islands in a lagoon at the top of the Adriatic. William Pitt the Younger.” Francisco Zorzi of Venice. In 1536. the Youngsters. usury. and geopolitics was Venice. In 1525. Metternich was still sitting on the lid of the boiling European cauldron. like their successors after 1989. Shelburne was defeated by the superior ability of Hamilton. These were the founders of British philosophical radicalism. In the sixteenth century. the author of the long narrative poem “The Faerie Queene. But under the regimes of Castlereagh and Canning. and 1830. his stooges. their Quebec Act. and third coalitions.” Spencer is a key source for the idea of English imperial destiny as God’s chosen people. Zorzi wrote his second major work. But. but they were still obliged to make deals with Metternich. in loading the American colonies with their prohibitions of settlement and manufacture. but Lord Palmerston and his Three Stooges were stoking the flames underneath. and Prussia. and the Prussian reformers. Stamp Acts.subsidized Frederick the Great of Prussia to win an empire on the plains of Germany. the close friend and relative of Gasparo Contarini. began meeting in a salon known as Ridotto Morosini. violating the laws of nature without penalty. when he was at the English court. and Intolerable Acts. greed. Using the armies raised by Lazare Carnot. with Zorzi assuring the aspiring wizard that Christian angels will guard him to make sure he does not fall into the hands of demons. The reign of terror in the French Revolution was the work of agents and dupes of Shelburne among the Jacobins. and incompetence of Metternich and Co. After letting the Jacobin horrors of Bentham’s agents brew up for three years. and sans-culottes. driving the French out of Canada. the British were clearly the dominant force. Napoleon shattered each of these coalitions. In these years William Petty. Pitt was able to unite the continental powers against France in the first. Zorzi was a great influence on certain Elizabethan poets. By now British policy was in the hands of Shelburne’s student and protégé. were convinced that they could run wild. who was sent by the Venetian oligarchy to England as the sex advisor to Henry VIII. These were Jeremy Bentham. but the beneficiaries were the British. Adam Smith. Louisburg and then seized Quebec City. The British took Ft. but he did succeed in destabilizing and nearly destroying France. Zorzi had published the treatise “De Harmonia Mundi. These were the years during which the patrician party known as the Giovani. was a Cabalist and Rosicrucian. Franklin. Sir Philip Sydney was a follower of Zorzi. in the wake of the war of the League of Cambrai. the most primitive form of Aristotle yet devised. made possible the revolts and revolutions of 1820. “In Scripturam Sacram Problemata. Townsend Acts. they set the stage for the American Revolution. The British oligarchs of the day. Edward Gibbon. Lord Palmerston was ready to take control of the Foreign Office and begin his direct march to undisputed world domination. as was the immensely popular Edmund Spencer.” which uses the cabalistic Sephiroth to expound a mystical. gathered a stable of ideologues and operatives. Chorus: “The consolidation of the Venetian Party in England and Britain was a question of culture. There was a time when the center of oligarchy. Zorzi came to London to deliver his opinion. Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare . In 1529. the oligarchical stupidity. with broad hints of British Israel. It is here that the future course of England and Britain was charted. Venice was a cancer planning its own metastasis. building up an important party of followers – the nucleus of the modern Venetian Party in England. Russia. Earl of Shelburne and Marquis of Lansdowne. and its Siamese twin. The British became the paramount power in India. Gneisenau.” This is a manual of magic. enrages. irrationalist outlook and to undercut the influence of Nicolaus of Cusa. By 1830. second.

Kant was able to defend customary ideas of religion and morality. For Hume also.” but the Venetian school was carried on by the Rosicrucian Robert Fludd. there is no necessary connection between a cause and an effect that the human mind can know with certainty. and. and Hume’s skepticism became bolder and more radical. for whom the human mind was a blank slate destined to be filled by sense perceptions. is an example of the proVenetian Puritan of the Cromwell Commonwealth period. adventurers. Milton was the contemporary of Sabbatai Zevi. which burst on the world in 1665? The British East India Company was founded in 1600. The two liberals Kant and Hume had a broad common ground in their determination to eradicate the influence of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. The later Hume. John Milton. had been a retailer of Hume’s ideas. the admirer of Paolo Sarpi and apologist for usury. all of which was taken directly from such Venetians as Paul Paruta and Pietro Sarpi. Hume had at least accepted the importance of filling the tabula rasa of each new human mind with a stock of received ideas of conduct which can be lumped under the heading of morals or custom. who had reached a sub-Aristotelian level. [Chorus] British empiricism started from Francis Bacon’s inductive method based on sense certainty. during his long teaching career at Königsberg.” totally repudiated the notion of custom and morality in favor of an unbridled hedonism that points towards the depths of pederasty and degradation inhabited by Jeremy Bentham. With Bacon is Thomas Hobbes. there is really no human self. But in these same earlier works. During Hume’s later years. Perception was the only existence there was. But when Hume repudiated all notion of custom and traditional morality. of course. necessarily dominated by a tyrannical leviathan state. For Hume. such as Diamond Pitt. were freebooting around India. Then came the Scots lawyer and diplomat David Hume. Turkey. Prussia. Hume attacks the idea of cause and effect. whose father was an agent for English Puritan merchants. Immanuel Kant. against Hume. by Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes. “das Sittengesetz. [Chorus] . who denied any basis in reality to our sense impressions: They are a kind of videotape played in each one of our heads by some unknown supernatural agency. In his “Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding” and other earlier works. On this basis.both attacked Zorzi’s influence in such plays as “Doctor Faustus” and “Othello. but merely a bundle of changing perceptions. Kant responded with the “Critique of Pure Reason” to defend the notion of cause and effect as one of Aristotle’s categories. Milton taught that the Son of God is inferior to the Father. By 1672. including religion.” The Kant-Hume split illustrates why British liberal empiricism tends to be several degrees more rotten than its continental European counterparts. Locke’s hedonism led him to the conclusion that human freedom was an absurd contradiction in terms. who wrote of human society as a war of all against all. Locke was followed by the solipsist George Berkeley. Did Milton’s “Paradise Regained” of 1671 reflect knowledge of Sabbatai Zevi’s meteoric career. a kind of afterthought. we only have a vague association or habit of thought that one phenomenon has usually been follow by another. even Kant could not follow. and in any case not necessary. the power of the Shelburne faction became dominant in Britain. Then came John Locke. as in his “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. the false messiah from Smyrna.

[Chorus] B’nai B’rith networks will have a devastating impact on the culture of the twentieth century. After the Second World War.founding and re-organizing B’nai B’rith in Frankfort. during the time of the American Civil War. A bit later. Japan. One of the pillars of the Frankfort school will be Max Horkheimer. B’nai B’rith will be more permanent in its continuous organization than its Mazzinian counterparts. “Moses and Monotheism. Therefore. the Young Ottomans will briefly seize power in Constantinople. pay off the British. To blow up the empire. Cultural and financial subjugation will precede military exploitation.It is clear that B’nai B’rith is an abject tool of British intelligence. Indeed.” His hatred for creativity and the human mind will be documented in his essay on Leonardo da Vinci.P. Horkheimer will be instrumental in re. the dismemberment and partition of the Ottoman Empire. declare free trade. Under these auspices. They will end a debt moratorium. Sigmund Freud. The one peculiarity of B’nai B’rith in comparison to the other organizations launched by Palmerston and his three stooges is that B’nai B’rith will be used for a wider variety of tasks in various countries and epochs. the founder of psychoanalysis. and the developing countries. and the presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson will mark the way toward the so-called “special relationship. Later.” with American muscle working for the brain in London. The Frankfort school will provide the matrix for the youth culture and counter-culture of the postwar decades in the same way that Mazzini. But the same network will soon make a comeback as the Young Turks. in 1850. In 1862. that Leonardo was a homosexual. Historically. Freud later will cordially thank the members of that lodge for their support during the arduous early years in psychoanalysis. has used his youth cults to shape the first half of the nineteenth century. or even of B’nai B’rith members. Morgan. the high priest of romanticism. Russia. Mazzini will call on all his agents anywhere near Russia to foment revolt as a way of causing trouble for Alexander II. They will be quickly overthrown. After Gettysburg. the United States and Russia will together confront Lord Palmerston with a kind of League of Cambrai experience: the spectre of these two great powers arrayed against the British Empire and its stooges in a world war that London would almost certainly lose. several members of the lodge will provide the initiating cadre who along with Freud will found the quackery of psychoanalysis. that will have to be changed into brutal oppression on the Mazzini model. Great Britain and the United States are traditional enemies moving towards their third military conflict after the American Revolution and the War of 1812. This Freud will be a charlatan and a Cabalist. Austria. The anti-Semitism of Freud and of B’nai B’rith as an organization of British intelligence at the expense of Jews will be perhaps most clearly documented in Freud’s last major work. During the Civil War. whose rule will finally destroy the Ottoman Empire. the Specie Resumption Act. in which he will assert. run and directed to serve the interests of British imperial policy. among which it stands out as the most specialized. the control of the US public debt by J. one of the tasks assigned to B’nai B’rith will be to direct. In 1876. At the end of this century. with the help of other Mazzinian agents. will be a leading member of the B’nai B’rith lodge in Vienna. Mazzini will start a Young Ottoman movement out of an Adam Smith translation project in Paris. during the twilight of the Hapsburg Empire. the Frankfort Institute for Social Research will be founded with the program of merging Marx with Freud. with the help of Young Poland. the British will resign themselves to the continued existence of the United States for some time to come. This is the state the British will call the sick man of Europe. They will focus their endeavors on using the United States and its power as a weapon in their own hands against Germany. on the basis of no evidence whatsoever. British geopolitics will organize two world . the Ottoman Empire offers surprising tolerance to its ethnic minorities. [Chorus] Today. and not the interests of Jews. and bring in Anglo-French bankers.

when Abraham Lincoln will stand among the new graves and promise that government of the people. and that there would never be a reply. then an eon of darkness will surely cover the world. as human beings always are [able]. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . But a reply will come. after the British drive will have fallen short. and for the people shall not perish from the earth. the servants of a dying Britain. They will re-write history around a thousand false centers to deny that human progress is One. in the storms of the breakdown crisis that will follow the end of the NATO-Warsaw Pact confrontation. Nor will the minds of little children be exempted from these torments. the equality of each person as imago viva dei. will try to pull the world with them into the abyss. of community of principle. human beings will be forced to choose between two conflicting definitions of themselves. and a true world order. then the domain of humanity will be without limit. thirteen years from now. They will say that identity is that of an ethnic group. They will tell Americans of the melting pot and so many others who have no ethnic identity that they must acquire a synthetic one. Others will talk of multiculturalism in a time when the human image will be lacerated and violated and immolated as never before in the face of all the nations. If the persons of those coming days are able to lift their eyes to the stars. to choose creative reason. If these voices prevail. they may be able to cease killing one another in order to possess a few square miles of mud on one small planet. [Chorus] CONCLUSION Towards the end of the twentieth century. by the people. of sovereign nations seeking progress through economic development. When Palmerston ranted his “Civis Romanus sum!” in the parliament here in Westminster just a short time ago. he thought the empire was made. If they are capable of recognizing the inherent universality of the human personality. and that ethnicity controls man’s destiny as it does among the animal species.wars and forty years of cold war. On the one hand. they will be able. scientific discovery. the heirs of Mazzini and Lord Palmerston and B’nai B’rith. But in those same days.

1906 “There are no frictions between us. as he appeared in Scottish costume at a ball in 1871.K. and the 1905 Russian Revolution. Clemenceau. the war could never have occurred. France. This diplomatic work was masterminded and carried out by King Edward VII personally. that would take the field in August 1914. at the Cronberg Anglo-German summit. the genius of Edward VII realized. not to be re-illuminated for a generation and more. the Russo-Japanese War. May 1910 “What neither Azincourt nor Poitiers could do. Edward VII died in May 1910. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents “For long years. and other apparatus merely following in his wake. “special relationship. and thus brought about what is probably the most destructive single event in the history of western civilization. Poincaré – were all agents of Edward VII’s influence. with masterly skill. Izvolski. there is only rivalry.” – Leipziger Neuste http://tarpley. But he had created the war alliance of Britain. and America. It was Edward’s crowd that made sure that the lights went out across ard-vii-of-great-britain-evil-demiurge-of-the-triple-entente-and-w orld-w ar-1/ December 27. when the time came. Edward VII. with support from the United States. Europe. who engineered the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France in 1903-04.” – Emile Flourens. France. Edward had a geopolitical vision in the Venetian tradition. and who then went on to seal the fateful British-Russian Entente of 1907. was the author of the First World War. and Russia which was formed during the first decade of this century. The Lord of the Isles. France. agents. cabinets. and Japan. Russia.” – Edward VII to State Secretary von Tschirschky of the German Foreign Ministry. and which led to the outbreak of the First World War. It was King Edward who set up the British alliance with Japan. and dupes in every chancery in England.” which dates from the time of his reign. acting as the autocrat of British foreign policy. the royal rake of Edwardian legend. Sazonov. Delcassé. Without Edward’s exertions. It was King Edward VII.-U. and it was one of brutal simplicity: the encirclement of Germany with a hostile coalition. was the Lord of the Flies. He had created the nightmare world of crossed mobilizations among Germany. but is finally beside the point. And he had created a network of cothinkers. All of this provides useful insight. with the various British ministers. The Triple Entente was King Edward’s own idea. It was King Edward who massaged Theodore Roosevelt and other American leaders to help bring about the U. . the Nessus robe that was to destroy the German Hercules. King Edward wove. who would. La France Conquise. 1906 The Triple Entente is the name given to the alliance among Great Britain. far more than any other single human being. The madmen of 1914 – Sir Edward Grey. Edward VII was also Casanova with a crown. push the mobilization buttons and launch the war. a satyr and sodomist on the throne of England.King Edward VII of Great Britain: Evil Demiurge of the Triple Entente and World War 1 « TARPLEY. after the death of Edward VII. before he could see his life’s work carried through to completion. followed by a war of annihilation in which many of Britain’s erstwhile “allies” – notably France and Russia – would also be decimated and crippled.S. and Russia. round tables. This Triple Entente was the personal creation of King Edward VII of Britain.

failed of such discouragement as might have prevented a needless enmity to arise between us and Germany. and the Hurds. Farrer. and have formed an Entente with France. And in our own time.” (Farrer. The meeting at Gaeta [of Edward VII with the king of Italy] is another fact connected with the burning jealousy between England and Germany. p. commented that Edward’s: “whole reign was a preparation and education for a war accepted as inevitable…. THE ANATOMY OF A MONSTER EDWARD VII. was in essence a policy of war. The following example is from the Vienna Neue Freie Presse of April 15.A. AUTOCRAT Edward VII has been hailed by the British as the greatest political activist of the House of Windsor. The king seems to have shared the popular belief in the will and power of Germany to invade us. 173-174) Austrian sources confirm the essential view of Edward the Encircler (Eduard der Einkreiser) as the architect of the Entente system. 14. During the last months of Edward’s life. Already people are asking themselves everywhere: ‘What is the meaning of this continual political labor. 283) . writing after the cataclysm of World War I. He represents the case in which the monarch and the leader of the oligarchy are united in the same person. EvansPritchards. Robert Blatchford. the mad hatters and March hares of the London oligarchy. including reparations. Edward VII’s role as dictator of British foreign policy before the war.And why should we be concerned with these matters today? The main things that have gone wrong with the twentieth century are demonstrably rooted in World War One. The panic of a German invasion. 1909 that: “The king and his councilors have strained every nerve to establish Ententes with Russia and with Italy.” In 1907 Greindl added: “The king of England’s visit to the king of Spain is one of the moves in the campaign to isolate Germany that is being personally directed with as much perseverance as success by his Majesty King Edward VII. and one that ended in war. carried on with open recklessness. 261) J. wrote in the Daily Mail of Dec. 1907. and came in response to Edward VII’s overtures to Russia: “Who can fail to receive the impression that a diplomatic duel is being fought out between England and Germany under the eyes of the world. p. and as the greatest monarch since William the Conqueror in 1066. pp. World War One opened the door both to the Communism of Lenin and Stalin and to the fascism of Mussolini and Hitler. as expressed in April 1906: “One is driven to the conclusion that British foreign policy is directed by the king in person … there is undoubtedly in England a court policy pursued outside and alongside that of the government. And finally. which produced the Great Depression. was a matter of common knowledge through the 1920s. pp. Here is the view of Baron Greindl.” (Middlemas. with its greater scale of destruction.” (Farrer. p. though achieving peace in some directions. The king of England … is no longer afraid of appearing to throw the whole influence of his personality into the scales whenever it is a question of thwarting the aims of German policy. are proposing a return to the Triple Entente as the shape of things to come. the editor of the Clarion. It is now plain that [Edward's] policy. the Belgian ambassador to Berlin. whose object is to put a close ring around Germany?’” (Brooke-Shepherd. was essentially the prolongation of the First World War after two decades of fitful truce. the Rees-Moggs. World War One made possible the entire Versailles system. although denied by recent biographers. World War II. sustained by the Press during the whole decade. and as well with Japan. 261-262) The leading ambassadors and ministers of the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs clearly recorded their understanding of Edward’s project. I. 5. The result was an autocrat more absolute than the Kaiser or the Czar. Why? To isolate Germany.

Victoria refused to appear at state occasions. one for Albert. sympathized with Prussia. Edward VII had the typical Saxe. helping to give a final push to secession and civil war. her Scottish gillie (attendant). Queen Victoria.Gotha mug. George Keppel.Gotha. A pamphlet about the queen appeared entitled “Mrs. the British perceived Russia to be the strongest land power. Edward VII was quicker than other elements of the British oligarchy to take note of that momentous shift. One of the members of Edward’s party on this tour was his fellow rake. gazing at a marble bust of Albert. London’s maxim has been to ally with the second strongest continental power to destroy the strongest continental power. As a result of these seances. the queen became convinced that John Brown. Lady Brooke. died. In the 1870s that abruptly changed with the emergence of a united Germany. and his nightgown laid out every night. In 1866.” This was the woman for whom time had stopped when she had lost her husband. lifelong friend. In 1875-76 Edward visited India. Hostility to Prussia and later to Germany is thus the one fixed point of Edward VII’s career. Hence the Edwardian legend of the sybaritic hedonist and sex maniac whose mistresses included Lillie Langtry. When we factor in the frequent orders made for opium and heroin at the local Balmoral pharmacy. Prince Albert of Saxe. and political ally. and so on. Prim and straight laced it was not. Until 1870. with whom he discussed a Russian alliance during the mid-1860s. His laundry had to be done. For centuries. Edward’s mother. John Brown. was a powerful medium through whom the spirit of Albert addressed her. Lord Carrington. Edward’s mother. Edward VII was a pupil of Lord Palmerston. as befits a royal house which has always been dominated by Venetians. JOHN BROWN Edward’s apprenticeship for the monarchy was a long one.” Victoria was very like Miss Habisham of Satis House in the Dickens novel “Great Expectations. even when Austria was crushed by Prussia at Königgrätz.Born in 1841. Queen Victoria retreated to her castle at Balmoral in the Scottish highlands. and began his career as a royal rake. In 1861 his father. went into deep mourning and did not emerge from it during the 40 remaining years of her life. Edward visited Canada and the United States in the fall of 1860. There were two guest books. This was already the germ of the London-Paris Entente Cordiale of nearly 40 years later. one for the queen. The court was organized as a death cult. so Edward had to assume these functions. The young Edward was also close to Palmerston’s stooge Napoleon III.Coburg. But Edward supported Austria. Victoria made repeated attempts to contact the shade of Prince Albert in the underworld – or the beyond – and these became the origins of the modern British occult bureau.” granted every conjugal privilege. and the chamber pot cleaned. like the current heir apparent. Victoria remained in mourning. He became the undisputed leader of British high society. Daisy Countess of Warwick.Coburg. In that 1866 war. 500 miles north of London. where he helped to prepare the Afghan war of 1878. Edward set up a household in Marlborough House in London. who had her own anti-German revanche complex because of Bismarck’s war against Denmark in 1864. What is reflected here is classical Venetian geopolitics as applied by the British. Queen Victoria. Some of the can-can . Edward favored what he called an Anglo-French Entente to contain Prussia. including adjoining bedrooms far from the ladies-in-waiting. for 40 years. and others too numerous to mention. QUEEN VICTORIA: MRS. and the Empress Eugenie. EDWARD THE CARESSER When Edward VII married. Mrs. In 1862 he was in Egypt and the Middle East. with every pretense that Albert was still alive. he chose Princess Alexandra of the Danish Royal House. Gossip seeped out from Balmoral to London that John Brown was “the queen’s stallion. Hot water was brought to his room every morning. we get a picture of Victoria’s life in the Highlands. The queen was an occultist. which was waged against the influence of Russia.

Thomas E. brother of George V. in December 1916. attended the theater in Paris. His main claim to fame today is that he is the prime suspect in the Jack the Ripper murders. Prince Eddy. Prince Eddy had contracted syphilis during a trip to the West Indies during his youth. in the scene in which Fedora comes upon the dead body of her lover. had been considered mentally impaired in his youth. Stowell’s article. Within minutes. and this had affected his brain. According to some versions. He noted a portly. Edward the Confessor. It said: ‘It is a sensational name: Edward. Prince Eddy was arrested at least once in a homosexual brothel. 11) .’” (Spierig.A. THE HOUSE OF JACK THE RIPPER Edward VII’s first son was Prince Albert Victor Edward. Yussupov received a mash note signed King Edward VII. and heir to the throne of England.Spitalfields slum of London in 1888-89.” One of Edward’s friends. The next night. like his father. The papers of the attending physician of the royal family indicate that he had indeed treated Jack the Ripper. A wire service dispatch from the period sums up the allegations made at that time: “LONDON. a British physician came forward with evidence supporting the thesis that Jack the Ripper was Prince Eddy. There is no doubt that Prince Eddy answered to the best available description of the Ripper. in commenting on Dr. few recognized the heir to the British throne: Edward VII had made his stage debut as a cadaver. rumors abounded of the involvement of a member of the royal family. This future king was to go down as Edward the Caresser. whiskered gentleman ogling him through an opera glass from one of the box seats. the holy man and reputed German agent. The Times was commenting on the statement of an eminent British surgeon who said that the Ripper ‘was the heir to power and wealth. All the points of Dr. According to others. grandson of Queen Victoria and older brother of George V. known in the family as Prince Eddy and formally as the Duke of Clarence and Avondale. refused to identify him in an article to be published tomorrow in The Criminologist…. Prince Eddy was part of a homosexual clique that killed because they hated women. Remember that Yussupov is the man who assassinated Rasputin. while claiming to know who the criminal was. A satire of Edward was written in the style of Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King. infamous London murderer of nearly 100 years ago. Young Prince Eddy conveniently died a few years after the Ripper murders ceased. dressed as a woman. and of an obscure background of Freemasonic intrigue. One evening Yussupov. grandson of Queen Victoria. He was also considered the most beautiful transvestite in Europe. Nov. This grisly series of crimes involved the murder of five prostitutes in the Whitechapel. Here we see the great political importance of King Edward’s Homintern. detonating the Russian Revolution a few months later.’ The surgeon. Stowell. Edward told her that he had always wanted to be an actor. A quarter of a century ago. said there was one name that fitted his evidence. At the time of the murders. the French actress.” This was called “Guelpho the Gay – the Coming K.dancers painted by Toulouse. was Edward. When Bernhardt was playing in “Fedora” in Paris.Lautrec had been Edward’s girlfriends. Lord Arthur Somerset – known to his friends as Podge – was arrested during a police raid in one of London’s numerous homosexual brothels.” Some recalled a predecessor on the throne. Prince Felix Yussupov was the heir to the biggest fortune in Russia. p. Duke of Clarence. 1. The Sunday Times. Edward’s home at Marlborough House in London was also a center of the “Homintern. Duke of Clarence. 1970 (AP) – The Sunday Times expressed belief today that Jack the Ripper. Stowell’s story fit this man. A number of exhaustive studies have concluded that this was Prince Eddy. There was a fling with Sarah Bernhardt.

He was the son of the pathological woman-hater Fitzjames Stephen. and have remained in power through two world wars and the cold war. Stephen was a homosexual. If the persistent reports are true. Randolph’s son was Sir Winston Churchill. Dr. and his family promptly burned all his papers. In this letter Stowell signed himself as “a loyalist and a Royalist. Prince Eddy was a member of the Apostles secret society. and was forced to resign amidst a public outcry about Masonic conspiracy.K.K. – could be simplified by calling it the House of Jack the Ripper. the writer.” (Abrahamsen.Shortly after having published his article in The Criminologist and thus made his allegations public. II. Perhaps the recurring dispute about what to call the British royal house – Hanover.Gotha. a philosophy known to the Apostles as the higher sodomy. into the Balkan crisis of the 1990s. This experience may be related to Virginia Woolf’s numerous suicide attempts. etc. Abrahamsen quotes a maxim of the Apostles: “The love of man for man is greater than that of man for woman.K. J. 123] Prince Eddy died on Jan. the novelist. Windsor. Winston considered himself King Edward’s protégé. assumed his place in the succession. While he was at Cambridge. THE CHURCHILL FAMILY One of the habitués of Edward’s Marlborough House fast set and a rising member of Parliament during the Disraeli era of the 1870’s was Lord Randolph Churchill. who was mentally impaired. There is evidence that J.” Stowell died mysteriously one day after this letter appeared. One of the main saboteurs of the investigation was a certain Gen. Warren was the master of a new Freemasonic lodge that had recently been created in London. the later George V. had witnesses intimidated. number 2076 of the Scottish rite. pp. 1892. Edward VII built up an unparalleled personal network of politicians and others who owed their careers to him. and became the father of the Nazi King Edward VIII. Stephen. married Eddy’s former fiancée.K. 3. J. They are historically significant because they constituted the international war party up through 1914. Princess May of Teck. who happened to be Edward VII. 1892. An American study of the Jack the Ripper mystery was authored by the forensic psychiatrist David Abrahamsen. Randolph was clearly headed for a great political career when he died of syphilis. who was promoted by Edward VII to a post in the Privy Council. Stowell wrote a letter to the London Times in which he disavowed any intention of identifying Prince Eddy or any other member of the royal family as Jack the Ripper. Of the existence of a coverup there can be no doubt. Edward had urged him to pursue a career in politics and writing. Guelph.” [p. Saxe. THE HOMICIDAL UNCLE OF EUROPE: EDWARD VII’S NETWORK During these years. Stephen’s uncle was Sir Leslie Stephen. Stephen died in a sanitarium on Feb. 103-104) J. Warren suppressed evidence. Stephen had been chosen as a tutor for Prince Eddy. The Quatuor Coronati lodge had been founded in 1884 with a warrant from the Grand Master of British freemasonry. best known today by her married name. Stephen sexually molested his cousin. the chief of the London Metropolitan Police.K. the great-uncle of the current queen was the homicidal maniac Jack the Ripper. Virginia Woolf. THE CHAMBERLAINS .Coburg. who sums up his own conclusions as follows: “It is an analysis of the psychological parameters that enabled me to discover that the Ripper murders were perpetrated by Prince Eddy and J. This was the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research. For a time Winston sent the king a daily letter summing up the activities of the House of Commons. 14. Sir Charles Warren. Prince Eddy’s younger brother.

” But it was all a trick by Perfidious Albion. In the Agadir crisis. The elder Grey was an equerry. Some weeks after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.Hollweg. he did so through Joseph Chamberlain. and did the traveling while Grey stayed in the Foreign Office to do the clerking.Hollweg. Those who don’t know Joseph Chamberlain may know his son. How Edward Grey Started World War 1 By 1914. Chamberlain was also the point man for Edward’s deception operation of an alliance with Germany. Sir Edward Grey had learned an important lesson in the Moroccan crisis of 1911. The German chancellor from 1909 to 1917. This lesson was that if Germany clearly perceived in a crisis that there was a direct risk of Anglo. or master of the royal horses. which were in conflict with those of France. Anglo. Chamberlain was an architect of the Fashoda crisis with France and of the Boer War. Sir Edward Grey declared in 1912 that any differences between England and Germany would never assume dangerous proportions “so long as German policy was directed by” Bethmann. anxious to make concessions to London in order to secure peace. Grey’s father was an army officer who had joined the household of Edward VII when he was Prince of Wales. Grey was Perfide Albion with an Edwardian pedigree. the British minister Lloyd George had delivered a clear public warning to Berlin. SIR EDWARD GREY A family servant of Edward VII was Sir Edward Grey. George V. was an anglophile and a crony of the Kaiser’s student days. and Germany had replied at once that she was not seeking a permanent presence on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Grey cultivated the illusion of good relations with Germany. serving for years in Lord Salisbury’s cabinet.German relations were judged by Sir Edward Goschen. Grey had to convince the Russians and the French that Britain would indeed honor the Triple Entente and go to war in support of Russian aggression. but he soon became a member of the Marlborough House set.Another of Edward’s most important political operatives was Joseph Chamberlain. the British Foreign Secretary who actually started World War I. the author of the Munich sellout of 1938.Austrian agitation. Berlin would back down. Dr. the Austrian government. in August 1914. as “more friendly and cordial than they had been in years. frustrating the war party in London. addressed a very harsh ultimatum to Serbia on July 23 demanding sweeping concessions for investigating the crime and the suppression of anti. When Edward VII wanted to start the Boer War. Edward also used Chamberlain to propose the Entente Cordiale to the French. The Russian court slavophiles were demanding war against Austria and Germany in defense of . when Germany sent the warship Panther to Agadir to secure German interests there.German war. By mid-1914. At the same time. Grey also had to lie to his own prime minister and cabinet. even after decades of British geopolitical machinations. was to make Germany think that England would not go to war until the war had actually started. the later Prime Minister Sir Neville Chamberlain. Edward VII was Edward Grey’s godfather. the British ambassador to Berlin. Chamberlain had been mayor of Birmingham and known for his anti-royalist rhetoric. This he did with the help of King Edward’s surviving son. blaming Belgrade. Theobald von Bethmann. In his effort to start the war. During the Balkan Wars and the Liman von Sanders affair of 1913. who was the Colonial Secretary between 1895 and 1903. it still required all of Sir Edward Grey’s perfidy and cunning to detonate the greatest conflagration in world history by exploiting the diplomatic crisis surrounding the assassination of the Austrian heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28. Bosnia. Grey’s problem later. 1914 in Sarajevo. He finally had to sell the entire result to the House of Commons. the crisis was soon resolved.

a British agent. a warmonger. 4-5. the British had already staged a formidable naval demonstration with a review of the Grand Fleet at Portsmouth. Grey declared war at midnight Aug. When German forces entered Belgium in the context of the Schlieffen Plan (the German plan for a two-front war against France and Russia). responded that this would be “very dangerous. Grey shifted to a proposal for mediation by other great powers of the Austrian. Britain would fight on the side of France and Russia. Berchtold and Hoetzendorff were madmen on the strategic defensive. Their aggressive intentions involved Serbia. This would have propelled the Kaiser and Bethmann into the strongest efforts to restrain the Vienna madmen. who was visiting England. he could have pursued one of two courses of action. but the Vienna madmen seized on minor refusals by Serbia to declare war on July 28. The British were the first of the great powers to mobilize their war machine. the Kaiser thought. and would have motivated Paris to act as a restraining influence. and would remain neutral. these slavophiles were madmen on the strategic offensive who sought a general European war.” This was seized upon by the pathetic Kaiser as a binding pledge of British neutrality for which. before the fateful Russian and Austrian mobilizations of July 30 and 31. When Serbia issued a conciliatory reply to the Austrian ultimatum. he said “I have the word of a king. France and Russia were unlikely to do so either. King George V told the Kaiser’s brother. even if they assumed the tactical offensive against Serbia. were determined to use the crisis to smash Serbia. the leading minister. Petersburg to avoid war. while giving Paris hints that England would support Russia and France. and the chief of staff. which was declined by Germany for various reasons. if England did not fight. Grey proposed direct conversations between Vienna and St. which they saw as a threat to the survival of their empire. since. Grey proposed a conference of ambassadors from England. In this way.” The gullible Kaiser Wilhelm was kept thoroughly disoriented during the last critical period when Germany could have forced Vienna to back down and avoid general war. Winston Churchill ordered the fleet to proceed during the night at high speed with no lights from Portsmouth through the Straits of Dover to its wartime base of operations at Scapa Flow. If Sir Edward Grey had sincerely wished to avoid war. Conrad von Hoetzendorff. On July 19. that Britain had “no quarrel with anyone and I hope we shall remain neutral. The other course would have been to warn Paris and especially St. probably forcing them to back down. north of . Edward VII’s son King George V made a vital contribution to the British deception.Russian court slavophiles were demanding war against Austria and Germany in defense of Serbia. Count Berchtold. Grey’s charade of war avoidance contributed to complacency in Berlin and a failure to do anything to restrain the Vienna crazies. In Vienna. in this case the Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy. Late on July 26. Kaiser Wilhelm II and others were relieved and thought that the war danger had receded. The first would have been to warn Germany early in the crisis that in case of general war.Russian dispute. but dropped this when French President Poincaré.” On July 24. but not other great powers. and to Czar Nicholas II. Grey’s deception of Germany meant assuming the posture of a mediator rather than a possible party to the conflict. and Germany. On the afternoon of July 28. Instead he maintained a posture of deception designed to make Germany think England would remain neutral. The Declaration Of War It was late on July 29 before any warning of British armed intervention in the looming conflict was received in Berlin. In early and middle July. Prince Henry. France. On July 26. These hints were then passed on to Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov. Petersburg that Britain had no intention of being embroiled in world war over the Balkan squabble. 1914. did neither of these things. French revanchistes and Russian slavophiles were subtly encouraged on the path of aggression. Italy. This would have undercut the St. Petersburg militarists. and that is sufficient for me. a disciple of Edward VII. Grey.

Scotland. On July 29, the official “warning telegram” was sent out from the Admiralty; the British fleet was now on a full war footing. The first continental state to mobilize had been Serbia, on July 25. The order of general mobilizations was Serbia, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, France, and, finally, Germany. ADMIRAL JACKIE FISHER A leading proponent of preventive war against Germany was Edward’s protégé Adm. Jackie Fisher, the man who introduced the new battleship called the Dreadnought. Fisher owed his entire career to Edward’s patronage. As First Sea Lord after 1904, Fisher was constantly talking about the need for a sneak attack to destroy the German Navy. He called this the need to “Copenhagen” the German fleet, referring to British attacks on the Danish fleet in Copenhagen harbor during the Napoleonic wars. Fisher caused a war scare in November 1904, during frictions with Germany involving the Russo- Japanese war. At this time, his demand for Copenhagening leaked out. During the first Moroccan crisis of 1905, Fisher was at it again, telling Edward that the Royal Navy could “have the German fleet, the Kiel canal, and Schleswig- Holstein within a fortnight.” (Magnus, p. 340) In the Balkan crisis of 1908, Fisher again called for Copenhagening. Fisher once expressed his gratitude to Edward for protecting him from his many enemies who, he said, “would have eaten me but for Your Majesty.” (Magnus, p. 442) Nobody in Europe, not the Austrian crazies Berchtold and Hoetzendorf, not the even crazier Russian Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich, was so outspoken a warmonger as Fisher. SIR ERNEST CASSELL Sir Ernest Cassell typified another group that Edward VII cultivated assiduously: Jewish bankers. As Prince of Wales, Edward had to live on a limited allowance, and he was deeply in debt. Edward accordingly allowed a series of Jewish bankers to buy their way to presentability at court by their benevolent management of his personal finances, with the proviso that Edward would always make a handsome profit. The first of Edward’s financial advisers was Baron von Hirsch of Vienna. Then came Sir Ernest Cassell, knighted by Edward. Edward also cultivated the Rothschild and Sassoon families. In short, Edward’s personal household finance agency was identical with the leading lights of turn- of-the-century Zionism. Cassell was also a political operative for Edward, becoming the head of the Ottoman National Bank – the Banque Ottomane – at the request of the Young Turk regime in 1909. BATTENBERGS AND BASTARDS Edward was also a close friend of Prince Louis of Battenberg, who married Princess Victoria, the daughter of Edward’s late sister Alice, in 1884. This marks the entrance of the Mountbatten family, including Lord Louis and Prince Philip, onto the British royal scene. Asquith, Balfour, and Lloyd George were all more or less Edward’s stooges. Edward’s influence also lived on through his bastards, one of whom, Sir Stewart Menzies, was a boss of British secret intelligence who betrayed vital U.S. secrets to the Soviets. CLEMENCEAU Edward’s French network was extensive, and included royalists and oligarchs. The common denominator of Edward’s network was la revanche, the need for France to exact vengeance from Germany for the loss of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine in 1871. The central figure was a leftish radical, Georges “Tiger” Clemenceau, France’s wartime premier and the chairman of the Peace Conference at Versailles. Clemenceau’s talents for overthrowing governments gave the Third French Republic some of its proverbial instability. Clemenceau was attacked from 1892 on

as a British agent and paid spy of the British Embassy. Former French Foreign Minister Emile Flourens saw that the Dreyfus affair was concocted by Edward VII and his agents in order to break French institutional resistance to a dictatorial regime of Clemenceau. Flourens wrote that: “Clemenceau is the pro-consul of the English king, charged with the administration of his province of the Gauls.” (Flourens, 1906) Flourens argued that the friends of the late French leader Leon Gambetta were determined to resist Clemenceau. At the same time, in Flourens’s view, the French Army simply hated Clemenceau. According to Flourens, Edward VII used the 1890s Panama scandal to wreck the Gambetta political machine, and then unleashed the Dreyfus affair in order to break the resistance of the French Army to Clemenceau. Flourens also showed how Edward VII was the mastermind of the post-1904 anti-clerical hysteria in France, which included the confiscation of Catholic Church property and the break of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. For Flourens, Edward VII was seeking to shut down the French Catholic foreign missions, which had proved a barrier to British colonial expansion. Edward VII’s ultimate goal was to create a schismatic church in France on the Anglican or Presbyterian model, wrote Flourens. “As the schism in England dates from the reign of Henry VIII, so the schism in France will date from the reign of Edward VII.” (Flourens, pp. 155-156) THÉOPHILE DELCASSÉ Delcassé was Edward’s partner in the British- French Entente Cordiale of 1903-04. Delcassé had taken office in the British- French confrontation around the Fashoda crisis, when London and Paris had been on the verge of war. Delcassé’s view was that France could survive only as a very junior partner of the British. When Kaiser Wilhelm made his famous visit to Tangier, Morocco in March 1905, France and Germany came to the brink of war. At this time, Edward VII was vacationing on board his yacht in the Mediterranean. During the debate on the Moroccan question in the French National Assembly in April 1905, Delcassé came under heavy attack because of his refusal to seek a modus vivendi with Germany; one of Delcassé’s severest critics was the socialist leader Jean Jaurès. When Delcassé was about to be forced into resignation, Edward VII docked his yacht, the Victoria and Albert, at Algiers, and asked the French governor- general to send a telegram to Paris. This was a personal message to Delcassé dated April 23 in which Edward announced that he would be “personally distressed” if Delcassé were to leave office. Edward “strongly urged” Delcassé to remain in office, because of his great political influence but also because of England. As in the case of Alexander Izvolski, Edward VII was not reticent about standing up for his own puppets. But it became clear that Delcassé had been acting as Edward’s minister, not the republic’s, and that he had been lying to his ministerial colleagues about the actual danger of war with Germany. Delcassé fell as foreign minister, but stayed on in other posts. Other members of Edward’s network in France included Paul Cambon, for many years the French ambassador in London, and Raymond Poincaré, the wartime President and a leading warmonger. ALEXANDER IZVOLSKI “A plumpish, dandified man, he wore a pearl pin in his white waistcoat, affected white spats, carried a lorgnette, and always trailed a faint touch of violet eau de cologne.” So wrote a contemporary of Alexander Petrovich Izvolski, the Russian foreign minister who was Edward’s partner for the Anglo- Russian Entente of 1907, which completed the encirclement of Germany. Edward first proposed the Anglo- Russian Entente to Izvolski in 1904, and at that point Izvolski entered Edward’s personal service. Izvolski was made Russian foreign minister in May 1906, after Russia’s defeat in the Russo- Japanese War; he served under Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin. With Izvolski, Russian diplomacy gave up all interest in the Far East, made deals with the British for Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet, and concentrated everything on expansion in the Balkans – the

approach that was to lead straight to World War. When Izvolski’s position as Russian foreign minister became weakened as a result of his Buchlau Bargain adventure, Edward VII took the singular step of writing to Czar Nicholas II to endorse the further tenure in office of his own agent. Edward wrote: “You know how anxious I am for the most friendly relations between Russia and England, not only in Asia but also in Europe, and I feel confident that through M. Izvolski these hopes will be realized.” (Middlemas, p. 170) Izvolski had to settle for Russia’s embassy in Paris, where he used a special fund to bribe the Paris press to write that France should go to war. In July 1914, Izvolski ran around yelling that it was his war. As Lord Bertie, the British ambassador to Paris, confided to his diary: “What a fool Izvolski is! … At the beginning of the war he claimed to be its author: C’est ma guerre!” (Fay, I, p. 29) Izvolski was succeeded as Russian foreign minister by Sazonov, another British agent who played a key role in starting the fateful Russian mobilization of July, 1914. THEODORE ROOSEVELT Edward VII’s favorite pen pal was U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, who was handled from day to day by Cecil Spring-Rice of Sir Edward Grey’s Foreign Office. Edward can hardly have been ignorant of the British role in the assassination of President William McKinley. Starting in 1904, Edward wrote Teddy letters about how the two of them had been placed in command “of the two great branches of the Anglo-Saxon race.” Teddy wrote back about the need for “understanding between the English-speaking peoples,” and discussing his race theories about “our stock.” Teddy wrote to Edward his view that “the real interests of the English-speaking peoples are one, alike in the Atlantic and the Pacific.” Roosevelt served Edward’s goals in his mediation of the Russo- Japanese War, in his support for the British at the Algeciras Conference, and in raising naval disarmament at the Hague Conference. Behind his back, Edward’s envoys mocked the U.S. President as a semi-savage who gave primitive lunches at Oyster Bay. Later, Sir Edward Grey exerted a decisive influence on Woodrow Wilson through the intermediary of his key adviser, Col. Edward House. Edward was called the Uncle of Europe – Uncle Bertie – because so many of Queen Victoria’s other children married into the various royal houses, making one European royal family. This, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany was Edward’s nephew. Czar Nicholas II was also his nephew, married to Edward’s wife’s niece. After 40 years as Prince of Wales, Edward knew Europe like a book. He was personally acquainted with every crowned head, every prominent statesman and minister, and “he could accurately gauge their influence, their processes of thought, their probable action in a given emergency.” IDEOLOGICAL MANIPULATION Emile Flourens found that Edward owed his triumphs primarily to himself, to his “profound knowledge of the human heart and the sagacity with which he could sort out the vices and weaknesses of individuals and peoples and make these into the worst and most destructive of weapons against them.” Edward’s empire was built on “eternal human folly,” on the “intellectual and moral degradation” of the subject populations. Flourens praised Edward’s practical understanding of French ideology. Edward knew how to exploit the chauvinism of the AlsaceLorraine revanchards to incite France against Germany. He knew how to play upon the fascination of the Russian slavophiles with the Greater Serbia agitation in the Balkans. He knew how to use the hatred of the Italian irredentisti against Austria to detach Italy from the pro-German Triple Alliance. He knew how to drive wedges between Germany and Austria by evoking Vienna’s resentments of the 1866 war and Prussian preeminence, and their fear of Serbia. He could exploit an American racist’s eagerness to be, like the king, a member of a mythical Anglo-Saxon race.

He could use the aspirations of Japanese militarists, for the greater glory of the British Empire. Much of Edward’s personal magnetism was exercised during his incessant state visits, where he was able to unleash highly orchestrated outbursts of “Bertiemania.” Those who recall the equally implausible Gorbymania of some years back will find the phenomenon familiar. KAISER WILHELM II Edward’s mastery of psychological and ideological manipulation is most evident in his relation with his pathetic and unstable nephew, Kaiser Wilhelm. Edward made a detailed study of Willy’s psychological profile, which he knew to be pervaded by feelings of inferiority and incurable anglophilia. As Flourens noted: “Edward VII made an in-depth study of the defects of Wilhelm II. He counted them as his most precious allies.” (Flourens, p. 58) The British and Entente demonization of Wilhelm as the world’s chief warmonger was always absurd. Wilhelm felt inferior to British royalty. Wilhelm’s greatest secret desire was for acceptance by the British royals. Edward could modulate his own behavior to get the desired result from the Kaiser. If he wanted a public tantrum, he could get that. One British writer, Legge, reports that Edward punched the Kaiser and knocked him down in a meeting. But if Edward needed to be friendly, he could do that too. During the Boer War, in November 1899, when Britain’s diplomatic isolation was at its height, Edward was able to con the Kaiser into making a state visit to Britain. The Boxer Rebellion in China, with its overtone of white racial solidarity against the “yellow peril,” was also made to order for duping the Kaiser. In Wilhelm’s dockside harangue to the German contingent setting out for Peking, he urged his soldiers on to cruelty against the Chinese: “Give no quarter! Take no prisoners! Kill him when he falls into your hands! Even as, a thousand years ago, the Huns under their King Attila made such a name for themselves as still resounds in terror through legend and fable, so may the name of Germans resound through Chinese history a thousand years from now.” (Cowles, p. 177) This “Huns” speech has provided grist for the London propaganda mill for almost a century, from World War I to the Margaret Thatcher- Nicholas Ridley “Fourth Reich” hysteria of 1989. Not just once, but again and again, the Kaiser muffed opportunities to checkmate Edward’s plans. Edward also played on the Kaiser to sabotage the Berlin to Baghdad railway. At Windsor Castle in 1907, Edward demanded that the British keep control of a section of the railway between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf as a “gate,” supposedly to block German troops going to India. The Kaiser was ready to grant such a gate. Otherwise, Edward demanded that all talks about the Baghdad railway should be four-way, with France, Russia, Britain, and Germany involved, so that German proposals would always be voted down 3 to 1. When the war was finally over, and the Kaiser had lost his throne, the first thing he wanted in exile from the Dutch host was a cup of real English tea. Edward joked with his French friends that while many prayed to an eternal father, he alone seemed to have an eternal mother. Queen Victoria finally died in 1901, and Edward began his drive to world war. III. TAILORING AND FITTING THE NESSUS ROBE Edward’s problem as the twentieth century began was rooted in old Lord Salisbury’s policy of British “splendid isolation.” On the continent of Europe were two main alliances, the Triple Alliance of Germany and Austria- Hungary, with Italy as an adulterous partner, and opposite to this the Dual Alliance of the France of Hanotaux with the Russia of Count Witte. Britain was a member of

Edward responded to the isolation of the British Empire by launching World War One. a dangerous flare-up had come in the 1895 boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guyana. Edward himself had seen something similar in 1863. THE BOER WAR CRISIS In the midst of all this. when Russia and the United States seemed about to combine to crush the British Empire. French. PERFIDE ALBION . 731] “…there was always a chance. with a stunning series of British military defeats on the ground.century. Lord Salisbury. when the US had invoked the Monroe Doctrine and forced the British to accept arbitration. The British set up the century’s first concentration camps where Afrikaner children were systematically starved to death.” [Lee II. all wanting to destroy Venice. King Edward’s first Prime Minister. friendless.” [Lee. Agitation increased when the British responded to their defeats with increased atrocities. after centuries of geopolitical perfidy. War had been avoided. Britain risked a continental league or continental coalition.neither one. It was a Cambrai moment. A wave of anti-British hatred swept the world as press accounts from the front showed that the bullying imperial colossus had feet of clay. German. might be so stimulated by circumstances as to bring the members of the two alliances together in a combined challenge to Britain’s place in the world. With France. 1899. In 1509. although a remote one. had been faced with a united front of virtually every other power in Europe. Russia had been traditionally hostile since the Crimean War of mid. and any serious diplomatic mistake on the part of Britain in those days might have resulted in European swords being flung into the balance act against her. two small states dominated by the Dutch-speaking settlers of the Cape area of South Africa. including the US. demanded measures against the British lion. and Russian newspapers fulminated against London. Edward and Joseph Chamberlain had started the Boer War against Transvaal and the Orange Free State. from which no great European power could be reckoned quite free. had long been wedded to that policy of ’splendid isolation’ which had been the constant British tradition through the last forty-five years of Queen Victoria’s long reign. a new League of Cambrai against the new Venetians in London. Persistence in that policy offered little opportunity of improving the foreign situation as it existed in 1901. Between 1899 and 1902. The British attempt to force the Afrikaners to knuckle under led to the celebrated “Black Week” of December. that jealousy of Britain. Edward’s official biographer Sir Sidney Lee makes the danger perceived by London in those days explicit enough: “The year 1901 and the first part of 1902 found all unofficial Europe sympathizing with the enemies of Great Britain in South Africa. public opinion in every country. 116-117] Gasparo Contarini and the Venetian patricians of his time had responded to the War of the League of Cambrai by launching the Protestant Reformation and the wars of religion. British relations with all the continental powers was bad. Britain was thus isolated. A CAMBRAI DANGER FOR THE BRITISH EMPIRE As a good Venetian. Britain had just been to the brink of war in the Fashoda affair. the Venetian oligarchy. and engaged in a none too successful or popular war when King Edward ascended the throne…. and might actually have exposed Britain to the risk of a hostile combination on a well-nigh overwhelming scale. but French resentment was very great. The Russian government asked Paris and Berlin if they might not consider an intervention to stop the British. II. Relations between Britain and the United States of President Grover Cleveland were traditionally also bad. Edward recognized what he was dealing with. Edward had tried to quiet that one with the help of his asset Joseph Pulitzer.

Prince von Buelow. Wilhelm and his advisors let slip the great opportunity for a continental bloc. which would have meshed with the efforts of Hanotaux and Wittle. designed to dupe and neutralize Germany. The Kaiser was now in the mood to court Russia. and as time went on the price that London would have to pay for German help would only increase. in town for Queen Victoria’s funeral. Edward at first went to the brink of war and demanded that the Royal Navy stop the Russian ships. The critical moment came when the former Prime Minister. seize the Russian admiral. The Berlin consensus was that Britain needed Germany. Wilhelm was chasing the chimera of an accord with London which was nothing but a racist deception ploy. Baron von Holstein. Wilhelm was advised by the Chancellor. and a new Triple Alliance between [sic] Germany. 1901. given the existing frictions. And so.” [Lee. Both partners were in a hurry because Witte’s Trans-Siberian railway was nearing completion. but the first ally Edward got for himself was Japan. the Russian ships. and punish him. This gave Japan a free hand for Admiral Togo’s sneak attack on the Russian base of Port Arthur in early 1904.German. Berlin sought an Anglo-German deal. and an Anglo. This was the mission of Joseph Chamberlain. In January.” Even after 1918. But sections of the Russian oligarchy hostile to Witte refused to respect Korea. England. the Kaiser was still repeating that he had saved Britain from a French.Russian combine during the Boer War. “No far-seeing statesman could be content with England’s permanent isolation on the continent of Europe…. The Kaiser’s policy was to move slowly towards a deal with London. a member of Lord Salisbury’s cabinet. The British press thereupon demanded that the Royal Navy stop the Germans from . In October. Later. and the Japanese were looking for an ally. and by the grey eminence of the German Foreign Ministry. who was so eager to be accepted among the Anglo-Saxons. Edward saw to it that Ito was socially lionized and decorated. The natural alliance is between ourselves and the German Empire…. the Kaiser was still proposing an “Anglo-German alliance. King Edward did everything but go to war against Russia. they embarked on the desperate gamble of sending their Baltic squadron around the world to fight the Japanese. and that would vastly increase Russian power in the Far East. Britain would observe a benevolent neutrality. 1901. 1899. Were these men British agents or British dupes? Were they part of a homosexual court cabal? In any case. [the British] to keep the sea and [Germany] the land.The first imperative for Edward was a deception operation. II. In his celebrated speech at Leicester in November. the British would prevent any other Europeans from helping Russia. When Russia lost their fleet in the Far East. The Japanese wanted Russia to stop encroaching on what they considered their sphere of influence in China and Korea. In order to reach the Far East. This meant that if Japan and Russia came to war. with such an alliance. THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR AND 1905 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION The Kaiser was constantly babbling about the “yellow peril” in the Far East. visited London in December. not a mouse could stir in Europe without our permission…. In this Dogger Bank incident. the Russian fleet required logistical assistance. Edward wished to use Japan as his Asian torpedo against Russia. Marquis Ito. Von Buelow and Holstein stressed that a British alliance with either France or Russia was simply impossible. the natural centerpiece of any continental coalition against England. and the United States would correspond with the sentimental tie that already binds Teutons and Anglo-Saxons together. who was slippery as an eel. fired on some British fishing trawlers. steaming through the North Sea. The key clause was that if Japan went to war in the Far East against a single power. The Russian admiral thought they were Japanese torpedo boats. Chamberlain said. but with hard bargaining. 1904. since there was nowhere to get coal. Edward backed down. 117] The rhetoric of a racist alliance was designed to entice the Kaiser. Both interest and racial sentiment unite the two peoples.Japanese treaty was signed within a month. so German ships did the coaling. sinking one of them.

with speeches in French about friendship while recalling his own sentimental association with Paris. Prince von Buelow gave Edward exactly the crisis he needed. This first Moroccan crisis was a serious attempt by Edward to start war. and because of Fashoda. 1905. Russia would have had to join France in war like it or not. Edward had sealed his pact with France. Clemenceau. as well. where the Kaiser landed in March. for which he was blamed personally. proportionally the highest of any belligerent. secret conventions were signed for a division of labor between the British and French fleets. This Bertiemania started France on the road that led to Verdun. ostensibly a matter of restoring order in the name of the other European powers. . was crippled. Morocco. the Parisian dandies and gratins turned anglophile overnight in an explosion of Bertiemania that was crowned by Edward’s appearance at Longchamp. But French society had been weakened by Edward’s Dreyfus affair. This produced a civil war which went on into 1906. Von Buelow convinced the witless Kaiser to undertake the lunatic adventure of a visit – like Uncle Bertie – but to Tangier. Admiral Fisher began popping off about Copenhagening the Germans. Edward unleashed British intelligence and all of its assets – boyars. Joseph Chamberlain. Russia. despite the fact that France’s ally. Edward may have had a promise of support from Denmark. the British would then get out. Biarritz. crippling Russia as a military power. set up by Edward for his diplomatic aims. Morocco was much different. Delcassé was fired. communists. the British position in Egypt would be unassailable. the idea of French preeminence in Morocco placed France on a collision course with Germany once again. In fact. Zionists. They had no intention of getting out. it was time to knock that dagger out of British hands. It is certain that Edward was urging France to go all the way. democrats. Von Buelow told the Kaiser that Germany should challenge France in Morocco. Indeed. and with the help of Delcassé. Especially because their ally Russia was crippled. not just a defeat. But this was all a circus. But the French. With the press doubtless well paid. Delcassé decided to hang tough and go to the brink. who had terrified the French with his pro-German line. This led to the predictable confrontation between France and Germany. This was a very unequal barter. But this crisis succeeded in heating up the revanche syndrome in France once more. because of centuries of conflict. THE ANGLO-FRENCH ENTENTE CORDIALE OF 1904 At first Edward was not popular in France. However. both to defend commercial interests and to show France that the British alliance was worthless. if the French caved in. The Moroccan government was stronger. the deal was signed. To procure the disaster he wanted. and Cambon. the works. In the meantime. at least by Europeans. When the real immediate risk of a war with Germany became clear to Delcassé’s colleagues in the government. and directing all the hatred against Germany. for Russia – a disaster that was beyond the power of Japan to inflict. still had some rights. But the French cabinet pulled back. If France was the continental dagger now in the hands of England. the British presence in Egypt had been officially temporary. the race track. but instead wanted the whole Nile Valley. and the Riviera. Since the 1880’s. Edward also contributed a tour de force of personal diplomacy. with President Loubet. and planning was begun for the future British Expeditionary Force. Under the Dual Alliance. and there were strong competing claims by Germany and Spain. But Edward wanted a disaster. At the same time. of puppet of Clemenceau. the French were thrown completely into the arms of Edward. with 6 million casualties. his visit to Paris in the spring of 1903. Here Bertie turned on the charm. and still at war with Japan. for a time Edward’s image in the Paris press was decidedly bad. von Buelow argued. the builders of the Suez Canal. Edward had designed the Morocco gambit in the hope that Germany would quickly take the bait and challenge the new French domination in Morocco. At the same time. took the message to the French: Edward was willing to trade Egypt for Morocco to get a deal with France. The Russians came out of the war with one capital ship left.delivering the coal.

I could only agree with him. and both demented cousins were oligarchical to the core. there was a clear potential for Spain to join Germany against the Entente. Kaiser Wilhelm and Tsar Nicholas II met at Bjoerkjoe. which the redcoats had occupied since 1704 and the War of the Spanish Succession. the British would have been hard pressed to defend Gibraltar. it became clear to the Kaiser that they shared a common ground of resentment against Uncle Bertie. In the face of modern artillery. But when the Kaiser told von Buelow about his talks. of making ‘a little agreement. and it very soon appeared that the Tsar feels a deep personal anger at England and the King. striking the table with his fist: ‘Well. Edward saw to it that his son in law. Maud) became King of the newly independent Norway with the name of Haakon VII.’ whereupon the Tsar interrupted me. AIMING AT ENCIRCLEMENT Edward VII left no stone unturned in his efforts to isolate Germany. The Russian response was more complicated. and never in my life against Germany or you. Spain was an important country with an ancient grievance against the British: Gibraltar. Russia would be England’s ally. Because of his marriage with the anti-German princess Alexandra. my word of honor upon it!’” [Fay 175] The Kaiser proposed that the two cousins join in a “little agreement” of their own to stymie Edward. Britain’s oldest ally. Nicholas was very unhappy with his French alliance. The Kaiser had momentarily returned to his continental league sloganeering. the World War could not have occurred in the form which it finally assumed in 1914. As the two conversed. in response to which the Kaiser threatened to commit suicide if jilted. To underline his point. since France had done nothing to help him against Japan. Edward was confident that no support for Germany would be forthcoming from Copenhagen. He has a passion for plotting against every power. Here is the Kaiser’s narrative. von Buelow: “Our talk then turned on England. . But these two borderline psychotics were unable to imagine a community of principle based on economic development.BJOERKJOE: THE IMPOTENT REVOLT OF TWO DOOMED NEPHEWS In the midst of all these events. this niece converted to Catholicism for the occasion. France would have been encircled and confronted with a two-front war. In a general European war. Still. adding that I especially had had to suffer from his intrigues in recent years. and signed a draft treaty of mutual defense which the Kaiser pulled from his pocket. a Baltic fjord in Finland. Portugal duly entered World War I on the side of the British. Edward gave worthless promises about British support for the integrity of the Portuguese colonial empire. Edward VII was a prime mover in the dissolution of the personal union of the crowns of Norway and Sweden which gave rise to an independent Norway under British sponsorship in 1905. I can only say he shall not get one from me. If Spain had also conducted hostilities against France. He called Edward VII the greatest ‘mischief. if the idea of Russo-German cooperation had been exploited. there was the threat that many French divisions might be tied down in costly attacks on the natural fortress of the Pyrenees. To Portugal. The two tearfully pledged friendship. and had concentrated on courting Uncle Bertie. the last abortive revolt of the two doomed nephews of Edward VII – the revolt of cousin Willy and cousin Nicky. the chancellor threatened to resign. Edward VII pacified Spain by marrying one of his nieces to the Spanish King. the Danish Prince Charles (who had married Edward’s third daughter.maker’ and the most dangerous and deceptive intriguer in the world. since that would have contradicted oligarchism. Within 2 years. In this latter case. The Tsar accepted. This was a poignant moment. but the opportunity drifted away. as sent to his chancellor.

and had to be crushed. 1907. just before Izvolski made the bargain. which they saw as blocking their desired path of expansion into the Balkans. Edward cut a deal with Russia that divided Iran into spheres of influence. Austria and Serbia went to the brink of war. the result would be either immediate war. Germany would have emerged totally isolated. protested. Serbia. made in September. This was the meeting in which Edward VII made his famous toast to the “alliance” between Italy and Britain. mobilizing their armies.THE ANGLO-RUSSIAN ENTENTE On the same day in April. allegedly proving that the King was a bungler in diplomacy. Edward VII had met with his agent Izvolski to propose an Anglo-Russian combination. Edward VII sailed to Reval for an ocean-going state visit to Tsar Nicholas. much to the disadvantage of Russia. but it . The Russian Slavophiles got nothing tangible about their eternal goal of Constantinople. If Germany had repudiated Austria. with no allies at all left. With the help of Izvolski. Modern pedantic scholars have portrayed this as a blundering gaffe by Edward VII. 1908. Germany restrained Austria. Edward had met with Izvolski and Clemenceau at Marienbad. In June. Here Edward VII briefed his agent. The greater Serbia agitators went wild. This was the pattern which. As a result of this Balkan crisis of 1908-1909. the navy of a power to which Italy was theoretically allied. Germany actually mediated the dispute. which wanted Bosnia. but this was blocked by the British. Russian war with Germany had been on his agenda with the Tsar in Reval. the Austrian Emperor. In the light of subsequent history. The meeting of uncle and nephew was the grimmest of portents. In August. held at Baiae near Naples on April 29. By this deal Austria was given the go-ahead to formally annex BosniaHerzegovina. it is clear that Edward VII’s toast to an Anglo. foreshadowing Russia’s nine million casualties in World War I – the most of any belligerent – with more than three quarters of all Russian soldiers ending up killed. after a second Moroccan crisis of 1911 much like the first. During the same month Edward also met with Franz Joseph. urging Stolypin to build up his land forces facing Germany. But Edward’s agents soon concocted a legend that Germany had humiliated Russia with the threat of war. but to which it was in reality a rival. while Afghanistan and Tibet were both neutralized. 1909.Herzegovina. and after the Balkan wars. the Russian Slavophiles turned their rage more and more against Germany. The Austrian government concluded that Serbia was a threat to its existence. 1908. The big crises of the Russo-Japanese war were still months ahead.Italian alliance was perhaps a boastful indiscretion. the important thing was that Germany was now encircled. 1908. With the help of Izvolski. led to war in 1914. The Anglo-Russian entente was signed in September. But when Austria annexed Bosnia. SPLITTING THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE One of Edward’s last memorable outings was his 1909 visit with King Victor Emmanuel. in Bad Ischl. which had been occupied by Austria after the Congress of Berlin. or increased tensions that could turn into war soon. and Russia felt too weak for war. Italian Foreign Minister Tittoni on what he saw as the alarming growth of the Austro. If Germany supported Austria. Admiral Jackie Fisher was there. But for Edward. This set the stage for the revolutions of 1917 and the Bolshevik regime. but Edward moved fast. Edward had every reason to start a crisis. Edward embarked at once on a new attempt to start general war. Behind the Buchlau Bargain and the Balkan crisis of 1908-1909 was – King Edward. or missing. and revealed a month later. but not annexed. In exchange Russia was supposed to get the right to send warships through the straits. This started with Izvolski’s Buchlau Bargain with Austria. wounded.Hungarian fleet. 1904 on which the Anglo-French entente had come into effect.Herzegovina. Bismarck’s old nightmare of the coalitions (le cauchemar des coalitions) and a two-front war was now reality. The ring had been closed.

” The war would come soon. and with Edward. Wagner’s case is still overwhelmingly compelling. 1915. At this conference. 347. who had tried to rape Dejaniera. I am a German prince. Margutti wrote that. reflecting the dissatisfaction with Victoria as a royal recluse. finally killed Hercules. After this meeting. The Emperor Franz Joseph and His Times. The pamphlet was entitled “The Greatest Criminal Against Humanity in the Twentieth Century: King Edward VII of England. 1914.was an error that came from knowing too much. Recall that in the old Greek myth. as the alliance patterns might have suggested. If Edward VII had had his way. when British .” With admirable conciseness. But Hercules was killed by the centaur Nessus. and dress him in it if he should ever seem unfaithful. the hero Hercules could not be killed by any living man. the wife of Hercules. from Kautsky Documents] In 1915 a pamphlet was issued in Berlin by the military writer Reinhold Wagner. For he was the one. which. Edward VII began trying to entice Franz Joseph away from his German alliance. but by four powers against two. as a rake. One was the “republican” agitation of circa 1870. but not soon enough for Edward. the Kaiser realized what had happened: “England. the British monarchy has successfully weathered three storms. It is likely that during this visit. the heir apparent. starting with the 1905 meeting. So the famous encirclement of Germany has finally become a fact. despite every effort of our politicians and diplomats to prevent it. in return for compensations purveyed by Theophile Delcassé. The old roué died in May. and England sneeringly reaps the most brilliant success of her persistently prosecuted anti-German world policy against which we have proved ourselves helpless. Edward is reported to have pressed Franz Joseph to intercede with Berlin to stop the planned German fleet expansion. pp.] The last of these Bad Ischl meetings came in August. he was the one. Wagner formulated his indictment of the deceased British monarch: “The greatest criminal against humankind which the twentieth century has seen so far was King Edward VII of England. A great achievement.” Despite everything that has happened in this tormented world since 1915. by this or that puny measure!!!” [emphasis added. 259-261. it would have been five powers against an isolated Germany. p. 1910. Russia. not too little. who has instigated the world war of today. 1908. An official in the entourage of Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph was Baron Albert Margutti. as we squirm isolated in the net. Edward’s achievement meant that World War I would be fought not by three powers against three. the sex-crazed old centaur. just before the Buchlau Bargain. Edward VII had secured from the Italian monarch and ministers commitments which rendered Italy’s participation in the Triple Alliance wholly inoperative – commitments which withstood the test of 1914. in Cowles. if it had succeeded. who was on hand for each of the Bad Ischl meetings between Franz Joseph and Edward. The net has been suddenly thrown over our head. That is the real naked situation slowly and cleverly set going by Edward VII and… finally brought to a conclusion by George V…. while she twists the noose of our political and economic destruction out of our fidelity to Austria. At the time a Leipzig newspaper wrote that he had skillfully woven the Nessus robe to destroy the German Hercules. From Edward’s time to our own. which arouses the admiration even of him who is to be destroyed as its result! Edward VII is stronger after his death than am I who am still alive! And there have been people who believed that England could be won over or pacified. For a few moments during early August. would have left Berlin with no allies at all. Franz Joseph is reported to have muttered. The dying Nessus told Dejaniera to soak Hercules’ robe in his centaur blood. and which were followed by Italy’s entry into the war on the side of the Allies in May. “After all. Then came 1916-1918. offering a series of vaguely defined compensations if he were to do so. Edward VII never abandoned an Austrian option. Dejaniera later did this. [See Margutti. and the poisoned blood of Nessus. and France have agreed among themselves… after laying the foundation of the casus foederis for us through Austria… to take the Austro-Serbian conflict for an excuse for waging a war of extermination against us….

This was when George V refused to accept the Tsar.” This false verdict was then incorporated into the infamous Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles. which alleges: “The Allied and Associated Governments affirm. which caused a wave of hatred of all things German. citizens and statesmen must learn the lesson of how the British monarchy and oligarchy orchestrated the catastrophe of 1914. which reflected the fact that the King was a Nazi. which reflects a deeper breakdown in the Versailles system. We must rather conclude that the royals will stop at nothing. including the royal family. and his alliance system. and Max Weber. which included the demand for more than $32 billion in war reparations.troops began to die in large numbers on the western front in King Edward’s World War I. A clause in the Versailles treaty specifies that Germany bears the entire guilt for World War I.Hungary. a fascist dictatorship. Turkey and Bulgaria. and other great nations were used by Edward VII as geopolitical pawns. This finding was officially reported to the Paris Peace Conference at the close of the war by a “Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War. having weathered all these storms. France. the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies. .” The German delegates were coerced into signing the Versailles Treaty by threats of renewed war and by the economic blockade still imposed on Germany after the armistice by the fleets of the Entente. and the commission ignored a new “German White Book” compiled in 1919 by Hans Delbrueck. which had to take the absurd name of “Windsor” to cover up their German origins. in agreement with Austria. his diplomacy. and Germany accepts. we have the Charles-Diana crisis. The thesis of exclusive German war guilt was required by the Entente as a premise for the Carthaginian peace imposed on the Central Powers. Then came the Edward VIII crisis of 1937. Robert Lansing. The dismantling of the Versailles system must therefore include the revision of the treaty to specify British war guilt in the person of Edward. including a military coup. The historical truth about Edward VII simplifies the question of what and who caused World War I. Japan. Ninety years after Edward’s ententes. his agents. the United States. There is no reason to assume that the British monarchy. plus interest for servicing this debt over decades into the future. THE WAR GUILT CLAUSE OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. his geopolitics. Russia. which contained enough evidence to show that the thesis of exclusive German war guilt was untenable. This is a patent absurdity. and they have suffered immeasurably as a result.Bartholdy. 1919 The entire international public order of the post-1919 era. because of the fear of an even greater political reaction. Count Montgelas. has been based on the absurd lie that Germany was solely responsible for the outbreak of World War I. Now. especially to France. The world war was caused by Edward VII. The kernel of Lansing’s conclusions was as follows: “The war was premeditated by the Central Powers together with their allies. and was the result of acts deliberately committed in order to make it unavoidable.” which was chaired by the American Secretary of State. since 1991-92. Germany. as we have seen. The world war was caused by Edward VII. will be easily swept away. or World War III. Lansing refused to allow any Germans to take part in his deliberations. Professor Mendelssohn. by extension. to avoid giving up power. deliberately worked to defeat all the many conciliatory proposals made by the Entente Powers. the United Nations. including the League of Nations and.

because of the popular feeling widespread in some Entente countries. 1964) Frank Spiering. a second world conflict. 1925). His Family and Friends” (New York: J. “King Edward the Seventh” (New York: E. when historians like H. “Uncle of Europe: The Social & Diplomatic Life of Edward VII” (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The Treaty must be revised to specify the war guilt of an international conspiracy masterminded first by King Edward VII of England. and through them of public opinion. and the fall of the communist regimes in Europe. “King Edward VII: A Biography” (New York: Macmillan. 1976) Sir Sidney Lee. “The Origins of the World War” (New York: Macmillan.” and the diary of Baron Schilling of the Russian Foreign Ministry (edited by W. “Der Groesste Verbrecher an der Menschheit im Zwanzigsten Jahrhundert: Koenig Eduard von England – Eine Fluchschrift” (Berlin: Verlag Karl Curtius.E. 1924). Fay of Harvard in 1930: “…the verdict of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were responsible for the War. is historically unsound. “Prince Jack” (New York: Doubleday. Farrer.B. “The Kaiser” (New York: Harper & Row. and Clemenceau were participants. Bridge. Lippincott.A. the time has come to reopen the Versailles Treaty. However. 1930) Emile Flourens. Typical is this conclusion from the academic historian Sidney B.In the years after the war. 1963) J. 1927) Keith Middlemas. it is doubtful whether a formal and legal revision is as yet practicable. the cold war. 1978) Reinhold Wagner. The false verdict of Versailles had already become a scandal in America during the 1920’s. the Soviet “Materials for the History of Franco. of which figures like Izvolski.” Now. 1992) Theo Aronson. “The Life and Times of King Edward VII” (New York: Doubleday.C.P. 1972) Philip Magnus. There must first come a further revision by historical scholars. 1922). 1992) Sidney Bradshaw Fay. “La France Conquise” (Paris: Garnier. “Murder and Madness: The Secret Life of Jack the Ripper” (New York: Fine. It should therefore be revised. Daisy Warwick. 1975) Virginia Cowles. after fascism. in view of the evidence now available. documentary evidence was published which further undermined the Big Lie of Versailles. Sazonov. “The Royal Victorians: King Edward VII. “England Under Edward VII” (London: George Allen and Unwin. Barnes and others demanded the revision of the war guilt clause. the “Austrian Red Book of 1919. BIBLIOGRAPHY David Abrahamsen. 1915) . Alice Keppel and Others” (New York: Harper & Row.Russian Relations from 1910 to 1914″ (Moscow. Dutton. 1906) Christopher Hibbert. “The King in Love: Edward VII’s Mistresses: Lillie Langtry. London. and after him by Sir Edward Grey. This included Karl Kautsky’s “Out break of the World War” (New York. The center of war guilt must be fixed in London. 1988) Gordon Brook-Shepherd.

1987) « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END .P.Stanley Weintraub. Dutton. “Victoria: An Intimate Biography” (New York: E.

blaming Belgrade. 1914 in Sarajevo. the crisis was soon resolved. even if they assumed the tactical offensive against Serbia. were determined to use the crisis to smash Serbia. addressed a very harsh ultimatum to Serbia on July 23 demanding sweeping concessions for investigating the crime and the suppression of anti-Austrian agitation. but not other great powers. Anglo-German relations were judged by Sir Edward Goschen. Petersburg that Britain .net/online-books/against-oligarchy/sir-edw ard-grey-turned-sarajevo-crisis-into-w ar/ December 27. Grey cultivated the illusion of good relations with Germany. it still required all of Sir Edward Grey’s perfidy and cunning to detonate the greatest conflagration in world history by exploiting the diplomatic crisis surrounding the assassination of the Austrian heir apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28. In Vienna. when Germany sent the warship {Panther} to Agadir to secure German interests there. was an anglophile and a crony of the kaiser’s student days. Count Berchtold. the leading minister. and the chief of staff. the British minister Lloyd George had delivered a clear public warning to Berlin. anxious to make concessions to London in order to secure peace. Kaiser Wilhelm II and others were relieved and thought that the war danger had receded. The German chancellor from 1909 to 1917. During the Balkan Wars and the Liman von Sanders affair of 1913. and Germany had replied at once that she was not seeking a permanent presence on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The Russian court slavophiles were demanding war against Austria and Germany in defense of Serbia. Some weeks after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg. he could have pursued one of two courses of action. Dr. the British ambassador to Berlin. but the Vienna madmen seized on minor refusals by Serbia to declare war on July http://tarpley. Berchtold and Hoetzendorff were madmen on the strategic defensive. Their aggressive intentions involved Serbia. Britain would fight on the side of France and Russia. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents Printed in The American Almanac. these slavophiles were madmen on the strategic offensive who sought a general European war. 1995 Even after decades of British geopolitical machinations. frustrating the war party in London. Conrad von Hoetzendorff. March. By mid-1914. Sir Edward Grey declared in 1912 that any differences between England and Germany would never assume dangerous proportions “so long as German policy was directed by” Bethmann-Hollweg. This would have propelled the kaiser and Bethmann into the strongest efforts to restrain the Vienna madmen.Sir Edward Grey Turned Sarajevo Crisis Into War « TARPLEY. probably forcing them to back down. Berlin would back down. This lesson was that if Germany clearly perceived in a crisis that there was a direct risk of Anglo-German war. When Serbia issued a conciliatory reply to the Austrian ultimatum. which were in conflict with those of France. as “more friendly and cordial than they had been in years. In the Agadir crisis. The other course would have been to warn Paris and especially St. the Austrian government. If Sir Edward Grey had sincerely wished to avoid war. which they saw as a threat to the survival of their empire.” But it was all a trick by Perfidious Albion. Sir Edward Grey had learned an important lesson in the Moroccan crisis of 1911. Bosnia. The first would have been to warn Germany early in the crisis that in case of general war.

” The gullible Kaiser Wilhelm was kept thoroughly disoriented during the last critical period when Germany could have forced Vienna to back down and avoid general war. a disciple of Edward VII. The order of general mobilizations was Serbia. and. On July 26. before the fateful Russian and Austrian mobilizations of July 30 and 31. This would have undercut the St. The first continental state to mobilize had been Serbia. that Britain had “no quarrel with anyone and I hope we shall remain neutral. and would remain neutral. 4-5. who was visiting England. On July 19. The British were the first of the great powers to mobilize their war machine. Grey proposed direct conversations between Vienna and St. On July 29. and Germany.” This was seized upon by the pathetic kaiser as a binding pledge of British neutrality for which. and to Czar Nicholas II. Petersburg militarists. in this case the Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy. the kaiser thought. and that is sufficient for me. Grey. In early and middle July. Instead he maintained a posture of deception designed to make Germany think England would remain neutral.had no intention of being embroiled in world war over the Balkan squabble. Italy. French {revanchistes} and Russian slavophiles were subtly encouraged on the path of aggression. responded that this would be “very dangerous. 1914. On the afternoon of July 28. Edward VII’s son King George V made a vital contribution to the British deception. Prince Henry. Grey shifted to a proposal for mediation by other great powers of the Austrian-Russian dispute. Austria. did neither of these things. Grey declared war at midnight Aug. the British fleet was now on a full war footing. France. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . Great Britain. and would have motivated Paris to act as a restraining influence. Winston Churchill ordered the fleet to proceed during the night at high speed with no lights from Portsmouth through the Straits of Dover to its wartime base of operations at Scapa Flow. finally. the British had already staged a formidable naval demonstration with a review of the Grand Fleet at Portsmouth. a warmonger. which was declined by Germany for various reasons. France. Russia. if England did not fight. In this way. Late on July 26. while giving Paris hints that England would support Russia and France. since. Grey’s deception of Germany meant assuming the posture of a mediator rather than a possible party to the conflict. he said “I have the word of a king. the official “warning telegram” was sent out from the Admiralty. Grey’s charade of war avoidance contributed to complacency in Berlin and a failure to do anything to restrain the Vienna crazies. France and Russia were unlikely to do so either. These hints were then passed on to Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov. Petersburg to avoid war. a British agent. When German forces entered Belgium in the context of the Schlieffen Plan (the German plan for a two-front war against France and Russia). on July 25. King George V told the kaiser’s brother.” On July 24. but dropped this when French President Poincaré. Grey proposed a conference of ambassadors from England. north of Scotland. THE DECLARATION OF WAR It was late on July 29 before any warning of British armed intervention in the looming conflict was received in Berlin. Germany.

it will be a little difficult to follow. already referred to. In the course of this. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents Conference Speech by Webster Tarpley. which would be under the ultimate domination of what the British considered to be an Anglo-Saxon master race. and then in the Versailles Treaty of 1919. That the British. they came close to establishing their worldwide dominion. 1992. the idea of a single new Roman Empire. So I urge you if you can. a period when the British–the Anglo-Americans–come close to establishing this kind of universal domination. Schiller Institute Food For Peace Conference. from 1870 to 1914. the preservation of the British Empire. is rooted above all in the events of the First World War between 1914 and 1918. February 22-23. Chicago. imperialistic. the British had to fear a convergence of the United States. and you’ll see the areas that pop up. Lyndon LaRouche referred to it before. colonial. malthusian. I will have to simplify some things. Illinois. It would be oligarchical. in the wake of the American Civil War. that World War I itself was the consequence of British geopolitical geostrategic decisions that were made in the period around w i-and-w w ii/ December 27. and united Germany. We can certainly clarify some of those in the discussion. the best seats are emphatically here in the front part of the auditorium. because it’s a period that’s very like our own today. and I will have to proceed somewhat from the point of view of the British thrust in these directions. to the point where by about 1870. The thesis goes on to specify. A different version was printed in The American Almanac. and it is. poverty.The Versailles Thesis: The Roots of WWI. We will also see the irony of history. actually in the Peace of Paris of 1919. Russia. and WWII « TARPLEY. that British world domination would have been ruled out forever. the British quest for the single empire. in such a way that the future of the British Empire would have been put into jeopardy. especially around the events of the American Civil War. because if you don’t see these maps. I believe. 1992 I would like to attempt to illustrate the Versailles thesis in a certain amount of detail. As we will see. the British came very close to establishing just such a single empire in the period between about 1848 and 1863. condemn large areas of the world to depopulation. that if the British came between 1850 and 1860. March. The Versailles thesis has been referred to several times in the course of today’s proceedings already. come up to the front. That is a period that we’ll look at in some detail. and so forth. the new Roman Empire. an empire that would encompass the entire world. actively sought a general conflagration for the purpose of destroying civilization and for preserving the British Empire as against the challenges that had emerged. Now the theme in this is constantly. in short. the Russian cooperation with Lincoln during the Civil War. the idea that the world system or world order which is presently collapsing around our ears. the irony is that then blew up in their faces. I would say to people at the beginning. .net http://tarpley.

in the period before 1815. Notice also that Belgium has been added to the Netherlands. the Turkish Ottoman Empire extends far into continental Europe. Here’s Congress of Vienna Europe. In . including India and so forth. This is the Europe of the Holy Alliance.In the course of this. and rather what they do is to assume a position of splendid isolation and at the same time to foment revolutions against all of their alleged allies on the continent of Europe. they stop signing the declarations. And in particular. The British are forced to deal with him almost as an equal. So here’s our starting point. in Serbia–they created that revolution in 1817. of course. as a challenge. Louis Bland.S. the names of Mazzini. and all these other people. to bring about. is to skip to the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Let me just show you what happened in 1848. This was Europe as the map was redrawn by the oligarchs gathered at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. a British agent and adventurer. Karl Marx. with of course the new nation. you can see what a tissue of lies the history of the last 200 years. I have to caveat this. What I thought we would do. and the word went out from London. This is the Europe that you associate with Metternich. by saying 1848 is also other things. the official U. to British imperialism. every government in Europe was overthrown. Fourier. the guy who was ruling here in Vienna at that time. needless to say. the chief minister of the Hapsburg Court. simply specifying that in the period before the Napoleonic Wars. the British were able to extend their colonial domination to vast areas of the world. and in particular. However. 1: Europe as redrawn at Congress of Vienna. this is all a society of British agents for the destabilization of Metternich and company on the continent of Europe. and in the middle of everything. Notice Poland is completely submerged. the First International Workingmen’s Association. Using the aids of modern technology here…[MAP NO. that World War I was a British creation which the British schemed for the best part of a half century. version of World War I and World War II. what many people know as the Europe of the Congress of Vienna. They stop going to the congresses. and any idea of German war guilt for World War I has to go out the window. every government in Italy was overthrown. So let us leap to the end of the Napoleonic Wars. you’ve got this crazy quilt of Germany divided into dozens and dozens of petty states. very ugly figure. though. Basically. The British started a revolution here. plus all of the French socialists. the British begin to drop out of the Congress of Vienna system. to be able to do this under the conditions that he’s working–we will develop a radically new view of the last 200 years of history. which is a complete tissue of lies. that the British oligarchs would support everybody’s revolutions. and it has to yield to the idea. There are a lot of very good people active in 1848. 1815] The question is. their own. where do you start some kind of a review like this? We could usefully start it at the time of the American Revolution. Remember that in the world outside of Europe at this point. The French July monarch was overthrown in favor of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. is clearly this. the only significant challenge comes from the United States. as you’ll see–and this is Lyn’s tremendous merit. Prince Metternich. in case people have forgotten this. They rule the seas. which you will not find in any textbook. standing out as a barrier. as you see here. after about 1820. as presented in Anglo-American sources actually is. They created modern Greece in 1821. the United States. and this is what gave birth to the revolutions of 1848. the British dominate. except. Bakunin. Metternich is a very. And they fomented these things. but the general thrust of the British policy. It is a condominium in which the British are obliged to co-exist with Metternich and the kinds of Central European oligarchs that he represents. and indeed from the point of view of this concept. what you see–and this is I think a characteristic of this period. Italy is divided.

if you look at the map. With one fell swoop. Metternich himself was forced to flee from a revolution in Vienna. free trade. the Second Opium War fits precisely into this period. well. if you calculate. or pro-slavery and proabolitionist groups. He had studied the wars of Napoleon I. a reorganization of British rule in India. but this was then turned around. the British had succeeded in overthrowing every government on the continent of Europe. and he concluded that Napoleon’s big mistake was fighting the British. The only country that escaped this was Russia. is to be a junior partner to the British. This is the famous Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Before that. there’s not one continent of the entire globe where the British are not in a tremendous offensive. and the creation of a British Viceroy of India. it really looks like the Anglo-Americans have dominated the world. And you could say today. here’s a French imperialist who believes. Napoleon III. The idea is that the single empire is within their grasp. forcing the pope to flee. First of all. This is an absolutely original concept that LaRouche has developed. and so forth. you had Kossuth in Hungary. the only country that had survived those 1848 destabilizations. We’ve also got. [NEXT MAP: 1848] Here is this extremely interesting period between the 1848 revolutions and the turning points of the American Civil War. Filibustering expeditions by protoConfederates into Latin America. Kansas is the beginning of the American Civil War. which led to the end of the direct rule of the British East India Company out there. And Kansas. with gangs of pro-Confederate and pro-Union. in particular forcing Metternich to disguise himself as an Englishman and flee to London. it looks like the British on paper have wrapped up the entire world. they had Corn Laws. It’s very similar to today. How does Kansas fit in? Well. Let us look at the tremendous worldwide offensive of the British imperialists back in the 1850s. because they could look forward to the idea of being able to loot the world and therefore have free trade.particular Mazzini succeeded in creating his Roman republic. This is then acted out in the Crimean War. his ancestor. Bleeding Kansas. you could say. where the British and the French join together to invade Russia. but certainly the prime ministers–similar things in Spain. every government in Germany was overthrown–not necessarily the monarch. fighting it out in a continuous bloodletting. You look at this together. But let me just anticipate that it’s not going to be so. This is the British grabbing a whole series of ports and other bases on the coast of China. Very high tariffs to keep the price of grain extremely elevated. as you may remember. Now. Where did free trade ever come from? Free trade was introduced by the British in 1846 and in the following years. pause for a second. that the way to have a French empire. That’s exactly what he did. and this is something you won’t find in any history book. and that the Anglo-Americans will continue to dominate the world for the next century. The British were able to install their puppet. so as so often happens in the history of French imperialism. in terms of a worldwide offensive. and it was clear at the time that they were about to go into China to partition the entire country. [MAP OF CRIMEAN WAR] . If you look at this. In China. where there was no internal revolution. and the creation of this Hapsburg/Maximilian Empire in Mexico.

Barbara Bush. and James Buchanan. Someone said that this shows that one President Buchanan was enough. that their forces are not significant enough to push further inside the country. If you remember. he was secretary of war under these administrations. as we saw. Queen Victoria was proclaimed “Empress of India. Here we are on the Black Sea. protoConfederate slaveholders. and Buchanan. the scum of the earth. Tennyson’s “Charge of the Light Brigade”? This is one that Fred Wills could quote at great length. What happened under these? This is typical. The idea was to begin to reintroduce direct colonialism. that despicable puppet state. and Lyn has been very emphatic about this. So here we are in the Crimean War. later on. We have to pay special attention to the 1850s in the United States. This is the British invasion fleet. Stuart wrapped up in God knows what that’s palmed off . [MAP] Maximilian! Remember him? The Hapsburg heir who was placed on the throne of Mexico by a French army. Don’t be fooled by that Sir Walter Scott aura of chilvalry and J. and there are some very large Russian forts in the background. this was the same Jefferson Davis who became the president of the Confederate States of America. So what you had under presidents like Fillmore. Franklin Pierce. Let’s look at the great series of presidents: Millard Fillmore. And they succeed in defeating the Russian Army. although what they find is. and Ibero-America in general. He was not just a major-general. This was the president under whose term the Civil War actually began to break out. The charge of the Light Brigade took place here. the ancestor of Barbara Pierce. This was one of the largest amphibious war operations. was that the Confederate traitors.E. then you have to conclude that the place was a dead duck-lost. sending out a viceroy from London and before too long. ruling over maharajahs and other local potentates. the Sepoy Mutiny led to a vast reorganization of British colonialism in the area. sent by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte? There he is.” with this great empire. Why? Let’s start with the leadership. [MAP OF BALACLAVA] This is the city of Balaclava. And. of course. If you look at the United States in the 1850s. of course. [INDIA] In India. and what do we find here? The Ottoman Empire. And again Lyn has warned us: Don’t be fooled by the Confederacy. Anglo-French invasion. Russia up here. Pierce. and that’s what the British threw their Light Brigade against. starting in the 1850s. wearing his uniform of major general of the United States Army.Here’s the Crimean War. by British or by British puppet states. like Jefferson Davis–members of the British Scottish Rite Freemasons. into Mexico. traitors. and they actually invade the Crimea here. Here’s Jefferson Davis.B. they could make great careers in the United States Army. so who goes in? The British and the French bust through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. the largest up to that time to be sure. Central America.

The collapse of Maximilian’s Hapsburg Empire in Mexico. as a British puppet state. Then we’ve got the turning-point year 1863. because he doesn’t understand these things the way I do. Grant. Judah P. as we will see. and that would have been the end of the Union–because that was the idea. that animates an organization like the Anti-Defamation League. now the Civil War’s going to go on for three more years. which seemed lost. 1861-62. McClellan refused to attack on many the ethos of the Confederacy. And here he is at Antietam. this tremendous turnaround of the 1860s. this was one of the most despicable. mediating between them if you will. what came out of these events. And then. . was the commander of all the Union armies. And as we’ve stressed. This is precisely the kind of British imperialist agent that you find in the upper reaches of the Confederate government. and Abraham Lincoln doesn’t really belong in this. That’s George McClellan. That’s exactly what this is. At the end of the Civil War. to try to earn a living. Alexander II. that the negotiated settlement would leave the Confederate States of America in existence. But he refused to do that. He said. If you go back to Japan in this period. that you see here. Here’s a typical Confederate. This is pro-McClellan propaganda. And of course he was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1864. Russia. France. and Prussia–or call it Germany by that time–which attracted the attention of key forces in Japan and China. the arrival of the Russian fleets in New York and San Francisco. This was the defeat of Austria by Prussia. could not make a career in the Army. in particular. in 1862. and. which was the immediate prelude to the complete unification of Germany. We’ve talked a lot about him. and you refused to do it. of course. He came in in the midst of the Crimean War. and here’s George P. the freeing of the serfs in 1851. who. McClellan who’s trying to reconcile them.” Here’s the way this was viewed in a cartoon of the day. proto-fascist states that has ever been seen on the face of the earth. It’s interesting to see. because he wanted a negotiated peace. Benjamin: he was the secretary of the treasury of the Confederate States of America. People like Ulysses S. This is one that’s hardly known. The Seven Weeks’ War. or he’s checking if he’s still got his wallet. he fled to Britain. “I can sit down with Robert E. where he lived. A reforming czar in Russia. and this mixture of what you would have to call Zionism and Confederacy today. The ADL today continues the characteristic mentality of Judah Benjamin. This was based on human slavery. was a convergence of the United States. and if it hadn’t been for Sherman at Atlanta and Phil Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley and the naval battles off Cherbourg. and had to go into business. an agent in particular of the Rothschild family of London. Davis was the president. let’s look at the way in which this world. when all seemed to be lost. This is the battle where McClellan had a good chance to destroy the Confederate Army under Lee. blew up in the face of the British. Lee and work this out. where Lincoln is basically telling him. German unification completed. military service. generals like Sherman and Grant were forced out of the U.S. the twin Union victories of Gettysburg and Vicksburg especially.” This is an interchange. you look in the Union officers corps. just as his country was under tremendous attack. Now. How about this guy? He thinks he’s Napoleon. then he might have won. Here was the potential for a new combination in the northern hemisphere. He is. the United States. came in with a vast program of reforms. they had to go into the private sector. “Why didn’t you pursue Lee? You could have destroyed him on the battlefield. Here’s Lincoln on the one side and Jefferson Davis on the other. the Emancipation Proclamation. that while Jefferson Davis was getting promoted. the reforming forces in Japan divide pretty much between pro-American and pro-German.

also in the sense that they opened the door to the unification of Germany. Many people think. then he would probably have to deal with Russia. Civil War. They had just fought the Crimean War against the British and the French. Russia was going to join in that war. This is Lincoln’s ambassador. who came into New York City in the fall of 1863. And here’s Admiral []. What has never really been looked into. and spent the winter of 1863-64. of course. Prussia. Mecklenburg-Schwerien and so forth. the British Empire was. Napoleon III sent an army to fight the United States. of vanquishing the Austro-Hungarian forces. As Gideon Welles. the principal figure in this is Abraham Lincoln. I can assure you the British didn’t like that. Of course. Would it be possible for Germany to have been unified. Here’s unified Germany. these are figures from 1909 and they will show you. Did he come all the way to have his picture taken? Obviously not. that Gettysburg and Vicksburg are key turning points of world history. Similarly. It sort of came in one ship after another. These are actual sailors of the Russian Atlantic fleet. Russia. Well. Cassius Clay of Kentucky. the British dominated one-quarter of the population . over a period of a couple of weeks. another Russian fleet came to San Francisco. So. here is a war between Prussia on the one side. very powerful at this point. with German unification on the other. One interesting fact. Let’s take a look at how this went. and he secured really the only military assistance from any foreign power for Lincoln and for the Union. where the British royal family comes from. if they had not been so thoroughly defeated in the U. had his studio in New York City. Bavaria down here. on the continent of Europe. who administered one of the most severe defeats that British imperialism has ever had to absorb in the last 200 years. that in 1909.Russia. that would have been sufficient to dominate the world. and finish off the British Empire once and for all. This is the original Cassius Clay. because this was a token of the fact. plus China and Japan. The Russian fleet arrived in September and October. this took place in 1866. However. and they had been ordered by the Czar to place themselves under the command of Lincoln in case of war between Britain. I think what the interesting thing about this is. Here is another photograph by Mathew Brady.S. It had ceased to exist as a result of this war. and Austria on the other. this was now brought together as one powerful unified national state by 1871. the great Civil War photographer. and they were ready to continue fighting. Prussia. the secretary of the navy for Lincoln in those days said: “Thank God for the Russians. within a period of about 50 days. was an island. which is. Again. In September and October the Russian Atlantic fleet arrived in New York City. and the Union on the other. they tend to situate the British Empire high point back in the days of George III. Baden-Wurttemburg over here. The Prussians simply put an end to the existence of Hanover. you can see the crazy quilt that had existed.S. The kingdom of Hanover. is the relation of Gettysburg on the one side. for example. they would have done something about this. the commander of the Russian Atlantic fleet. that if. and France on the one side. Petersburg at the time of the Civil War. The Prussian army was capable. And this is the Seven Weeks’ War. This is Admiral [] The photographer here is Mathew Brady. here. This is a war that in the United States you almost never hear about.. of course.” Here’s that other one that I just mentioned. and Mathew Brady. He was the Union ambassador to St. if Lincoln had not won the Civil War? I would submit to you. if you look at this map with the colors. U. and played a key role in the saving of the Union.

was to dominate the United States. There is also a Russian system. later finance minister. And this was going to be built between about 1900 and 1915. and so forth. and indeed 25 percent of the land surface. That would have spared them all of the carnage of World War I. there were railroads being built out here into the Russian Empire. What could the continental Europeans do to resist this kind of British domination? Well. but then you’ve got the Alps here. At the same time. They should make an alliance against Britain in particular. coming up against the Russian Empire. and so on down the line. and finally Kuwait. comes right across to Iran. and play the forces of the heartland against each other. I think one interesting thing to us as you look at us. So look at this tremendous ability of Witte’s project to reach out and create an actual Eurasian railroad bloc. The British geopolitical strategy. And here’s the other great railroad project.” And there. and–look–here’s British imperialism in India. as you see. through what is today Syria. went through Anatolia. and then go into the so-called heartland. And if you put together the two maps that I’ve just shown you. and of course . reached Kirkuk. and as you see it goes all the way from St. That’s Budapest over there.of the world in the British Empire. a second line was added up here. dominate Japan if they could. and there’s Vienna. and then into Mesopotamia. The only thing that comes close is Milan. so much so that the entire coastline of the Indian Ocean. which gets right down to the base of the Caspian Sea. of course. greater even than Lincoln’s transcontinental railroad. It was never completed. and in particular. all the way across Central Asia. there’s Berlin. was completely British controlled. just to follow this a little bit. with a low density of railroads up there. Port Arthur. is the old Brzezinski arc of crisis. the Balkan and Asia Minor parts. So it’s clear that a European infrastructure and railroad triangle. across the Bosporus on barges. but suffice it to say that this started in Berlin. Witte’s strategic concept was that France. Germany. came down here through the Hapsburg dominions. is that it’s clear there are three key points in the European railroad system. and it would have robbed the British of their geopolitical strategy. does comprehend the densest area of industrial and infrastructural development. this is the railway system on the continent of Europe at about 1900. Petersburg up here. This is now the Berlin to Baghdad Railway. Basra. Remember that the British Empire got even bigger after the First World War by absorbing German colonies. it would have challenged the British domination of their empire lifeline. here. One-quarter of the world’s population were subjects of the British Empire and about one-fifth of the world’s land surface. the original form of it went across Manchuria to Harbin and then to Vladivostock. And what he promoted. think of that as a kind of second center. Darien. Russia should not fight each other. There are other accounts that will tell you it’s about 25 percent of the population. later on. Witte’s strategic concept would have made World War I impossible. Mosul. with just this little Afghani buffer state in between. play France against Germany. was the building of this Trans-Siberian railway. became transportation minister. this would have made Berlin the rail hub of the universe. Germany against Russia. the great Count Sergei Witte. the greatest infrastructural project of the 19th century. which is simply the axis of British colonialism around the Indian Ocean. this would have provided an alternate route to India. Iraq. with the ability to call on an entire Eurasian hinterland. This was then called “the British Lake. to avoid Chinese territory. this was primarily the idea of Georg von Siemens of the German industrial family but it was pursued also as a goal of German foreign policy. from Harbin to Beijing and to these other areas here. As was mentioned before. we have to mention here. You only see the Asia Minor part of it here. reached Baghdad. there’s a second railway system which is called the Transcaspian. He worked first of all in the railway ministry. the Trans-Siberian Railway and this Berlin to Baghdad railway. It linked up to the Chinese railway system–for example. who grew up as an employee of the Russian imperial railway system. There’s Paris. of course.

when he came in). Russian. there’s a . and that’s about what they did. as long as Germany and Russia maintained good relations. of course. for example. part realpolitiker. and Austro-Hungarian Empires.this the British were determined to avoid at all costs. That’s one of the key turning points in which the twentieth century went wrong. With that. as you see. but it was doubly wrong for the United States to go into World War I on the side of the British. “Well. this was not a good ally. that if you wanted to have an empire. The Russian Empire. a very large Germany. with allies like this you don’t really need enemies. Here you see Europe as it was in July and August of 1914. Lyn has talked about the Fashoda incident of 1898. and a few other people sat down at the table and said. the Austro-Hungarian Empire. You see these fighting fronts? There’s a western front over here. why did it take so long for World War I to come about? I would simply point to a couple of questions of Bismarck’s foreign policy. the Eastern Question meant their desire to destabilize the Ottoman. the British were brought into this.” and they did that in 1870. that Germany has plenty of allies. therefore. The other thing to stress about this is the colonial rivalry in Africa. And you can see the result of it is. that’s the key to the Entente Cordiale of 1904. That would have made all the difference. this is what Europe looked like. between Germany and Russia. he rejected the importance of an alliance with Russia. It was wrong for France to ally with the British against Germany. Lord John Russell. all directed against Germany. if Disraeli. Gladstone. is that the United States fought on the wrong side. Kaiser Wilhelm did not understand. And in particular I would stress the good relations between Berlin and St. the United States had gone in on the side of Germany. and go to Djibouti. Germany is left with only one real ally. there it is. And here’s the fighting. This was the way the British wanted to put Africa together. Bismarck. He’s a mixed figure: part monster. This picture you see up here is the alliance system created by Bismarck. and the way for World War I was actually clear. and you have the Triple Entente of Russia. So from 1870 to 1890 or thereabouts. the Ottoman Empire here. This allowed France to make an alliance with Russia in 1894 and very soon after that. we’re going to start over here in Dakar. Petersburg. Bismarck as a realpolitiker. the Austro-Hungarian Empire. first under the so-called alliance of the Three Emperors–Dreikaiserbund–and then the so-called Reinsurance Treaty. The British had played this Eastern Question card. England and France. this is the guy you remember from the World War I period. everything is ready for World War I. and these two groups clashed in Fashoda and the mentality that won out on the French side under Theophile Delcassé was the idea. That would have created a much better world than the one that we’re confronted with today. The bottom part shows what happened when Bismarck was forced out of the scene and the lunatic Emperor William II (this is Kaiser Wilhelm. you’ve got to do it with the British because you’re not strong enough to do it against them. The guy who superintended the creation of united Germany was. The catastrophes of this century would have been avoided to a very large degree if. was a great realist. The British wanted to unite a strip of territory from Cairo all the way down to the Cape. Now some people may ask: If the British decided in 1870 or thereabouts. There were some French imperialists who said no. make a deal with British imperialism. He knew that there could be no general war in Europe. and. The thing that we have to stress about the way the war was conducted. France cannot start any wars– these pro-British governments in Paris–and the British are forced to stay off the continent of Europe pretty much. France has none. let’s have World War I. Queen Victoria.

Estonia. of course. and. Hungarians. Italians. Bessarabia. This territorial system that came out of this. you get up into the area of about 25 million to thirty million dead as a result of World War I. Austrians. Saudi Arabia. there’s a Russian-Turkish front out here. of course. an Italian front. sort of pro-Woodrow Wilson map. You can see the changes that have been made. Notice the areas that were taken away. departed this empire. similarly in Germany. of course. there was a mass movement in China against the idea that the German colonial possession were transferred to the Japanese under this same treaty. the reality of World War I is that this is the greatest single tragedy. In this case. the two most developed countries of western Europe. Norman Schwarzkopf. of course. Also notice Serbia up here. Notice also that Yugoslavia has been created–probably the most typical territorial change of Versailles. there’s a Balkan front. Nobody was really satisfied with all of this. to make them stable. as Helga was saying earlier. They’re going to go fight the battle of Verdun. Woodrow Wilson. And the majority of that. and so on down the line. Hungary. is the existence of Yugoslavia. to make them prosperous. and now. and others. It’s about 9 million killed outright. and Slovenes. we’re now in the midst of Versailles. This did not have anything to do with the wishes of those involved. the Baltic States taken off. Lebanon.S. where. a very large Poland up here. the Oder-Neisse line over here is the border of Germany. Syria. And. it took about 15 or 20 years. This was all the Ottoman Empire. Everything that you think of as being the Middle East– including Turkey. so this is now Versailles. that those states will then be reengulfed by a Russian Empire within about 15 or 20 years. several million men were killed. and. this Peace of Paris of 1919. Croatians. Austria: this empire ceased to exist. there was a Kuwait front. The Russian Empire has already been through one dismemberment in the 20th century. This was a reward to Serbia by the British and their friend. Lithuania. was vastly unpopular. or even less. to make them viable. today Moldova taken off. Nine million dead. I would stress in the Versailles system: the way in which the Ottoman Empire was partitioned in 1919. Slovaks. It’s now going through the second dismemberment. this is a U. And Russia: the Russian Empire was dismembered. all of these were created at the Peace of Paris–in particular the Treaty of Sevres. Here’s Germany as it came out of World War I. Here we see Finland taken off. there is every danger. that unless economic dirigistic policies are introduced in these new states. In Italy. a fairly large Hungary. It awakened desires on the part of various groups. Here is now the Europe that emerged after the Peace of Paris. bringing World War I to an end. a rather large Czechoslovakia. areas in the Transcaucasus taken off. These are French troops getting out of their trucks. They tried to get to Baghdad–they didn’t get there either. there was so much discontent that this led to the rise of fascism. where are you? This was done by the British..tremendous eastern front. Kuwait. a large Rumania. 20 million wounded. that’s precisely what Yugoslavia was all about. And we must warn. Israel. and if you add in the Spanish flu and a few other things. because it lists “Yugoslavs” as Serbs. Israel took a little bit longer to create. for the Russian Empire to make its comeback under Stalin. and look: even out here. nobody liked it. I have to apologize for this map. but basically the mandate of Palestine under the British is what then later became Israel. . the greatest single hecatomb of western civilization. Slovenians. up here in the Baltics. it was fought in particular by Ataturk in Turkey. You can also see the creation of Finland and Latvia. was Germany and France. Croatians. over a period of 6 or 8 months. Iraq. Czechs. then.

We’ve mentioned this $32 billion in reparations. The British Foreign Office with the Balfour Declaration announced that it was . It’s still there. and Japan. the immense internal debts of all these countries. maybe $32 trillion is some idea of what that would have meant today. In other words. of course. it’s the Germanies not simply cut down. They were kept blockaded for a long time. It was said that the Germans bore the war guilt. Under the League of Nations there were these mandates. They would have just finished paying for World War I two years ago. and because of the 5 percent interest rates. those were real dollars. look at the Middle East as one example of what this meant for the Third World. you have the Bank for International Settlements in Basel. economically. the conditionalities of the IMF as they have been imposed on the former colonial sector. primarily by the Russians. was required to pay $32 billion of reparations. the Germans would have wound up their payments about 1990.The other thing about Versailles that I would like to stress very much. And that is a system of usury and destruction. Italy. is the financial arrangements. and the Wall Street bankers. This is widely considered today to be more powerful than the IMF and the World Bank and the other institutions that were then put up under the Yalta system after the Second World War. was that they had to pay $32 billion–it’s hard to calculate that in today’s terms. simply taking it out. So let’s just summarize what we’ve gone through on this Versailles System.. what Lord Keynes said about this.S. And then. The French had borrowed $25 billion during the war. of course. under the Treaty of Versailles. Yugoslavia is a very typical one. Those were the Big Five. And. So here’s the merry-go-round. as a condominium. They had to pay these reparations to the British and the French. The U.. didn’t even join it. What we’ve done here. and the British and the French had borrowed about $10 billion from the United States. then refinanced the Germans. the same thing. that they were responsible for World War I. The Versailles System had a League of Nations. the $10 billion in war debts. this was going to be paid over about 60-70 years. meant that the heart of Europe would be economically depressed. we’ve got the Security Council. that it would require economic slavery in Germany. This was going to go up to about $100 billion because of the accrued interest over the period. Those were gold dollars. and it had within it the seeds of World War II. $100 trillion of reparations. under the U. but the British wanted to run the world that way. Germany. Under Versailles. Switzerland. Germany. Under Versailles you had a war guilt clause saying that Germany was responsible for World War I. The British got the mandate of Palestine. After the Second World War this was the démontage of German industry. It virtually guaranteed fascism and bolshevism advancing against the middle class societies. Continuing this comparison. that there would be no development of the Third World as a result of European capital goods being sent out. because here we can really see the degree to which today’s world is an extension of the Versailles System. Every German is responsible for everything that Hitler did. By one calculation. So let’s say. The French and the British then paid the United States. was absolutely accurate. Who was in the Security Council? The U. which have now collapsed. It. but above all. That then became Israel. Notice that the French had to also pay the British. that Germany would be depressed. and under Yalta. It was a way of squeezing Germany until you could hear the pips squeak. was not allowed to export. under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. Big lie! But the reason for the big lie. as Keynes said.N. so that they could keep paying. is to compare the Versailles arrangements of 1919 with the Yalta arrangements of 1945.S. France. but even divided. Under Yalta. Britain. of course. Typical on the geographic changes that I’ve just mentioned. Collective guilt.

That brings us pretty much up to the present time. as we saw back in the 1850s. and you can see that that is a vacuum of personalities. the dwarves. five-pack. all around the world. a political vacuum–look at the Democratic candidates for president. that it is clear that they will not be able to impose any permanent world order of any type. there’s a vacuum of strategy. It’s a system that literally devours its own flesh–as you see today. this is an Anglo-American system that destroys its enemies. what it means for us. to go into certain postwar events that are better known. What does that lead to? To your typical Yalta arrangement of endless wars of Israel against the Arab states. I am. and finally the Treaty of Sèvres. which was the treaty with the Ottoman Empire. for my own part. This was certainly very evil. that is the moment when the intrinsic weaknesses of their system. the British house of Lords. And they can inflict suffering on the entire rest of the world in the name of this lunatic. because it has turned out not to be fundamentally. is that this is a tremendous opportunity. Mao and his heirs in China are still in power. you have to ask yourself: What is the problem of evil in the 20th century in particular. So ultimately. that when the British seemed to be on the verge of taking everything. It also implies that the United States is subjected to colonial rule. for reasons of time. the British aristocracy and oligarchy. British geopolitical thinking. but rather. The idea that the British royal family. when it looks like the Anglo-Americans are ready to take over the entire world. The Anglo-Saxon master race. the British oligarchy. that this is now the time to advance to fill that vacuum with the kind of solutions which his candidacy. Therefore. convinced. What is the purpose of all this? Why did the British insist on this? The British insist on a world system or a form of organized chaos. The idea of dividing the world along these lines. it’s really directed against Germany to keep the Germans down. But the purpose of it ultimately is to crush the entire human race. the purpose of this entire system. A couple of things to say in conclusion. So all of these great nations are humiliated. and creating a series of endless wars. have the God-given right to rule. to keep them divided. the Iran-Iraq War of ‘80. Lenin’s party is really no longer there. to keep the French and the Germans at each other’s throats. Oligarchy. but it destroys its sponsors and its owners with an even greater certitude. The Bolshevik Party has gone out of existence–Stalin’s party. I haven’t been able. policies. 1948. but at the same time they’re collapsing internally so fast. All these Middle East wars. you can say. which is directly due to these Versailles and Yalta arrangements. To keep the Germans and the Russians at each other’s throats. by this Versailles System. which you see. which is what you see here. Mussolini and the fascists. We also have to recall. As Lyn said the other day. it could be reconstituted. is the poverty and economic backwardness of the developing sector today. 67. that there will be breakthroughs for Lyn’s presidential candidacy . is to crush humanity. for a while there was Hitler and the Nazis. Sure. This was then included in the secret British-French Sykes-Picot accords. based on an irrational principle of arbitrary power. 69. to be sure. any of those. and finally the Gulf War of 1991. pop out. in the last analysis. And I think finally. We also have to ask ourselves: What is the center of evil in the world? Well. And Lyn has always stressed. because there is now a complete political and strategic vacuum and economic vacuum. and ideas. imbecilic principle of their power. 73. but it looks like their future is going to be a limited one. because one of the effects of this entire system. There is a vacuum of ideas.going to create the state of Israel. and our organizations uniquely represent. I suppose. each in its own way. 1956.

But we must take advantage of the fact. There will be breakthroughs. for the past 70-80-90 years. and then that convergence of Lincoln. and united Germany that gave the British such a scare that they started World War I and created the Versailles System. that these are now collapsing in front of our eyes. Alexander II. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . the British drive toward the single empire. 1848. that you cannot engage in politics today. unless you have this kind of a scope–unless you go back to the Congress of Vienna. When and how. the presidential season that goes all the way to November. Lyn has also stressed. I do not know.during the course of this long season. creating tremendous political opportunities. the primary season from now until June. that the systems that have controlled the world in a certain manner of speaking.

1995 The entire international public order of the post-1919 era. plus interest for servicing this debt over decades into the future. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents Printed in the American Almanac.” The German delegates were coerced into signing the Versailles Treaty by threats of renewed war and by the economic blockade still imposed on Germany after the armistice by the fleets of the http://tarpley. Germany.” This false verdict was then incorporated into the infamous Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles. and was the result of acts deliberately committed in order to make it unavoidable. and Germany accepts. The kernel of Lansing’s conclusions was as follows: “The War was premeditated by the Central Powers together with their allies. in agreement with Austria-Hungary. which included the demand for more than $32 billion in war reparations. Turkey and Bulgaria. including the League of Nations and. and the commission ignored a new “German White Book” compiled in 1919 by Hans Delbrûck. which alleges: “The Allied and Associated Governments affirm. by extension. March. In the years after the war. documentary evidence was published which further undermined the Big . and Max Weber. the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies. Lansing refused to allow any Germans to take part in his deliberations. especially to France. which contained enough evidence to show that the thesis of exclusive German war guilt was untenable. This finding was officially reported to the Paris Peace Conference at the close of the war by a “Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the ar-guilt-clause/ December 27.The Versailles Treaty: The War Guilt Clause « TARPLEY. the United Nations. The thesis of exclusive German war guilt was required by the Entente as a premise for the Carthaginian peace imposed on the Central Powers. Count Montgelas.” which was chaired by American Secretary of State Robert Lansing. has been based on the absurd lie that Germany was solely responsible for the outbreak of World War I. deliberately worked to defeat all the many conciliatory proposals made by the Entente Powers. Professor MendelssohnBartholdy.

and the fall of the communist regimes in Europe.” Now. However. and the diary of Baron Schilling of the Russian Foreign Ministry (London. (New York. (Moscow. when historians like H. Sazonov. a second world conflict. the Austrian Red Book of 1919. Fay of Harvard in 1930: “The verdict of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were responsible for the War. The false verdict of Versailles had already become a scandal in America during the 1920s. The center of war guilt must be fixed in London. the time has come to reopen the Versailles Treaty. in view of the evidence now available. and through them of public opinion. the Soviet Materials for the History of Franco-Russian Relations from 1910 to 1914. it is doubtful whether a formal and legal revision is as yet practicable. Barnes demanded the revision of the war guilt clause. after fascism. The treaty must be revised to specify the war guilt of an international conspiracy masterminded first by King Edward VII of England. is historically unsound. and Clemenceau were participants. « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . in which figures like Izvolski. This included Karl Kautsky’s Outbreak of the World War. 1925). because of the popular feeling widespread in some of the Entente countries. 1924). There must first come a further revision by historical scholars. 1922). It should therefore be revised. Typical is this conclusion from the academic historian Sidney B.Lie of Versailles. the Cold War. and after him by Sir Edward Grey.E.

The ravaged post-war. arfare-1929-1931-33-how -the-city-of-london-created-the-greatdepression/ December 27. exemplified by King Edward VII. Especially important here were the 55 billion gold dollars in reparations inflicted on defeated Germany. thus deliberately and consciously imploding the US markets. which we have come to know as the Great Depression. permanent. The potential for the Great Depression derived from the economic and human destruction wrought by World War I. 1931-33. The economic destruction of Europe was continued after 1918 by the Peace of Paris (Versailles. Norman engineered a collapse by puncturing the bubble. 3. How The City Of London Created The Great Depression « TARPLEY. post-Versailles world of the 1920’s provides the main backdrop for the following considerations: 1. St. the British government. including all details . When this Wall Street Bubble had reached gargantuan proportions in the autumn of 1929. assisted by his tools Benjamin Strong of the New York Federal Reserve Bank and Hjalmar Schacht of the German Reichsbank. The events leading to the Great Depression are all related to British economic warfare against the rest of the world. 1931. 2010 « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents The thesis of this paper is that the great economic and financial cataclysm of the first half of the twentieth century. along with the war debt burden of the supposedly victorious powers themselves. 2. The New York stock exchange speculation of the Coolidge-Hoover era was not a spontaneous phenomenon. was caused by the Bank of England. Never during the 1920’s did world trade surpass the levels of 1913. Reparations and war debt were a recipe for economic stagnation. repatriating British hot money. and pulling the rug out from under the Wall Street speculators. which mainly took the form of the attempt to restore a Londoncentered world monetary system incorporating the gold standard. This depression was rendered far more severe and. but was rather deliberately encouraged by Norman and Strong under the pretext of relieving pressure on the overvalued British pound sterling after its gold convertibility had been restored in 1925. with the collapse of financial markets and the contraction of production and employment. Montagu Norman sharply cut the British bank rate. In practice. by the British default on gold payment in September. In 1929. somewhat along the lines of the deflationary Maastricht “convergence criteria” of the late 1990’s. This British default. which was itself a product of British geopolitics and especially of the British policy. The efforts of the British oligarchy in this regard were carried out by a clique of international central bankers dominated by Lord Montagu Norman of the Bank of England. This British-controlled gold standard proved to be a straightjacket for world economic development. Trianon. most importantly. Neuilly. This caused a violent depression in the United States and some other countries. and the City of London. of creating an encircling anti-German alliance in order to wage http://tarpley.British Financial Warfare: 1929. just as later central bankers fostered a Bubble Economy in Japan after 1986. the pro-speculation policies of the US Federal Reserve were promoted by Montagu Norman and his satellites for the express purpose of fomenting a Bubble Economy in the United States. Sevres) imposed by the Allies on the defeated Central Powers.

The parallel extends even to the detail of Perfidious Albion’s gambit of opting out of the European Currency Union while watching its victims writhe in an deflationary straightjacket tailored between Threadneedle Street and Saville Row.British default on gold payment in September. which closed down or severely restricted virtually every bank in the country by the morning of Franklin D. which was the only world monetary system in existence at that time. 1925-1931. which was itself a product of the British geopolitical machinations of King Edward VII and his circles. Since the summer of 1995 hot money generated by the low interest rates of the Bank of Japan has been used by hedge fund operators of the Soros school to puff up the world bubble. Lord Montagu Norman was always obsessed with secrecy. In the United States. especially its New York branch. The physical impact of World War I was absolutely devastating in terms of human losses and material damage. then it is possible that the collapse and disintegration of the world financial system will recapitulate other phases of the interwar years. For that matter. laissez-faire ideology. with the clear implication that currency blocs like the German Reichsmark and the Japanese yen would soon have to go to war to obtain the oil and other natural resources that orderly world trade could no longer provide. This destruction was then greatly magnified by the insistence of London . Norman engineered a disintegration by detonating the gold backing of the pound sterling. defaults. Lord Montagu Norman. especially the London Economist magazine and Lord Keynes. In 1931. 1931. As we will see. If Roosevelt had not broken decisively with Hoover’s impotent refusal to fight the depression. deflations and inflations constitute the essential arsenal being used by British economic warfare planners today. speculative bubbles. bank rate manipulations. FDR was able to roll back the disintegration. we consider that these matters are not solely of historical interest. who had moments of suprising lucidity even as he. With deliberate prompting from the British. but economic depression and mass unemployment were not overcome until 1940 and the passage of Lend-Lease. the deliberate British default of September 1931 led. including all details of its timing and modalities. Hoover could have assailed the British for their September 1931 stab in the back. 4. As we have already hinted. for the sake of absurd free-market. Roosevelt’s inauguration. wherever possible we have let the British. constitutional government might have collapsed. But Hoover was not capable of seriously attacking the New York Fed and its master. British actions amounted to the deliberate destruction of the pound sterling system. Hoover would have been doing the country a permanent service. given the donothing Hoover Administration policies. devaluations. This British default. As it was. Therefore. The Maastricht “convergence criteria” with their insane deflationary thrust are very similar in effect to the rules of the gold exchange standard as administered by London. speak for themselves and indict themselves. but the British financial press has often practiced an arrogant and cynical bluntness in its self-congratulatory accounts of its own exploits. The collapse of world trade became irreversible. for the 1929 calamity. were deliberate measures of economic warfare on the part of the Bank of England. Hoover had everything he needed to base his 1932 campaign for reelection on blaming the Federal Reserve. If the Bank of England’s late 1996 switch to bank rate increases turns out to be a harbinger of world tight money. We have also drawn on the memoirs of US President Herbert Hoover. ECONOMIC DECLINE AFTER WORLD WAR I The roots of the crash of 1929 are to be sought in the economic consequences of World War I. allowed his country to drift into the abyss. currency blocs emerged. and he might have done somewhat better in the electoral college. and also the subsequent British gambit of competitive devaluations. directly to the banking crisis of 1932-33. the policies of the International Monetary Fund are too. The repertoire of central bank intrigue.

or to squeezing a lemon until the pits squeak. owed especially by France and Britain to the United States. Strong was an operative of the House of Morgan who had worked at Bankers Trust. which could then pay war debts to Britain and the US. who served as Secretary of the Treasury between 1921 and 1929 under Presidents Harding. 1933 to support the Hitler regime in its first attempt to float a loan in London. Montagu Norman himself. Collet had also been a partner in the London firm of Brown. Harriman. and Norman made sure that the “Hitler bonds” were warmly recommended in the City. in his “Economic Consequences of the Peace. later Brown Brothers. In addition to what he could do himself. Lady Astor and Sir Neville Chamberlain. Norman came from a line of bankers.” compared this to the imposition of slavery on Germany and her defeated allies. not production. But this system was based on usury. The managing partner of Brown Brothers. the Governor of the Bank of England during the period 1920-1944. THE FEDERAL RESERVE: CAUSE OF DEPRESSION One of the main causes for the Great Depression was the Federal Reserve System of the United .. Morgan’s key puppet was Benjamin Strong of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. Norman’s trump card was his ability to manipulate the policies of the United States Federal Reserve System through a series of Morganlinked puppets. who had himself been Governor of the Bank of England during the 1880’s. was one of the strongest supporters of Hitler in the British aristocracy. Montagu Norman also owned a large piece of Hjalmar Schacht. and a financial backer of Hitler. Governor of the German Reichsbank and later Finance Minister in governments in which Adolf Hitler was chancellor.. Strong was Governor of the New York Federal Reserve Bank between 1914 and his death in 1929. and the adviser to President Truman who was most responsible for starting the Cold War with Russia and for prolonging the Korean War. Roosevelt’s special envoy to Churchill and Stalin. THE CABAL OF CENTRAL BANKERS A dominant personality of the City of London during these years was Sir Montagu Norman. which then as now represented the flagship of the entire Fed system. these reparations were fixed at the astronomical sum of 32 billion gold-backed US dollars. and Hoover. His grandfather was Sir Mark Wilks Collet. Averell Harriman. Harriman was W. The Bank of England’s consent was at that time indispensable for floating a foreign bond issue. After a few years of haggling. The dominant figure at Brown Brothers. For a time a system emerged in which Wall Street made loans to Germany so that Germany could pay reparations to France. Montagu Norman could hardly have aspired to play the role of currency dictator of Europe. Acting by himself and relying only on his own British resources. Even Lord Keynes. Shipley & Co. and was therefore doomed.and Paris on reparations to be paid by defeated and prostrate Germany. one of the most evil and most powerful banks in modern American history. Harriman during the 1930’s was Prescott Bush. The reparations issue was complicated by the inter-allied war debts. father of President George Herbert Walker Bush. to be paid over 62 years at an interest rate of 5%. The most dramatic evidence available on economic stagnation during the 1920’s is the fact that during this decade world trade never attained the pre-war level of 1913. head of the Marshall Plan. Coolidge. and also in the New York bank of Brown Brothers & Co. Norman put his personal prestige on the line in September. along with King Edward VIII. Strong had great influence over Andrew Mellon.

and night…. How was this sleazy product marketed to the Congress ? Interestingly. regulate the value thereof. noon. the father-in-law of John D.States. Members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Washington are chosen by the President and must be approved by the Senate. and Benjamin Strong. The Class A and Class B Directors of each Federal reserve Bank are elected by the shareholders from among bankers and the business community.” Vanderlip was one of the insiders invited to the Jekyl Island Club on the coast of Georgia in the autumn of 1910 by the Senator Nelson Aldrich. descended from the Del Banco family of Venice. That bill had been the product of cloak-and-dagger machinations by Wall Street financiers and their political mouthpieces.” In the end. Many naive persons think of the Federal Reserve System as a part of the United States government. Aldrich also invited Henry Davison of J. for what that is worth. in several denominations.P. the future Governor of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. In practice. many of them in league with the City of London. and fix the standard of weights and measures. where Senator Aldrich’s private car would be in readiness. New York. The shares are held by the member banks of the Federal Reserve System. San Francisco. But when we come to the vital Federal Reserve Open Market Committee. 1913 when Woodrow Wilson signed the GlassOwen Federal Reserve Act. There. Probably this is because the only money we have nowadays is marked “Federal Reserve Note. 5 Federal Reserve district presidents who have never been seen by the President or the Congress have a vote on setting the credit policy and money supply of the United States. and other Directors are appointed by the Federal Reserve Board in Washington. the private Federal Reserve established a monopoly on printing American money. Section 8. The FOMC comprises 7 Fed Governors from Washington plus 5 presidents of Federal Reserve Banks appointed by the respective Directors of these banks.” Today each of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks – Boston. attached to the rear end of a train for the South.” The Federal Reserve is a privately owned and privately managed institution.As we dealt with questions I recorded our agreements…If it was to be a central bank. Vanderlip. and of foreign coin. Also on hand was Paul Warburg of the notorious international banking family.. In this way the Federal Reserve System violates the letter and spirit of the United States Constitution. and so forth – is a private corporation. As Vanderlip recounted. But after the Kennedy assassination. shutting out the US Federal Government from this important function. fundamental lines which finally took the form of the Federal reserve law. Those who can remember the 1960’s can recall that there were one dollar silver certificates as well as United States Notes. Here is a sampling compiled by Herbert Hoover of selling points used by . which sets short-term interest rates and influences the size of the money supply by buying or selling government securities. “We were instructed to come one at a time and as unobtrusively as possible to the railway terminal on the New Jersey littoral of the Hudson. as furtive – as any conspirator. Clause 5 we read that the Congress shall have the power “to coin money. in his autobiography “From Farm Boy to Financier” narrates that the secret conference which planned the Federal Reserve was “as secret – indeed. Chicago. by the Government or jointly ? When we had fixed upon bank ownership and joint control. Public policy is made by a private cabal of self-appointed plutocrats. the picture is even worse. “there can be no question about it: Aldrich undoubtedly laid the essential.” On Jekyl Island this crew began to decide the main features of the central bank of the United States: “We worked morning. in Article I. which it emphatically is not. we took up the political problem of whether it should be a number of institutions or only one. Wall Streeter Frank A. how was it to be owned – by the banks. Morgan & Co. Rockefeller Jr. says Vanderlip.” The Federal Reserve was created in December. the descendants of Lincoln’s greenbacks. the Congressmen were told that the Federal Reserve System would prevent panics and depressions like those of the 1870’s and 1890’s.

Maryland.Now the business man may work out his destony without living in terror of panic and hard times….Business men can now proceed in effect confidence that they will no longer pu their property in peril…. A few examples: In the Panic of 1837. Far from making financial crises impossible. formed a committee outside of any law to coordinate their activities in determning the money supply and interest rates through buying and selling of government securities – i. Roosevelt very unwisely signed a Banking Act which legalized the Federal Open Market Committee in its present form. But at the same time the Secretary of the Treasury. sucking gold specie and hot money liquidity back across the Atlantic. With all the American defenses sabotaged. by their cultivation of the state “pet” banks. a long US depression followed. and Michigan. and it is about to bring us a super-depression.Never again can panic come to the American people. who used to be a member of the central Board. [The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover. London’s ultinmate weapon turned out to be the Bank of England bank rate. The Panic of 1893 was prepared by the 1890 “Baring panic” in London. with a formal majority for Federal Reserve Board Governors in Washington. which demanded gold payment to the federal government for the purchase of public lands. not just private banks and businesses went bankrupt. Instead. In the resulting chaos. The Federal Open Market Committee was not part of the original legislation that created the Federal Reserve System. which repudiated their debts. the stage had been set for depression by outgoing President Andrew Jackson’s and Secretary of the Treasury Roger Taney’s abolition of the Second Bank of the United States. The periodic panics of the nineteenth century were more often than not caused by deliberate British sabotage. a worldwide disintegration. Indiana. Louisiana.7] The verdict of history must be that the Federal Reserve has utterly failed to deliver on these promises. The Cooke insolvency had been preceded by a massive dumping of US staocks and bonds in London and the rest of Europe. the ones proposed by the President and approved by the Senate. and the drift towards secession and civil war became more pronounced. and by their improvident distribution of the Treasury surplus to the states. the rediscount rate of the Bank of England) for financial and economic warfare against the United States. The most potent political argument against this arrangement is that it has been a resounding failure.lobbyists seeking votes for the Federal Reserve Act: We shall have no more financial panics…. inevitably dominated by New York. But in the early 1920’s. In 1935 Franklin D. p. Pennsylvania. was ousted from that position. while British merchants and trading houses cut off their lines of credit to their American customers. caused by the .. some regional Federal Reserve Bank presidents. and not subject to approval by anyone in Washington. The Panic of 1873 resuted from a British-directed effort to ruin the banking house of Jay Cooke and Company.e. which had served Lincoln and his successors as a quasi-governmental agency for the marketing of United States Treasury securities and railroad bonds during and after the Civil War. open market operations.Panics are impossible…. This was a very successful power grab by the regional Reserve Bank leaders. permanently impairing US credit in the world. all directly chosen by bankers and the private sector. Internal improvements came to a halt.Panics in the future are unthinkable…. the Fed has brought us one Great Depression. the Bank of England sharply raised its discount rates. by their imbecilic Specie Circular of 1836. This was London’s way of shutting down the Civil War boom that Lincoln’s dirigist and protectionist policies had made possible. THE BRITISH RECORD OF STARTING WALL STREET PANICS The British had a long track record of using the London Bank Rate (that is. but also the states of Mississippi.

1920. the United Kingdom was beset by permanent depression. it was becoming now too rapid and they favored a small reduction in rates both in London and New York.000.7% for the sharpest contraction since 1879. the US recovered much more rapidly than the British. expansion and the freeing of consumer demand that had been pent up in wartime. Using this situation as a pretext. British speculators drove the exchange rate of the dollar down to the point where owners of gold began exporting their gold to London. In response to this crisis. All of this caused another long depression. This depression lasted about two years and was quite sharp. The bust in Wall Street began in the late summer of 1920. US national bankruptcy threatened. themselves British agents of influence.000. gradually escalating the discount rate to 7% in June. DEFLATION CRISIS OF 1920-21 The New York panic of 1920-21 represents yet another example of British economic warfare. who scarcely recovered at all. Cleveland “sold out to Wall Street” by selling US gold bonds to Morgan and Belmont at reduced prices. The Federal Reserve. subversive President Grover Cleveland gave control of the US public debt to the New York banking houses of Morgan and Belmont. Morgan and Belmont promised to “use their influence” in London to prevent further British bear raids against the US dollar and gold stocks. 1920 to detonate the bust. and descending to 6. with every Nobel Prize winner in economics with the sole exception of Maurice Allais qualifying for committment to a psychiatric institution. They agreed. 132] THE CRASH OF 1929 The panic of 1929 is a prime example of a financial collapse which was not prevented by the . One of the reasons for the depravity of the economists is that their assigned task has always been one of mystification. speculation. though it would have been better six months earlier. with a New York composite index of transaction indices falling 13. The economics profession is totally bankrupt today. the US Treasury surplus was reduced to almost nothing. which was a co-production of the Bank of England and the New York Federal Reserve. The fact that this depression was brought on deliberately by the Norman-Strong duo is amply documented in their private correspondence. and it went down all the way to 3% by July. with the taxpayers picking up the tab. All the mystical mumbo-jumbo of curves. and epicycles a la Schumpeter has always had the purpose of camouflaging the fact that the Bank of England bank rate was the nineteenth century’s closest equivalent to the hydrogen bomb. Treasury gold stocks dipped below $100. and a budget defecit loomed. In the resulting depression. as usual. followed London’s lead.000.insolvency of Barings Bank. p.5% in April 1922.” [Clay. The argument used by the central bankers’ cabal to justify their extreme tight money policy was the climate of postwar inflation. cycles. Lord Norman. The illusion that the existence of the Federal Reserve System might serve as a barrier against new financial panics and depressions received a nasty knock with the immediate postwar depression of 1920. As Keynes later complained.000. The British Bank Rate had been at 6% from November 1919 until April 15. when it was raised to 7%. too. 1922.5% about a year later. The UK Bank Rate was lowered to 6. In many other countries this was the fiercest depression on record. The British deliberately provoked this Wall Street panic and severe depression during a period of grave military tension between London and washington occasioned by the naval rivalry of the US and UK. In December 1920. the same one which went bankrupt and was sold off in the spring of 1995. that deflation must be gradual. and then kept falling to $68. especially the job of covering up the simple and brutal fact that American depressions have generally been caused by Bank of England and City of London bankers. For the rest of the interwar period. Strong and Norman agreed that “the policy of making money dearer had been successful.

stocks. all the industrialized nations except the United States had left the gold standard. had very little gold. then the pound was said to have passed the gold export point. apart from Soviet holdings. During World War I. and in particular in the security of the dollar and of sterling. the 1920’s speculaltive bubble and subsequent crash of 1929 was directly caused by Federal Reserve policies. a debtor nation owing war debts to the United States. “…many countries returning to gold “have had such confidence in the stability of the system. At the same time. for the first time. During that time the United States enjoyed the advantage of its own nationally controlled currency. That gold would be deposited in London and would earn interest there. The British were determined to pursue their traditional economic imperialism. was concentrated in two countries – the United States and France. but they had emerged from the war economically devastated and. American and other gold would be shipped to London by those who owned gold. the British were fighting to keep their precious world naval supremacy. These currencies were counted as theoretically as good as gold. The pre-war gold parity had given a dollar to pound relation of $4. This had to do with the relation of currency quotations to the established gold parity. 549] The post-1918 gold exchange standard included the workings of the so-called gold points. although this still went on. If the pound strengthened so as to trade for $5. who were fighting to preserve their dominance of the world financial system. It was rather a gold exchange standard.86. The British. This practice proved to be deflationary and detrimental to economic development. In fact. September 26. Norman wanted the pound sterling to be worth $4.Federal Reserve. During the 1920’s about two thirds of the world’s supply of monetary gold. LORD NORMAN’S GOLD EXCHANGE STANDARD. The United States in 1879 thus returned to a gold coin standard. A high pound was a disaster for British exports. The advantage to the smaller countries was that they could keep their reserves on deposit in London and earn interest according to the British bank rate. and all other external commodities. under which smaller countries who chose the gold standard could hold some of their reserves in the leading gold-backed currencies like the pound sterling or the dollar. The post-1918 gold standard de-emphasized the circulation of gold coins. Only the United States had been able to stay with gold. which was threatened by the growth of the United States Navy. as later happened. the pound went down to 4 dollars to the pound. 1931. This meant that if . which had been decisive in shaping the Federal Reserve to begin with. A high pound also maximized British earnings on insurance. As an avid imperialist Montagu Norman was insisting by the mid-1920’s that the pound return to the gold standard at the pre-war rate. shipping. that they have been content to leave part of the reserves of their currencies in London. then the pound was said to have exceeded the gold import point. food. Specie resumption meant re-opening the Treasury window where holders of paper dollars could have these dollars exchanged for gold coins. while it increased American vulnerability to British currency manipulations. p. Lincoln’s greenbacks. The best economic growth achieved by the United States during the century had been registered between 1861 and the implementation of the Specie Resumption Act in 1879. As one London commentator noted at the time.86 per pound sterling.bin of history early in the 1920’s. and financial services — London’s so-called “invisible exports” and earnings. under which paper money circulated side by side with $20 and $50 gold pieces.” [Economist. If. If the US had merely built the ships that were called for in laws passed in 1916. albeit with special controls. but gave the British great advantages when it came to buying American and other foreign real estate. 1925-1931 The nineteenth century gold standard had always been an instrument of British world domination. and British gold would be physically shipped to New York to take advantage of the superior earnings there. the slogan of “Brittania Rules the Waves” would have gone into the dust. let us say. minerals. Those policies in turn had been dictated by the world of British finance.

Here was the best and most direct means. Britain experienced the 1926 general strike.industrial society based on the service sector. Norman himself craved the title of “currency dictator of Europe. as he saw it. The only way to stop the flow of gold from London to New York.2 million. 1925. The high pound meant that British oligarchs could buy up the world’s assets at bargain basement prices. but while the US soon bounced back. Norman’s goal was British financial supremacy: “…his sights remained stubbornly fixed on the main target: that of restoring the City to its coveted place at the heart of the financial and banking universe. banks. where most of the world’s gold already was. Both the US and the British had undergone an economic downturn in the early 1920’s. the United States under Franklin D. after the a period in which the dollar floated downward in terms of gold. This was similar to the gold reserve provisions of the Bretton Woods system of 1944-1971. the British were never able to recover. Notice that gold movements were to a very large degree based on the decisions of individual banks and investors. and firms. Norman insisted on a gold pound at $4. Emile Moreau.Norman wanted to keep a strong pound. 222] Montagu Norman’s golden pound would have been unthinkable without the puppet role of Benjamin Strong of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. That meant that Norman had to ship gold from the Bank of England in Threadneedle Street across the Atlantic. were priced out of the world market. also called by FDR’s critics a “qualified external bullion standard. the highest since Britain had become an industrial country.” in which gold transactions were limited to settlements with foreign central banks. But Norman did not care. Roosevelt established a gold reserve standard.86. he needed to weaken the dollar at the same time.” Great Britain and the rest of the Empire returned to the gold standard in April. He had to convince Winston Churchill. and insurance than could all the backward industrialists combined. Since the pound was grotesquely overvalued. Norman whispered into Churchill’s ear: “I will make you the golden chancellor. reflation. which was defeated with Winston Churchill as chief scab and strike-breaker.” [Boyle. They could buy US and European real estate. The City could do more for the country by concentrating on the harvest of invisible exports to be reaped from banking.” And indeed. British manufactures were now considered low-quality and obsolete. was to get the United States to launch a policy of easy money. forcing Norman to devalue the pound sterling. and a weak dollar – in . while private citizens were barred from holding gold. THE GOLDEN CHANCELLOR Nevertheless. commented that Norman’s gold standard had “provoked unemployment without precedent in world history. lowering its the gold parity. He was a supporter of the post. and unemployment rose to 1. British industrial exports.” British coal miners were especially hard hit. especially financial services. the Chancellor of the Exchequer. the British were running a balance of payments defecit because of their excess of imports over exports. (During the later 1930’s. Norman reasoned. many of the continental central banks were in his pocket. It was much easier to return to the gold standard than it was to stay there. low interest rates. of earning as much for Britain in a year as could be earned in a decade by plaintive indsutrialists who refused to move with the times. the governor of the Bank of France. and when the mine owners announced wage reductions.) Norman’s problem was that his return to the pre-1914 pound rate was much too high for the ravaged post-1918 British economy to support. The British gold started to flow towards New York. since with a strong dollar the British gold would flee from London. including coal. shipping.

Strong also got the FOMC to begin buying US Treasury securities in open market operations. Strong was able to obtain the policies requested by Norman and his European puppets. The rediscount rate of the New York Fed was cut from 4% to 3. “it was confirmed to me by Adolph Miller.” Hoover says he protested to Fed chairman Daniel Crissinger. Norman’s demand was that the US should launch a bubble economy. who was willing to go along with the Bank of England program.short. In essense. p. “The other members of the board. leading to the Japanese bubble and their current banking crisis. leaving the banks flush with cash. The newlygenerated credit could be used for American loans to Germany or Latin America. Keynes showed that the British government had also chosen a policy of deliberately increasing unemployment. Norman & Co.” Hoover had to some extent struggled behind the scenes in 1925 against Norman’s demands. Very soon most of the new credit was flowing into broker call loans for margin buying of stocks. leaving the stocks with the broker as collateral for the loans. This cash soon wandered into the broker call loan market. The second coming of Norman and Schacht in 1927 motivated Strong to force through new reflation of the money supply in July and a further cut in the US discount rate in August of that same year. Norman exhibited grave concern because the first half of 1927 had witnessed a large movement of gold into New York. This was the credit which stoked the culminating phase of the Coolidge Bull Market during 1928 and 1929. Interest rates in London were supposed. especially in the export industries in order to drive down wages. according to Norman. who condemned the Fed policies as “direct inflation. The key to obtaining this was Benjamin Strong. of course. that Strong and his European allies proposed still more ‘easy money policies. independent of the “political control” of the US government which these oligarchs so much resented. made a second pilgrimage to Wall Street between 28 June and 1 July 1927 to promote American speculation and inflation.” “In November. In his essay “The Economic Consequences of Mr. and Governor Strong was a mental annex of Europe. On this second lobbying trip. 254] One alarmed observer of these events was.5%. where it was borrowed by stock speculators to buy stock on margin. ironically. In order to stem the flow of gold out of London. Montagu Norman. as the pound was returning to gold. “except Adolph Miller. were mediocrities. to be kept above those in New York – although Norman later deviated from this when it suited him.” recounts Hoover. Hjalmar Schacht and Charles Rist. This meant that by advancing a small percentage of the stock price. a policy of inflation. In 1925. Or. speculators could borrow money to buy stocks.” Lord Keynes noted that the British had returned to gold at a rate that was at least 10% too high. fueling a growing stock speculation. Churchill. There are many parellels between the measures urged for the US by Norman in 1925 and the policies urged on Japan by London and Wall Street in 1986.’ which included continued manipulation of the discount rates and open market operations – more inflation. After the crash. the Bank of England’s policy was to “encourage the United States to lend us money by maintaining the unprecedented situation of a bill rate 1 per cent higher in London than in New York. who dominated the New York Fed. Hoover’s friend Adolph Miller of the Fed Board of Governors told a committee of the US Senate: . and was in a position to dominate the entire Federal Reserve system which was. Keynes observed. a member of the Reserve Board. Strong and his cabal immediately went into action. the deputy governor of the Banque de France visited Benjamin Strong in New York to mobilize his network of influential insiders for easy money and low interest rates in the US. but by 1927 he had begun to defer in matters of high finance to Ogden Mills. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover of the Coolidge administration. it could be used to leverage speculative purchases of stocks. 1925. a political appointee left over from the Harding era who was in over his head.” says Hoover.” [Essays in Persuasion.

R. In any case. 1931. 54] The evolution of the Norman’s tactics shows clearly enough that he did not provoke a crash in New York out of legitimate self defense. [Senate Hearings pursuant to S. During the first week of February. The Economist snidely commented: Finally. and its cumulative effect may well be a definite pronouncement that Europe is not prepared to stand idly by and see the world’s stocks sucked into a maelstrom. it was deliberate co-operation between Central bankers. 53. 134 in Lionel Robbins.5 per cent. and if so the 5. rate comes as a definite signal to America. 9 February 1929. Robbins places the responsibility for the Crash at the door of the Federal Reserve and its European counterparts: “Thus.5 per cent. By 1928 the authorities were throughly frightened. It must not be supposed that Continental centres will remain indifferent to London’s lead. rate will have done its work. The Norman-Strong bubble masked that recession until the panic exploded in 1929. Norman was willing to sacrifice massive quantities of gold in order to feed the New York bubble and thus be sure that when panic finally came. In two days the Dow . “two years ago [in early 1927] no one would have believed New York could remain half a point above London for more than a few weeks without London being forced to follow suit. 71. p. As the London Economist commented. especially if the New York Reserve Bank follows by a sharp increase in its own rate. The reflation succeeded. Velocity of circulation. The purpose was to start an outflow of gold – to reverse the previous inflow of gold into this country. the 5. in the last analysis. In vain they issued secret warnings. pp. Norman raised the London bank rate to 5. But from that date. Between July 1928 and February. because of the international importance the call rate had come to acquire.5%. Even in January and February of 1929. half a point higher than the 4. it would be as devastating as possible.” [Robbins.The London position was eased.” [Robbins. With resignation the best men in the system looked forward to the inevitable smash.] A few years later the British economist Lionel Robbins offered the following commentary on Miller’s testimony: “The policy succeeded…. 1929. February 9. p. resulted in one of the most costly errors committed by it or any other banking system in the last 75 years… What was the object of the Federal Reserve Policy in 1927? It was to bring down money rates. which produced the worst phase of this stupendous inflation. to protect the Bank of England’s gold from being exported to Manhattan. the situation got completely out of control. p. 1934). p. Coupled with the heavy purchases of acceptances it was the greatest and boldest operation every undertaken by the Federal Reserve System.” [Economist. had now taken control.5% that was the going rate at the Bank of England. 275] The higher British bank rate scared a number of Wall Street speculators. p. 1929. the gold outflow continued. the New York Fed lending rate was 5%. and. the frenzied anticipation of speculators and company promoters. Wall Street can scarcely remain indifferent to such a pronouncement. in my judgment. 1929. [Economist.In the year 1927…you will note the pronounced increase in these holdings [US Treasury securities held by the Fed] in the second half of the year. But now the forces they had released were too strong for them. the establishment of European interest rates upon a new and higher level may well draw gold back from New York before long. In vain they pushed up their own rates of discount. months when the Bank of England could normally expect to take in gold. as British pounds hurried to cash in on the 12% annual interest rates to be had in the Wall Street brokers’ call loan market. the call rate among them. 275] All during the autumn of 1928 the Bank of England hemorrhaged gold to Manhattan. deliberate ‘reflation’ on the part of the Federal Reserve authorities. 53-54] Robbins contends that the Wall Street bubble of 1925-1929 was built on top of an economy that was sinking into recession in 1925. The Great Depression (London.

1929 it became known in the City of London that the Clarence Hatry group.” In Warburg’s view. the market drifted sideways and downward. who operated totally in the dark as far as the British government and public were concerned.” The same official was also quoted as saying that Norman was looking for an excuse to raise the discount rate before the end of the month. So Livermore’s Bank of England source had been right on te money. On the day Norman hiked the rates. and were jailed. unless the “colossal volume of loans” and the “orgy of unrestrained speculation” could be checked. Garnsey had made a second approach to Norman for emergency financing. the wayward financier had told his story to Sir Gilbert Garnsey. Hatry later asserted that in late August. the market began to run out of steam. a UK firm. bail out other tycoons who happened to be his friends and allies? The . siphoned off more of Norman’s gold. On September 20. and had also been rebuffed. in this conversation it was agreed that trading in Hatry shares would be suspended on 20 September. he could have prevented it if he had wanted to. 1929 the Bank of England had paid out 24 million pounds’ worth of gold since the start of the year. At this point Norman had informed the chairman of the London Stock Exchange that the Hatry group was bankrupt. the gold outflow slowed. however. a chartered accountant. By August 21. Warburg now warned that the upward movement of stock prices was “quite unrelated to respective increases in plant. and the Banque de France. The message concluded by noting that a financier by the name of Clarence Hatry was in big financial trouble. the Bank of England was able slightly to improve its gold stocks. Hatry had liabilities of 19 million pounds and assets of 4 million pounds. p. the market broke downward on bearish predictions from economic forecaster Roger Babson. the New York hedge fund operator Jesse Livermore received a message from a source in London according to which a “high official” of the Bank of England – either Montagu Norman or one of his minions – had told a luncheon group of City of London men that “the American bubble has burst. By 17 September. at that tme an extraordinary level. on 19 September.” [Noyes. the volume went over 5 million shares. On that day Hatry and his leading associates confessed to fraud and forgery in the office of Sir Archibald Bodkin. On Sept. The signal sent by the higher London Bank Rate was underlined in March 1929 by the Anglophile banker Paul Warburg. On the morning of 4 September 1929.” During the following weeks. true to Moreau’s hard line policy. he had made a secret visit to the Bank of England to appeal to Montagu Norman for financing to allow him to complete a merger with United Steel Company. By late April the pound began to weaken. In August and September. Norman thus wanted the Hatry bankruptcy. [Thomas and Morgan-Witts. stocks would ultimately crash. 1929. But within a few days the momentum of speculation reasserted itself. The peak of the Coolidge bull market was attained on September 3. which supposedly had been worth about 24 million pounds. pp. was hopelessly insolvent. the Director of Public Prosecutions. July 1929 was a bad month for Threadneedle Street’s gold. When. went to have lunch at the Charing Cross Hotel.Jones average declined by about 15 points to 301. when Hatry stock began to fall on the London exchange. Norman had adamantly refused Hatry’s bid for a bridge loan. causing “a general depression involving the entire country. property. when many leading stocks reached their highest price quotations. or earning power. This was once again the scion of the notorious Anglo-Venetian Del Banco family who had been the main architect of the Federal Reserve System. How many times did Norman. Hatry approached Lloyd’s Bank in last a desperate bid for financing. 5. Soon therafter. 324] Between February and April 1929. 279-280] The New York Federal Reserve Bank had raised its discount rate to 6% on August 8. who on this day won his nickname as “the Prophet of Loss.

27 September 1929] And well they might have. 1929. on the whole. and the Irish Republic all hiked their discount rate. Snowdon addressed the Labour Party’s annual conference in . few will doubt that the Bank was right this week to change over to its… alternative of imposing dearer money rates at home. Sweden. was the detonation of a collossal panic in New York.5%.5% was a very high discount rate for London in those days. as the Economist suggests. the British bank rate could come down again. Norman could now pretend that since confidence in London had been rudely shaken. But a few old American textbooks had the story somewhat better: “The stovck-market collapse came in October.’ A wild scramble ensued as messengers and brokers dashed back to their offices with the news. 955] More important. But then. as we will see. 1929 when English interest rates were raised to six and one-half per cent in order to bring home needed capital that had been attracted to the United States by the high speculative profits. Then. curiously manages to avoid mentioning the raise in the British Bank Rate as the immediate detonator of the Crash of 1929. he needed to raise the bank rate to prevent a further flight of funds. London stockjobbers who were caught short on cash were forced to liquidate their New York holdings. Added to the steps already taken by the Bank of England. p. Norway. As the New York Times reported from London. John Kenneth Galbraith. He once again raised the Bank of England discount rate. Denmark. Norman turned the sagging Coolidge bull market into the biggest rout in stock market history up to that time. Less than a week after the Hatry group’s debacle. with its concomitant high call rates” for the need to go 6. 23 November. these actions generated a giant sucking sound as money was pulled out of New York and across the Atlantic. but this. By abruptly pulling millions of pounds out of New York. The Economist approved Norman’s maneuver. and a full point had been a big jump. Such a high rate would of course be highly destructive to British factories and farms. and the Economist spoke of “forced sales” on Wall Street occasioned by the “Hatry disclosures.Hatry affair was useful to Norman first of all because it caused a rapid fall in the London stock market. “the atmosphere was tense in the financial district and exciting scenes were witnessed outside the Royal Exchange. Various London outlets now began feverishly signalling that it was time to pull the rug out from under the New York market.” [London Economist. On October 3. The notice read: ‘Bank rate 6 1/2 per cent. A prominent signaller was Philip Snowdon. The British move towards higher rates was imitated within two days by the central banks of smaller continental states where British influence was high: Austria. as we have already seen. which should permit of a relaxation of the present tension before too long a period has elapsed. Norman made his final and decisive bid to explode the New York bubble. 1929. in his much-quoted study The Great Crash. [NYT. during the so-called deflation panic of 192021. counted for nothing in Norman’s machinations. Ten minutes before noon a uniformed messenger rushed into the corridor of the Bank carrying a framed notice over his head. Galbraith is a Canadian and an Anglophile. [The Economist 28 September 1929. The London rate had not been so high since 1921. 6. the Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Labour Party government of Ramsay MacDonald which had come into power in the spring of 1929 on a platform which had included the need for better relations with the United States. On October 10 the British monetary authorities in India also raised the discount rate there by a full point. p. It has decided to do so at a moment when the fates are becoming propitious to an early success. 557] What the Economist meant by success.” One of the subtitles of the Times’s article was “BUSINESS FEARS RESULTS”. The Economist commentary ended with a very sinister prophecy: Still. while blaming “the continuance of Stock Exchange speculation in America.” wrote hicks and Mowry in their 1956 Short History of American Democracy”.

330] By the end of October. marks.” [NYT. the New York Times reported the next day. at the height of the panic. On October 21.Brighton. stocks had declined in price by more than 80%. “The object of the increased rate is to draw money back to England. the principal market index lost 40 points on a volume of almost 12.” “There has been a raid on the financial resources of this country which the increased bank rate is now intended to check” Snowdon ranted. By 1932 commodity prices had fallen by 30 to 40%. dollars. 1933. since they would be the main victims of unemployment. and francs. One of the remarkable features of October 29 was the large number of immense block lots of stock that were dumped on the market. it turned out. World trade declined by two thirds. and his “reference to the effect of the American speculation on the international situation was also approved…the feeling is that such movements must be allowed to bring their own correction. The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor (Boston: Little Brown. the total value of stocks listed on the New York Exchange had declined by 37%. was the culprit: “In New York. with the result that the rates of exchange have gone against us recently. On October 29.000 miles away can so dislocate the financial system of this country and inflict injury on our workers and employers. genially told the delegates that “there was no other recourse. draining money away from England. The hardship of high rates must be blamed on the US: “…there must be something wrong and requiring our attention when such an orgy 3. Noyes admits in passing that the British had played a key role in the dumping of these large blocks of stock: “Afterward. he was reportedly apoplectic that Snowdon had repeated his catchphrase of “orgy of speculation” so many times. Snowdon. 6 October 1929] The “correction” was now only a few weeks away. That. Snowdon’s audience was understandably not happy with a higher bank rate.P. Noyes had proclaimed that the day of reckoning had finally come. Morgan read this speech. 1938). while stressing that Norman’s actions were independent of the Exchequer. By the time the bottom was finally reached in March. 1929 the Great Crash began. Morgan was also in the process of going short. Snowdon’s speech was widely applauded in the City of London. in contrast to the previous days when the panic had mainly involved smaller margin-leveraged investors. it came to be known that the forced selling was not only stock which had been bought for the rise by the hundreds of of thousands of outside speculators.” [p. in particular.9 million shares. . The British market is the safest in the world for those who are satisfied with reasonable investments and not lured into wild speculations. Snowdon urged: “British credit is the best in the world.” It was time to bail out of New York and come home to London. which after its habit had been joining in the American speculation…started indiscriminate foreign selling. Winston Churchill appeared briefly in the visitors’ gallery of the New York Stock Exchange to view the boiling trading floor and savor the chaos he had wrought. with America’s plethora of liquid capital and high rates. and a consequent selling of sterling. The International Labor Office in 1933 said that approximately 33 million persons were out of work. Possibly London.” [NYT. But J.” Why not? Snowdon first repeated the argument about defending London’s gold stocks: “Monetary conditions in America. 4 October 1929] When J. but represented also the closing-out of professional speculators who had been individually ‘carrying’ immense lines of stock. In those days the financial editor of the New York Times was the veteran journalist Alexander Dana Noyes. In his later autobiography. reaching points where payments were taken in gold. was only the beginning. there has been a usual year’s orgy of speculation.” The US. Germany.” Snowdon stressed.P. and France have been such as to create a great demand for the currencies of those countries. an all-time record in that epoch. On October 24. World manufacuring production was down by 30 to 50%. who had played the role of Anglophile Cassandra of the Coolidge market: at every periodic convulsion in the speculative fever.

” [London Economist. “…it would be premature to jump to the conclusion that the Wall Street break has cleared the world’s monetary and commercial horizon of every cloud…there is warrant for hoping that the deflation of the exaggerated balloon of American stock values will ultimately be for the good of the world…. The Economist in its year-end review of 1929. Five weeks ago.” Again they recurred to Montagu Norman’s interest rate hike of September 26: “That advance…was a by no means negligible factor in turning into the opposite direction the tide of funds which had been flowing so strongly toward New York. The Economist gloated: “Seldom has the country received a more agreeable surprise than that sprung upon it by the Bank of England when at. and which must be regarded as the main factor in the Bank’s decision.With the final collapse of the Wall Street boom. rate HAS DONE ITS WORK AND DONE IT WELL. Less than three weeks sufficed to confound the school of extreme pessimists. the Economist catalogued “Reactions to the Wall Street Slump. in a few weeks’ time. doubts were freely expressed lest the new rate might not prove effective in correcting the exchanges and stemming the flow of gold from this country. “The final collapse of the Wall Street boom under the avalanche of selling which began on Thursday of last week. might have to be followed by 7 1/2 per cent. …the crux of the situation lay in the attraction of the New York market both for floating balances to be lent at call. and London and the sterling was proving a magnet for the world’s floating balances. 805-806.we look for a gradual improvement in the international monetary situation as the huge balances hitherto concentrated in New York redistribute themselves over the rest of the world – thus greatly easing the strain on the British banking system and opening possibilities for a further reduction in Bank rate in the not very distant future…. has confounded optimists and pessimists alike. should greatly ease the difficulties presented by the problems of international debt payments and the interrelated Reparations issue…The 6 1/2 per cent. “The cessation of the westward flow of funds.” In that holiday season of 1929 the Economist saw “a depression from across the Atlantic of cyclonic force” but since “Great Britain’s . it announced that its rate had been reduced from 6 1/2 to 6 per cent. threatened even to endanger the gold standard in this country.By Halloween. the mark was back to par. and voices were heard foreboding that 6 1/2 per cent. “Even before Wall Street’s ‘Black Thursday. last September solely to make London an attractive centre for short money. Norman was able to reduce the London rate from 6. even if the reversal of the process does not lead to the early recovery by London of all. repeated its praise for Norman’s bank rate strategem: “In the financial world we faced and met a crisis which. But after enduring a long-continued drain of gold…the Bank at a critical moment took a course as bold as it was successful. for by the middle of October [when the New York panic began] it was plain that all danger of a higher Bank rate had passed. in which New York had been an inconveniently overwhelming competitor for international funds. The dollar was nearer the import than the export gold point. and for the funds of private investors anxious to participate in the profts of a boom which appeared to have no end. pp. and the definite end of a critical phase in the world’s monetary history. the Bank of Ebgland decided…to lose no time in allowing Bank rate to drop to the level of the market rate…. twelve o’clock on Thursday morning. 2 November 1929. when Bank rate was raised from 5 1/2 to 6 1/2 per cent. p. emphasis added] On November 23. when the smoke had cleared on Wall Street and the wreckage there was more clearly visible. in the opinion of the doubters. …it must be borne in mind that the Bank rate was raised to 6 1/2 per cent. 23 November 1929.. or nearly all.’ events showed that the new Bank rate was achieving its objects to an extent surpassing expectations…. Steps had to be taken by the Bank of England to counter a situation which threatened to become critical for its own reserves. and in causing the edifice of the American speculation to totter.5% to 6%. 955] By mid-December the London discount rate was down to 5%. and in the event it proved necessary only to put up with acutely dear money for a matter of weeks. her lost gold.” [London Economist.

levels of employment and production declined sharply in most of the world.monetary position in regard to gold need give rise to no anxiety” and British “industry starts a New Year …on more even terms with our competitors than for many years past. The crisis of the German banks took center stage.5 million at the end of 1930. and the fall of the Danatbank and the rest of the German banks in July of the same year.Hungarian Empire. was the survivor among the Vienna banking houses. There was also the insolvency of the Bank of United States in the New York City garment district. Tennessee. but he had also unleashed a world depression. It was estimated that Germany had to meet yearly foreign payments of $800 million.” Norman had scored a “success. the British financiers noticed very little change in their usual depression routine. An international effort to bail out the Kreditanstalt with the help of the Rothschilds.” as a result of which mankind was living “this year in the shadow of one of the greatest economic catastrophes of modern history. As for Benjamin Strong. and North Carolina. The Kreditanstalt. with short term sterling balances that were ready to rush anywhere in the world a better rate of return could be obtained. Even more than in Austria. p. large amounts of French hot money had shifted into London and had remained there. But the explosion in New York cut off loans and wrecked the banking system in central Europe. During the period of uncertainty about the fate of the French franc between 1924 and 1926. FROM COLLAPSE TO DISINTEGRATION During 1930. 145] 1930 also saw a series of post-crash banking failures. and others availed nothing. A run on the Berlin banks developed. Some believed that British financial houses had been too slow to pull their money out of Berlin. as signalled by the Kreditanstalt banruptcy in Vienna in May 1931. The crisis in Berlin inevitably had immediate and serious repercussions in London.34 million at the end of 1929 to an astronomical 2. including the onerous reparations. This meant that a sudden collapse of confidence in London could easily lead to panic and the massive flight of capital. These bank failures struck Kentucky.” [Essays in Persuasion. Arkansas. a Rothschild property. Kreditanstalt owed $76 million abroad. so getting the rest of the world to join them in their misery was a highly positive development. Vienna had been chronically troubled because of its status as the full-sized head of a truncated body after the breakup of the Austro. the drying up of New York as a source of lending was the main culprit here. [p. British unemployment went from a colossal 1. which had succumbed one by one to the post-Versailles slump. London quickly became the center of what today would be called international hot money. especially among smaller banks of the rural south. 135] Keynes estimated that the level of new capital investment in the United States was by late 1930 already 20% to 30% less than it had been in 1928. Failure of the Kreditanstalt meant the bankruptcy of much of central Europe. the Bank of England. and that . By late in the year Lord Keynes was writing of the “Great Slump of 1930. This money would exit with particular abruptness in case of trouble in London. With Wall Street crippled. he had died in October.” Norman had succeeded in torpedoing the US economy. the Bank for International Settlements. Within a short time Germany was forced to export two fifths of her gold reserves for a total of $230 million. THE COLLAPSE OF EUROPE In late 1929 and 1930. As a result. The British had been in a depression anyway. mainly to UK and US investors. 1928.

In December. Part of the panic travelled to London by way of Amsterdam: the Dutch banks had loaned heavily in Germany. who was realistic enough to proclaim the debt moratorium which bears his name – the Hoover moratorium of June. then those same Europeans might still have enough liquidity to pay back their loans American privately owned banks and businesses. and in any case not to take their money out of Germany. So the US Treasury would have suffered. a grid of relatively fixed parities among the continental currencies. for the benefit of the private sector. which was precisely the intention of Montagu Norman. In soccer terms it was an “autogol” or own goal. 1931 The surrender to Japan of the British naval base and fortress of Singapore on February 15. 1941 was the culmination of one of the most absurd military farces in the history of Perfide Albion. Belgium and other debtors defaulted. This was the result of a long-term. 1992. Schacht’s Reichsbank was just a few weeks away from defaulting on gold payment and imposing strict controls on all currency transfers to the outside world. and the Dutch withdrew their considerable assets from London to stay afloat.centered international monetary system which they had re-assembled after World War I. Their gesture was similar to the speculative attacks on the pound mounted by George Soros and other British. the Germany of Chancellor Heinrich Bruening rapidly evolved into the prototype of the autarkical currency bloc of the 1930’s. All of this played politically into the hands of Hitler and the Nazis. who was in attendance. combined with the need to make a sham of defending the .large sums owned by the British had been frozen in Berlin when the banks there were shut down. the notorious Anglophile Henry Stimson — the ego ideal of the youthful George Bush. As it was. with a cynical treacherous reversal of their entire policy. proposed the so-called Standstill Agreements. But the Hoover moratorium was too little and too late. LONDON’S SINGAPORE DEFENSE OF THE BRITISH POUND. 1931. and the rest of central Europe. Under the guidance of Schacht and Montagu Norman. Now the tremors unleashed by the Crash of 1929 had undermined the entire banking system in Germany. In the domestic economy. which aimed at destroying the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In the midst of the German crisis the fact that German reparations and interallied war debts could not be payed was finally recognized by US President Herbert Hoover. This gambit was found especially appalling by Jacques Rueff.backed speculators in September. Austria. while attending the London Conference on the German crisis. This moratorium was approved by the US Congress with sweeping majorities in December. Hungary. It was at this point. which froze all reparations and war debt payments for 1 year. conscious and deliberate committment to surrender Singapore as soon as possible if attacked by Japan. The Hoover Moratorium also contained a domestic political trick: if the European governments were not required to pay their debt to the United States government. It was in fact Simson who. scored against one’s own purported team. 1932 France. Most of the classical Schachtian apparatus later employed by Hitler was already in place before Hitler ever came to power. A debt moratorium for the duration of the crisis would have been simpler and far more effective. 1931. that the British decided to wreck the sterling. and the Hoover Moratorium became permanent in practice. Soon all trade was restricted. the ability of German residents to buy and spend abroad was throughly curtailed. which stated that creditors owed money by the German government or by German banks and businesses would be obliged to refrain from demanding payment. The emergence of the mark zone was also assisted by Hoover’s Secretary of State. Romania. and the rate on collateral loans went to 15%. By the time Hoover had made up his mind to act. Another problem with the Hoover moratorium was that it was announced for only one year – it should have been for the duration of the crisis. and frozen and blocked accounts were instituted. deflation and austerity were the order of the day. The Reichsbank rediscount rate went to a strangulating 10%.

mit anderen Worten genau das. Pfund) unter schwerstem Druck stehe. [Juli 1931] in der britischen Treasury. Norman (who was nursing one of his periodic nervous breakdowns in Canada) talked by telephone with Harrison of the New York Fed. and a possible debt moratorium. On August 23. so that the US losses in rolling back Nippon would be nothing short of catastrophic. Percival. At the same time. The British troops present. dass Schaeffer ihn in wenigen Wochen wohl verstehen wuerde. ueber die Bank von England zu helfen. Sir William Leith-Ross und Waley auf britischer Seite teilnahmen. The feeble efforts to save the pound mounted by Montagu Norman’s Bank of England and by Ramsay MacDonald’s national unity cabinet in the summer of 1931 can be usefully summed up as a “Singapore defense” avant la lettre — a bungling bogus sham that was deliberately designed to fail. and not to the land approaches. In dieser Sitzung erklaerte Montague Norman mit aller so as not unduly to arouse the suspicions of the bloody Yanks. Once the needs of dramaturgy for the US market had been satisfied. Norman recommended exploiting the . Norman replied that he believed that the austerity program was not adequate. Harrison asked Norman if he though that the austerity program proposed by the new British National Government were adequate.und Golddeckungspflicht. Norman’s preferred recipe for Germany was default on gold payment. was England acht Wochen spaeter selbst zu tun gezwungen war. well before the pound got into trouble. die Konferenz schnell zu beenden. Staatssekretaer Schaeffer und Geheimrat Vocke auf deutscher und Montague Norman. As we see here. It also shows how explicitly Norman pushed Germany into the status of an autarkical currency bloc. surrendered with all deliberate speed. 1931. the British wantesd to hide this treachery from the US public. every schoolboy knew that the British had fortified their coast defense artillery so that the guns could only point out to sea. dass er bei vollem Verstaendinis fuer die deutsche Lage nicht imstande sei. The following is an account of Montagu Norman’s meeting with the German delegation during the London Conference of July. gegebenfalls ein Auslandsmoratorium – und im Inneren Suspendierung der Goldeinloesungs. Sein einziger – und unter den gegebenen Verhaeltnissen auch einzig moeglicher – Rat waere. Gen. Lueke. It had to look as if they were caving in to force majeure. geht daraus hervor. NORMAN INTENDED TO DEFAULT ALL ALONG There is sold evidence that Montagu Norman’s decision to provoke a British default on gold payment dated back to mid-July. dass er im Anschluss an die Sitzung Staatssekretaer Schaeffer persoenlich erklaerte.” [Rolf E. ) This report not only illuminates the timing of Norman's decision to default. and that any inadequate program was bound to cause trouble within a year or so. Norman told German State Secretary Schaeffer that in a few weeks it would be clear what he was driving at — which in retrospect was understood by all concerned as an allusion to Norman’s own coming British default on gold payment: “Zur fuer die ganze Konferenz entscheidenden internen Sitzung kam es am 21. The British were looking ahead to the postwar world. an der Reichskanzler Bruening. 1931. At the time. mainly imperial conscripts. deutscherseits selbst private Stillhaltevereinbarungen mit den Auslandsglauebigern zu treffen. Ministerialdirektor Schwerin-Krosigk. the British commander. They wanted the Japanese to have plenty of time to attain and fortify their defense perimeter. standstill agreements. Von der Stabilisierung zur Krise (Zuerich: Polygraphischer Verlag. with all international payments subject to strict government controls. which were the axis of attack chosen by the Japanese. which had been called together to deal with the crisis of the German banks and currency. were more or less overtly told not to fight. da dise selbst durch die anhaltende Geldabzuege der letzten Tage (taeglich bis zu 2 Mill. Dass Norman dabei bereits an diese spaetere eigene Politik dachte.

expressed at the height of the crisis. and not by an increase in the Bank Rate of other measures which only the Bank of England itself could take. Harvey expressed his conviction that "the future course of events depended largely upon the attitude of the British public towards the Government's proposals. Anything else is bad finance. At that same cabinet meeting of September that impotently called on the British government to impose more austerity. But the Norman’s Bank of England persistently increased fiduciary issue in the face of the crisis. The bank rate was at the heart of the entire British fetish of usury. so as to make British goods competitive again.current crisis to force through an economic adjustment featuring a drastic reduction in wages and in the cost of production. As contemporary observer Palyi writes. this “amounted in effect to a lien on a portion of their existing gold holding and reduced their actual free holding to little more than 80 million pounds or about the equivalent of the new government credit. now Harvey was talking out of the other side of his mouth." This view. Sir Ernest Harvey told the cabinet that total losses by the Bank of England since the beginning of the crisis amounted so far to 130 million pounds in gold and foreign exchange. In the midst of the summer. Fiduciary issue of currency was a means used to regulate the supply of credit. “You must put up your bank rate and you must limit your fiduciary issue. These were extra bank notes issued by the central bank. Norman thought. At a cabinet meeting on September 3. the monetarist orthodoxy of British financial experts between the two world wars was that if a country got into economic trouble. the British did neither of these things. was at odds with the entire Bank of England and postwar central bank ideology. They did not provide for a lien on the Bank of England’s gold or anything close to it. 122] LONDON REFUSES TO RAISE BANK RATE TO CRISIS LEVEL As Robbins notes. Rather they contained a gold payment clause which required that payment be made in gold. Sir Ernest Harvey . the British actually increased their fiduciary issue.” [Kunz.” Curiously. when the terminal crisis of Montagu Norman’s much-vaunted gold standard finally arrived. Harvey then deliberately lied to the cabinet." [Palyi. HARVEY LIES TO THE CABINET The Deputy Governor of the Bank of England. when their own orthodoxy would have dictated a sharp cut. Harrison objected that it might be risky to rely exclusively on a balanced budget to defend a currency. If this were done. "several 'eyewitnesses' have told this writer that both those in the Treasury and in the Bank had convinced themselves that Britain's house could not be brought into order without first 'teaching a lesson' to a public which was either indifferent or indolent.was uniformly defeatist throughout the crisis. p. which stressed the autonomy and power of the central banks over the flailing of the politicians and governments. For three centuries the Bank of England had considered itself responsible for the fate of the pound. Norman was signalling a new defeatist policy for the Bank of England -. This reversal of attitude was also expressed in Lord Norman's constant refrain that the crisis of the pound had to be solved by a balanced budget on the part of the British government.” As one historian comments. there would be no need for any loans. British monetarist ideology featured the faith that an increase in the Bank of England’s bank rate could pull gold up out of the ground. p.the man who actually terminated the British gold standard . “This alarming exposition of the credit agreements was…seriously misleading. 1931 pound and gold crisis. Cutting fiduciary issue would have meant a credit contraction – tight money. stating that since the loans made to London by the foreign central banks would have to be repaid in gold if they could not be paid any other way. or even attract gold to London from the moon. . 269] But that was a cover story for deliberately scuttling the pound.

Was it then more prestigious to default? “It had been intimated that the decision to devalue was due to British ’sensitivity’: the Treasury and the Bank found it ‘undignified’ to balance the national budget under pressure of foreign bankers. One argument was that the British domestic economy was already too depressed to survive a rise in the Bank Rate.” especially given the fact that British foreign obligations were denominated in pounds.P. p.5% had not seemed too high a Bank rate in view of the desired result. But on September 21. not in the currency of the lending country.” which claims that radically to raise the Bank Rate under the pressure of foreign gold demands would have undermined the prestige of the pound sterling. Great Britain had always advocated a high Bank Rate as the remedy for a financial crisis and a drain of gold. when at last it was raised to 3 1/2 per cent. with only two breaks – one during the Napoleonic wars and one during the last war [1914-1925]. In April 1920. the Bank Rate was actually lowered. Monetary Policy. But now. after defaulting on gold. the Bank of England acted in violent contradiction to its own monetarist orthodoxy. 9-11] These are good questions. in effect. Back in 1929. 6. p. Then there is the argument of “prestige. from 3 to 2 1/2 per cent.NORMAN’S REFUSAL TO HIKE THE BANK RATE As for the Bank Rate. Now for the first time in her history she suspended gold payments in time of peace and with a Bank Rate of 4 1/2 per cent ! Does it follow that the British monetary authorities were secretly glad to leave the gold standard? …. 4. “the reluctance to use the discount weapon was at the root of the widely disseminated charge that ‘perfidious Albion’ had intentionally ‘trapped its creditors. the Bank Rate reached 7%. As one scholar later summed up: “On May 14 [1931]. THE FRANCO-AMERICAN LOANS The British judged that their sham defense of the pound required at least some semblance of . It was not changed until July 23rd. for over two hundred years. 294] As the same author sums it up. and there it remained until September 21st.5% was the nec plus ultra. She had been on the gold standard.why was the Bank Rate not raised but actually lowered after the Kredit Anstalt closed? Why was it not raised to 8 per cent or perhaps 10 per cent in July or even in August?” [Benham. immediately after the collapse of the Kredit-Anstalt. Was their dignity better served by defaulting?” [Palyi. So these foreign obligations could be paid off in cheaper pounds after a default and devaluation. During the last week or so of July the Bank of England lost over 25 million pounds in gold. A worried J. pp. but only to 4 1/2 per cent. On July 30th the Bank Rate was again raised. 126] Apologists for Norman and his retainers have advanced various lame arguments to explain the gross treachery of Threadneedle Street. and had stayed there for a full year. the Bank of England raised the Bank Rate to 6% and left it there for five months.” [Kunz. when Montagu Norman had been concerned with precipitating the New York stock market panic. Morgan of New York cabled on September 7 to Morgan Grenfel in London: “Are the British Treasury and the Bank of England satisfied that the present method of dealing with the sterling exchange is the best that can be devised? In this connection the question naturally arises as to why the Bank of England does not use the classic remedy of Bank Rate instead of apparently pegging the exchange. regardless of the impact on the credit-starved domestic British economy. when the Norman had wanted to undercut New York.

p. the British authorities announced that they would receive loans from foreign central banks for the purpose of conducting support operations for the pound sterling. The main effect of these loans was to make the lquidity crisis that followed the British default more acute in both Paris and New York. 113] Morgan’s for its part had been reluctant to undertake the British loan. the British took in the operations for their own currency in the international markets. Norman and his crew had “forgotten” to defend the pound that day — clearly a conscious decision to sabotage their own pound. But Siepmann “took the approach that the question of a credit was not a top priority matter. mainly from the United States. 60 and 90 days. The refusals show the extreme liquidity anxieities already besetting the US bankers.. This measure came at a time when gold bullion was still freely available for those who wanted to trade in larger sums. and the pound quotation collapsed below the gold export point to New York. The confidence-building effect of the central bank loans was completely dissipated.Every institution is probably making strenuous endeavours to get its position more liquid. the Bank of England suddenly discontinued its habitual practice of paying out gold sovereigns — that is. [Kunz. AUGUST 4 CRISIS – NO INTERVENTION BY BANK OF ENGLAND During the first days of August. pp. [Hoover. This amounted to the transition to a gold bullion standard. The loan took the form of a pledge by Morgan and 109 other American banks to purchase dollar-denominated Treasury Bills of the British government for periods of 30. it was decided to procure loans from the United States and France for these support operations. Bu the effect on market psychology turned out to be catastrophic. This state of affairs is reflected in the following cable from Morgan. The mood among other American banks was shown by the unprecedented number of refusals to participate in the underwriting of the loan which arrived in response to the offer cable sent out by Morgan’s. the British government organized a loan of $250 million. gold coins — to those who wanted to exchange pound sterling banknotes.” [Kunz. which were obtained by the British Exchequer from New York and Paris. New York to Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Snowden in London: “In reference to the proposed interest rate in America we may emphasize that there is not a single institution in our whole banking community which actually desires the British Treasury Notes on any terms either as to commission or interest…. Siepmann arrived in Paris on August 24 to begin negotiating the French loan. Given the fast pace of the crisis. the British requested and were granted a further US loan of $400 million. 116-117] As it was. For this purpose. support operations seem to have been virtually “forgotten” again two days later. The suspension of official payment in gold sovereigns was seen for what it was – the immediate prelude to the default on all gold payment. the Bank of England and its agents were inexplicably absent from the currency markets. GOLD SOVEREIGNS SUSPENDED Around the middle of September.) and Harrison” at the New York Federal Reserve. a rather suprising one in the cirumstances and one that not only confused Governor Moret but diverged totally from the viewpoint held by Morgan’s (N.A.Y. p. British representative H. . Siepmanm should have been a man in a hurry. To make matters worse. But on August 4. 81-82] The British loan was the biggest made by Morgan between the world wars. On August 26. Starting on August 1. Banks refusing such an offer ran the risk of being excluded from future Morgan loan syndications.

The Bank of England could not just sit there. NO ATTACKS ON BEARS A LA POINCARE In the same missive. Support operations against the dollar were done through the British Overseas Bank. 121] The elementary strategy for defending the pound would have been to keep the price of pound futures above the spot price for pounds in the cash market. 120] To be effective in stopping speculation.International Bank.Y. Norman’s minions were at home. Morgan’s (N. LOW FORWARD PRICE OF POUNDS On September 1. Bear squeezes and short squeezes had been actively organized by French Premier Poincare’ during his defense of the French franc some years earlier. financiers would obviously sell pounds and buy pound futures to lock in their profit. But if pound futures were allowed to sink lower than current pounds. In .86 to $4. The British were attempting to support sterling at $4. the monetary resources obtained by the Bank of England had to be employed dynamically. the Bank of France and the FRBNY so that the credits would become an offensive weapon rather than a sitting duck for rapacious financiers. The Bank of England needed to organize a short squeeze or bear squeeze so as to create genuine doubt about whether shorting the pound was a sure way to lock in profits. since their credit was so limited. This absurd method guaranteed that everyone in the markets knew exactly when and in what amount the Bank of England was interveneing. a symptom of which was the frequent breaks in the value of sterling in the New York market after the London market had closed. the money had to be used aggressively to buy pound futures so as to drive the pound quotation up. When the pound crashed just before tea-time. A cable two days later stressed the concern felt at Morgan’s New York about “the poor handling of the sterling exchange. and support operations against the franc were done through the Anglo. It apppeared that the Bank of England agents in New York were setting their watches to London time. with the result that some of the specualtors who had sold the pound short would have been severely burned.) also suggested better liaison between the Bank of England. and would also have conduited other operations through the big British clearing banks. generating an updraft around the pound quotations. All support operations were conduited through two small banks. POUND PEGGED TOO HIGH Harrison of the FRBNY cabled Harvey on September 3 that in his opinion the British were attempting to peg the pound/dollar rate much too high. Rather. Morgan partner Thomas Lamont send a cable to Grenfel in London commenting on the loss of confidence in the British government that was spreading on Wall Street. if only temporarily. arbitrageurs would have been impelled to sell the pound futures and buy the spot pounds.” [Kunz. [Kunz. If it had wished to be effective. Morgans (N.AFTERNOON POUND BREAKS IN NEW YORK On August 29. buying unlimited quantities of pounds at the floor price. The pound would have received additional support through short covering purchases. and that everyone also soon knew exactly how much of the various French and American support loans remained unused. p. and knocking off for the day after lunch. p. the Bank of England would have intervened in its own name.Y. ONLY 2 SMALL BANKS USED Another feature of Norman’s Singapore defense was the method used to organize support operations for the pound. which was considerably above British gold export point.) cabled their London partners an analysis of the London and New York sterling markets with special focus on the weakness and lack of depth of the forward market. If that could be accomplished.86125. The small size of the banks actually used also limited the amount of pound futures they could buy.

Also Fisher had told [US diplomat] Atherton that internal capital flight was one of the causes of Britain’s problems. During the past few days I have been assured by one of the most influential representatives of French banking circles in London that to his personal knowledge orders for the sale of sterling and purchases of dollars were given to the London banks by great numbers of British clients. September 18.” [Kunz. In reality. Harvey declined to make this change. Snowden. Reading. there was the first meeting of the Financial Subcommittee of the cabinet. this was insane folly. Harvey. Reading thought that this operation could be modeled on the methods used for the same purpose during the First World War. Fisher could only have known this if the Bank so informed him. as is stated in the official British statement. “it could act at once against the traitors who are sending their gold abroad…. Reading thought that many sales appeared to be British-inspired. 121] DUTCH GUILDER RATE NEGLECTED In yet another deliberate British fiasco. “Harvey had been sufficiently alarmed about British sales of sterling to write to various culprits such as Lord Bradbury to ask them not to continue to purchase dollars.” [New York Times. FOREIGN SECURITIES NOT USED Lord Reading. Lord Reading wanted to determine exactly who it was that was dumping all the pounds on the international markets. Even as late as Saturday [September 19] 10. [Kunz. 1931. the artifically high peg only encouraged sales of sterling. composed of MacDonald. the Foreign Secretary. [Kunz. 1931] On the fateful Default Day of September 21. but these took place mostly several weeks ago.Harrison’s view. p. who was present. while the pound to dollar and pound to franc rates were supported. and significant amounts of British gold were shipped to Amsterdam during the final phase of the bogus defense of the pound. Lord Reading also wanted MacDonald to order the Bank of England to prepare detailed financial data for the use of the Financial Subcommittee of the cabinet. and “he further made the false statement that the sale of sterling by British citizens was not really an important problem. BRITISH SPECULATORS: OWN GOAL On Monday. kept track of currency movements.” Harvey himself knew this was nonsense. 143] The London Daily Star was upset enough about flight capital to write that if the National Government were really national. the pound to Dutch guilder quotation received no support of all. p. The pound/guilder exchange rate went below the gold export point in September. saying that although he was in general agreement this was not the time to change tactics. September 14. Stephane Lauzanne. As the Bank of England. p. and Neville Chamerlain. suggested to Snowden between September 10 and September 14 that the Treasury prepare a plan for the mobilization of foreign securities held in Britain for the purpose of depending the pound. Harrison wanted the pound to fluctuate just above that currency’s gold export point.000. There were considerable withdrawals of foreign capital. 129] None of this was carried out. and that the cabinet ought to consider a method of cracking down on such transactions. expressed pessimism about the ability of the Government or the Bank to halt British flight capital. but in fact by British subjects. Monday . This journalist.000 pounds left the Bank of England’s vaults. Given the considerably importance of the Dutch currency at the time. is quoted as saying: “The most recent purchases of foreign exchange were not undertaken for foreigners.” [New York Times. not the Treasury. the New York Times related the comments of the London correspondent of Le Matin of Paris.

THE INVERGORDON FARCE In late September 1929.000 to 135. the First Lord of the Admiralty. In response. Harvey. second. informed MacDonald of a trifling incident which had taken place at Invergordon. 1931. the Admiral of the British Atlantic Fleet announced the postponement of the scheduled naval maneuvers. True to form. Norman had used the Hatry bankruptcy as a pretext for raising the Bank Rate. there was also the sense that the austerity program would have rough sledding from other groups in Britain as well. [Kunz. In 1931.” Saturday September 18 was the day the British cabinet officially decided to default on Britain’s gold obligations. Then there is the embarrassing fact that during the last week of the gold standard the Bank of England’s gold stocks INCREASED from 133. 131] THE BANK OF ENGLAND DEMANDS DEFAULT A despatch of September 17. Sensational headlines around the world pointed to the parallels to the Russian revolution of 1905 and 1917 and the German revolution of 1918. which came as a surprise to him. [Kunz. 137] But the Bank of England remained committed to immediate default. MacDonald called it the most solemn conference ever held at 10 Downing Street. and. the naval unrest. On Tuesday. 135] Harvey deliberately created the false impression that he had discussed the situation after the close of trading on Friday with Harrison of the New York Fed. More help could have been obtained from Paris as well. MacDonald quickly agreed to default.000 pounds. London was still exporting capital – getting the most out of available pounds to buy up assets around the world.September 21. and offered further loans. p. and also the dispersal of the Atlantic fleet to its various home ports. This was not true. 1931 to the New York Times reported that Sir Ernest Harvey. About 500 sailors of the Royal Navy had assembled for meetings to discuss the pay cut for experienced seamen which the National Government was proposing. p. [Kunz. in response to a question from MacDonald. Sir Austen Chamberlain. It was these latter actions which “elevated what might have remained a small incident into a mjor occurrence. The seamen ignored orders to return to their ships until their protest meetings were over. p. p.600. and other financial leaders had gone that evening to the House of Commons to convey to Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald “a grave warning that the stability of the pound was again imperiled. September 19 that Harvey informed Harrison of the New York Fed of what the British government was now doing. 1931] Even on the eve of the default.” “It is stated that they gave two reasons for this emergency – first.300. added that he did not think it worthwhile to raise even 100 million pounds ($450 million) if people were only going to withdraw it. an indispensable part of the orchestration of the British default was an alleged “mutiny” in the Royal Navy in protest over pay cuts. which he had wanted to do for reasons of economic warfare against the USA. the British government issued its statements announcing its decision to “suspend for the time being” the clause of the Gold Standard Act of 1925 requiring the . September 15. 135] It was only on Saturday. and the rest of the cabinet meeting was devoted to technical details of how to terminate the gold standard. September 20. The Revolution was about to overpower the Royal Navy itself! In addition to this hysterical hype. [Palyi. [Kunz. 277] THE END OF THE WORLD On Sunday. Harrison persisted for a time in exploring possible alternatives to London’s default. who announced that the only course of action left was for Britain to leave the gold standard. Harrison was described as greatly shocked by this decision. both of which had been marked in their early phases by fleet mutinies. the report that a general election was imminent. p. it was the Bank of England that proposed the abrogation of the gold standard through the mouth of its Deputy Governor. Deputy Governor of the Bank of England.

tendent à se corriger eux-mêmes. there were other means. 1931] The worldwide shock was severe.S.” [New York Times. puisque toute sortie de métal tend à provoquer une restriction de crédit. 301] For Rueff. “His Majesty’s Government have no reason to believe that the present difficulties are due to any substantial extent to the export of capital by British nationals. Reynolds.-E. and not British monetary policy.” [Jacques Rueff.” which was intended to be read by French Finance Minister P. cependant qu’elle cherchait à augmenter. Rueff completed his memorandum entitled “Sur les causes et les enseignements de la crise financière anglaise. l’abondance monétaire du marche. In the words of Jackson E. p. since they tried to maintain their liquidity despite a gold outflow. Palyi cites the “‘posthumous’ charge by Rueff that the “Bank of England defaulted intentionally in order to damage the creditor central banks. the British were guilty of violating the implicit rules of the gold exchange standard. that made life so wretched for us. then President of the First National Bank of New York. presque sans exception.Bank of England to sell gold at the fixed price. One British chronicler of these times sums up the official line of scapegoating the foreigners as follows: “It was basically the American trade cycle. But during the last few days international markets have become demoralized and have been liquidating their sterling assets regardless of their intrinsic worth. 268] On October 1.Depuis 1929 la Banque d’Angleterre a constamment utilisé ces deux instruments pour maintenir aussi bas que possible les taux en vigeur sur le marché de Londres. Finally. the British oligarchy placed the blame for the fall of the mighty pound on a “bankers’ ramp” led by foreign central bankers. September 21. A favorite target was poor George Harrison of the New York Federal Reserve. Flandin and the French Prime Minister. there was the obligatory stiff upper lip: “The ultimate resources of this country are enormous and there is no doubt that the present exchange difficulties will prove only temporary. the Bank of France in particular…. 1931.” THE BANKERS’ RAMP With the help of demagogic headlines in the London afternoon tabloids. Undoubtedly the bulk of withdrawals has been for foreign accounts. p. Another fall-guy was the Banque de France.” The bloody wogs. Furthermore: “His Majesty’s Government have arrived at their decision with the greatest reluctance. Elle a toujours retardé aux maximum les élévations de taux d’escompte qui s’imposaient. were once again the root of the problem. la politique d”open market’ de la Banque d’Angleterre a été faite à contresens.” [Palyi. Les mouvements d’or. qui hausse les taux du marche. “when England went off gold it was like the end of the world. This meant that Rueff was in practice the manager of the French sterling balances.” As we have seen. All the other elements of the official British mythology were also present. “on peut affirmer notamment qu’en 1929 et 1930. en effet. Sayers. Pierre Laval. De L'Aube au Crépuscule. Rueff first described the modes of intervention of the Bank of England: “Elle avait…deux instruments: le taux d’escompte et la politique dite d”open market’…. In the circumstances there was no alternative but to protect the financial position of this country by the only means at our disposal.” [R. . as we see. the economist Jacques Rueff was serving as the Financial Attache at the French Embassy in London. who was rewarded with slander and obloquy for his pathetic and servile devotion to the currency of British imperialism. 97] JACQUES RUEFF ATTACKS BRITISH HANDLING OF CRISIS During the weeks of the British crisis. par ses achats de valuers d’Etat.

” [318-319] .Il n’est pas douteux que tous les plans présentés à Genève ou a Bale.. a ceux qui ont été assez sages ou assez prudents pour s’en préserver…Tel est d’ailleurs le sens profond et l’objet véritable de tous les efforts tendant a réaliser la solidarité internationale. la crise économique d’après guerre n’est pas chose nouvelle. Ayant fixe une catégorie des prix. mais jamais lorsque l’on peut leur venir en aide. toutes les fois que de l’or sortait de la Banque d’Angleterre. all British proposals for international monetary cooperation were strategems designed to shift the crisis from Britain to the rest of the world: “Il reste enfin à évoquer la dernière des formules par lesquelles l’Angleterre prétend que le monde devrait etre reconstruit: la cooperation financière internationale. pour l’opinion britannique. called the dole: “Et cela explique que la hausse des prix soit pour l’Angleterre.. ces fautes ont été commises. C’est là un programme dont le sens n’a jamais été défini. Depuis que l’Angleterre souffre du chomage permanent – c’est.” [p. en 1931. interdisant à son organisme les réactions spontanées d’un marche normal.” [307] A key British problem was their high unemployment." [305] The British had been wallowing in a depression since 1918.Or. the British had weakened themselves even before the German crisis had begun: “Or. Il est très probable que l’Angleterre aurait pu y résister. Rueff found.. 303] Rueff repeatedly condemns Stimson’s intervention at the London Conference of July..” [308-309] For Rueff. plan Norman. provoquant des mouvements de capitaux qui ont été mortels pour le change anglais.” [304} But the British always blamed the wogs: ". 303] Because of these policies. plan Francqui. Depuis la guerre. and that for them made it a world economic crisis: “Il faut d’abord remarquer que. était en pleine prospérite. Par là. les représentants britanniques ne cessaient de demander à la Société des Nations de trouver un remède à la crise économique. si elle n’avait pas été mise préalablement dans un état de paralysie économique et financière. which they had chosen to deal with by means of payments to the unemployed. dans le régime ou elle s’est volontairement placée.à-dire depuis la guerre – l’opinion britannique et les experts anglais affirment que le monde est en état de crise. celle-ci achetait des valeurs d’Etat sur le marché. qualifiée de mondiale parce qu’elle affectait les intérêts du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d’Irlande.” [p. même lorsque le monde.” [302] “Autrement dit. elle est conduite à vouloir y adapter tour les autres…. voyant soudain immobilisé une fraction très importante de leurs capitaux a court terme.l'opinion britannique . solidarité que l’on invoque toujours lorsque l’on veut profiter de la prosperité des Etats voisins. une nécessité vitale. par la dépréciation de la livre sterling et aussi – bien que dans une mesure probablement insuffisante – par un tarif douanier. remplacant ainsi les disponibilites qui venaient de dispara&itremas. l’une d’entre elles – la dépréciation monétaire – étant déjà en voie de réalisation…. il est vrai. probablement parce qu’il n’en a aucun…. tendent seulement a réaliser le trust des entrprises en faillite et a y investir des capitaux qui sans cela se seraient refusés.1930. D’ou des diverses solutions envisagées en Angleterre. pendant les deux années 1929. plan Kindersley. en 1929 et 1930. être réalisée sans hausse des prix mondiaux.tre. la Banque d’Angleterre a constamment paralysé le jeu des phénomenes qui tendaient à adapter la balance des paiements anglais aux nécessites résultant de la politique économique suivie par le pays. 1931 with the proposal for standstill agreements which immediately created a liquidity crisis and put world banking in difficulty: “Toutes les banques du monde.Cette hausse des prix anglais peut. ont cherché à récupérer toutes les réserves qu’elles pouvaient rendre disponibles. ils sont un merveilleux instrument pour transférer les difficultes financières des Etats qui les ont provoqués.recherche a l'exterieur la cause de ses difficultés. sauf l’Angleterre.

Germany.” [Palyi. Vissering backed down. and offered to pay off the Netherlands Bank sterling balances in gold on the spot. Mr. who pleaded with other countries not to drain off the last of . The Bank of England acted with great treachery towards the Netherlands Bank. and for good reason so. Holland. telephoned the Bank of England on September 18. the central bank which had shown itself to be the truest friend of the pound. There is no doubt that during the weeks before default. G. The Big Five clearing banks were undisturbed by panic runs or the specter of insolvency. “the Netherlands Bank felt. [Hoover. and India – most of whom were candidates for inclusion in the sterling bloc. 119. they were quickly followed by Denmark. p. Norman was on board ship in the middle of the Atlantic. Norman’s cover story was that he had suffered a nervous breakdown. The exception were sterling balances held by foreign central banks. or the ‘ethics’ of the gold standard. a turn that was scarcely befitting Norman’s idea of central bank cooperation. and Hungary were already operating under exchange controls and other measures which effectively prevented gold outflow. 278] The Netherlands Bank thought that the Bank of England should safeguard the Netherlands Bank against all the sterling losses to which it was subjected. Norway. saying that the Dutch could either take their gold back to Amsterdam or keep it in London but if they chose the latter course they would not be placed in the position of a preferred creditor. most of the sterling balances held by foreigners who were disposed to liquidate them had already been liquidated. Vissering of the Netherlands’ Central Bank called Harvey to request that the Dutch gold held by the Bank of England be earmarked [separated from the Bank of England stocks as a preliminary to shipment to the Netherlands]. Canada. When the Bank of England suspended gold payment. Italy. The president of the Netherlands Bank. To assuage Vissering’s fears Harvey wrote him about the credits and stressed the total committment of the National Government to the maintenance of the gold standard [Kunz. that it had been deceived by the Bank of England. A discussion of this British betrayal is found in the 1931-32 Annual Report of the Netherlands Bank. and these would be loyal to London. Norman claims that he knew nothing of the decision to go off gold until he landed at Liverpool on September 23. including Greece. Harvey himself suffered a nervous breakdown because of the stress of serving under Norman. As we have noted. 1931 to enquire whether there was any truth to the rumors about a forthcoming sterling devaulation. [see Brown. The Bank of England twice assured the Bank of South Africa that it would do everything in its power to maintain gold payments. 1170-1172] Montagu Norman claimed that he had personally not been a participant in the decision to default on gold. Sweden. p. When the British stopped paying in gold.120] As a result. THE BANK OF ENGLAND’S DUTCH TREAT By September 20. Harvey huffily refused. and had taken a vacation at the Chateau Frontenac in Quebec. 82] The British strategy for saving the golden pound had included histrionic international appeals from Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. Bolivia. supporting it in crisis after crisis. Other countries. The little people of the British public were proving docile enough to make no attempt to turn in their pound notes for gold. Vissering. 2.Rueff suggested a Franco-American accord capable of putting an end to the British game. pp. “Dr. A few days after the call summarized above. pp. Norman was thus able to blame the default on one of his resident whipping-boys. like the Dutch. vol. the Bank of England practiced the most cynical deception on other central banks. The Dutch decided to keep their gold in London. Deputy Governor Sir Ernest Harvey. The Bank of England official who answered the phone emphatically denied that there would be a devaluation. Austria. partly because their estimate was that the crisis was not so severe as to force the British off gold.

p. Sterling losses of so many countries spread deflation through the struggle for liquidity. Tax revenue fell by 50%. MacDonald’s perfidy caused much resentment abroad. Montagu Norman himself. p. 83] European purchases of American agricultural products ceased almost entirely. September 26.’ It was still a sterling system.” [Mitchell. the gold exchange standard. 1932 (reaching 33 1/3 per cent). that at stake was what is called today the ‘world monetary system. if at all. The old saying. The British stock market quickly recovered amd kept rising during most of the 1930’s.5%. 93] “Now the British had increased their own relative importance compared to their continental rivals.the British gold. became the main theoretician of Cheap Money in the new era of competitive monetary devaulations. p. US exports to the rest of the world had dropped to about one third of their 1929 level. than he began to smile broadly because the fall of the pound gave her marked advantage in exports. [Hoover. 89] BRITISH DEFAULT: TEN MORE YEARS OF WORLD DEPRESSION The Gibraltar of British Empire finance had crashed. “Hardly had Ramsay MacDonald stopped sobbing over the international radio that Britannia should not be forced to sacrifice her honor. where it stayed for many years. 1931. but heavily indebted (in her role as world’s banker) to other centres on short. possessed of a large net income from long-term investments abroad. p.” [Economist.” [Mitchell. 14] Soon. 86] “The cooperation of the central banks in the 1920’s ended in a breakdown of the entire system. at the old sterling parity. a devalued pound meant that pound-denominated foreign claims on the British financial system – and these were the vast majority – were automatically reduced. [Hoover. dependent predominantly for existence on foreign trade. p. may have been the breakdown of that system. Continental opinion had been coming to the view that the British system was dying of ossification.term account. 548] The British racket up until September 1931 had been to use a high pound to maximize their buying up of the world’s productive assets and resources. the former gold addict. “It was only vaguely understood. That is what happened after September.” The post-1931 British strategy also included Imperial Preference and trade war: “Britain entered the lists with the Import Duties Act of March. 14] THE BRITISH GAME A British estimate of the London predicament of the early 1930’s reads as follows: “…Great Britain is a highly populated industrial country. After September. and the later Ottawa Agreement establishing empire tariff preferences spurred other countries in the process of retaliation. After the British had defaulted. enjoying the benefits of being the world’s chief banking centre. Five months after the British default. which was to maintain . having been essentially a cloak that masked the ultimate purpose of its chief ingredient. “as safe as the Bank of England” was now a mockery. p. But unemployment hovered around 2. 1931. Norman and the British oligarchy embarked on a policy of cheap money.’ [Palyi. US unemployment increased rapidly. The contest between economies that remained on gold and those that had left it became acute. 1931. At this time a series of Bank Rate reductions was started which soon brought the discount to 2.5 million until the beginning of the Second World War. “For years. who had joined them in perdition. In the words of an American economist.” wrote Lionel Robbins [p. carrying a terrific burden of internal debt. The likely alternative to…the gold standard.

Nicaragua.when England suspended the convertibility of sterling in 1931 the international gold standard as a world institution entered into an historical phase which must be described by a stronger term than breakdown.Free State British Malaya. Holland. Finland . 1935. Egypt. Sweden. Denmark.Britain’s gold standard without obeying the rules of the gold standard.” [p. SEPTEMBER 1931 MARKED THE . Irish . Until March. Estonia was forced off gold. France imposed a gold embargo in September. Italy. 1936.Bolivia.Siam July – Yugoslavia 1933 January – Union of South Africa April – Honduras. Norway. Palestine October – Austria . Canada. The world monetary system had indeed disintegrated. rather than the suspension or modification. most world currencies also terminated gold payments through external default. Costa Rica April – Greece. Belgium. 146] During the 18-month period after the British default. The Belgian franc was devalued in March. and Italy and Poland imposed gold export controls. United States [See Brown. Switzerland and Holland announced devaluations immediately thereafter. Switzerland. of the pre-war international gold standard system……. and Estonia. Chile May – Peru June – Ecuador . Salvador December – Japan 1932 January – Colombia. the gold standard was maintained by a group of countries called the “gold bloc. CHART: COUNTRIES LEAVING THE GOLD STANDARD April 1929 – April 1933 1929 April – Uruguay November – Argentina December – Brazil 1930 March – Australia April – New Zealand September -Venezuela 1931 August – Mexico September – United Kingdom.Portugal. none remained on gold in 1937.” comprehending France. Poland. 1933 the US dollar and some of its satellite currencies in central America were able to keep up payments on gold. India. Of the fifty-four nations that had been on the gold standard at some timne between 1925 and 1931. 1914-19 was a period that marked the breakdown. 1075] ——————————————————— BEYOND BREAKDOWN TO DISINTEGRATION The year 1931 is thus a turning point in the financial history of Europe analogous to 1914 in political-military history: “…because of the profound influence of the war upon the structure of the world’s credit system and upon the economic environment in which it operated. Otherwise.

an inflamed nationalism in Europe and.” [Giuseppi. 1052. war. p. though the memory of the disastrous effects of post-war inflations should be a useful deterrent. For Germany. and were certainly aware of how rival states might suffer far greater consequences than the British themselves: “The facts must be faced that the disappearance of the pound from the ranks of the world’s stable currencies threatens to undermine the exchange stability of nearly every nation on earth. the Japanese yen zone.” [Palyi. metals. franc and ruble each had some raw materials backing. leaving a franc bloc along with some other shards). Averell Harriman. and beyond. 164] Indeed. finally. the Soviet ruble area. but it was worst for those blocs which had the greatest dependency on exports and on importing oil. and Japan. September 26. The pound sterling. But the German mark.” ["The End of an Epoch. rubber. emphasis added] Current historians and economists are fixated on 1929. the break-up of the international financial and commercial system was a decisive factor in balkanizing Europe and preparing the ground for World War II. a series of currency blocs emerged somewhat along the prototype of what had emerged under the guidance of Norman and Schacht as the German mark area. The ascendancy of fascism was favored in each case by the penury of world trade. The situation was difficult for everyone. In final analysis. Each of these states embarked on an economic regime of autarky so as to conserve foreign exchange. and as the point man for the pro. 547] ." London Economist. World trade atrophied. gold exchange international monetary system of the 1920’s was perhaps the most potent underlying factor in the universal renewal of armed conflict that soon followed. banking liquidity throughout the world has been seriously impaired. that even though London’s prestige as an international centre may gradually recover from the blow which the sterling bill has received. much more so in other countries than this.BEGINNING OF ITS DISINTEGRATION. Italy. 1931. When the pound fell. 270] Another writer noted that among the “consequences [of 1931] were an increase of international suspicion and hatred. CURRENCY BLOCS AND THE IMPULSION TOWARDS A NEW WORLD WAR The scuttling of the pound-based. p.” [Brown. and strategic raw materials. p. as exemplified by Montagu Norman’s role as the premier international patron of Hitler and the Nazis. the US dollar bloc. Japanese yen and Italian lira had virtually none. that international trade must be temporarily paralysed so long as the future value of many currencies is open to grave uncertainty. These currency blocs included the British pound sterling bloc. and that. there is an obvious risk lest we may have started an international competititon in devaluation of currencies motived [sic] by the hope of stimulating exports and leading to a tragic reversion to the chaotic conditions which existed five or six years ago. and in each case the British stood ready to promote fascist leaders who would ruthlessly act out this logic. the gold bloc (which broke up. “Britain’s devaluation in 1931 had a psychological and political impact on Europe. BEGGAR-MY-NEIGHBOR The British were aware at the time of the colossal magnitude of what they had wrought. p. and Prescott Bush. The currency chaos meant that there was no reliable means of settling commercial payments among these blocs. aggressive territorial expansion towards possible sources of oil and metals became the only available surrogate for foreign trade.Hitler directives which were carried out by Sir Henry Deterding. that can hardly be overestimated. but there can be no doubt that September 1931 was the more important watershed by far. dollar.

which is the currency of world commerce. which for many of them means a substantial proportion of their legal currency reserves. in preparation for further demands for currency. and so drove them back on their dollar balances. September 26. Finally. he reckoned." Economist. including central banks. which many now considered on te verge of a dollar crisis: “The suspension also of the gold standard in Great Britain had three important results. 1931. they have had to mobilize their available assets. for foreign central banks found that the sterling exchange which they had legitimately held as part of their legal reserve had lost part of its value. The Economist commented further: “It was inevitable that the suspension of gold payments in England should have a profound effect upon the position of leading central banks. on the one hand. "America's Money Problems. Secondly. have been accustomed to keep a large portion of their reserves in the form of sterling balances in London. the value of the legal backing of a number of currencies has suddenly shrunk. it prevented foreign banks from drawing upon their sterling balances except at a heavy loss. it gave a further shock to confidence. London’s planned default had bankrupted a series of central banks who had deposited their reserves in the Bank of England. Many countries have summarily abandoned the gold exchange standard as a snare and a delusion. both at home and abroad. they have had to deal with the widespread dislocation to trade caused by the depreciation of sterling. that the shock caused by the depreciation of sterling to some 80 per cent. a 20 per cent. “This situation has already had several far-reaching results.The entire edifice of world trade and world banking had imploded: “The sterling bill enters so deeply into the whole mechanism of international trade. on the other hand. 746] BRITISH DEFAULT PRECIPITATES US BANKING PANIC OF 1932-33 By August of 1931. and their central banks have begun hurriedly to convert their devisen into gold. with some commodities falling as much as 40 to 50%. 1931. of its value has necessarily been profound…. commercial banks have not been immune from the consequences of the crisis." October 10. October 24. they have suffered.the depreciation of the pound means that the currency reserves of many countries which are kept in the form of sterling balances have been seriously impaired. and have had to meet the suspicion and distrust of their customers. Thus commercial banks have. in common with the central banks. p. and inflicting upon them losses in many cases commensurate with their own capital. and this is a major cause of the recent efflux of gold from the United States. thereby undermining their own stability.” [Economist. They have had to face the immobilisation under the ’standstill’ agreement of such part of their assets as they had ventured in Germany and central Europe. pp. 1931. Keynes estimated that commodity prices on the world market had fallen since 1929 by an average of 25%.” [London Economist. fostered by very numerous (if not individually very important) bank failures all over the world.By our action. it destroyed all faith in the safety and efficacy of the gold exchange standard. 550-551] By October. and. Common stock shares had fallen worldwide by 40% to 50%.” ["The Gold Rush. All these central banks have had to face a 20 per cent. Firstly. even though they were operating on the full gold standard. A few weeks later. and. but to exchange their dollar balances and bills for gold. and so many foreign banks. p. Investment-grade bonds were . depreciation of their holdings of sterling. The general tendency has been to leave their sterling holdings intact. witnessed an outflow of notes into the hands of distrustful customers. last but not least. Perfide Albion was positively gloating about the massive gold outflow from the United States. Some who were engaged in operating the gold exchange standard were in possession of susstantial holdings of sterling as part of their legal reserve against their notes and other sight liabilities while others – such as the Banque de France – held equally large quanities of sterling. and the pre-existing strain on the banking system of many centres is bound temporarily at least to be aggravated by the universal shock which confidence has suffered…. Again. 646] In other words. depreciation of their sterling holdings.

If nothing is done. Leipzig.” Once again the Americans would bear the brunt of the crisis: …in the United States. [Essays in Persuasion. ["The Consequences to the Banks of the Collapse of Money Values. and newly developed urban commercial real estate was depressed to 60% to 70% of its cost of construction. though partly concealed from the public eye. 1931. ["The End of the Gold Standard.. since “fortunately our own domestic British Banks are probably at present – for various reasons – among the strongest. the Federal Reserve in those days had to have sufficient gold to cover 40% . may be in fact the weakest element in the whole situation. which was still on the gold standard: “…the competitive disadvantage will be concentrated on those few countries which remain on the gold standard. On these will fall the curse of Midas. By law..down by only 5%. 27. 1931) in Essays in Perusasion. namely the potential world banking crisis that was implicit in the price collapses he had summed up. pp. the central banks. As a result of their unwillingness to exchange their exports except for gold their export trade will dry up and disappear until they no longer have either a favourable trade balance or foreign deposits to repatriate. a predictable." (Aug. the Bank fuer Handel und Gewerbe. 177] During October. it will be amongst the world’s banks that the really critical breakages will occur. and with the further progress of Deflation this proportion will grow rapidly. the British default had provoked a flurry of bank failures worldwide:the Comptoir Lyon-Alemand closed. Keynes found. the picture was more differentiated. which had to sell great masses of its own assets assets in order to meet the cash demands of its members. [. It is obvious that the present trend of events cannot go much further without something breaking. “quite a significant proportion of the banks of the world would be found to be insolvent. but lower rated bonds were down by 10% to 15%. as did the Dresden Volksbank. the Franklin Trust Company of Philadelphia and 18 smaller US banks. outcome of their own action. He concluded that in most of the non-British world. and the bonds of many governments had “suffered prodigious falls. Keynes evaluated this 2-year collapse as the worst world-wide deflation in the money values of real assets in history. 1931) in Essays in Persuasion. Their loss of export trade will be an inevitable. and often less. Keynes estimated that the commercial loan portfolios held by banks were in the worst shape of all.” London had the least to worry about. p. if bank assets were conservatively re-evaluated. The appreciation of their currencies must also gravely embarrass their banking systems. Farm values had suffered a great decline.] They have willed the destruction of their own export industries. Great Britain and France had been able to maintain relative firmness in real estate values. KEYNES: THE CURSE OF MIDAS Keynes was very explicit that the most destructive consequences of the British default were going to be visited upon the United States.] For the appreciation of French and American money in terms of the money of other countries makes it impossible for French and American exporters to sell their goods. [. The central banks were so strapped for cash that there was a run on the Bank for International Settelements. Finally. (Sept. 292-293] One possible outcome contemplated with eager anticipation by London was that the gold outflow experienced by the United States after the British default would lead to the short-term collapse of the US dollar. and only they can take the steps necessary to restore them.” When it came to real estate. with the result that “mortgage business is sound and the multitude of loans granted on the security of real estate are unimpaired. pp.. Handels Bank of Denmark needed to be bailed out by central bank. 172-175] Keynes pointed especially to something far worse yet to come. suspended payment. This means in the main France and the United States.” The worst crash of real estate prices had occurred in the United States.. the position of the banks.

“almost half a billion dollars had gone into hiding.000 during these same six weeks [Mitchell.” [Economist. that 40% of Federal Reserve notes might have seemed to set the minimum gold stock necessary for the survival of the dollar in its then-current form.the total loss is indicated by the contraction of $449 millions in the Federal Reserve Banks’ gold reserve between September 17th and October 8th. October 10.000 worth of gold. the impact of the British gold default of Sept. while during the same period ‘eligible paper’ had fallen from $1. the remaining 60 per cent. p. 647] THE BRITISH CAST THE CURSE OF MIDAS ON AMERICA In the event. Add to this the actual and potential increase in the note circulation. or old sock. while the ratio of the gold cover to its notes need be only 40 per cent. The London Economist was aware of this grave vulnerability of the American currency: “The real crux of the Reserve system’s position is that. Now the depressed state of trade has reduced the Reserve Banks’ holdings of assets of this last kind and has forced then en defaut de mieux to add enormously to their holdings of Government securities. and other European countries in New York is very great. against only $150 million two years before. allowing for these somewhat ominous signs.” [Economist. 1931. it is realised that depressed trade. p. The steady stream of bank failures corroborates this. and this hoarding is evidence of public distrust in the stability of American banks. and this last excludes Government securities bought in the open market. 1931. when the lightning strikes first one peak and then a neighbour…. By November. Still. 30] As soon as the British had carried out their own default.000. precisely because of the ongoing economic depression. 550] Within just a few weeks. p. for in the middle of September a drain of gold began on a scale comparable only with the gold losses incurred by Germany and Great Britain in earlier months…. with individuals putting their cash in a safety deposit box. p. The increase in the note circulation shows that hoarding is definitely taking place. the attention of the City of London turned to the potential for an outflow of American gold: “…Wall Street generally has stood up well to the shock. 30] Bank withdrawals were $400. But in reality the gold requirements of the US were far greater. The actual figure for the last-named was $728 millions last August.” – meaning hoarding.” [Economist.of the value of all outstanding Federal Reserve dollar notes. 128]. “The rush from abroad to convert dollar balances into gold frightened American depositors. Within six weeks. At first glance. 21. and it is significant that already gold in large sums has begun to be withdrawn on foreign account from the Federal Reserve system. [Kennedy. October 10. Holland. 646] And: “It is true that in certain respects the American banking position has been arousing misgivings. however. mattress.” [Kennedy. 1931. September 26. Again. 1931 on the United States banking system was nothing short of catastrophic. has undermined the value of banking collateral and impaired the liquidity of the banks. For one thing. p. to jump to the conclusion that the full eventual repercussions have yet begun to be experienced in the United States. and the collapse of security and real estate values during the past two years. the United States was drained of about $700. of the notes must be covered either by gold or by eligible paper.Now it is apparently the turn of the United States. It would be premature. p.000. the US gold hemorrhage had become so serious as to threaten the gravest consequences: “The present crisis resembles the onslaught of a thunderstorm in a mountain range. and in practice consists of rediscounted Treasury bills and also of acceptances and other credit instruments based upon trade. . and they began to withdraw currency from their banks. the volume of short-term credits held by France.141 to $316 millions.. and it is clear that this is the major factor in any calculation of the minimum gold requirements of the United States.

Ohio. p. 1931 Hoover met with 32 Congressional leaders of both parties at the White House.” “A rough calculation. October 10. was ideologically incapable of understanding. the disintegration of the London gold standard represented a qualitative turning point in the development of the US banking panic. however. the year of the British default.700 millions of gold. was the worst year in American banking history.” [Economist. 1931. In terms of individual bank failures. As we have seen. The decisive role of the pound sterling crisis in detonating the domestic US banking panic is stressed by another chronicler of the Great Depression: “…in all of 1931. part with $1. a peak number of 2. The procession of countries which followed Britain off the gold standard has left the United States and France as the only major countries still holding to it .860 institutions with deposits of $1. there had been 491 US bank failures.45 billion out of $ 1. and then New England. This timing shows that in Hoover’s view as well.692 billion) was inflicted during and after the London default. and the vast majority of the damage to the depositors ($1. deluded by his personal meeting with Ramsay MacDonald. though the National City Bank very pertinently calls this a theoretical maximum. New York. By 1930.45 billion closed between August 1931 and January 1. bank failures had risen to 1. 1. 646] In 1928. At the same time. whether directly or indirectly. p.” [Kennedy. 30] Thus. 1931 that Hoover broke his long immobilism on the banking question and launched the ill-starred National Credit is probably true to say that the need of foreign banks to strenghten these home resources was a more cogent cause of the withdrawals. and other parts of the Midwest. On the evening of October 6. 646] The Economist was also busy calculating the point at which financial necrosis would set in: “…the United States could. 1932. p. shows that European central banks together still hold foreign exchange equal to some $1. about three quarters of these failures came during or after the British crisis. While some of the demands for gold were coming from France.” [Mitchell. p. It was in October.000 banks still open dropped appreciably through hoarding and deterioration of their securities. Hoover summarized the world economic situation in the wake of the British default: “The British… are suffering deeply from the shocks of the financial collapse on the Continent. 1931. holdings by the 19. the figure had risen to 642. American “bank runs and failures increased spectacularly: 522 commercial banks with $471 million in deposits suspended during October 1931. at last gasp. it is evident that a very large proportion were coming from London. 128] The shock waves from the London default were felt first and most severely among the American banks of Chicago. followed by Pennsylvania. as the collapse of the domestic real estate bubble began to take its toll. Their abandonment of the gold standard and of payment of their external obligations has struck a blow at the foundations of the world economy.298 banks with deposits of $ 1. October 10. his unsuccessful public-private partnership to bail out the banks. 1931. This was an attack which the Anglophile Hoover. the London default had been a major milestone on the road to US banking panic.” [Economist. In the wake of the British default. In 1929.692 billion succumbed to insolvency. The US banking system was now being subjected to the kind of speculative attack foreshadowed by the analysis of Lord Keynes.345.400 millions.

Hoover dodged the main issues by getting the Congress to allow the Fed to use more US Treasury securities in place of part of the gold. p. The instability of currencies. In principle. The restriction on credit has grown greatly in the past few weeks. production. Longterm loans which we made to Europe and the mass of kited bills bought from them are affecting us sadly with each new default. fearing the worst. There are complaints of manufacturers who use agricultural and other raw materials that they cannot secure credits beyond day to day needs with which to to lay in their customary seasonal supplies. We are now faced with the problem. called in industrial and commercial loans. the now almost world-wide restrictions on exchange. the immediate post-British-default gold shortage was averted. the rationing of imports to protect these currencies and the default of bad debts. To this had to be added the dwindling gold stocks of banks. With this. gold is being withdrawn from our monetary stocks and bank reserves. the end of the gold standard at this time would have been a blessing in disguise. To do this they sell securities and restrict credit. These devitalizing drains and the threat of them hang like a Damoclean sword over our credit structure. which generally stood ready to convert paper money into gold when depositors asked for it. in a letter to George Harrison at the New York Federal Reserve. Extensive deposits in our banks owned by foreigners are demand liabilities on our gold reserves and are becoming increasingly dangerous. In consequence. would have engendered chaos. bankers in many other parts of the country in fear of such unreasoning demands of depositors have deemed it necessary to place their assets in such liquid form as to enable them to meet drains and runs. HOOVER IN THE DEPRESSION . The whole cumulative effect is today to decrease prices of commodities and securities and to spread the relations of the debtor and the creditor.” Hoover was forced to concede that the once-prosperous US had been dragged down to the same wretched level as the chronically depressed British: “We are finding ourselves in much the same position as the British. p. but of saving ourselves. have cut deeper and deeper into world trade. but in lesser degree.” [Hoover. Hoover had described the problems created by the British crisis for the individual American banker: “There have been in some localities foolish alarms over the stability of our credit structure and considerable withdrawals of currency. Secretary of the Treasury Ogden Mills informed Hoover that the United States was about two weeks away from defaulting on gold payment because of the continued flow of gold out of this country. 87] On February 7. The sale of securities demoralizes their price and jeopardizes other banks. There are a multitude of complaints of business men that they cannot secure the usual credit to carry their operations on a normal basis and must discharge labor. After the British abandoned the gold standard. There are a multitude of complaints that farmers cannot secure loans for their livestock feeding or to carry their commodities until the markets improve. especially if carried out in isolation from a general policy reversal in the form of a recovery program. 1932.” [Hoover. and beyond all this the dwindling European consumption of goods has decreased purchases of our farm products and other commodities and demoralized our prices. we too are increasingly unable to collect moneys due us from abroad. This gold disappeared domestically as it was added to private hoards. it is possible that such a move. The effect of this is to thrust back on the back of the farmer the load of carrying the nation’s stocks. and employment. Out of an unreasoning fear. not of saving Germany or Britain. Banks. even the dollar came under suspicion. Like the British. 90] A day earlier. But given the laissez-faire obsessions of the Hoover administration.without modification.

Senator Carter Glass wanted to prevent Fed credit and loans from being used for speculation. p. but these proved equally vain. The RFC quickly provided a loan which temporarily saved the Central Republic National Bank. Only 5 big banks in the Loop remained. But the Fed refused to declare the state of emergency. a private Delaware firm launched in October. 1931. the Democratic National Convention was about to convene in Chicago. with 25 suburban banks and 15 downtown institutions closing their doors in the face of panic withdrawals.5 billion of stock and cash in Jaunary. the NCC lent out only one third of its available funds. 1933. In July. The Nevada . One plan was based on the depositors’ takeover of ownership of some banks. a creature of the federal government set up by Congress with $3. Many schemes were tried to revive the Nevada banks. and re-opened only within the framework of Frankiln D. the Nevada banks remained closed for about four months. but these never came to fruition. The Fed finally agreed to make direct loans.” [Kennedy. Wingfield tried several times to get loans from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. To complicate matters. this rescue prevented panic runs which would have submerged the other four surviving Loop banks. whose assets usually brought about 25 cents on the dollar when put up for auction. in return for which they could obtain loans on their sound assets which were not eligible for rediscount at the Federal Reserve branches. Hoover tried the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Next. the first shutdown of the banking system of an entire state occurred. Wingfield was done in by an endless series of bankruptcies and forecosures among cattle and sheep ranchers. There were attempts to mobilize the “private sector” through loans from California investors and Nevada industrialists. The Federal Reserve Board feared that issuing such loans would open the door to panic runs on the Federal Reserve banks. 1931. but the New York Fed rejected the idea that the Fed could regulate the uses of the credit it issued. no state was able permanently to re. but the new lar carried the proviso that this could be done only in an emergency. as practised by most European central banks. But the bankers in charge of thius venture were so reluctant to make loans that the National Credit Corporation proved to be an exercise in futility. the lieutenant governor of Nevada declared a 12-day bank holiday during which all state banks could remain closed. verging on outright sabotage was offered by one student of the banking crisis: “The Federal Reserve stipulated that borrowers must prove they could not receive credit elsewhere but also decided that borrowers did not deserve loans which they would not get elsewhere. Hoover asked the Fed to declare a state of emergency so as to enable the direct loans.Hoover at first attempted to organize the bankers to take care of their own. From 1929 to 1932 the Fed did virtually nothing to stem the its banks after they had been closed. Despite new waves of bank failures in December 1931 and January 1932. The Federal Reserve Board took the attitude that it had no responsibility at all for banks that were not members of the Fed system. as soon as the direct loan facility had been legalized. On October 31. Roosevelt’s bank holiday of March. This attempt was called the National Credit Corporation. which controlled almost all of the banks in the state. Upon joining. This was detonated by the insolvency of the Wingfield group. In June 1932. member banks suscribed 2% of their assets. It was hoped that during this lapse of time some solution could be found to permit business to resume. 1932. In 1932 Hoover wanted the Federal Reserve banks to start providing the economy with credit in the form of direct lending to businesses. In reality. the banking crisis again struck Chicago in the wake of the bankruptcy of the Insull group. 49] BANKING PANIC: NEVADA In the last days of the 1932 presidential campaign. Nevada as a state was unable to re-open its banks. The closure of all Chicago banks would have undermined Hoover’s claim that propsperity was just around the corner. A good summary of the Fed’s immobilism and impotence. And as it turned out.

1933. Ford agreed to provide $8. The 1920’s had seen the powerful emergence of automobile production as the leading sector of the US economy. and the Motor City was widely viewed as the most successful. and California. and the RFC now refused to make their loan because Wall Street banks had refused to renew their oustanding loans to a component of the Detroit Bankers group. Allen signed the appropriate order. Internal documents of the Hoover administration made public later show that lame duck Hoover had been concerned about fighting off imminent panic in such larger cities as Cleveland. 1932. Chrysler of Chrysler Motors. Governor William A. with some help from his son Edsel. the RFC board pronounced itself willing to offer loan assistance – but only if Henry Ford lent Guardian some millions of his own money. Long’s orders. and agreed to keep the Ford Motor Company’s deposits at Guardian at their current level. Michigan. increasing numbers of rural banks came under the intense pressure of panic runs by depositors. Pennsylvania. St. but did determine that the United States had broken diplomatic relations with Germany on February 3. one newspaper which did reveal the link to the banking crisis was seized by the state militia under Sen. Banners appeared on the streets of Detroit attempting to build confidence in the proposed merger with the slogan “Bank with Hank. was putrid. The epicenter of the Detroit crisis was the Guardian banking group. The shock was all the greater when. and made loans to banks in Wisconsin. US Senator from Louisiana Huey Long tried to raise cash from other bankers to prevent banks from closing on because of depositor panic during the morning of Saturday. long hurriedly consulted with Governor Allen of Louisiana. and during the first six weeks of 1933. but Henry Ford started feuding with the RFC and with his estranged business partner. Alfred P. and got the New Orleans city librarian to search the history books for some momentous event that had occurred on February 4. and Tennessee. February 4. numerous banks with large aggregate deposits closed their doors in New Jersey. Illinois. 1933. LOUISIANA The beginning of the end came in Louisiana in early February. Tennessee. In late 1932. Comstock signed an order imposing an 8-day bank holiday for all of Michigan. and forward-looking metropolis of American capitalism. despite some support from the RFC. Sen. the Hibernia Bank was able to announce $24 million in loans on Sunday morning. Missouri. the District of Columbia.” But this Ford loan was contingent on an RFC loan. Louis. Minnesota. Little Rock. So this entire scheme fell apart around February 28. Mobile. Jr. at 1:32 AM of February 14. 1933. Starting on March 1. and Memphis. Long proclaimed that such a momentous event deserved two days of commemoration. millionaire US Senator James Couzens. Walter P. of General Motors. heading off the panic that might have broken out on Monday. The key banking institution in trouble was the Hibernia Bank and Trust Company. its modest dimension only made it loom larger as a public proof of the impotence of all levels of government to act. The librarian could find nothing on February 4. and not just one. its larger rival.25 million in new capital for a merged Guardian-Detroit Bankers. Gov. Iowa. and Hudson Department Stores were ready to lend money to Guardian. Senator Couzens tried to get Michigan bankers to propose a plan under which the . Many people had no idea why the new holiday had been created. The RFC was able to stem the tide for a while. making February 4 a legal holiday across the state. 1917. the Detroit Bankers Company. Long decided that a bank holiday was in order. dynamic. When the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was brought in to save Guardian.banking crisis was a small episode in terms of the dollar values involved. Sloan. After days of haggling. which at the time was the third largest US bank outside of New York City. Here a large insurance company had succumbed in January. But if Guardian was rotten. During December. which was personally dominated by celebrated automobile tycoon Henry Ford. Chattanooga. Thanks to this surcease. his political ally. MICHIGAN: VALENTINE’S DAY BANK HOLIDAY The final disintegration of the American banking system began with the explosion of a banking panic in Detroit.

strapped for cash. the ancestor of today’s Citibank. The chaos in the hinterland increased the pressure on Chicago. In New Jersey. and Minnesota allowed the commissioner of banking of suspend banking for 15 days when he deemed it necessary. Frederick Walcott as ranking Republican. followed by Arkansas on February 27. some cities began allowing the local banks to issue scrip – paper certificates to be used in lieu of money during the crisis. Mitchell. Illinois. Indiana. most of which were quickly submerged by panic runs once their identities were known to the public. who became the counsel for the committee. more bluntly. Maryland followed suit on February 25. although he was later acquitted in his criminal trial – but convicted in a 1938 civil suit and forced to pay about $1. undermining the liquidity of the largest commercial banks and even of the flagship New York Federal Reserve Bank. Local bankers.4 million in back taxes and interest. Confidence in the banking system and its managers had received another crushing blow. This committee came to be known as the Pecora committee because of the prominent role played by Ferdinand Pecora. This advice was long overdue. In Baltimore and the rest of Maryland. the bank holiday was being extended day by day. The Wall Street banks and especially their stock dealings were during this period subjected to an investigation by the Senate Banking and Currency Committee. Maryland. and Ohio on February 28. The testimony also suggested that the greedy Mitchell was guilty of federal tax evasion. and the District of Columbia. Indiana declared a bank holiday on February 23. or. March 2 brought a new harvest of bank holidays across the west. Therefore the Michigan banks stayed closed through the end of Herbert Hoover’s term in office. Idaho empowered its governor to declare bank holidays. This probe was a political move requested by President Hoover to show that the Wall Street crowd. chaired by Senator Peter Norbeck. was responsible for the 1929 crash and was now obstructing necessary reforms. pulled half a billion dollars of their deposits out of New York. California. while Kentucky and West Virginia left it up to individual banks to decide whether they would open or not. with Arizona. A number of states allowed banks to limit the amount of money that could be withdrawn from accounts. Even individual cities declared bank holidays to stave off further panic: this was the case in Huntington. chairman of the board of National City Bank. funny money. On March 1. In other states. As one observer put it. Hoover also thought that. and Mt. In the District of Columbia and in several states savings banks began enforcing the rule that 60 days’ advanced notice had to be given by depositors if they wanted to withdraw money. Now the hammer-blows of panic fell thick and fast on the reeling US banks. Bankers began flailing in desperation. Very damaging to bankers in general was the testimony of Charles E. Mitchell’s testimony documented a series of unscrupulous stockjobbing practices carried out at the expense of a gullible public. but the Federal Reserve Board did not want to share responsibility for a bank holiday or for other measures that might still be . Oregon. Alabama and Louisiana imposed obligatory bank holidays. Oklahoma. and even more on the preeminent money center of New York City. with Sen. New York. these hearings marked the eclipse of the financier as a folk hero in American life. bear raids might be launched on the stock exchange by proDemocratic financiers to get Hoover out of office. they reduced the interest rates paid on savings account deposits. a former New York City assistant district attorney in Manhattan. unless Congress launched an investigation. It was also on March 2 that the Federal Reserve Board in Washington finally advised Hoover to declare a federal bank holiday. But the bankers were unable to agree on any plan before the state legislature in Lansing had adjourned. Mississippi. The RFC was forced by a meddling and impotent Congress to publish the names of the banks that had received RFC loans.state’s banks might re-open. and Nevada ordering their banks to close. Carmel. and not the President.

hoping to escape responsibility. Lehman refused to act until the big banks had signed a petition asking for the bank holiday. Present were the New Yor State superintendent of banks. Harrison had been in touch with Hoover during the day to request a nationwide holiday. The Fed Board now suggested a bank holiday covering March 3-6. met with representatives of the banking establishment at his Manhattan apartment. but the financial heart of the United States. they wanted Hoover to take the fall for them. Lehman at 2:30 AM signed an order suspending banking in New York State through Monday. Their assumption was that emergency enabling legislation ratfying the closure would be in place before March 7. March 6. At 11:30 PM Hoover called Roosevelt and repeated his demand that the President-elect act together with him and endorse the actions they might agree to take. With this request in hand. there was no private sector. It was now clear that the last currency and gold reserves of these two money centers would inevitably be cleaned out during the Saturday morning banking hours of March 4. executives from the Morgan group and from the other big clearinghouse banks. Horner for a bank holiday. 1933 – Hoover’s last full day in office – state governors in Georgia. private corporation like the National Credit Corporation. The Federal Reserve System was first of all one of the principal guilty parties in the CoolidgeHoover speculative bubble. Virginia. free-market solution to the disintegration of 1931-33. Lehman. and they had to strong-arm the Chicago Fed to make a loan to the hard-pressed New York branch. 1933. Utah. They were hoping that Illinois Governor Horner would act alone to impose a bank holiday. but Hoover had replied by shifting the responsibility to Gov. If Hoover’s policies had been continued under his successor. Chrysler. In short.504 banks with deposits of $3. It is instructive today to recall which institutions and economic groups had tried and failed to deal with the banking panic of 1932. But when news of Lehman’s action arrived. At 1 AM a courier arrived at the White House from the Federal Reserve Board with the draft of an executive order for a nation-wide banking holiday. boss of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. and George Harrison. the credit system. but these bankers stalled. Gov. had stopped beating. They were impotent both as ad hoc groups of private bankers. Hoover went to bed at midnight. March 4. They were unable to provide credit for the recovery of agricultural and industrial production. which had kept serving customers until the close of the business day on Friday. the very fabric of civilization would have torn to pieces in this country within a matter of weeks. Governor Herbert Lehman of New York. Horner signed the bank closure order at 3:22 AM local time. Inauguration Day. and Wyoming limited withdrawals. March 3. himself a Wall Street investment banker. Lehman wanted a formal request for bank closure from the clearinghouse banks. New Mexico. Herbert Hoover still had more than seven hours left in his term in office. the Chicago bankers joined in asking Gov. and in the Crash of 1929.33: The private sector failed in a spectacular way to stop the banks from closing and to re-open them after they were shut down by individual bankruptcy or by the state bank holidays. The Chicago bankers had undergone large withdrawals on March 3. By the end of the day 5. and a formal letter urging Hoover to take this step at once. Attention was now concentrated on the battered banks of New York and Chicago. Under the leadership of Benjamin . and also when they acted undet the aegis of a government-initiated. The Michigan crisis proved to be the epiphany of the private sector’s failure: here men with names like Ford. During the early hours of Saturday. and Sloan were unable to save the banks they themselves controlled and relied on. But Hoover slept.considered drastic. Now their own system was breaking apart. On March 3. Roosevelt repeated his refusal of such an approach.4 billion had shut down. and Wisconsin declared bank holidays. Bankers were unable to form consortia to help their brethren banks. North Carolina.

Hoover refused to take any action that had not been approved in advance by Roosevelt. the Federal Reserve System displayed an intertia that was the practical equivalent of sabotage. But what this present study has revealed is already enough to . In September 1931 President Hoover had turned to Mellon and asked him to contribute $1 million to an effort to bail out the Bank of Pittsburgh. Roosevelt neither refused nor agreed. The Fed refused to recommend that Hoover declare a nationwide bank holiday until March 2 -very late in the day. and his refusal to use the implied emergency powers of the office. The law forcing RFC loan recipients into the public eye for panic runs was arson. and produced no measures capable of keeping the banks open nor of re.opening the ones that were shut. who wanted to liquidate stocks. Federal agencies were unable to do save the banks and fight the depression by themselves. President Herbert Hoover was the most obvious failure of all. Senator Borah said that he had never seen a Congress spend so much time on trivialities during a crisis. trying to shunt them off on the flailing Hoover – as in the Fed’s 1932 refusal to declare a state of emergency to permit Fed loans to nonbank institutions. The overall tone was set by Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon. refusing to act unless Henry Ford made pledges of loans and deposits. Congress acting by itself also failed. The Hoover cabinet was unable to stop the crisis. was abysmal. A detailed analysis of Roosevelt’s actions lies beyond the scope of this paper. but only covered its own posteriors somewhat with a mild obiter dictum in the spring of 1929 — of which some observers were reminded when Alan Greenspan issued his “irrational exuberance” comment of December. The Fed did nothing to restrain speculation. This included the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. and was unable to do anything to help the larger banks that were members. Mellon had rejected President Hoover’s request. he mustered the feeble activism of the RFC. Mellon’s successor Ogden Mills and especially Undersecretary Arthur Ballantine provided plans for Roosevelt which stopped the disinegration but failed to roll back the depression. After his election defeat. but did nothing until he had taken office. State governors were able to prevent bank insolvencies by shutting down all banks with a bank holiday. This was due to Hoover’s narrow construction of the powers and responsibilities of the presidency. the only institution able to combat the banking panic and the disintegration effectively proved to be the activist presidency of Roosevelt. Under Eugene Meyer. The Fed attempted at every turn to duck its responsibilities. Private central banking as exemplified by the Fed was an accomplice in both collapse and disintegration. which had been specifically designed to do so. Mellon was no better in his capacity as a leading banker.” [Leuchtenburg. In sum. The RFC’s failure in Michigan. 1996.Strong (himself subjected to the hypnotic powers of Lord Montagu Norman). and everything in sight. The states were tragic in their impotence to save the banks. A lame duck Congress was in session for many weeks in January and February. According to Senator Hiram Johnson: “We’re milling around here utterly unable to accomplish anything of real consequence. The RFC’s piecemeal efforts temporarily staved off the demise of a bank here and there. But no state was ever able permanently to re-open its banks. but in the end it proved unable to hold off panic. This abysmal record contrasts most vividly with the extravagant claims of pro-Fed lobbyists cited above: that the Fed would make panics and bank failures impossible. that depressions no longer need be feared. The Fed virtually disowned all banks that were not members of its own system. Fascist ideologues seized on the failure of the Congress to argue for dictatorship. 1933. when he acted quickly with a nationwide bank holiday and other measures. 27-28] This inaction generated a widespread public disgust with the legislative branch that was almost as great as the popular hatred of Hoover. which went on until 1940. the Federal Reserve System provided the cheap credit which stoked the fiery furnaces of speculation. Hoover first tried voluntary corporatism among bankers. bonds. the father of Katherine Meyer Graham of today’s Washington Post. When this failed. and so forth.


leading and powerful financial centre. SOME RESTRICTED ON BANKS’ OWN OPTION TENNESSEE – SOME CLOSED. made a quarter century ago: “[Norman's] career must surely rank as one of the most complete failures in public life in this century. Norman was highly successful. 155-156] LORD NORMAN If Herbert Hoover was hated in the United States.” [Sidney Pollard.NEW HAMPSHIRE – CLOSED INDEFINITELY NEW JERSEY – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 7 NEW MEXICO – MOST CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 8 NEW YORK – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 7 NORTH CAROLINA – SOME ON 5% WITHDRAWALS NORTH DAKOTA – CLOSED ‘TEMPORARILY’ OHIO – MOST ON 5% WITHDRAWALS INDEFINITELY OKLAHOMA – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 8 OREGON – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 7 PENNSYLVANIA – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 7 (EXCEPT FOR PITTSBURGH MELLON BANKS) RHODE ISLAND – CLOSED MARCH 4 SOUTH CAROLINA – SOME CLOSED. and to maintain the independence of the Bank. His often-stated aim was to make London a successful. and the rest of the world. Something of the feelings of the normal working bloke of the Clyde or the Midlands comes through in this summation by a British academic. If we compare Norman’s achievements to his real goals in economic and financial warfare against the United States. 19] But this partakes too much of the superficiality of the man in the street. France. to keep the pound sterling strong and stable. The British Establishment and . the Mephistophelean Lord Montagu Norman was hated all over Europe and all over the world with even better reason. pp. if possible in a leading role in an association with other similarly constituted central banks. SOME RESTRICTED TO $10 PER DAY UNTIL MARCH 8 UTAH – MOST CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 8 VERMONT – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 7 VIRGINIA – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 8 WASHINGTON – SOME CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 7 WEST VIRGINIA – 5% MONTHLY WITHDRAWALS INDEFINITELY WISCONSIN – CLOSED UNTIL MARCH 17 WYOMING – 5% WITHDRAWLS INDEFINITELY [see Kennedy. SOME RESTRICTED UNTIL MARCH 9 TEXAS – MOST CLOSED. p.

But there was no doubt at all of the oligarchy’s glowing approval of Norman. Benjamin Strong. 1954) William Guttman. The International Gold Standard Reinterpreted. BIBLIOGRAPHY Frederic Benham. by those who counted most in Perfide Albion.. 1932) John Kenneth Galbraith. So Norman’s genocidal plotting was never disowned. After Lord Norman’s death. Norman’s stepson is Peregrine Worthshorne.O. Jr. As it turned out. 1992). Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Depression. The Tragedy of the Pound (London: Kegan Paul. Lester V. Barry Eichengreen. Chandler. After 1939. 1983).the finance oligarchy of the City of London left no doubt that they were well pleased with Norman. 1919-1939 (New York: Oxford University Press. Paul Einzig. only glorified. 1940) Alec Cairncross and Barry Eichengreen. Sterling in Decline (Oxford: Blackwell. British Monetary Policy (London: King. Montagu Norman (New York: The Greystone Press) Herbert Hoover. Houghton. according to various accounts. Clere in 1944. Mifflin. 1967). the stridently fascist and anti-American columnist of Conrad Black’s Hollinger Corporation paper. The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover (1952) . In practice. his marble bust was unveiled in one of the courtyards of the fortress on Threadneedle Street. It was in fact in 1931 that Norman was rewarded with his reappointment as Governor of the Bank of England without time limit. His highest honor came when he was inducted into the House of Lords as the first Baron of St. 1942-1931 (New York: Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The Great Crash (Boston. Central Banker (Washington DC: Brookings Institution. The Great Inflation (London: Gordon and Cremonesi. 1937) William Adams Brown. 1958) Stephen V. Norman was Governor of the Bank of England from 1920 until 1944. Clarke. Montagu Norman (London: Cassell. 1975) John Hargrave. The Economics of Inflation (London. Montagu Norman lived to see the dawn of the Bretton Woods era. the British oligarchy considered Norman’s services even more indispensable in wartime because of his matchless expertise in economic and financial warfare. the London Sunday Telegraph. 1967) Costantino Bresciani-Turroni. 1931. 1914-1934 (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. His was the longest term for a Bank of England boss during the twentieth century. Norman might have stayed on as Governor for life. The hereditary peerage for Norman was an accolade bestowed for his service in orchestrating the Crash of 1929 and the 1931 Disintegration of the world financial system. Central Bank Cooperation. 1932) Andrew Boyle. Notice that more than half of Norman’s tenure at the Bank of England came AFTER the British default of September. Norman retired from the Bank of England only in 1944 and only on medical advice after he had injured himself in a fall.

The Great Depression (London. William E. Rolf E.Giuseppi. R. 1987). 1970).S. 1925″ in Sidney Pollard (ed). 1967). De L’Aube au Crepuscule (Paris: Plon. 1980) Steven Solomon. “The Return to Gold. Franklin D. 1979) Stefan Zweig. The Penniless Billionaires (New York: Truman Talley. 1973) John Maynard Keynes. The Confidence Game: How Unelected Central Bankers Are Governing the Changed World Economy (New York: Simon and Shuster. Lueke. Lionel Robbins. Broadus Mitchell. Depression Decade (White Plains. UK: Croom Helm. Die Welt von Gestern (Frankfurt: Fischer. Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan-Witts. Brown. Alexander Dana Noyes. 1995). Leuchtenburg. Essays in Persuasion (New York: Norton. Harper. Kunz. Sayers. Roosevelt and the New Deal (New York. New York: 1947). 1938) Melchior Palyi. The Banking Crisis of 1933 (Lexington. 1963) Diane B. The Battle for Britain’s Gold Standard in 1931 (Bechenham. The Day the Bubble Burst (Garden City: Doubleday. The Twilight of Gold. 1958). 1934) Jacques Rueff. Von der Stabilisierung zur Krise (Zuerich: Polygraphischer Verlag. 1965). Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. 1972) Sidney Pollard (ed). The Gold Standard and Employment Between the Wars (London: Methuen. Bank of England Susan Estabrook Kennedy. 1970). The Gold Standard and Employment Between the Wars (London: Methuen. 1993) « Against Oligarchy – Table of Contents END . 1914-1936: Myths and Realities (Chicago: Regnery. Max Shapiro. The Market Place: Reminiscences of a Financial Editor (Boston: Little.

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