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#The Complement of an Event


1 A student is chosen at random from a class of 16 girls and 14 boys. What is the probability that the
student chosen is not a girl?

2 A glass jar contains 5 red, 3 blue and 2 green jelly beans. f a jelly bean is chosen at random from the
jar, what is the probability that it is not blue?

3 A number between 1 and 5 is chosen at random. What is the probability that the number chosen is not
odd?

4 f a number is chosen at random from the following list, what is the probability that it is not prime?
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19

5 f a single 6-sided die is rolled, what is the probability of rolling a number that is not 8?


#Addition Rules for Probability
1 A day of the week is chosen at random. What is the probability of choosing a Monday or Tuesday?
2 n a pet store, there are 6 puppies, 9 kittens, 4 gerbils, and 7 parakeets. f a pet is chosen at random,
what is the probability of getting a puppy or a parakeet?

3 The probability of a New York teenager owning a skateboard is 0.37,of owning a bicycle is 0.81, and of
owning both is 0.36. f a New York teenager is chosen at random, what is the probability that he/she owns
a skateboard or a bicycle?

4 A number between 1 and 10 is chosen at random. What is the probability of getting a 5 or an even
number?

5 A single 6-sided die is rolled. What is the probability of getting a number greater than 3 or an even
number?


#Probability of ndependent Events
1 Spin a spinner numbered 1 to 7, and toss a coin. What is the probability of getting an odd number on
the spinner and tail on the coin?
2 A jar contains 6 red balls, 3 green balls, 5 white balls, and 7 yellow balls. Two balls are chosen from the
jar, with replacement. What is the probability that both balls are green?
3 n Exercise 2, what is the probability of getting a red and a yellow ball?
4 Four cards are chosen from a standard deck of 52 playing cards with replacement. What is the
probability of getting 4 hearts?
5 A nationwide survey showed that 65% of all children in the United States dislike eating vegetables. f 4
children are chosen at random, what is the probability that all 4 dislike eating vegetables?



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#Probability of Dependent Events
1 Two cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards without replacement. What is the probability
of getting two kings?
2 Two cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards without replacement. What is the probability
that the first cardis a jack and the second card is a ten?
3 On a math test, 5 out of 20 students got an A. f three students are chosen at random without
replacement, what is the probability that all three got an A on the test?
4 Three cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards without replacement. What is the
probability of getting an ace, a king and a queen in order?
5 A school survey found that 7 out of 30 students walk to school. f four students are selected at random
without replacement, what is the probability that all four walk to school?


#Conditional Probability
1 n New York State, 48% of all teenagers own a skate board, and 39% of all teenagers have roller
blades and a skate board. What is the probability that a teenager who has roller blades also has a skate
board?
2 At a middle school, 18% of all students play football and basketball, and 32% of all students play
football. What is the probability that a student who plays football also plays basketball?
3 n the United States, 56% of all children get an allowance, and 41% of all children get an allowance and
do household chores. What is the probability that a child does household chores given that he/she gets
an allowance?
4 n Europe, 88% of all households have a television. 51% of all households have a television and a VCR.
What is the probability that a houshold with a television also has a VCR?
5 n New England, 84% of the houses have a garage. 65% of the houses have a back yard and a garage.
What is the probability that a house has a backyard given that its has a garage?


#Challenge Exercises
1 Which of the following is the sample space when 2 coins are tossed?
2 At Kennedy Middle School, 3 out of 5 students make honor roll.What is the probability that a student
does not make honor roll?
3 A large basket of fruit contains 3 oranges, 2 apples, and 5 bananas. f a piece of fruit is chosen at
random, what is the probability of getting an orange or a banana?
4 A pair of dice is rolled. What is the probability of getting a sum of 2?

5 n a class of 30 students, there are 17 girls and 13 boys. A total of 5 students made an A grade on their
report card, three of which were girls. f a student is chosen at random, what is the probability of getting a
girl or an A student?

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6 n the United States, 43% of people wear a seat belt while driving. f two people are chosen at random,
what is the probability that both of them wear a seat belt?
7 Three cards are chosen at random from a deck. What is the probability of getting an ace, a king and a
queen in order?
8 A city survey found that 47% of teenagers have a part time job. Of those teenagers, 78% also plan to
attend college. f a teenager is chosen at random what is the probability that he/she has a part time job
and plans to attend college?
9 n a school, 14% of students take drama and computers, and 67% take computer class. What is the
probability that a student taking computers also takes drama?

10 n a shipment of 100 televisions, 6 are defective. f a person buys two televisions, what is the
probability that both are defective?

The Complement of an Event
1) 1 - 16/30 = 14/30 = 7/15, 2) 1 - 3/10 = 7/10, 3) 1 - 3/5 = 2/5, 4) 1 - 8/8 = 0, 5) P(8) = 0; P(not 8) = 1 - 0 =
1(This is a certain event),
Addition Rules for Probability
1) 1/7 + 1/7 = 2/7, 2) 6/26 + 7/26 = 13/26 = , 3) (0.37 + 0.81) - 0.36 = 0.82, 4 ) P(5) = 1/10; P(even) =
5/10;P(5 or even) = 1/10 + 5/10 = 6/10 = 3/5, 5) P(greater than 3) = 3/6; P(even) = 3/6; P(both) = 2/6; (3/6 +
3/6) - 2/6 = 4/6 = 2/3
Probability of ndependent Events
1) 4/7 1/2 = 4/14 = 2/7, 2) 3/21 3/21 = 9/441 = 1/49, 3) 6/21 7/21 = 42/441 = 2/21, 4) 13/52 13/52 13/52
13/52 =1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 = 1/256, 5) 65% = .65; (.65)(.65)(.65)(.65) = .179 = 18%
Probability of Dependent Events
1) 4/52 3/51 = 12/2652 = 1/221, 2) 4/52 4/51 = 16/2652 = 4/663, 3) 5/20 4/19 3/18 =60/6840=1/114,
4) 4/52 4/51 4/50=64/132600 =8/16575 , 5) 7/30 6/29 5/28 4/27 =840/657720 = 1/783

Conditional Probability
1) .39 .48 = .8125=81%, 2) .18 .32 = .5625=56%, 3) .41 .56 = .7321=73%, 4) .51 .88 = .5795=58%
, 5) .65 .84 = .7738=77%
Challenge Exercises
1) HH, HT, TH, TT}, 2) 3/5 = .60; 1 - .60 = .40= 40% , 3) P(orange or banana) =3/10 + 5/10 = 8/10 = 4/5 ,
4) P(1 and 1) = 1/6 1/6 = 1/36 , 5) P(girl) + P(A) - P(girls and A) =17/30 + 5/30 - 3/30 = 19/30, 6)
(.43)(.43) = .1849=18% , 7) P(ace, king, queen) =4/52 4/51 4/50 =64/132,600 = 8/16,575 , 8) (.47)(.78)
= .3666=37% , 9) .14 .67 = .2090=21%, 10) 6/100 5/99 =30/9900 = 1/330.