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Modern Computers:

Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires,transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions. In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.

Computer Classification:
Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: personal computer : A small, single-user computer based on amicroprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data. workstation : A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

What is a Computer?
A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or "data." It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. Youcan use a computer to type documents, send email, and browse the internet. You can also use it to handle spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games, and more.

Computers Simplified
For beginning computer users, the computer aisles at an electronics store can be quite a mystery, not to mention overwhelming. However, computers really aren't that mysterious. All types of computers consist of two basic parts:

Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure, such as the computer monitor or keyboard. Software is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do. It is what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each task. Some examples of software are web browsers, games, and word processors such as Microsoft Word.

What are the Different Types of Computers?

When most people hear the word "computer" they think of a personal computer such as a desktop or laptopcomputer. However, computers come in many shapes and sizes, and they perform many different functions in our daily lives. When you withdraw cash from an ATM, scan groceries at the store, or use a calculator, you're using a type of computer.

Desktop Computers

A desktop computer

Many people use desktop computers at work, home, school, or the library. They can be small, medium, or large in style, and usually sit

on a desk. Once you add a monitor, mouse, and a keyboard, you have what is typically known as a desktop computer. Most desktop computers are easy to upgrade and expand, or add new parts. Another benefit of desktop computers is thecost. If you compare a desktop and a laptop with the same features, you will most likely find that the desktop computer is priced lower. Some desktop computers have a built-in monitor to save space. These are often called all-in-one desktop computers.

Laptop Computers

A laptop computer

The second type of computer that you may be familiar with is a laptop computer, or laptops as they are often referred to. Laptops are battery or AC-powered personal computers that are more portablethan desktop computers, allowing you to use them almost anywhere. Since a laptop is smaller than a desktop, it's more difficult to access the internal components. That means you may not be able to upgrade them as much as a desktop. However, it's usually possible to add more RAM or a bigger hard drive.

A computer is in fact a machine that had been designed by the people to carry out some numerical and mathematical operations. Due to its numerical ability it is known as a computer and it provides the solution to the people at much greater speed. At a single time the computer can solve many problems and thus this is one of the oldest devices that had been used by the ancient people and till now many new implementations had been seen in it too. Computer in fact is the most important electronic device created for the people and at time it is found to be quite helpful for the people too. The computer itself is comprised of many different parts. The main important part of the computer is the central processing unit without which nothing can be done. The other item that comprises the computer are its hardware and softwares. The hardware includes the items which can be touched by the person such as the mouse, keyboard and others where as software are the items which are installed within the computer for many different purposes. On the other hand the most important thing that is to be possessed with the computer is its memory storage that how much of the information can be stored in it. The computer also contains the RAM and ROM units too for memory storage. Computers are used on a larger scale among many people as they had changed the lives of people. Computer had been provided people with each and every service and now each and every person tends to posses computer. Moreover it had been seen that in todays world many different types of activities are

being carried out on computer. The invention of computer had been one of the most beneficial machines for the people. Through computers people can gather a larger amount of information.

Advantages of Computers Because of the many advantages of a computer, it has become an important household item. A computer operated by an individual without any specific computer operator is called a personal computer (PC). A PC can be a desktop or a laptop computer and can be used at home or at office. As per the requirement of the user, software is installed in a PC. Let's discuss the advantages of computers. One can write more effectively by means of a computer. There are tools like spelling and grammar checker, thesaurus and dictionary, installed in the computer. Thus, it takes less time to proofread a written document and also, there is no need to open up a dictionary book to look for meanings of words. Typing is much faster than writing on a paper. If there is a need for reorganizing the sentences or paragraphs, one can cut and paste and make the necessary changes. Thus, overall a computer allows the user to create documents, edit, print, and store them so that they can be retrieved later. Using a computer, one can remain connected to the world through Internet. Internet is a network of computers that communicates via the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). The World Wide Web (WWW) or simply web is a huge resource of information that can be accessed via the Internet. To mention a few of the resources, there are electronic mail (e-mail), file transferring and sharing, online chat, and gaming. The Internet allows people from around the world to share knowledge, ideas and experiences in any field. But, there are both advantages and disadvantages of Internet. E-mail is a method of communication used globally and is provided with a system of creating, storing and forwarding mails. It may consist of text messages with attachments of audio-visual clips. One can also download or upload files using the Internet. There are also facilities like online chatting available on the Internet. As compared to telephonic conversation, both e-mail and online chat are cost saving. Online gaming is another important resource of the WWW. Many online games are available, which are of common interest for any age group. In addition, one can read current news, check weather conditions, plan vacations and make hotel and travel reservations, find out about diseases and treatment methods, conduct transactions, learn about specific countries and their cultures, seek jobs, buy products, etc via the Internet. Nowadays, computers are widely used for education and training purposes. In schools, computer education has been made compulsory to spread awareness about computers. As a matter of fact, computers have become a learning tool for children. Also, there are many universities that provide online degrees, which is very

advantageous for those people staying in the remote areas and for the disabled. In fact, online education is one of the most flexible and convenient forms of learning. One can take the benefit of such online degree programs staying at home without the need of relocation. Computers are also used for training purposes. Many companies use them to train their staffs. However, in spite of the many advantages of computers, there are some disadvantages that cannot be ignored. The easy access to information via Internet has made students lazy in terms of their education since they are able to download information without exploring their topic of research. They also use computers for mathematical tables and calculations without actually solving the problems. Also, it is important for parents to keep a check on the browsing habits of their children as some websites are not meant for their viewing. Other disadvantages include identity theft and virus threat. Computers viruses are harmful to the systems and can be transferred from one computer system to another.

What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device, which executes software programs. It consists of 2 parts-hardware and software . The computer processes input through input devices like mouse and keyboard. The computer displays output through output devices like color monitor and printer. The size of a computer varies considerably from very small to very big. The speed of computers also has a very large range. Computers have become indispensable in today's world. Millions of people use computers all over the world. There are several uses of computers: Word Processing - Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you don't have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a wordprocessed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document. Internet - It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man. Digital video or audio composition - Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to

create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers. Desktop publishing - With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your personal computer. Computers in Medicine - You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data. Mathematical Calculations - Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations. Banks - All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience. Travel - One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online. Telecommunications - Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them. Defense - There is software embedded in almost every weapon. Software is used for controlling the flight and targeting in ballistic missiles. Software is used to control access to atomic bombs. E-Learning - Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software. Gambling-You can gamble online instead of going to a casino. Examinations-You can give online exams and get instant results. You can check your examination results online. Computers in Business - Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using computers. One can predict future trends of business using artificial intelligence software. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do trading online. There are fully automated factories running on software. Certificates - Different types of certificates can be generated. It is very easy to create and change layouts. ATM machines - The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash. Marriage - There are matrimonial sites through which one can search for a suitable groom or bride. News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news. Classmates-There are many alumni websites through which you can regain contact with your classmates. Robotics - Robots are controlled by software.

Washing Machines - They operate using software. Microwave Oven - They are operated by software. Planning and Scheduling - Software can be used to store contact information, generating plans, scheduling appointments and deadlines. Plagiarism - Software can examine content for plagiarism. Greeting Cards - You can send and receive greetings pertaining to different occasions. Sports - Software is used for making umpiring decisions. There are simulation software using which a sportsperson can practice his skills. Computers are also to identify flaws in technique.

Airplanes - Pilots train on software, which simulates flying. Weather analysis - Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather.